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The Story of Pyramus and Thisbe from Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid (pp.370374)

1. Alliteration is used in line 54. The girls light veil, and mangled it and mouthed it with bloody jaws. The author wanted to contrast Thisbes veil to the voracious lioness, as it also foreshadows Pyramuss fate. The audience can infer Pyramuss reaction from the alliteration. 2. Lines 110 and 111, Wretched parents of Pyramus and Thisbe, listen to us... A poetic apostrophe addresses someone who does not exist or is not present in the scene. It is used primarily for dramatic effect. 3. A simile and personification are seen in lines 73-75, As he lay there on the ground, the spouting blood / Leaped high, just as a pipe sends water spurting / Through a small hissing opening, when broken The author compares Pyramuss wound with a broken pipe, with blood gushing everywhere. Leaped and hissing opening are both personification, as it describes the blood spurting out. 4. A paradox is seen in lines 109-110, Death was the only one who could keep you from me / Death shall not keep you from me. 5. Physical sensation and visual senses appear in lines 37-41. A mulberry-tree, loaded with snowwhite berries, / Near a cool spring. The plan was good, the daylight 6. Dramatic irony is seen with Pyramuss death, as the audience knows that Thisbe simply hid in the cave. Situational irony is seen with the death of both the lovers, as one wouldnt expect them to both kill each other. After all, they were going to elope, right? 7. The story explains why the mulberry tree is red, which was originally white. It also explains the origin of using an urn to preserve the ashes of the dead. 8. This story reflects that fate cannot be changed and is the determining factor in life. Pyramus and Thisbe were in love and were destined to be together, whether together in life or death. This explains why the two kill themselves when they believe the other to be dead. 9. Love prevails over everything. Death, family, and even life itself. Oedipus the King (pp.288-289) 10.A metaphor is used in lines 288-289, Great laws tower above us, reared on high / born for the brilliant vault of heaven. Great laws represent the will of the gods, as they control peoples destinies. 11.In lines 963-967, Pride breeds the tyrant / violent pride, gorging, crammed to bursting / with all that is overripe and rich with ruin / clawing up to the heights, headlong pride / crashes down the abyss, sheer doom! It describes the flaw of hubris, which is overweening pride over others. These lines also foreshadow Oedipuss fate, as he possesses characterized hubris. 12.If anyone does not respect the Gods because of hubris, whether in their will or altars, then they should suffer. Lines 972-980: But if any man comes striding, high and mighty / in all he says and does, / no fear of justice, no reverence / for the temples of the gods / let a rough doom tear him down, / repay his pride, breakneck, ruinous pride! / If he cannot reap his profits fairly / cannot restrain himself from outrage / mad, laying hands on the holy things untouchable! 13.An epithet, which is a term to characterize the name or attribute of a person is used to substitute Zeus in the phrase, King of kings. 14.The repetition of the gods, the gods go down is to convey a feeling of doom in the hearts of Oedipuss people. Their lack of reverence and doubts in the Gods is shown in the given lines (991). 15.Initially, the chorus shows reverence in the Gods and how they determine each individuals destinies. However, a shift in attitude is seen beginning with lines 983-984, If all such violence goes with honor now / why join the sacred dance? The chorus originally believed that the gods laws should be obeyed without question, however; if they will not punish Oedipus for his crimes,

then there is not point in obeying the gods. This clearly illustrated in lines 985-986, Never again will I go reverent to Delphi, the inviolate heart of Earth. 16.Classical Greek audiences would have reproached the choruss lines, as they hold Fate and traditional law to high esteem. Dike, or Zeuss law, is contradicted in the choruss speech, which was a significant part of Greek society. C. Read the excerpts from the Analects by Confucius on p. 687: 17. What figurative device is found in the first paragraph (II, 1)? He who rules by moral force is like the pole-star, which remains in its place while all the lesser stars do homage to it. Metaphor Meaning: A person who rules with morals will become a stable leader and guide people in the right direction, while the others will respect him. This compares the person or leader with the pole-star (North Star) because people use this star as a sense of direction; since it never moves; and guides people, while the other stars are moving around it. 18. In paragraph 3 (II, 4), explain how the writer uses parallelism and what effect it achieves. At seventy, I could follow the dictates of my own heart; for what I desired no longer overstepped the boundaries of right. Parallelism The effect it leaves behind is that it shows that the desire was not fulfilled. 19. In paragraph 3 (II, 4), how does the Master change throughout his life? The Master said, At fifteen I set my heart upon learning. At thirty, I had planted my feet firm upon the ground. At forty, I no longer suffered from perplexities. At fifty, I knew what were the biddings of Heaven. At sixty, I heard them with docile ear. At seventy, I could follow the dictates of my own heart; for what I desired no longer overstepped the boundaries of right. Meaning: At fifteen, he is motivated to learn. At thirty, he is stable in society. At forty, he is no longer undergoing complicated issues. At fifty, he begins to understand the commands from Heaven. At sixty, he is portraying obedience. At seventy, he follows the principles the he is taught and doesnt cross the boundaries, which he isnt taught. This basically shows a cycle, which he is taught to follow. 20. Paraphrase the point Confucius makes in paragraph 4 (II, 7). Tzu-yu asked about the treatment of parents. The Master said, Filial sons nowadays are people who see to it that their parents get enough to eat. But even dogs and horses are cared for to that extent. If there is no feeling of respect, wherein lies the difference? Meaning: The Masters response to Tzu-yu is that in the present times the dutiful offspring is one who that takes care of their parents material needs. This statement is then compared to how animals are treated, which is relatively similar. The last part of it suggests that if treatment is equal, where is the difference between animals and humans. 21. What figurative language is used in paragraph 5 (VII, 15)? Any thought of accepting wealth and rank by means that I know to be wrong is as remote from me as the clouds that float above. Metaphor Meaning: This suggests that he has no motive to accept wealth or rank and by adding in a metaphor it states that he has no intent to ever think of something like that. 22. Summarize paragraph 5 (VII, 15) in one sentence. The Master said, He who seeks only coarse food to eat, water to drink and a bent arm for pillow, will without looking for it find happiness to boot. Any thought of accepting wealth and rank by means that I know to be wrong is as remote from me as the clouds that float above. Summary: Simple living, which is a life without wealth and rank, leads to a blissful life. 23. List five traits valued by Confucius according to these excerpts. Honesty Respect Fairness Kindness Responsibility D. Read the excerpts from the Tao Te Ching by Lao-Tzu on p. 691-692. 24. Find three locations in the text where Lao-Tzu uses parallelism. What is its

