1 SMK Seafield, Subang Jaya Trial Examination 2011 - STPM Chemistry Marking Scheme

Section A
1. (a) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 5 orbitals 2s and 2p Sodium-24 is radioactive/has short half-life/decay/disintegrate xx x x Cl x (i) x xx xx x x x Cl x Cl x x xx • Te • xx xx xx •• x or x x Cl Cl x Te Cl x x xx xx xx x x Cl x x x x Cl x xx x xx (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) xx x x Cl x x [1] [1] [1] [1]

(b)

[1]

(ii)

x Cl x xx

xx x Cl x xx xx

Te

or

see-saw shaped [1]

x x Cl x x xx

(iii)

polar molecule

[1]

(c)

σ –bond between sp(C) and sp(N) orbitals [1] π-bond between px(C) and px(N) orbitals π-bond between py(C) and py(N) orbitals [1] [1]

10 marks

2

2 (a)(i)

The ionic bond in aluminium oxide is strong.

[1] [1]

(ii) Na3AlF6 (iii) At the cathode: Al3+(l) + 3e  Al(l)

[1]

(b) (i) Aluminium fluoride is more ionic than aluminium chloride. /Aluminium chloride is predominantly covalent whereas, aluminium fluoride is ionic (ii) - F- ion is smaller than Cl- ion. - Therefore is more difficult of be polarized by the Al3+ ion. Hence, AlF3 has less covalent character. (iii)

[1] [1] [1]

[1]
3+ (iv) - Al ion has high charge density

[1] [1]

/ Aluminium atom has empty orbitals/(does not have octet arrangement) 3+ - /Al ion is able to attract lone pair electrons from the water to form coordinate bonds / AlCl3 is easlily hydrolysed by water - AlCl3 + 3H2O → Al(OH)3 3+ / AlCl3 + 6H2O → Al(H2O)6 + 3Cl

[1] 10

Total

3 (a)

(i) Rate = k[PH3]
[1]

(ii) t1/2 = ln 2 k OR k = 0.693 35.0 = 0.0198 s-1 (iii) ln C = -kt + ln C0 ln 5 = - 0.0198t + ln 100 or t = 151.3 s (i) The equilibrium is shifted to the right / (forward) because forward reaction results in a increase in the number of moles gas particles The amount of CO in the mixture is increased (ii) PCO = PH2 = 183 kPa Kp = PH2 x PCO PH2O = ( 183kPa ) x (183 kPa) (90.0 kPa) = 372 kPa

[1] [1]

..2
[1] [1]

..2
[1] [1]

(b)

..2
[1] [1]

[1]

..3
10

3 4(a)(i)
CH3COOH < HO-

– COOH <

– COOH <

O2N-

– COOH [1] [1] ...2 1 [1] [1]

Correct comparison: Aliphatic < aromatic Among the aromatic acids (ii) CH3COOH (iii) NO2 is an electron withrawing group. NO2 increases the acidity / The molecule dissociates more easily to produce H+ ions / The O-H bond is more easily broken (b)(i) Condensation polymerisation (ii) Oor OO || –C n O || –C O || –C

...2

1

1

O-

(iii)

Ester or

O || –C–O–
+

1

(c)(i)

CH3COO Na / sodium ethanoate CH3COOH and CH3COO
-

[1] [1] ...2 10

4

Section B
5 (a) (i)

Vapour pressure

95-96 % 0 % of ethanol (ii) 100

Labelled axis Curve ’95- 96 %’

[1] [1] [1] ...3 [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1]

- The mixture shows positive deviation - The force of attraction between the ethanol molecules and the water molecules is stronger - than the force between the molecules of pure substances - The vapour pressure of the mixture is higher than ideal

...4

(iii) A mixture (solution) with a constant boiling point The equilibrium vapour has the same composition as the liquid (iv) 1 st distillate : (Azeotropic mixture), 95-96 % ethanol, temperature 76 oC 2 nd distillate: Pure water, temperature 100 oC (b) (i)
(ii)

...2

...2 1
1

2H2O + 2e → H2 + OHTo prevent the OH ions from entering the anode compartment + / To allow the Na ions to flow into the cathode compartment /To allow the ions to flow through Sodium chlorate(I) Cl2 + NaOH → NaClO + NaCl + H2O [1] [1]
-

(iii)

...2 15

5

6. …2

…3 …2

…3
(iv) phenolphthalein

…1

…4

15 marks

7(a)

