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key AI  IITJEE  Model test  02
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1.b. Don’t forget that units are always a good place to
start Here, the question asks for Ohms/cm
2
. We need
resistance and area. In a circuit, in order to find
resistance, we can use Ohm’s law V=IR. The passage
states that for a quarter, the current is 0.5 A for the
2.0 V battery. Therefore, the resistance is R = V/1
= W 4.0 Ω .
The passage also tells us that the surface of a coin is
what provides the resistance, so we need find the
surface area of the quarter (in cm
2
).
2 2 2
cm 5 . 4 ) cm 2 . 1 ( r A · Π · Π · , So, the
resistance per unit area is
2
/4.5cm 4 Ω
, or about
2
/cm 1Ω
, choice (B) is the closest.
2.d. How would friction on influence the coin? The
correct answer is choice(D). A frictional force
opposing the motion of the coin acts to decelerate
the coin. Since the frictional force is proportional to
N µ (where,
µ
is the coefficient of friction and N is
the normal force), we see that a larger normal force
(i.e larger mass) would increase the frictional force.
Therefore, since the undamaged quarter is heavier
than the quarter with the hole, it would feel a larger
friction force we can assume the coefficient of friction
is the same, since al we’ve done is cut a hole in the
middle). So, the quarter with the hole, which is
already going faster than the undamaged quarter,
would be even faster if friction had the change to
slow the undaged quarter proportionally more than
it slowed the quarter with the hole.
3. a. The question asks for speed. Apply the formula for
the magnetic force on a moving charged particle:
θ · sin B qv F
s / m 09 . 0
90 sin T) (1.3 ) C 10 (3.5
N 10 1 . 4
sin B
F
0 6 
7
·
×
×
·
θ
−
4.b. If the resistance of the coin were decreased, then
current could flow more readily. Ohm’s law tells us
that current and resistance are iversely proportional.
A smaller resistance means a larger current, which
means a larger magnetic force opposing the coin’s
direction of motion. Therefore, a decrease in
resistance would decrease the speed of the coin.
Looking at the other choices, we see choice (A) is
incorrect, since increasing the voltage of the battery
could have no effect on the currents once the coin
has left the battery, remember it is the current induced
by the magnets (after the battery part of the
apparatus) that regulates sped. finally, if we assume
no friction diameter and thickness has nothing to do
with the speed of the coin. (Aside: even if friction
were considered, diameter would only come into play
if we talk about rotational inertia, making the coin
less resistant to rolling. While, thickness would only
matter if it added mass: again, no friction means we
don’t care about mass!).
5.d. The passage tells us that the magnets create eddy
currents on the coin, and the currents create magnetic
forces, whichoppose the direction of motion, thus
decelerating the coin. So, if the quarter with the hole
had a greater speed, it must not have been
decelerated as much. In other words, the magnetic
force was not as strong. Why? Because the eddy
currents were not as strong why? Because there was
less area to create these currents, since a big hole
was cut out of the quarter. Choice (D) is correct.
Again, if this leaves you with an “I never would have
thought of that” feeling, don’t worry as a Page
IITJEE student you are going to know how to
eliminate the wrong answer choices.
Get rid of choice (A): the passage says that friction
is negligible, so the mass is irrelevant. Choice (B) is
bas because both coins are quarters and are made
out of the same material. Finally, dipoles aren’t even
mentioned in the passage; choice (C) is out.
6.c. The correct answer is option (c) Once the balloon is
released, the forces acting on the object in the vertical
direction are the buoyant force and the Earth’s
gravitational pull. The buoyant force F
B
on a
submerged object due to the surrounding fluid is
equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. This
definition can be formulized as follows:
g V P F
object air B )
( ·
Remembering that the volume of a sphere is
3
3 / 4 ΠΙ
, we can determine its value as follows:
Object = (4/) (3.14) (1/2 m)
3
.
= 0.523
We can now plug in valeus and determine the
buoyant force:
FB = (1.2 kg/m
3
) (0.523 m
3
) (9.8 m/s
2
)
= 6.15 N
The weight of the balloon is found as follows:
g V P W
object object object
) ( ·
= (0.5 kg / m
3
) (0.523 m
3
) (9.8 m/s
2
)
= 2.56 N
Applying Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion, we can
calculate the initial upward acceleration a of the
balloon as follows:
) / ( m F a
y
·
= [(6.15 N  2.56)] / [(0.5 kg / m
3
) (0.523 m
3
)]
= 13.73 m/s
2
.
7. b. We assume that only one emission takes place per
atom.
In 140 days number of emissions = 14 x 12 x 10
12
Initial number of atoms present = 2 x 140 x 12 x 10
12
(since 140 days is the halflife) No. of atoms in
13
10 12 28 1 × × · g µ
. No. of atoms in 1 cm3 i.e.,
Paper  I : Physics  1 to 50
Solutions
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10 g
= 3.36 x 10
15
x 107 .
= 3.36 x 10
22
.
8.a. The clue here is the density of mercury with respect
to water. Thus the mass per unit volume is heavier
and the formula for potential energy is : PE = mgh.
Lowering the mass means lowering the potential
energy.
B is incorrect because greater mass would increase
the potential energy and the kinetic energy.
C is incorrect because again masses differ so there
would be a difference in energy produced.
D is incorrect because there would be no variation to
cause a decrease, then an increase.
9.a. Surface tenson requires more force to penetrate than
turbulent water. The mild turbulence lowers the
surface tension and allows the divers to enter the
water with less force, less injury and smaller splashes.
B is incorrect because while glare can be an issue to
some competitors, it is not the primary reson water is
sprayed on the surface. Most divers do not focus on
the surface when they dive and the turbulent flow
would actually make it harder to see the bottom of
the pool.
C is incorrect because the spray of water would
decrease the surface tension rather than increase it.
The motion of the water disrupts the hydorgen
bonding at the surface.
D is incorrect becauee the turbulence at the surface
is not sufficient to equalize air and water pressures.
10. a. If a be the instantaneous total acceleration, then its
instantaneous velocity v tangentially on the circle at
time t satisfies the condition.
Centrepetal acceleration
dt
dv a
a
r
v
· · · ·
2
45 sin
0
2
t
1
2
d
r
v
dv
· ⇒
Integrating this over the time t,
,
`
.