effect? Knowing others is intelligence; knowing yourself is true wisdom. Mastering others is strength; mastering yourself is true power. If you realize that you have enough, you are truly rich. If you stay in the center and embrace death with your hole heart, you will endure forever. If you tamper with it, youll ruin it. If you treat it like an object, youll lose it. The overall effect it leaves behind is sort of a cause and effect situation in each line. 25. What is the effect of the writers frequent use of questions in the text? The writer uses questions in the text frequently as rhetoric. Asking questions backs up the understanding of the excerpt. 26. Contrast these Taoist ideas with the ideas of Confucianism. What similarities can you find? Confucianism: Purpose of life is to fulfill one's role in society with propriety, honor, and loyalty. Honesty, politeness, propriety, humaneness, perform correct role in society, loyalty to family, nation Taoism: Pantheism - the Tao pervades all. Yin-yang - opposites make up a unity. Purpose is inner harmony, peace, and longevity. Achieved by living in accordance with the Tao. Revert back to state of non-being, which is simply the other side of being. General attitude of detachment and non-struggle, "go with the flow" of the Tao. Taichi, acupuncture, and alchemy to help longevity. E. Read the excerpt from Platos Apology on pp. 336-339. 27. Answer the questions in the colored boxes at the bottom of the pages as you read. a. Which persuasive technique does the author use here? But I had not the boldness or impudence or inclination to address you as you would have liked me to do, weeping and wailing and lamenting, It uses the reasons why technique because people respond more quickly to that. b. Formal speeches contain topic sentences and details to support them. How does Socrates support this statement in the next few lines? For neither in war nor yet at law ought I or any man to use every way of escaping death. Continuing this, it talks about being thrown away in a battle and how to escape death, which reiterates what Plato is trying to state. c. What can you infer about Socrates values in life? The difficulty, my friends, is not to avoid death, but to avoid unrighteousness; for that runs faster than death. Meaning: Dont aim to avoid death, but aim to avoid evil because evil arrives before death and it will catch on to you faster. d. How does Socrates refute the opposition in this prophecy? For I say that there will be more accusers of you than there are now; accusers whom hitherto I have restrained: and as they are younger they will be more inconsiderate with you, and you will be more offended at them. Meaning: Socrates refutes the prophecy by saying that he will isolate those accusers eventually and then moves to the philosophy of youth versus the middle-aged. e. Read the rest of this paragraph. Does Socrates effectively argue the point made in this topic sentence? Explain. Let us reflect in another way, and we shall see that there is great reason to hope that death is a good;

Meaning: Yes, because he continues to advocate his point by discussing death and utter unconsciousness. He also speaks about how one shouldnt be disturbed by dreams when sleeping. f. What does this passage indicate about Socrates vision of the good life? if they seem to care about riches, or anything, more than about virtue; or if they pretend to be something when they are really nothing, Meaning: Socrates ideal perspective of the good life is one that is virtuous. In this passage, it indicates that riches are more valuable, but that is in opposition towards the beliefs Socrates portrays. 28. What do you learn about Socrates beliefs and character from reading this? Socrates moral purpose was to achieve philosophical virtue, justice and truth by examining life to the fullest. Also, choosing the right course of action is more important than one that will save him. Socrates would choose the noblest action and not the most obvious. He puts forth his views on wisdom, virtue, and nobility he believes to be moral truths.

Literary Terms: Poetic Devices: o alliteration the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginnings of words ex. what do they say so secretly to the stars? o o allusion a reference to a well-known person, place or event from history, literature, or religion; add another dimension of meaning assonance the repetition of similar vowel sounds, especially in a line of poetry ex. the flash of a hand o hyperbole a figure of speech that uses intentional exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or create humor ex. the hidden strength of his heart popped the buttons on his shirt o o imagery descriptive language that appeals to one or more of the five senses; helps create an emotional response in the reader; most imagery is visual metaphor a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two seemingly unlike things without using the words as or like; an extended metaphor compares two unlike things point by point throughout a paragraph, stanza, or an entire piece of writing onomatopoeia the use of a word or phrase that imitates or suggests the sound of what it describes ex. hiss, swoosh, crackle o parallel structure (parallelism) the use of a series of words, phrases, or lines that have similar grammatical form; authors employ this technique to emphasize an idea or emotion, to create a sense of unity or balance in a literary work, or for musical effect ex. Lao-tzu : There is a time for being ahead, a time for being behind; a time for being in motion, a time for being at rest; o paradox a situation of statement that appears to be contradictory but is actually true, either in fact or in a figurative sense ex. I couldnt like you if you were the best of women, or stop loving you, not matter what you do. o repetition the recurrence of sounds, words, phrases, lines, or stanzas in a literary work; authors may use repetition to help unify their work, to create a musical or rhythmic effect, of to emphasize an idea; includes parallelism, alliteration, rhyme rhyme the repetition of sounds in words that appear close to each other in a poem; words rhyme when their accented vowels and all the letters that follow sound the same end rhyme at the end of lines internal rhyme within the lines of poetry half rhyme (slant rhyme) when words sound similar but do not rhyme exactly ex. pain and again

simile a figure of speech that uses the words like or as to compare two seemingly unlike things

Other literary terms: o irony a contrast of discrepancy between expectation and reality, or between what is expected and what actually happens dramatic when the reader or audience knows something that a character does not know situational occurs when what actually happens is the opposite of what is expected or appropriate ex. the hero serves his prized falcon to the lady as a meal, not knowing she has come to ask for it as a gift for her son

verbal when a writer or speaker says one thing but really means the opposite o ex. when a person responds to disappointment with an expression such as thats great

mood the overall emotional feeling of a piece; choice of language, subject matter, setting, diction, and tone as well as sound devices such as rhyme, rhythm, and meter, can help create mood; broader term than tone; different from atmosphere, which includes all of the physical qualities that contribute to mood such as time, place, and weather theme main message about life conveyed openly or implied by the author; usually an insight into the human experience; many literary works have multiple themes; different from the subject of a poem is what the author has to say about the subject tone refers specifically to the attitude of the speaker of narrator; the attitude that an author takes toward the audience, a subject, or character; conveyed through word choice, punctuation, sentence structure, and figures of speech

Terms related to epics and drama: o anthropomorphism the attribution of human motivation, behavior, or characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, or natural phenomena; in literature, particularly refers to giving the gods human aspects/emotions arte in a hero, complete development of qualities such as physical strength, intellectual ability, and moral force (bravery/endurance); heroes typically display arte in a struggle or contest on the athletic field or in battle chorus danced and chanted between scenes in a circular space known as the orchestra; songs comment on the action that has just occurred and express social and religious views of the time deity a god, plays a determining role in the fates of heroes in Greek literature epic hero - usually embodies the ideals of that particular culture; goes on a journey epic poetry setting is vast; action includes extraordinary or superhuman deeds/tests heros bravery, wits, and physical prowess; purpose not only to entertain, but to teach values and lessons and inspire audience with models of heroic behavior Homeric/epic simile a long, elaborate comparison that continues for several lines; found in other poems besides epics as well hubris most common heroic fault ; overweening pride and insolence

o o o o

o o

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muse author states the subject and prays for inspiration to a muse (goddess of poetry) in the beginning of an epic poem tragedy about a tragic hero whose fate is partly due to the flaws in their character; aim was to inspire audience to examine their own lives, to define their beliefs, and to cleanse their emotions of pity and terror through compassion for the character

World History East Asia Chinese Dynasties Shang Second Chinese dynasty after the Xia and preceded the Zhou. Shang dynasty was founded by a rebel king, Tang of Shang, who overthrew the last Xia ruler in the Battle of Mingtiao. Ruled from approximately 1600 BC to 1046 BC (dates vary based on source). ruled in the northeastern regions of the area known as "China proper" in the Yellow River valley The King, or Wang, had supreme power over everything else. He was both the political leader as well as the religious leader. The King along with the aristocrats and bureaucrats directed the life and work of the peasants and serfs Shang-Ti: head god, rules over al others. The worship of ancestors was very important. Sacrificed to the gods and to ancestors The Shang developed a very sophisticated form of writing. Shang were excellent bronze workers, but had very primitive agriculture. They had a written language, the art of bronze-work, twohorsed chariots, and the understanding of silk. Used a calendar and created the first decimal system The King and his nobles sat at the top of the social ladder. Warriors were also very powerful. Most of peasants had very little and barely made it through the taxes that the king enforced The civilization could not stand up to the Zhou rebels after the king was killed

Zhou Third Chinese dynasty after the Shang. 1046256 BC, longest lasting dynasty in chinese history. Founded by Gu Gong Danfu and his sons. First official ruler is Chang Danfu Ruled between the Wei river valley and the surrounding mountains The king was the head of everything, including religion. The king appointed lords and nobles to follow directions from him.