6 [ Fe3+ + e  Fe2+ Eθ = + 0.77 V ; ½ I2 + e  I- Eθ = + 0.54 V] (i) 2Fe3+ + 2e  2Fe2+ Eθ = + 0.77 V  2I  I2 + 2e Eθ = - 0.54 V 2I- + 2Fe3+  I2 + 2Fe2+ Ecell = + 0.23 V   Since Ecell is positive, it is a spontaneous reaction / reaction will takes place.  [Ag+ + e  Ag Eθ = + 0.80 V Fe3+ + 3e  Fe Eθ = 0.04 V] (ii) 3Ag  3Ag+ + 3e Eθ = - 0.80 V }  3+ Fe + 3e  Fe Eθ = - 0.04 V } Ecell = - 0.84 V } Since Ecell is negative, it is a non-spontaneous reaction } (b) Ag+ (aq) + e  Ag (s) 108 g requires 1F @ 96500 C 0.60 g requires 0.60 x 96500 C 108 0.60 x 96500 C = 0.25 x t 108 t = 2144 s = 35.74 min = 35 min 44 s (i) Energy / kJ Ca2+(g) + 2F(g) Ca2+(g) + F2(g) Ca+(g) + F2(g) Ca(g) + F2(g) Ca(s) + F2(g) Ca F2(s) 4 (ii) - 1220 kJ = + 178 kJ + 590 kJ + 1150 kJ + 2(+158 kJ) + 2(-328 kJ) + L.E. L.E. = -1220 – 178 – 590 – 1150 - 2(158) + 656 kJ = - 2798 kJ mol-1 ...4

1 1+1 1

1

1

...6

1 1 1 ...3

(c)

1. Atomization of Ca & ionization of Ca 2. Atomisation of F and electron affinity of F 3. Formation & lattice energy of CaF2 Ca2+(g) + 2 F-(g) 4. Correct energy circle

1 1 ...2 15

7 8. (a) (i) - The high temperature of the car engine causes the N2 and O2 in the air to react together to form NO2. 1 - NO2 can be removed from the exhaust gases by the use of a catalytic converter which reduces NO2 to N2 1….2 (ii) pV = nRT n= Mr = 1 1 1....3

pV 1.0 x10 5 x190 x10 6   7.14 x10 3 RT 8.31 x320
0.50 = 70.0 (3 s.f.) or 70 (2 s.f.) 7.14x10-3

. (b) (i)

Energy required to remove 1 mol of electrons from 1 mol atoms in the gaseous state M(g) → M+(g) + e 1 1. 2

(ii)

2nd ionisatio n energy

    

`Labelled axes Correct shape of graph 2nd ionisation energy of Na is high because ē is removed from a completely filled shell 2nd ionisation energy of Al is high because ē is removed from a completely filled s orbital Increase from Si to Ar is due to increase in effective nuclear charge (or decrease in atomic radius)

Proton number

1 1 1 1 1...5

(c)

Atomic radii    Na - Ar : Atomic radius ↓ Because nuclear charge ↑ Screening effect is constant 1 1 1...3 15

9(a)

(12.0 x 7 + 1.0 x 6) n = 180

1

8 n=2 Molecular formula = C14H12 (b) (i) Structural formula of W and C=C H cis Structure of X H H trans 1 C=C H C=C H 1+1

1

...2

H

Structure of Y H H | | C–C | | H Br Structure of Z H | H–C– C | | H Br Structural formula for enantiomers of Y

1

1

1+1 C Br CH2 H H Br CH2 C

...7

9(c)(i)

‫׀‬ H2N- C – COOH ‫׀‬ amino ethanoic acid

‫׀‬ HO- C – COOH ‫׀‬

9
2 + HNO2 → + N2(g) + H2O

(ii)

‫׀‬ ‫׀‬ H2N- C – COOH + Na2CO3 → 2 H2N- C – COONa + H2O +CO2 ‫׀‬ ‫׀‬
(iii)

2

‫׀‬ H2N- C – COOH + C2H5OH conc.H2SO4 ‫׀‬

O ‫׀׀ ׀‬ H2N- C – C–O–C2H5 + H2O ‫׀‬

2

15

10. (a) Concentated H2SO4 and HNO3., 55○C Mechanism: HNO3 + H2SO4 → NO2+ + HSO4– + H2O

1 1 1 1

NO2+ is an electrophile. H + NO2+ NO2 +
+

H NO2 + HSO4–

–NO2 + H2SO4

1...5

(b) (i) K:

functional group : -OH

Isomers :

OH ǀ CH3CH2CH2OH and CH3CHCH3

1 1

Warm isomers separately with alkaline iodine, 1 CH3CHCH3OH gives a yellow precipitate but CH3CH2CH2OH does not. 1 → CHI3 + 5I– + 5H2O + CH3COO– O ǀǀ (ii ) L : functional group : ― C ― O O ǀǀ ǀǀ Isomers : CH3CH2C - H and CH3CCH3 Warm isomers separately with Tollen’s reagent. CH3CH2CHO gives a silver mirror but CH3COCH3 does not. CH3CH2CH2OH + 4I2 + 6OH– 1...5

1

1 1 1

CH3CH2CHO + 2[Ag(NH3)2]2+ + OH– → CH3CH2COO– + 2Ag + 2NH4+ + 2NH3 1...5 15

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