− − · ·
∫
u v r
t
v
dv
v
u
1 1
2
ut r
ur
v
−
· ⇒
11.d. D is the correct answer because isometric patterns
actually increase laminar flow by keeping the ball
symmetric. While you don’t want pure laminar flow,
you also don’t want to much turbulent flow. Isometric
patterns allow the ball to maintain laminar flow on
the ball and keep the ball symmetric. Even with
asymmetric patterns used to further disrupt airflow
on modern balls, they are symmetric in their layout
(isometric) and allow the overall shape of the ball to
be symmetrical.
A is incorrect dimpling a ball decreass the boundary
conditions at the surface of the ball. In pure laminar
flow the ball is actually “larger” because the air is
being pushed away smoothly. As air passes a smooth
object there is a layer of undisturbed air because
there is nothing to disturb flow. As a result the profile
of the object is actually bigger and encounters more
air resistance. Dimpling causes the surface not to be
smooth and disrupts that layer of undisturbed air.
B is incorrect because while a dimpled ball does
indeed create turbulence to reduce cross sectional
area, that same turbulence can be used to advantage
when the ball is spinning in the right direction. When
the ball spins forward, it creates more turbulence
undermeath the ball, which raises the pressure
beneath the ball. Because of Bemouli’s principle,
higher pressure below the ball actually causes the
ball to gain altitude during flight resulting in a second
arc.
C is incorrect because symmetric dimples and
isometric patterns don’t cause as much turbulent flow
as an asymmetric dimples and isometric patterns. The
point is to optimize the profile of the ball in flight.
Asymmetric dimples are used to further disrupt air
flow on modern balls which provide a smaller profile,
they are symmetric in their layout (isometric) which
allow the overall shape of the ball to be symmetrical.
12.c. This is a trick problem. while the mathematical
formulas for circuits, fluids and mechanics are indeed
the same and you could rationalize them that way, it
is only necessary to remember that both systems are
in fixed tension thus the force in both systems are
the same. The stored energy is also the same.
A is incorrect because both systems have the same
amount of stretch and equal tension
C is incorrect because both systems have the same
amount of stretch and equal tension.
D is incorrect because temperature is not a factor in
spring systems.
13.c By conservation of energy
2
1
2
mgh mv ·
or
2 v gh · is the pendulum bob velocity just
before it hits the spring.
The conservative force is
3
F kx bx · − −
so that
2 4
1 1
2 4
U Fdx kx bx · − ∫ · +
.
Again by conservation of energy
2 2 4
1 1 1
2 2 4
mv mgh kx bx · · +
Rearranging
2
2 2
2
4
( )
k mgh k
x
b b b
+ · +
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or
1/ 2
2
2
4mgh k k
x
b b b
 `
· + −
. ,
14.a Our object is to find resistance between points A and
O
A
D
B
C
O
a
Points B and D are symmetrically located with respect
to points A and O. So they are at same potential. The
simple circuit can be drawn as shown below:
A
D B, C
O
2
r
2
r
2
1
r
2
1
r
2
2
r
Hence
2
2 1
a
r and a r
ρ
ρ · ·
Now, we can easily calculate
AO
R which comes out
a ρ
1 2 2
2
,
`
.