The peasants therefore took orders from the lords and nobles Banned all sacrifices and adopted some of the Shang gods, who served under the Zhou god of heaven. Confucianism and Taoism Communication was terrible Created some great cities, with huge populations

Made roads and canals for trade reasons Began choosing nobles on basis of merit not wealth or power Masters of bronze and horse drawn chariots Began using Iron Kings, nobles, aristocrats, peasants

Qin -

The Era of Warring States demolishes the political organization

First ruling dynasty of what is known as imperial china. Founded by Ying Zheng (Qin Shihuang Di) 221-206 B.C - Emperor of ALL China - Empire/ emperor chosen by loyalty, not heredity - Focused on shen yin, or spirit shadows - Unifies the greatest portions of the Chinese Empires; Great Wall of China, coinage. Legalism - Emperor, Governors, Warriors, peasants - Government overturned by Han rebels Han - 2nd imperial dynasty of China; Liu Bang founded Han (1st emperor) 206-9 B.C, then 25-220 - most of Chinese territory - emperor, very powerful nobles - similar to Shang and Zhou - Water transport, Great Wall of China. Confucianism, Daoism. - Emperor, nobles, peasants - Eunuchs overthrow the Han South Asia Mohenjo Daro/ Harappa -Both were from 2600-1500 B.C.E around the Indus River Valley. Both are located in Pakistan - Mohenjo Daro located Sindh Pakistan/ Harappa located Punjab Northeast Pakistan. - The city was well administered by a class of wealthy merchants and priests. There was some kind of municipal organization; it took care of sanitation and regulated trade. It collected taxes in the form of grains and also maintained law and order in the city - The Papal tree was used as a religious symbol. They worshipped Pasupathi (Siva) and Mother Goddess Mother Goddess represented fertility. There are no temple structures among the remains. The Indus people believed in life after death. They buried their dead in huge earthen pots along with food and ornaments. The articles used by them in then daily life were also kept in those pots. - Both were planned cities. Farmers, weavers, metal workers, toy makers, jewelers, stone cutters, and AGRICULTURE (most important) -There were three social groups. The first group or the ruling class lived in the citadel; it comprised of wealthy merchants and the high priests. They second group consisted of petty merchants, artisans arid craftsmen. The laborers belonged to the third group and lived in small huts. Generally speaking, the social organization was more definite -The Indus Civilization was at its peak for about 500 years. They lived in the same kind of houses, used the same tools and ate the same food. The city (MohenjoDaro) was destroyed for a number of times and it was built again and again. The exact causes for the destruction of this great civilization are not known. The cities might have been destroyed by natural disasters like earthquakes, floods or a change in the course of the Indus. The cities declined owing to Aryan invasions also. Deforestation was another cause for the destruction of this civilization Maurya/ Gupta India -321-185 B.C.E/320-550 B.C.E. Mauryan is founded by Chandragupta Mourya and Gupta is founded by Maharaja Sri-Gupta

-Maurya-Northwest India, Gupta- most of Indian subcontinent - Empires, w/ emperor -Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism/ Hinduism, Buddhism -unified India, formed alliance with Persian empire/ concept of 0, theory that the earth revolved around the sun, chess, military divisions, earth is round, kama sutra -Brahmans, soldiers, councilors, peasants, traders, artisans, and shepherds / Brahmins (scholars and priests) Kshatriyas (kings and warriors) Vaishyas (merchants) Shudras (farmers, service providers) Parjanya (untouchables) -weak rulers+ sunga coup= assassination of ruler and establishment of Sunga dynasty / weak rulers allowed the Huna to conquer the Guptas (MEANS DIFFERENT EMPIRE: MARYA/GUPTA ) Delhi Sultanate During the Delhi Sultanate, several Turkic and Afghan dynasties ruled from Delhi, including the Mamluk dynasty (120690), the Khilji dynasty (12901320), the Tughlaq dynasty (13201413), the Sayyid dynasty (141451), and the Lodi dynasty (14511526) - Northern India/ Pakistan - Monarchy/sultan - Sunni Islam - Monetary system. Greatest contribution of the Sultanate was its temporary success in insulating the subcontinent from the potential devastation of the Mongol invasion from Central Asia in the thirteenth century - Varied; first empire was ruled by slaves - Absorbed by the Mongols Middle East Mesopotamia - considered to be the cradle of civilization, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires. In the Iron Age, it was ruled by the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires. The indigenous Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians & Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire - Modern-day Iraq as well as some parts of northeastern Syria, south eastern Turkey, and southwestern Iran - several empires/ MONARCHY -polytheistic, worshiping deities asociated with each city-state -mud brick houses, irrigation, aquadeucts, first economy, developed copper, broze -kings, people, slaves -

-fell to Alexander the Great and became part of the Greek empire Egypt -A unified kingdom was founded circa 3150 BC by King Menes, leading to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt for the next three millennia - bordered by Mediteranean sea, Gaza strip, Israel, Sudan, and Lybia -empires/ monarchy= pharoh - polytheism, relating to nature, part animan part human - the Giza Pyramids, the Great Sphinx, wall paintings, tombs -pharoh, vizier, high priests/ nobles, priests engineers doctors, scribes, craftsmen, slaves and farmers -fell to the Persians and later the Romans Persia -550-330 B.C.E founded by Achamenes - Spanned three continents: Asia, Africa and Europe; larges ancient empire -certain amount of religious atounamy, monarchy w/ separate governers for each state -Zoroastrianism -innovative postal system, facillitated trade -king/emperror, peasants - Alexander the Great defeated the Persian armies Umayyad Caliphate -Second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph -At its greatest extent, it covered more than five million square miles of the middle east, stretching towards portions of north africa as well. -religious empire -Sunni Islam -transformed the caliphate from a religious institution (during the rashidun) to a dynastic one. Viewed badly, b/c the Umayyad Caliphate is seen to promote tyranny -caliph, doctors teachers merchents, mixed pple of non-islamic origin, slaves -overthrown by the Abassid Caliphate Abbasid Caliphate -founded by the descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad's youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd alMuttalib, in Harran in 750 CE -captal was moved to current day Baghdad, and territory was much the same as the Ummayyad Caliphates

-religious empire -Sunni Islam -recovery of Alexandrian knowledge of maths and science.Development of early scientific method. Medicinal advancement, advancement to the geocentric model - caliph, doctors teachers merchents, mixed pple of non-islamic origin, slaves - slowly, the caliphate begn to lose power, and eventually was sacked by the mongols. Mediteranean