+
15.c. If be the tension in the string, the equations are, for
translation of the falling mass, (mg1) = mf ..(1) and
for rotation of cylinder
α α
2
1
2
ma
Ta · · ...(2)
mg
T
Also if there is no slip of the string .
a f α · ....(3)
Solving for T, mg  T = 2T
3
mg
T · ⇒
16.b.
E
and
B
are mutually perpendicular
; E Ei B B j · ·
and
x y z
V V i V j V k · + +
.
Since the charged particle goes undeviated, net force
on the charge is zero.
( ) 0 F qE q V B ∴ · + × ·
EL · +
x y z
i j k
V V V
O B O
( ) ( )
( ) 0
z x
z x
EL i BV k BV
i E BV kBV
· + − +
· − + ·
z
E BV · and 0 ; 0
x x
E BV V · · · means
component of velocity along
E
(which is in x
direction = 0)
17.d In a convex lens the distance between an object and
its real image is minimum when
. 2 2
1 1
f v and f · · µ When covcave lens is
placed in contact
2 1
1 2
2 1 1
1 1
2
1
'
1
f f
f f
f f f v
−
· − + +
1 2
2 1
2
2
'
f f
f f
v
−
·
Shift of image =
1 2
2
1
1
1 2
2 1
2
4
2
2
2
'
f f
f
f
f f
f f
v v
−
· −
−
· −
As
1 2
f f >> . Hence, shift of image
2
2
1
4
f
f
≈
18.b
f
T
f
v µ
λ
/
· ·
∴ T ∝ λ
bottom
Top
Top
Top
T
T
·
λ
λ
2
) 2 6 (
) 06 . 0 (
+
·
Top
λ
= 0.12 m
19.d 1 1 1
u v f
+ ·
.
1
v v
u f
∴ + ·
.
1
1
x
y f
∴ + ·
 graph cannot be a straight line.
∴(a) is not true. Graph II has increase in u increases
v which is not true.
Eqn.
1
v v
u f
+ ·
gives
1
x
y
f
+ ·
.
∴ Linear graph. (c) is not true.
∴
1 1 1
u v f
+ ·
gives graph IV. Hence (d) is true.
20.c. A throtting process, using a throtting valve, is an
adiabatic process, in which a gas may pass from a
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constant high pressure to a constant low pressure
through a fine opening or throttle valve without any
exchange of heat with the surroundings. If P
1
and P
2
are the constasnt pressures (P
1
>> P
2
) an the two
sides of the valve and V
1
and V
2
the corresponding
valumes of a constant mass of mass pushed through
the opening, then the net work done by the gas is
W=P
2
V
2
P
1
V
1
. The energy for this has to come from
the internal energy of the system. So if U
1
and U
2
are
the internal energies on the two sides of the opening,
(U
1
 U
2
) = P
2
V
2
 P
1
V
1
.
2 2 2 1 1 1
V P U V P U + · + ⇒
This shows that the physical quantity (U+PV) which
is called the enthalpy of the gas remains constant in
such a throttling process. This quantity is the total
heat in the system.
21.b
2
10
3 6
/ 10
) 10 (
) (10 ) 10 (
s m
m
qE
a · · ·
(downwards)
Path of the particle is a projectile. It will graze at B if.,
2
Range
plates the of length ·
10
60 sin 2 sin
17 . 0
0 2 2
u
a
u
· ·
θ
s m u / 4 . 1 · ∴
Speed of particle at B is
s m u v / 2 . 1 30 cos 4 . 1 cos
0
· · · θ
It will graze at A if,
AB = 2 (radius of circular path in magnetic field)
Bq
mv 2
1 . 0 ·
mT or T B 4 . 2 10 4 . 2
10 1 . 0
2 . 1 10 2
3
6
10
−
−
−
× ·
×
× ×
·
22.a.
D
d
A
S
S
1
S
2
O B
D
d
λ
ω·
1 2
and D AB a b d S S · · + ·
In
1
, 2 or 2
2 2
d
S SB b d ba
α
∆ · −
( )
2
a b
b
λ +
∴ ω·
α
23.a. and ·
di di
V L
dt dt
is same for both coils.
1 1
2 2
8
4
2
∴ · · ·
V L
V L
or
2
1
1
4
·
V
V
.
Hence (d) is true.
Instantaneous power =
·
di
Vt L
dt
. (i) is same for
both coils.
1 1 2 2
∴ · L i L i or
1 2
2 1
2 1
8 4
· · ·
i L
i L
.
∴ (a) is true.
Energy stored =
2
1
2
· W Li .
2
2
1 1 1
2 2 2
8 1 1
2 4 4
 `
 `
∴ · · ·
. ,
. ,
W L i
W L i
or
2 1
/ 4 · W W . ∴ (c) is true.
24.d. The location of the swing at some point after passing
through maximal height while rotation around the
rod is shown in the figure. For the swing to continue
rotating there has to be a tension in the swing, t
towards the rod. If the swing (at the location shown
in the figure) has speed v then the tension and
component of gravity along the swing provide the
centripetal force,
2
mv
T + mg sin α =
− L x
from energy consercation we find
2 2
( )
2 2
+ − + · ·
B
mv mv
mg L x h mgL
So
2
sin α · −
−
mv
T mg
L x
( ) mg (x  h)
2 sin α=2
−
· − −
− − −
mg x h h
mg mg
L x L x L x
(2 3 ) −
·
−
mg x h
L x
L x
T
h
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and h varies between ( ) ( ). − − < < − L x h L x
The sing will make a full revolution if T > 0 for h in
this interval. Since T is a monotonically decreasing
with h the suffitient condition is that T > 0 for maximal
hight h = L  x. Thus we find
( ) 0, 0, 2 3( ) 0, 3 / 5 · − > → → − − > → > T h L x x L x x L
25. a. The capacitance of nonlinear capacitor is
0 10
UC C C α · ·∈ where C
0
is the capacitance of
the capacitor without dielectric. Charge an onlinear
capacitor is given by
0
2
0
. C U U UC CU q
n
α α · · ·
While the charge an the normal capacitor is
U C q
0 0
·
If follows from the charge conservation law,
0 0 0
U C q q
n
· +
0 0 0 0
2
U C U C C U · + α
0 U
0
2
0
2
· − + · U U or U U U α α
α
α
2
4 1 1
0
U
U
+ t −
·
2
156 1 4 1 1 × × + t
− ·
volts 12
2
25 1
·
t −
·
26.a.
VT
ilB
IlBcos
VTcos
B
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
0 ·
net
F
φ
φ
φ φ cos (
cos
cos sin lB
R
l BV
ilB mg
T
,
`
.

· ·
φ
φ
2 2 2
cos
sin
l B
R mg
V
T
·
27. a.
2
2
4 ·
λ
m 0 . 1 · λ
S
T T
v
ρ µ
· ·
l
l
Y
S
T
l l
S T
Y
∆
· ∴
∆
· .
/
/
Substituting the values, we get v= 400 ms/
Hz
v
f 400
1
400
· · ·
λ
28.a.
2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V P
T
V P
·
,
`
.

·
1 1
1 2 2
2
V P
T V P
T
....(i)
K T m V m N P 300 , 10 4 . 2 , / 10 0 . 1
1
3 3
1
2 5
1
· × · × ·
−
2 5
3
5
1 2
/ 10 0 . 2
10 8
1 . 0 8000
10 0 . 1 m N
A
kx
P P × ·
×
×
+ × · + ·
−
3 3 3 3
1 2
10 2 . 3 1 . 0 10 8 10 4 . 2 m Ax V V
− − −
× · × × + × · + ·
Substituting in Eq. (i), we get
K T 800
2
·
29.a. Just before the collision, some (not all) of the potential
energy originally stored in the spring has been
converted to kinetic energy :
2 2
2
2
o
1 1 1 3
, so .
2 2 2 4 2 16
 `  `
· + ·
. , . ,
o
L L KL
K K M
M
ν ν
For two identical massess with one originally at rest,
conservation of moemntum and energy in a collision
means that all the momentum will be transfered to
the second mass, leaving the first mass stationary.
The finla velocity of the second mass is
2
3
.
16
KL
M
Although the first mass is stationary immediately
after the collision, there is stored energy in the spring.
Oscillations continue, with the mass reaching its
maximum speed at the equilibrium positin of the
spring, where all the potential energy is converted
into kinetic energy :
2
2
2
1 1 KL
, So =
2 4 2 16M
 `
·
. ,
L
K Mv v
30.b. If L is the ful length, let x out of L be stretched so that
new length becomes
L.
2
3
if x’ is the stretched
length,
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2
L
x  or x' i
2
3L
x' x)  (L · · +
..(1)
If a is the original crosssection let a, be the cross 
section of stretched portion.
a x a x ' ' · ∴
. ..(2)
'
xa
a
x
∴ ·
New resistance =
'
' ) (
a
x
a
x L ρ ρ
+
−
where ρ is
specific resistance.
Original resistance =
a
L ρ
'
; ) (
4
a
x
a
x L
a
L ρ ρ ρ
+
−
· ∴
xa
x
a
x L
2
) (
ρ ρ
·
−
·
a
L
xa
L
x
a
x L ρ
ρ
ρ 4 2 ) (
2
,
`
.

+
·
−
Lx
L
x x L x 4
2
) (
2
·
,
`
.

+ + −
Solving for x.
8
L
x ·
31.a Energy of electron in ground state of hydrogen atom
is 13.6 eV. Earlier it had a kinetic energy of 2 eV.
Therefore, energy of photon released during
formation of hydrogen atom,
eV E 6 . 15 ) 6 . 13 ( 2 · − − · ∆
793.3Å
15.6
12375
∆E
12375
λ · · ·
32.a Let the velocity of truck at T when he blows the
whistle be vs. Then
500
cos
600
,
`
.

−
·
θ
s
v v
v
...(i)
or at v v
s s
+ · 2
at v
s
· ...(ii)
θ sin
l
AM vt · ·
..(iii)
Also
2
2
1
cot at t v l AB
s
+ · · θ
...(iv)
or
2 2 2
2
3
2
1
sin
cos
at at at
l
· + ·
θ
θ
2
sin 2
3
,
`
.

·
θ v
l
a
∴
v
v
al
cos sin
3
2
,
`
.

· θ θ
From Eq. (i)
θ
θ
θ
sin
cos
cos 5
6
v
al
v
v
at v
u
−
·
−
·
v v
v
,
`
.