Athens/Sparta originated in 500 B.C.E, and became the largest city of ancient Greece/ originated around 500 B.C.E and became a rival military power to Athens - located in the tip of Greece / banks of the River Eurotas in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese - democracy, tyranny, empire / oligarchy - both are polytheistic, believing in the greek gods of nature and war ect. - Pythagoreas developed math and geometry advanced. Socrates, Plato improved philosophy. Several philosophers and mathmaticians were from this era. Architecture: ionic, doric, corinthian - Athens- all people were equal, but at certain times, becam somewhat of a dictatorship. Women were thought of as almost useless. Sparta: Military came first, then women, then helots (slaves) women were importnt to run society - Athens was defeated by Sparta who had allied with Persia in the Peleponesian war. Sparta fell afer losing several battles to foreigners, and was overpopulated by helots, or slaves Alexander the Greats empire - originated under Philip II, was one of the largest empires in history - centered in the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula, bordered by Epirus to the west, Paeonia to the north, the region of Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south -empire/ monarchial -ancient greek polytheistic religion -spread greek culture throughout the middle-east -emperror/ruler, the counsel of advisors, the peasants - was defeated in several battles against the rising Roman Empire Roman Republic The Roman Republic was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a republican form of government. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, c. 508 BC, and lasted 482 years until its subversion, through a series of civil wars, into the Principate form of government and the Imperial period. Expanded from central Italy to the entire Mediteranean world Government consul/oligarchy Roman polytheism/ similar to athenian polytheism Virgils Anaeid is a masterpiece of the founding of Rome, music advancement, Roman architecture was advanced, literature was advanced -

Consul/senators, equestrians, commoners/plebians, freedpeople, slaves Consul leaders gained too much power and began a civil war. Rome transformed into an empire under Gaius Julius Caesar WHAP TERMS Neolithic Revolution (neo=new) first agricultural revolution the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture and settlement domestication of plants (agriculture) and animals (pastoralism) Causes: population increase=shortage of food religions begin to form=agriculture becomes involved as rituals trial and error of hunting and gathering more sedentary tribes-settle in one place stone tools disease, famine, drought Effects: profound changes to human society and culture, including the creation of cities and permanent dwellings, labor specialization, the baking of bread and brewing of beer, personal property, more complex hierarchical social structures, non-agricultural crafts, slavery, the state, official marriage, personal inheritance Bantu The Bantu Migration was the expansion of the Bantu tribes of Central and Southern Africa. happened over many millenniums, starting around 1600 B.C.E. and lasting until about 700 C.E. caused by the Neolithic revolution, knowledge of iron metallurgy, which allowed them to explore some of the more dense parts of the inner-continent. Trade with SE Asia gave them a reliable food source, bananas. The migration also gave them contact with other civilizations through the Indian Ocean, even though it was very limited at the time. The Bantu Migration led to the settlement of most of Africa. It is also thought to be the reason that many of African languages sound very similar, as well as the reason for similar cultures throughout Central and Southern Africa Hammurabi sixth king of Babylon from 1792 BC to 1750; first king of the Babylonian Empire following the abdication of his father, Sin-Muballit, extending Babylon's control over Mesopotamia by winning a series of wars against neighboring kingdoms. Although his empire controlled all of Mesopotamia at the time of his death, his successors were unable to maintain his empire. Hammurabi is known for the set of laws called Hammurabi's Code, one of the first written codes of law in recorded history. These laws were written on a stone tablet standing over eight feet tall (2.4 meters) that was found in 1901. Owing to his reputation in modern times as an ancient law-giver, Hammurabi's portrait is in many government buildings throughout the world. Code: constitution type, "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth Hebrews: The Hebrews - another people living in Canaan - were an exception among the ancient polytheistic cultures. They brought a new idea to the world, "monotheism," or the belief in one all-powerful God. The Hebrews believed that God, whom they called "Yahweh," determined right and wrong and expected people to deal justly with each other and to accept moral responsibility for their actions. The teachings of the Hebrews exist today as the religion of Judaism, which in turn has influenced two other monotheistic religions - Christianity and Islam. Monotheism: belief in the existence of one god: Judaism, Christianity, Islam Shi Huangdi:

first emperor of a unified China he and his chief advisor Li Si passed a series of major economic and political reforms He undertook gigantic projects, including the first version of the Great Wall of China, the now famous city-sized mausoleum guarded by a life-sized Terracotta Army, and a massive national road system, all at the expense of numerous lives. To ensure stability, Qin Shi Huang outlawed and burned many books.

Mandate of Heaven: traditional Chinese philosophical concept concerning the legitimacy of rulers similar to the European concept of the divine right of kings, in that both sought to legitimize rule from divine approval; however, unlike the divine right of kings, the Mandate of Heaven is based on the conduct of the ruler in question. heaven would bless the authority of a just ruler, but would be displeased with a despotic ruler and would withdraw its mandate, leading to the overthrow of that ruler. The Mandate of Heaven would then transfer to those who would rule best. Due in part to the Mandate of Heaven, Chinese emperors were considered 'god-like', as rulers sent from heaven Zhou dynasty Chinese Dynastic Cycle: The dynastic cycle as follows 1. A new ruler unites China, founds a new dynasty, and gains the Mandate of Heaven. 2. China, under the new dynasty, achieves prosperity. 3. The population increases. 4. Corruption becomes rampant in the imperial court, and the empire begins to enter decline and instability. 5. A natural disaster wipes out farm land. The disaster normally would not have been a problem; however, together with the corruption and overpopulation it causes famine. 6. The famine causes the population to rebel and starts a civil war. 7. The ruler loses the Mandate of Heaven. 8. The population decreases because of the violence. 9. China goes through a warring states period. 10.One state emerges victorious. 11.The state starts a new empire. 12.The empire gains the Mandate of Heaven Confucianism: Hierarchy: father>son, emperor>subjects, men>women, old>young, roles and responsibilities Tradition: past>future, tradition>innovation, china>foreigners, history>sciences Education: literate scholar=perfect Ancient Chinese tradition/folklore morph intro Confucian reverence for past and tradition Legalism: inherent strengths of the people are not sufficient to prevent chaos and political corruption, and recommends laws as the primary tool to amend this Han invented Legalism utilitarian political philosophy that did not address higher questions like the nature and purpose of life fa: All people under the ruler were equal before the law Shu: Special tactics and "secrets" are to be employed by the ruler to make sure others don't take over control of the state Shi: It is the position of the ruler, not the ruler himself or herself, that holds the power Daoism: Nature=perfection Dao-way, life guide Govt-little relevance, anti-authority