−
·
θ
θ
θ θ
sin
cos
. cos sin
3
2
or
2
1
cos · θ
0
60 ∴ θ ·
33.a. Objects slide on Slipperide (no rolling) and roll on
the metal surfaces. Also note that the hoops have
larger moment of inertia than the disks, since their
mass is concentrated at a larger radius. Then the
initial kinetic energy is C > B > A = D. All the linear
and rotational kentic energy gets changed to potential
energy at the highest spot, so this same ranking gives
the order of the heights achieved.
34.d. D is correct. Use the Doppler approximation.
s
ff c v ∆ · / As c increases, the ratio v/c increases
and so does change in frequency due to the Doppler
effect.
35.a. The instantaneous flux
2
) 2 ( ) ( vt a B + · φ
Induced e.m.f. (e) =
dt
dφ
) 2 ( 4 vt a Bv + ·
Instantaneous current (i) =
R
e
R = 4(a+2vt)r where is resistance per unit length
r
Bv
vt a r
vt a Bv
i ·
+
+
·
) 2 ( 4
) 2 ( 4
36.a
23
0
10 02 . 6
24 3600 3 . 14
693 . 0
× ×
× ×
· − N R λ
sec 10 37 . 3 sec
17
per per × ·
After 70 hours activity,
) 70 )( 24 3 . 14 / 0693 ( 17
0
) 10 37 . 3 (
× − −
× · · e e R R
t λ
17
10 92 . 2 × ·
per sec.
In fruits activity was observed I
µ
ci or 3.7 x 10
4
per
sec. Therefore, percentage of activity transmitted
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from root to the fruit.
% 10 26 . 1 100
10 92 . 2
10 7 . 3
11
17
4
−
× · ×
×
×
·
37.a Volume of Hg at
, 60
0
C
) 60 1 (
0 60 Hg
V V γ + ·
Volume of glass bulb at
, 60
0
C
) 60 1 (
0 g
V γ +
∴
Volume of Hg that will pass from the bulb into
stem = 60 ) (
0 g Hg
V γ γ −
Cross section of stem at 60
0
C
) 60 1 (
0 60 g
A A β + ·
Let l be the length of mercury column in the stem at
60
0
C. Then
) 60 1 (
60 ) (
0
0
g
g Hg
A
V
l
β
γ γ
+
−
·
60 C
0
L
0 C
0
(a)
(b)
Here
2 2 2
0
0314 . 0 ) 2 . 0 (
4
) (
4
cm d A · · ·
π π
∴
] 10 8 . 1 60 1 )[ 0314 . 0 (
60 10 ) 7 . 2 18 )( 10 (
5
5
−
−
× × +
× × −
· l
= 2.92 cm
38.c. C is correct. The particle accelerates because electrical
potential energy is changing to kinetic energy. We
imagine the electric field doing work on the particle.
The work done on the particle equals the change in
electrical potential energy. (Electric potential energy
= kqq/r) From this equation, we see that the particle
has four times as much electric potential energy at r
as at 4r, but the energy is negative because the
charges are opposite. Thus, the total electric potential
energy of energy at r as at 4r, but the energy is
negative because the charges are opposite. Thus,
the total electric potential energy of the particle has
decreased by a factor of 4. (1 J to 4 J is a decrease in
energy by a factor of four. See question # 768) From
the work energy theorem (work equals the change in
kinetic energy when the only energy change is
kinetic. [Since the electric field is doing the work, we
don’t count its energy as a change in energy for the
work energy theorem.]) We see that the electric
potential energy lost by the particle is converted to
kinetic energy. Thus the particle has four times as
much kinetic energy at r as a t4r. From K.E. = 1/2mv
2
we see that the velocity must double in order to
increase kinetic energy by a factor of four.
39. b. Since PV = nRT
V
nR
T
P
Slope · · ⇒
The more the volume, the lesser the slope and vice
versa.
40. b. When two angles of incidence are such that the
diameter is same for both, one of them may be taken
as the angle of incidence and the other as angle of
emergence at the adjacent face because the path of a
ray through a prism is reversible.
o o
I 62 i 42
2 1
· ·
A A i i
o o
− + · − + · 62 42
2 1
δ
o o o
A 60 44 104 · − ·
When the deviation is minimum i i i · ·
2 1
o
i 60 2 38
o
− − ∴
o
i 49 ·
2i = 98
o
41. a. α
e cyclic
T T nR W log ) (
2 1
− ·
,
`
.

− · ·
1
2
1
1
T
T
Q
W
η
0 · ∆
cyclic
U
42.a. The PV equation for the line BC is
0
0
0
5
2
P V
V
P
P +
,
`
.

·
or
V P V
V
P
PV
0
2
0
0
5
2
+
,
`
.

− ·
or
V P V
V
P
RT
0
2
0
0
5
2
+
,
`
.

− ·
∴
]
]
]
]
,
`
.

− ·
2
0
0
0
2
5
1
V
V
P
V P
R
T
T is maximum where
0 ·
dV
dT
or
0
4
5
0
0
0
·
,
`
.

− V
V
P
P
or
4
5
0
V
V ·
]
]
]
]
,
`
.

,
`
.

−
,
`
.

·
2
0
0
0 0
0 max
4
5
2
4
5
) 5 (
1 V
V
P V
P
R
T
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R
V P
8
25
0 0
·
43. d. When the bob is located to the right of point O the
obstacle acts as the pivot. The effective length of
the pendulum is
4
and when it is to the left of
obstacle the effective length is
.
,
`
.

+ · ⇒
g g
t
π π 2
4
2
2
1
2 ,
4
3
g
T where
T
t
π · · ⇒
44.a mL ms mgh + ∆ · θ
∴
θ ∆ − · s gh L
) 30 200 ( ) 126 ( ) 10 2 . 6 ( ) 10 (
3
− − × ·
= 40.58 kJ/kg
45. a. In this case the shift, ;
λ
β
µ t s ) 1 (
1 1
− ·
Shift
λ
β
µ t s ) 1 (
2 2
− ·
Total shfir S
1
S
2
;
λ
β
µ µ ) (
2 1
t − ·
Let us suppose that the central fringe shifts to the
position of nth fringe;
λ
β
µ µ β ) (
2 1
t n − ·
500
10 4800
10 8 ) 4 . 1 7 . 1 (
10
4
·
×
× −
·
−
−
n
46.c. Initially, the diver begins with gravitational potential
energy from the height of the board above the water.
As the board is depressed, the kinetic energy from
the hurdle is converted to the potential energy of the
board (analogous to the stretching of a spring). The
potential energy of the board is equal to the hurdle
energy, W1, when the bord is maximally depressed.
At this point, the kinetic energy of both the diver
and the board is zero. (Again, drawing the agalogy
to a spring, at maximum displacement the kinetic
energy is zero). As the board rebounds, its potential
energy is transformed back into kinetic energy. The
leap energy W2 is added to the total energy this
time.
If the dive is perfect, the board is not moving at the
end and so all of its energy has been converted to
the kinetic energy of the diver. Therefore, the energy
of the diver after takeoff is the sum of the hurdle
energy, the leap energy, and the gravitational
potential nergy from the height of the board above
the water.
Note that choice D is incorrect because the potential
energy of the board at maximum depression is derived
from the hurdle energy (the initial kinetic energy of
the diver)
47.d. It’s easier to break the diver’s trip into two parts:
from the board to maximum height, and then from the
maximum height to the water.
The first part of the trip covers a distance of 80 cm or
0.80 m. The diver starts with some initial velocity,
and the velocity becomes zero when the distance is
0.80 m. the time for this part of the trip is the same as
the time it would take for an object to drop a distance
of 0.80 m. and so it does not matter that we are not
given the initial velocity.
2
0.5at ∆x ·
(approximating g = 10 m/s
2
)
0.80 = 0.5 (10)t
2
; t
2
=0.16 ; t = 0.4 s
The second part of the trip is the diver falling through
a distance of 1+0.80=1.8 m. We use the same equation:
1.8 = 0.5 (10)t
2
; t
2
= 0.36 ; t = 0.6 s
The total time in the air is therefore 0.4+0.6 = 1.0 s
48.b. As discussed in # 14, the total kinetic energy of the
diver after take off is the hurdle energy plus the leap
energy. If W
1
=W
2
, then the total kinetic nergy after
takeoff is 2W
1
.
This kinetic nergy is transformed into gravitational
potential energy via E=mgh.
Thus if a height of H
1
is achieved with energy W
1
,
then a height of 2H1 is achieved with energy 2W
1
.
Hence H
2
=2H
1
, or H
1
= 0.5 H
2
.
49.d. The potential energy for a 70kg mass at a height of
50 cm is: mgh = (70) (10) (0.5) = 350 J
If the efficiency of the muscles is 25% then the
total amount of energy expended is 350/0.25 = 350
x 4 = 1400 J.
50.a. If the diver takes off vertically and enters into the
water feet first (i.e. no rotationalmotion) then the
height of the dive can be calculated according to
equation E = mgh, where E is the energy derived
from the hrudle and the leap and h is the height of
the diver’s center of mass.
If rotational motions are added as the diver is moving
upwards, some of the energy is converted to
rotational kinetic energy. As a result, the kinetic
energy used for translatioanal motion (in the vertical
direction) is reduced, and so the maximum height of
the dive is also reduced.
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Paper  I I : Mathematics  51 to 100
Solutions
51.b. The equation can be written as
(x  4)
2
= 16 (y  1) ....(1)
We know that focal distance of any point (x, y)
only y
2
= 4ax is a x + .
So, the focal distance of point (x, y) on the
parabola (1) is 5  y 4 1 · − − y
52.b. The parabola is
2
) 4 ( − x
= 16 (y + 1)
The equation of normal to y
2
= 4ax is y = mx  2am 
am
3
.
So, the equation of normaly to (x4)
2
= 16 (y + 1) is
x 4 = m (y + 1)  8m  4m
3
.
It passes through (7, 14), so, 3 = 15 m  8m  4m
3
+6
0 ) 3 2 ( ) 1 2 ( ) 1 ( 0 3 7 4
3
· + − − ⇒ · + − ⇒ m m m m m
1 3
1, 
2 2
m ∴ ·
So, the slope of normals is
3
2
 2, 1,
1
·
m
(NOTE : this slope
≠
m)
53.a. The foot of normals y = mx  2am am
3
on y
2
= 4ax
is (am
2
, 2am). So, the feet of normal on (xh)
2
= 4a
(yk) is (h2am, k+am
2
).
So, the desired feet of normal are (4  8 x 1, 1 + 4 x 1),
,
`
.

× + − × −
4
1
4 1 ,
2
1
8 4
and
,
`
.