Action through inaction, ignorance is bliss anti-hierarchy: all people are equal in nature, popular with lower classes and those w/o govt Qi-energy, yin/yang-opposing forces bound together yin-dark, feminine, slow, soft; yang- light, masculine, fast, hard shen spirits: nature; localized, immovable Ancestor Worship: based on the belief that the deceased, often family members, have a continued existence and/or possess the ability to influence the fortune of the living Confucianism: respect for past/ancestors Hindiusm: diverse traditions and has no single founder roots is the historical Vedic religion of Iron Age India, and as such Hinduism is often called the "oldest living religion" or the "oldest living major tradition Santhana Dharma- eternal law Brahman- supreme spirit Many forms of god; Henotheistic? Brahma-creator, Vishnu-sustainer, Shiva-destroyer Karma- moral law of cause and effect Dharma- duty of righteousness Reincarnation- rebirth based on karma Samsara: cycle of action, reaction, birth, death and rebirth Yoga- paths to rightful action Multiple festivals, caste system, some monks, worship in temples Caste system: Consists of 4 separate classes: brahmans, princes, merchants, and servants Untouchables are below and out of system Siddharta Gautama: Founder of Buddhism; Supreme Buddha Spiritual teacher from India Buddhism: Chinese cultural environment: foreign=bad; lose Indianness and blend with Confucian and Daoism Popularity rises during times of trouble; Salvationist faith like Christianity 4 Noble truths: life=suffering, desire=suffering, end suffering=end desire, 8 fold path ends desire, moderate materialism, to gain peace/enlightenment Boddhisatvas-Buddha incarnations, generational figures stay to teach others; sinification of faith (native religious figures, ancestor worship combine) Asoka: Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from 269 BC to 232 BC embraced Buddhism from the prevalent Vedic tradition after witnessing the mass deaths devotee of ahimsa (nonviolence), love, truth, tolerance and vegetarianism spread of Buddhism, respect all religions, Ashoka Chakra/dharma, pillars of Ashoka Zoroastrianism: religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster good and evil have distinct sources Ahura Mazda is the beginning and the end, the creator of everything that can and cannot be seen, the Eternal, the Pure and the only Truth In the Gathas, the most sacred texts of Zoroastrianism thought to have been composed by Zoroaster himself, the prophet acknowledged devotion to no other divinity besides Ahura Mazda Daena is the eternal Law, whose order was revealed to humanity through the Mathra-Spenta ("Holy Words") Asha-the equitable law of the universe

Polis: Greek city state (Athens, Sparta) ancient Greek city-states, which developed during the Archaic period, the ancestor of city, state and citizenship, and persisted (though with decreasing influence) well into Roman times Democracy: political form of government in which governing power is derived from the people origins: Athens, Greek political and philosophical thought (Plato), Sumerian city-states Augustus Caesar: the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in AD 14 extended the Empire's life span and initiated the celebrated Pax Romana or Pax Augusta joined forces with Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in a military dictatorship known as the Second Triumvirate. As a triumvir, Octavian ruled Rome and many of its provinces. The triumvirate was eventually torn apart under the competing ambitions of its rulers: Lepidus was driven into exile, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by the fleet of Octavian commanded by Agrippa in 31 BC wished to embody the spirit of Republican virtue and norms increase public revenue, abolished tax farming; month of August named after him, building projects, Romanization: indicates different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman republic and the later Roman empire. Ancient Roman historiography and Italian historiography until the fascist period used to call these various processes the "civilizing of barbarians" Jesus: central figure of Christianity. Christians view him as the Messiah foretold in the Old Testament and as the Son of God, who provided salvation and reconciliation with God to humankind by dying for their sins, then rising from the dead Christianity: monotheistic religion: based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in canonical gospels and other the New Testament writings Adherents of the Christian faith are known as Christians Mainstream Christianity teaches that Jesus is the Son of God, God having become human and the savior of humanity. Because of this, Christians commonly refer to Jesus as Christ or Messiah The three largest groups in the world of Christianity are the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches, and the various churches of Protestantism. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox patriarchates split from one another in the East-West Schism of 1054 AD, and Protestantism came into existence during the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, splitting from the Roman Catholic Church Muhammad: founder of the religion of Islam and is regarded by Muslims as a messenger and prophet of God the last law-bearer in a series of Islamic prophets, and the last prophet Muslims thus consider him the restorer of an uncorrupted original monotheistic faith of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets He was also active as a diplomat, merchant, philosopher, orator, legislator, reformer, military general, and, according to Muslim belief, an agent of divine action Islam: monotheistic religion articulated by the Quran, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God sand by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah collected in the hadith) of Muhammad, the last Prophet of Islam. The word Islam means Submission to God and an adherent of Islam is called a Muslim Five Pillars: According to Shia Islam, the five basic pillars are as follow: o Monotheism, God is one and unique.

Justice, the concept of moral rightness based on ethics, fairness, and equity, along with the punishment of the breach of said ethics. o Last Judgment, God's final assessment of humanity. o Prophethood, the institution by which God sends emissaries, or prophets, to guide mankind. o Leadership, A divine institution which succeeded the institution of Prophethood Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable. Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed at many times and places before, including through the prophets Abraham, Moses and Jesus. Sunni vs Shiite: o

Sunnah adherents called meaning of name current adherents percentage of total Muslims primary locations subsects origins did Muhammad designate a successor? true successor of the Prophet qualifications for ruler of Islam current leaders identity of imams Sunnis "well-trodden path" or "tradition" 940 million 90% most Muslim countries none, but four major schools of Muslim law are recognized c. 632 CE; theology developed especially in 10th cent. No Abu Bakr, father of the Prophet's favoured wife, 'A'ishah (elected by people of Medina) tribe of the Prophet (Quraysh); later, any qualified ruler Imams human leaders

Shia (or Shi'ah) Shiites, Shi'i "party" or "partisans" of Ali 120 million 10% Iran, Iraq, Yemen Ithna 'Ashariyah (Twelvers; the largest), Isma'iliyah and Zaydiyah c. 632-650 CE; killing of Ali's son Husayn in 680 CE is major event yes 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, husband of the Prophet's daughter Fatimah (designated by the Prophet) family of the Prophet mujtahids infallible manifestations of God and perfect interpreters of the Qur'an was already on earth, is currently the "hidden imam" who works through mujtahids to intepret Qur'an; and will return at the end of time infallible imams emphasized still practiced

Al Mahdi

will come in the future

religious authority other than the Qu'ran concealing faith for selfprotection (taqiya) temporary marriage (mut'ah)

ijma' (consensus) of the Muslim community affirmed under certain circumstances practiced in the Prophet's time, but now rejected

holy cities major holidays

Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Fitr

Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Najaf, Karbala Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Fitr, Ashura

- Sufi: inner, mystical dimension of Islam science of the states of the lower self (the ego), and the way of purifying this lower self of its reprehensible traits two basic types of law (fiqh), an outer law concerned with actions, and an inner law concerned with the human heart theres a lot so- Humanities Architecture Acropolis: meeting place of all the people of Athens where everyone met to discuss matters of the city; meeting-place Amphitheater: open-air venue used for entertainment and performances (Colosseum); seating based on the social status of the person; place of civilized order where, from the Roman point of view, the victory of civilization over lawlessness, chaos, barbarism, and savagery was enacted. place of justice: criminals were executed there by being given to the wild beasts or were forced to fight to the death Arch: used in the construction of the Amphitheater and aqueducts Basilica: large building erected by the Romans for transacting business and disposing of legal matters. The oldest known basilica was built in Rome in 184 B.C. by the elder Cato. Other early examples are the Basilica Porcia in Rome and one at Pompeii (late 2d cent. B.C.). Most splendid Roman basilica is the one constructed during the reign of Maxentius and finished by Constantine after 313. In the 4th cent. Christians began to build edifices for worship that were related to the form of the basilicas. Basilicas of this type were built not only in Western Europe but in Greece, Syria, Egypt, and Palestine. A good example of the Middle Eastern basilica is the Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem (6th cent.). The finest basilicas in Rome were St. John Lateran and St. Paul's-outside-the-Walls (4th cent.), and San Clemente (6th cent.). Capital: The head or crowning feature of the column culminating in the Doric abacus, the Ionic volute, or the Corinthian acanthus leaves. Caryatids: a sculptured female figure serving as an ornamental support in place of a column or pilaster Corinthian: Decorative columns Dome: examples are in Roman architecture and also like the Dome of the Rock Doric: plain column Entablature: The upper part of the temple composed of all the pieces above the capital *the architrave, the frieze, and the cornice. Great Wall of China: series of stone and earthen fortifications in northern China, built originally to protect the northern borders of the Chinese Empire against intrusions by various nomadic groups. Several walls have been built since the 5th century BC that are referred to collectively as the Great Wall, which has been rebuilt and maintained from the 5th century BC through the 16th century. One of the

most famous is the wall built between 220206 BC by the first Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang. Little of that wall remains; the majority of the existing wall was built during the Ming Dynasty; Communication between the army units along the length of the Great Wall, including the ability to call reinforcements and warn garrisons of enemy movements, was of high importance. Signal towers were built upon hill tops or other high points along the wall for their visibility. Ionic: scroll style column Minaret: tower, used in Islamic architecture, from which the faithful are called to prayer by a muezzin. Oculus: any of several elements resembling an eye, such as a round or oval window or the round opening at the top of some domes; The capital of an Ionic column features an oculus in the form of a disk at the centre of each of its spiral scrolls. Pantheon: at Rome was built by Agrippa in 27 B.C., destroyed, and rebuilt in the 2d cent. by Hadrian. Remarkably well preserved, it is mainly of brick with a great hemispherical dome whose supporting walls are set in concrete. In 609 it was converted into a Christian church consecrated to Santa Maria dei Martiri Parthenon: temple sacred to Athena, on the acropolis at Athens. Built under Pericles between 447 B.C. and 432 B.C., it is the culminating masterpiece of Greek architecture. Pediment: in architecture, the triangular gable end on a building of classic type or a similar form used decoratively. In Greek architecture the pediment usually contained sculpture when used with the Doric order. In the Roman and Renaissance styles it was used also as a purely decorative motif, chiefly over doors and windows; the upper profile of the pediment was sometimes of segmental shape. Volutes: spiral scroll-like ornament that forms the basis of the Ionic column
Parthenon Doric Corinthian Ionic


Art/Drama/Literature Doryphobos Calf-bearer c. 450 BCE Discobolos Moschophoros Roman marble The Discus Thrower c. 560 BCE marble copy after the found in fragments at bronze original by the Athenian Acropolis Myron stands like kouroi (left-foot forwards) Museo Nazionale Archaic style Romano, Rome Carries calf to sacrifice

Ara Pacis

The altar was meant to be a vision of the Alter of Peace commissioned Roman civil religion. It sought to portray the peace and fertile prosperity enjoyed as by Roman Senate on 4 July a result of the Pax Augusta (Latin, 13BC to honor the return of "Augustan peace") brought about by the Emperor Augustus form military supremacy of the Roman empire, Hispania and Gaul. and act as a visual reminder of the Julio(Consecrated to celebrate Claudian dynasty that was bringing it peace in Empire after about. Augustus victories) North Face detail of the processional frieze showing members of the Senate South face detail of the processional frieze showing Augustus as high priest of Rome accompanied by family. Catharsis the purging and illuminating that tragedy causes through pity and fear. (Applies to the audience, not the characters)

Late Archaic period, considered a Kritios Boy precursor to the later classical sculptures of athletes. It is believed to be the creation of Krito (Myrons Chorus non-professionals who had a talent for teacher) c. 480 BCE. Marble and at 3ft singing and dancing and were trained by the poet 10in. in preparation for the performance. Sophocles changed the number of chorus 15. Complete understanding of how the parts of the human body act as a Functions: 1) chanted and entrance song as they system, and muscular and skeletal marched into orchestra 2) Engaged in dialogue systems are depicted with unforced with the characters through the leader life-like accuracy. (Coryphaeus) who was the only one to speak the lines of dialogue assigned to the chorus 3) most Smile of archaic statues has been important: sing and dance choral songs called completely replaced by the accurate rendering of the lips and the austere satisma (happens between acts. expression that characterized the Chorus observes and comments on the actions of transitional or Severe period from the others. Aristotle says the chorus should be Archaic to Classical. Iliad regarded as one of the actors.

Homer Poem

In Oedipus the King, the chorus represented the


Epic Ancient Greek Unknown, but probably mainland Greece, around 750 B.C. Unknown






The poet, who declares himself to be the medium through which one or many of the Muses

speak The narrator speaks in the third person. An omniscient narrator (he has access to every characters mind), he frequently gives insight into the thoughts and feelings of even minor characters, gods and mortals alike.

Awe-inspired, ironic, lamenting, pitying Past

(TIME) Bronze Age (around the twelfth or thirteenth century B.C.); The Iliad begins nine years after the start of the Trojan War

(PLACE) Troy (a city in what is now northwestern Turkey) and its immediate environs Achilles


Agamemnons demand for Achilles war prize, the maiden Briseis, wounds Achilles pride; Achilles consequent refusal to fight causes the Achaeans to suffer greatly in their battle against the Trojans.

Hectors assault on the Achaean ships; the return of Patroclus to combat; the death of

Patroclus Achilles return to combat turns the tide against the Trojans once and for all and ensures the fated fall of Troy to which the poet has alluded throughout the poem.

The retreat of the Trojan army; Achilles revenge on Hector; the Achaeans desecration of Hectors corpse

The glory of war; military values over family life; the impermanence of human life and its creations

Armor; burial; fire The Achaean ships; the shield of Achilles


Foreshadowing is prominent in The Iliad, as the poet constantly refers to events that have yet to occur and to fated outcomes. Patrocluss return to battle foreshadows Achilles return to battle, for example, and Hectors taunting of the dead Patroclus foreshadows the desecration of his own corpse by Achilles. Also, Achilles and Hector themselves make references to their own fatesabout which they have been informed; technically, only Hectors references foreshadow any event in the poem Zeus - King of the gods dies after the close of the claims itself, however, as Achillesand husband of Hera, Zeusepic. neutrality in the mortals conflict and often tries to keep the other gods from participating in it. However, he throws his weight behind the Trojan side for much of the battle after the sulking Achilles has his mother, Thetis, ask the god to do so. Achilles King of Troy godshusbandmanwife, Hera is the sea-nymphof fifty Trojan warriors, often goes in Hera - - The son of the and Zeuss Peleus Priam conniving, headstrong woman. She including Priam - Queen of the and military of Hecuba, and a is the father Thetis. The most powerful warrior The Iliad, Achilles Though too the to fight, he has earned the respect of both Phthia in theand the behind and Paris. commands old Myrmidons, disagree, workinghomeland of the Trojans Trojans, Hector Zeuss back in matters on which they soldiers from his with Athena to crush Greece. Proud and headstrong. whom she passionately hates. Achaeans by virtue of his level-headed, wise, and benevolent rule. Athena - The goddess of wisdom, purposeful battle, and the womanly arts; Zeuss daughter. Like Agamemnonpassionately hates the Trojans and often givesthe mightiest warrior in thearmy; brother King of Mycenae the Achaeans valuable aid. Hector - A son of King Priam and Queen -Hecuba, Hector is and leader of the Achaean Trojan army. Hera, Athena (also called Atrides) of King - A Achilles in some thehis flaws, mother selfish Menelaus of Sparta. of devoted but his bloodlust is Thetis gets Zeus to help the Trojans and Arrogant and often of Achilles, not so great as that of Achilles. He is He mirrors sea-nymph and Thetis devoted to Achaeans at the request of son,angry son. but resents hisfinally rejoins the bringing war his wife, Andromache, and her Astyanax, punish the - Achilles beloved friend, companion, and When Achilles brother Paris for battle, she Patroclus advisor, Patroclus grew up alongside the great upon their family and design him a new suit of armor. commissions Hephaestus guardianship of Peleus. Devoted to both Achilles and the Achaean cause, warrior in Phthia, under the Apollo - A son of Zeus and twin Achilles of the goddess Artemis, Apollo isarmor in anarts and archery. Patroclus- stands by the enraged brother and mother of Achilles terrifying god of the attempt to hold Hecuba Queen of Troy, wife of Priam, but also dons Hector and Paris He supportsback. the Trojans the Trojans and often intervenes in the war on their behalf.