× + − × −
4
9
4 1 ,
2
3
8 4
, i.e., (4, 3), (0, 0) and (16,
8).
54.a. The equation of the parabola is (x+1)
2
= 4 (y + 3)
whose axis is x = 1
The equation of a normal to the parabola is x + 1 =
m (y+3) + 2m + m
3
.
It passes through a point (1, k) on the axis if, 0 =m
(k+3) + 2m + m
3 ⇒
m (m
2
+k+5) = 0
giving 5) (k  , 0 + t · m Hence for three real,
distinct normals k+5 < 0 ⇒ k < 5
55.b. The equation of a tangent to parabola x
2
=  4a
(y + a) will be of the form
m
a
a y m x − + · ) (
...(1)
The given equation is x = y α α sec tan p + .(2)
Comparing (1) and (2), we get
α α sec tan p
m
a
am and m · − ·
Eliminating m, we get
α α α α α sin 2 cos sec cot tan p a p a a · ⇒ · + −
56. a. This is a matter of sheer logic. We must see the
problem on a smaller scale in order to study the
pattern that is being formed and then to identify as
to what is the precise pattern.
Imagine that you are to form twoletter passwords
from A, H and I only. There can be three letters starting
the passwords: A, H and I. These passwords are as
under and in forming them we shall stick to a logical
pattern so that we miss nothing AH, AI, HA, HI, IA
and IH. This makes six distinct passwords in all. This
is because we have three letters to choose from for
the first place and having chosen one out three, we
can choose only the remaining two for the second
place since you are not allowed to repeat any letter.
This means that 3 x 2 = 6 distinct passwords can be
formed (distinct means without repeating the letters)
Now imagine that you are to form twoleeter
passwords from A, H, I and M only. There can be
four letters starting the passwords: A, H, I and M.
These passwords are as under and in forming them
we shall stick to a logical pattern so that we miss
nothing;
AH, AI, AM, HA, HI, HM, IA, IH, IM, MA, MH, MI.
This makes twelve distinct passwords in all. This is
because we have four letters to choose from for the
first place and having chosen one out four, we can
choose only the remaining three for the second place
since you are not allowed to repeat any letter. This
means that 4 x 3 = 12 distinct passwords can be formed
(which means without repeating the letters).
Taking this to its logical conclusion, one can choose
from out of 11 letters: A, H, I M, O, T, U, V, W, X and
Z for the first place and having done so, we can
choose from out of the remaining ten letters for the
second place and then o ut of the remaining nine
letters for the third place and out of eight letters for
the fourth place. This means that the number of
computer passwords that can be formed using
only the symmetric letters (no repetition allowed) is
11 x 10 x 9 x 8 = 7920.
57.c. This is a matter of logic. This question is a variation
on the first one in order only to find out whether you
have the analytical ability requisite; formulae will help
up to a point and not beyond. But to the one who
has understood the crux of the matter, formulae can
take a back seat. We shall strive to show you how
you can obviate the need for learning a whole lot of
formulae and then you shall also see that whatever
formulae that you may have carried would have been
of little use in this particular instance. What does at
least one mean? At least one means not less than 1
but if there are three places then one has to see how
many three letter
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passwords are possible first with one symmettric letter
(which we shall call SL), then with two SLs and finally
with three SLs. We shall call the remaining 15
asymmetric letters ASL for the sake of brevity.
If you were to Then for the first That takes the
form a password letter you can nummber of
choose out of choices to
With only one SL
then you can have
the following
arrangements :
Place1 place2 place 3
SL ASL ASL 11x15x14=2310
ASL SL ASL 15x11x14=2310
ASL ASL SL 15x14x11=2310 2310+2310+
2310 = 6930
With two SLs then you
can have the following
arrangements :
Place1 Place2 Place 3
SL SL ASL 11x10x151650
SL ASL SL 11x15x10=1650
ASL SL SL 15x11x10=1650 1650+1650+
1650 = 4950
If you were to Then for the first That takes the
form a password letter you can number of
choose out of choices to
With three SLs then
you can have the follo
wing arrangement:
Place1 Place2 Place3
SL SL SL 11x10x9=990 990
That makes the number of possible three letter passwords as
6930 + 4950 +990 = 12870.
58.b. Whereas the fundamental identity for the
trigonometric functions is
, 1 cos sin
2 2
· + x x
the
fundamental identity for the inverse trigonometric
functions is arcsin x+arccos
. 2 / π · x
Thus arccos
. 2 / π · x
 arcsin x. The curve of arcsin x reflected in
the horizontal axis will represent the curve of arcsin
x. Adding
2 / π
is geometrically equivalent to
translating the curve vertically
2 / π
units upward.
59.a. The last number in the (n1)th group is the cube of
2
) 1 (
1 .... 3 2 1
n n
n
−
· − + + + +
and the last
number in the nth group is the cube of
( 1)
2
n n +
.
Hence the sum of the number in the nth group
3
3 3
2
) 1 (
... 2 1
,
`
.
 +
+ + + ·
n n
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
,
`
.
 −
+ + + −
3
3 3
2
) 1
.... 2 1
n n
4
1
2
) 1 (
4
) 1 (
2
2 2
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+
+
+
·
n n
n n
4
1
2
) 1 (
4
) 1 (
2
2 2
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+
−
−
−
n n
n n
{ − + + + ·
2 2 2
2
) 2 ( ) 1 (
64
n n n
n
¦
2
2 2 2
) 2 ( ) 1 ( + − − − n n n
Which on simplification gives
). 3 ( ) 1 (
8
2 2
3
+ + n n
n
60.a. Probability of each barrier failing = 20% = 0.2
With two barriers, probability of failure of both =0.2
x 0.2 = 0.04. Proceeding in this manner, we have
(0.2)
5
=0.00032 as the probability of failure of all 5
barriers, which is less than 0.1% (=0.001)
Hence, minimum number of barriers = 5.
61.d. The equation can be solved by separation of
variables
10
dt
M
dM
− ·
and integration, yielding In
.
10
C
t
M + − ·
The value M= M
0
when t = 0 implies
that C=In M
0
. Taking the exponential of both sides
of the solution yields.
10
0
t
e
M M · so
2
0
0
2
) 20 (
e
M
M M
e
· ·
−
62.d. The vertices from standard form are as shown. The
statement implies that the focimust be at ). 0 , 9 (t
the locus difinition of an ellipse implies that
2
9 2 20 + · k
so that 100 = k+9
2
and k=19.
63.b. B is got by rotating A through an angle of
2
π
about
0.
∴
the complex number corresponding to B is iZ
1
.
Simillarly C is the point i.iZ
1
=Z
1
.
∴
the centroid of
∆ABC
is the point
3
1
3
Z
1 1 1 1
Z Z iZ
·
− +
B can take the position of D in the figure
D C
B A
∴
the centroid can also be
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3 3
1 1 1 1
iZ Z iZ Z
− ·
− −
64.d. If 5 equivalent to filling in 11 spaces between 12
identical items with 2 identical objects. This can be
done in
2
11
C
ways.
65.d. Given Equation is 0
2
· − − H x G Ax ..(1)
Let β α, are the roots, then
G H
and
A A
α β αβ + · · −
Since
A
H
A
G
or H G A > > > > 1 [
∵
A is
positive]
αβ β α and + ∴ are positive and negative
fraction respectively. Also
AH G ·
2
....(2)
Discriminant of (1) =
0 5 4AH ) .( . 4 ) (
2 2
2
> · + · − − − G G H A G
{from (2)}
Hence roots of (1) are real and distinct.
. 0 and 0 < > + αβ β α ∵ One root is positive and
other is negative and at least one root is a fraction.
Also, the positive root must be bigger in
magnitude. So the equation has a negative
fractional root.
66.b.
1 ) ( 2 ) ( } 1 ) {( ) 1 (
2 2 2
+ − · − · − x x x x
and
1 ] [ 2 ] [ } 1 ] {[ ] 1 [
2 2 2
+ + · + · + x x x x
∴
The equation becomes, 0 1 ) ( ] [ · + − x x ...(1)
Let n, (x) [x] then I, n x · · ∈ · and equation (1)
becomes 1= 0, not possible.
L:et x = n + f, where
I n ∈
and 0 <f<1, then [x] = n
and (x) = n + 1, the equation (1) becomes n  n  1 +
1 = 0 ⇒ 0 = 0, and identity.
∴
All x such that
I x∉
is the solution of given
equation.
∴
Solution set is S = R  I
67.c. f(x) and g(x) are both equal to 1 (generally)
tan
2
x
is not defined if
2
x
is an add multiple of
2
π
; so too see
2
x
.
∴
f(x) = g(x) for only R(2n+1)π
68.b. First distribute two balls in each of the three boxes.
So, we are left with four identical balls to be
distributed in 3 boxes. This is number as finding
the number of nonnegative integral solutions for x
+ y + x = 4. The number of ways = 6!/4! 2! = 15.
69.d. Length of line segments on one side of the
diagonal are 2, 2 2, 3 2,.....,( 1) 2 n −
[Since the distance betwen the lines is
. 1 ......
2
1
2 1 1 0
· · · ⇒ A A A A
A
3
A
2
A
1
A
0
Therefore, the side of square is divided into n
points equidistant at 1 units].
So, the required sum =
2 } 2 ) 1 ( .... 2 3 2 2 2 { 2 n n + − + + + + ·
2 2
2
) 1 (
2 2
2
n n
n n
· +
−
·
70.a.
( )
20
7 3 8 ] [ + · + · f R R
) 7 3 ( 8 8
19
1
20 20
0
20
C C + ·
+ ....Where 0 <f < 1.
0
20 20
) 7 3 8 ( C F · − ·
.
) 7 3 ( 8 8
19
1
20 20
C −
+...., where 0 < F < 1
· + + · + + ∴ .....] ) 7 3 ( 8 8 . [ 2 ] [
2 18
2
20 20
0
20
C C F f R
an even integer.
∴
f+F = an integer = 1 as 0 < f < 1, 0<F<1
∴
[R] = an even integer 1 = an odd integer.
Also
20
20
) 7 3 8 (
1
1 ) 7 3 8 ( 1 1 ] [
+
− · − − · − · · − F f R R
Again . 1 ]} [ 1 { 1 ) 1 ( 1 · − ⇒ · − ⇒ · R R R f R RF
Therefore R+R[R] = 1+ R
2
.
71.d. Since the roots are unreal, f (x) = ax
2
+ bx + 10 has
the same sign for all x, and since f (0) =10 is
positive. f (x) is positive for all x or zero.
0 10 5b 25a f(5) ≥ + + · ∴
2  b 5a ≥ + ∴
Hence the minimum value of 5a + b =  2
m 5  2 n Hence 2; n 5m · · + ∴
0 1 y (x 5m) (2 3) 2y m(4x · − − + − + + ∴
m (x + 7 y + 8)  2 (x  y  1) = 0
represents the family which is concurrent at the
point of intersection of x  y  1 = 0 and  x + 7y + 8
= 0 whch is
,
`
.