Andromache - Hectors of Zeuswife, god of the sea. Poseidon holds a long-standing grudge against PoseidonKing of brother loving oldestAndromache begs Hector to withdraw from the war and save - The Pylos and the and Nestor before the Achaeans kill him. Achaean commander. Although age has taken much of Nestors himself the Trojans because has left himpaid him for helping He often build as an city. He therefore supports the they never with great wisdom. physical strength, it and Andromaches infant son. them to acts their advisor to the military Astyanaxin the war. Achaeans - Hector Polydamas - - AGod of fire andcommander,Aphrodite, Hephaestus is the gods metalsmith and is young Trojan husband of Polydamas sometimes figures as a foil for Hector, proving Hephaestus cool-headed and prudent whengod. Although the text doesnt make clear hisTrojans sound advice, but known as the lame or crippled Hector charges ahead. Polydamas gives the sympathies in the Hector seldom acts on it. the Achaeans by forging a new set of armor for Achilles and by rescuing mortals struggle, he helps

Hinduism: Dharma: good; karma: bad deeds; Gods: Vishnu (preserver); Shiva (Destroyer); Bhrama (Creator); Holy cities: Varanasi, Pushkar, Allahabad, Dwaraka, and many more that we dont need to now for the test); Core philosophy of hindus (as in Gita & Upanishadas) confirms there is one God like Islam accepts; Hinduism adores fastings is like fasting by muslims during Ramadan

Islam: Faith or belief in the Oneness of God and the finality of the prophet hood of Muhammad; Establishment of the daily prayers; Concern for and almsgiving to the needy; Self-purification through fasting; and The pilgrimage to Mecca for those who are able. Shahada (Profession of Faith), Salat (prayers), Zakat (Giving of Alms), Sawm (Fasting during Ramadan) and Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) *Mecca and Medina are the holy cities

Judaism: there is one God and only ONE God - man was created in gods image - humans are born pure and innocent - the righteous of all faiths will 'have a share in the world to come' - actions count more than beliefs - 'love thy neighbour' - a Jewish teaching found in the Tanakh thousands of years BEFORE Christianity 'borrowed' it and attributed it to Jesus. Jerusalem; Hebron; Safed; Tiberias

Similarities: 1. Thirmurthi & Trinity concept 2. They both light up a flame (candle-Christians) at the altar. 3.Teachings of Krishna & Jesus is almost the same, and they both were born in unexpected places and lived as sheperd (jesus) cowherd (krishna) 4. Heaven & Hell,as well the punishment . Christianity & Islam 1.Both has strong influence from Zoroastrianism - Hell, Heaven, 7 Archangel, Judgment Day, resurrection 2.Both have prophets that is similar to Zarathustra, the prophet of Zoroastrianism, esp Jesus. 3.Both confirms on the existence of Satan, and his fallen angels. 4.Both teaches that Their way is the Only way to God. And those who never accept their respective teachings will end up in Hell.

Islam & Hinduism 1.Both practices Fasting. 2.Islam & Hindu has many scientific knowledge to it. Both has many many scientific teachings in them. Islam,Christianity & Judaism similarities are: invite to worship unique God,who is creator of everything & believe in him. invite to believe in prophets who delivered massages from God to humans. invite to believe the life after humans death,which is endless & people are punished or rewarded by fair God, according to what they have done in this their finite life. Invite to live better by obeying orders from God in behavior,work,marriage,clothing,foods,.. that a person will be rewarded in his endless life by obeying those orders & will be punished by disobeying. There are more,I tried to tell important ones. Difference between Judaism & Christianity 1. The Jews rejected Christ's claim that He was the Son of God. They believed His claim was blasphemous and therefore they crucified Him 2. The Jews reject the New Testament and read only the Old. The first five books of the Old Testament contain Gods law. Paul wrote that anyone who wants to live under the law is under a curse. According to the N.T. we are released from the curse of the law by faith in Christ. RELIGIONS Buddhism: Founder o Siddhartha Gautama - Core Beliefs o Nirvana: termination of suffering o Boddhisatvas Incarnations of the Buddha Generational figures who attained Enlightenment (nirvana) but chose to stay on Earth to serve as teachers and guides for others o Salvationist (like Christianity) o Fourfold Path: 1. Existing = suffering 2. Suffering from craving and attachment 3. Nirvana (end suffering by ending desire) 4. Eightfold path: way to nirvana right views right resolve right speech right action right livelihood right effort right mindfulness right concentration - Important Rituals/ Practices o Meditation o Yoga Christianity: Founder o Jesus Christ (sacrifice) Core Beliefs o Anyone can attain salvation o People who repent their sins will be forgiven -

o o o

God created all that is seen and unseen Jesus was conceived of the Holy Spirit and born of the virgin Mary Ten Commandments ONE: 'You shall have no other gods before Me.' TWO: 'You shall not make for yourself a carved image--any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.' THREE: 'You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain.' FOUR: 'Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.' FIVE: 'Honor your father and your mother.' SIX: 'You shall not murder.' SEVEN: 'You shall not commit adultery.' EIGHT: 'You shall not steal.' NINE: 'You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.'

TEN: 'You shall not covet your neighbor's house; you shall not covet your neighbor's wife, nor his male servant, nor his female servant, nor his ox, nor his donkey, nor anything that is your neighbor's.' o Beatitudes Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are the meek: for they shall possess the land. Blessed are they who mourn: for they shall be comforted. Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after justice: for they shall have their fill. Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the clean of heart: for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. Blessed are they that suffer persecution for justice' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. o Bible - Holy Cities o Jerusalem - Important Rituals/ Practices o Baptism o Reading the Bible o Going to Church - Sundays Singing, prayer, sermon Bible Study o Communion consecrated bread and wine are distributed to participants in the mass o Confirmation Rite of initiation Solidifies relationship with the Church o Evangelism o Marriage o Confession/ Penance Confucianism: Founder: o Confucius Core Beliefs: o Morally superior persons has 5 inner virtues (righteousness, inner integrity, love of humanities, unselfishness, and loyalty) o 2 acquired external ones

Daoism: -

(culture - education, and a sense of decorum ritual) Encouraged wise and virtuous to run government No Gods/ afterlife Was revolutionary defended the rights of people Treat others the way you want to be treated Reforming world Strict rules Tradition Past is better than future Tradition is better than innovation China is better than foreigners History is better than science o Social order and status Hierarchical relationships Important Rituals/Practices: o Filial obligation: respect leaders in order o Literature Analects Five Classics Holy Cities: o Qufu birthplace of Confucius o No real holy cities o o o o o o o Founder o Lao-Tzu Core Beliefs o Limitations of human perceptions and encourages withdrawal and tameness o Popular with the lower classes o Dao the way the guide to life, not mankind or government structures Government is necessary evil of little relevance to the wise man Anti-authority action through inaction ignorance is bliss o Go with the flow o Everything has an opposite Yin and yang Yin dark, feminine, slow, soft Yang light, masculine, fast, hard o Intentions are not necessarily good or bad, they are what they are o Equality o Qi life force (flow) (binds us all and is in everything) o Personify nature shen-spirits Important Rituals/ Practices o Tai-Chi Holy Cities o No specific city o Taiwan - where it is practiced


Egyptian (5000 BC - 31 AD)

Architecture used sun- dried and kiln-baked bricks, fine sandstone, limestone and granite Hieroglyphic and pictorial carvings o scarab, sacred beetle, solar disk, and vulture - Pyramids o Bury pharaoh Technical engineering to show off pharaohs wealth Paper made from papyrus cultivated in the Nile delta literary, religious, historical and administrative documents Hieroglyphics Rosetta Stone o Led to Roman and Arabic script Pottery used steatite (soapstone) carved vases, amulets, statues of deities and animals vases held body parts (lungs/heart) before embalming placed in tombs of important figures carved into them - names of the deceased, their titles, offices which they held Colors were more expressive rather than natural o red skin implied vigorous tanned youth o yellow skin was used for women or middle-aged men who worked indoors o blue or gold indicated divinity because of its unnatural appearance and association with precious materials o black for royal figures expressed the fertility of the Nile from which Egypt was born Sculpture - statues give eternal life to the kings and queens


Mummification o Preserve body for the afterlife o With possessions that the pharaohs would need

Greek -

Terracotta Army o First emperor of Qin Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor jade o burial suits (Han) pottery o porcelain calligraphy (written on silk) painting o tang dynasty landscapes balance, order, proportion o pendulum metaphor continuity/rational/reason => innovation/mysterious/emotion/faith Pythagorus o Relationship between music and math o Strived for perfection

Roman -

o Thought the whole universe was explainable by numbers pottery o useful (food storage & utensils) 4 main art periods o geometric (1000 BCE) o archaic (700 BCE) o classical (480 BCE) o Hellenistic (330 BCE) geometric style of decoration symbols, repeated patterns, abstract figures classical period o goal to capture the ideal human figured perfect Platonic body o new poses: contrapposto more natural o ethos vs pathos o Polyclitis the canon scientific approach for proportions of perfect human being architecture o Doric, ionic, Corinthian, caryatids Architecture concrete o Pantheon Temple to all gods of Rome o Coliseum Amphi-theater Later on used as a fortress, housing, workshops, quarter for religious order o Aqueducts Water transportation o Compared to Greek architecture was more utilitarian and secular o Public baths Frescoes painting on plaster Murals Mosaics Sculptures - marble Known for their realism Copied/ recreated much of Greek art o Often added their own style to the art centered around patterns calligraphy focused on the depiction of patterns and Arabic calligraphy, rather than on figures, because it is feared by many Muslims that the depiction of the human form is idolatry and thereby a sin against Allah, forbidden in the Qur'an Domes o Dome of the Rock (691 CE) where Muhammed went to talk to God for a night o Taj Mahal (17th century) music for religious celebrations work in metal and ivory was often developed to a high degree of technical accomplishment pottery o glazed ceramics o albarello a type of maiolica earthenware jar originally designed to hold apothecaries' (pharmacist) ointments and dry drugs Umayyad art o Ceramics o Coinage that depicted Arab inscriptions instead of pictures of the monarch

Islamic -

mosaics Hypostyle (flat roof supported by columns) prayer hall Great Mosque of Damascus Based on Byzantine models Abbasid art o Stucco o Mosque of Ibn Tulun o Textiles o Calligraphy used to decorate surfaces of pottery o o

Philosophy Aristotle Disagreed with Platos theory of forms, and said that whatever could be observed using the five senses was reality. (Relativist) Believed that the world could be understood at a fundamental level through the detailed observation and cataloging of phenomenon. That is, knowledge (which is what the word science means) is fundamentally empirical. Founder of the school known as Lycean (c. 335) Set up science for the next 1500 years treatsies on logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theatre Inductive reasoning observing as many examples as possible and then working out the underlying reasoning. (foundation of Western scientific method) Aristotles Poetics (should have the sheet) Plot = soul of tragedy, only one unity, that of action.

Plato -

Student of Socrates was an absolutist. Most of his works feature Socrates as the main speaker (Apology, Crito, Republic) Had negative views towards democracy when he ranked governments, democracy was 4th out of 5 types Platos Republic philosophers rule; metocracy (intelligence determines place in society o Guardians (philosophers) small body; ruled by reason o o o Led austere life only made decisions because someone had to and they were smartest. Each takes turns being the highest (The Philosopher King)

Axiliaries (army) larger; ruled by spirit (valor) Craftsmen (everyone else) largest; ruled by desire (base) Capability determined by # of years of schooling

The World of Forms sees world as divided into two parts visible and intelligible. Visible is what we see, hear, ect, and the intelligible is the real world, of the world of the forms (ideas). *Forms are perfect, unchanging, abstract, derived from reason versions of everything. Anything in

the visible world is a imperfect, constantly changing version of something in the world of the forms. o Allegory of the cave people are chained up in a cave only able to see shadows on a wall, someone manages to escape, goes outside (to the world of the forms) and sees the light. Comes back to try to convince others.

Legalism Warring States Period, Qin dynasty and early Han Emphasizes the need for order. Founder = Han Feize Based on the idea that humans were inherently evil and inclined towards criminal and selfish behavior which, if left to their own devices, would cause conflict and social disorder. Believed that people needed a strong government and a carefully devised code of law, along with a policing force that would stringently and impartially enforce these rules and punish harshly even the most minor infractions 3 principals: o Fa law/principle laws should be clearly written, made public, and all people under the ruler were equal under the law. Also, system of law ran the state, not the ruler (thus even a weak ruler could have strong rule). Shu administrative techniques and methods Shi power and position it is the position of the ruler, and not the ruler themselves who has the power

o o -

The dominant imagery in Legalism's writings is of forcefully straightening or unbending twisted tree limbs so that they grow perfectly straight, or using hot irons to burn the tree limbs so that they will grow in the desired direction.

Socrates 469-399 BCE 4 Precepts of Socrates o o o o The unexamined life is not worth living. Wisdom begins only when you know that you dont know. Arete (excellence/virtue) is teachable. Arete is knowledge. No one does evil willingly.

Know him mostly through the writings of Plato (Apology Socrates last days; argument with judges; Crito set in prison, Socrates explains why he wont escape; Phaedo account of his last day spent discussing immortality of the soul and his death) Sought genuine knowledge and not just victory over his opponent questioned everything and was put to death for his teaching his pupils to question conventional wisdom. Was grouped with the Sophists (spinners of clever arguments) and used many of their logical tricks in his pursuit of the truth. Sophocles did share the idea of humanism (concern with human activities and institutions) but not nihilism.