− −
6
7
,
6
1
72.b. f (X) = g (x + a)
73.a. get we , C C C Applig
2 1 1
+ →
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x x
x x
x x
2 sin 1 cos 1
2 sin cos 1 2
2 sin cos 2
2
2
2
+
+
get we , R R and R R R Applying
1 3 1 2 2
→ − →
x
x x
2 sin 2
1 0 1
0 1 0
2 sin cos 2
2
+ ·
−
Since the maximum value of sin 2x is 1, and
minimum value of sin 2x is (1).
Therefore 1 , 3 · · β α
Now, 6, 3 and 4 , 2 · + · + · − β α β α α B
thus ) 3 ( ) ( ) ( β α β α α + · + + − B
So, β α β α α 3 , , + + − B cannot form a
triangle. All other options are correct.
74.c. We have
1 1
1
1 1
1 1 1 1 1
+
· ⇒ ·
+
⇒ ·
n
a
M L
a
M L
n BC
M L
AB
AL
etc
n
a
M L
BC
M L
AB
AL
.....
1
2
2 2
2 2 2
+
· ⇒ ·
A
B C
M
n
L
n
L
3
M
3
L
2 M
2
L
1
M
1
Required sum =
2
.....
1 1 1
a a ha
n n n
+ + +
+ + +
2
] ... 2 1 [
1
na
n
n
a
+ + +
+
·
75.b.
· + · 8  4 14 b . a
negative and hence
a
and
b
include on abtuse angle.
The bisector of the acute angle between
a
and
b
will be along
b
ˆ 
aˆ
i.e.,
,
`
.
 −
−
,
`
.
 +
9
k 4  j 4  i 7
3
k 2 j  i 2 
9
k 10 j i 13 + + −
·
100 1 169
k 10 j i 13
+ +
+ + −
·
270
k 10 j i 13 + + −
·
270
) k 10 j i 13 ( 270
C
+ + −
· ∴
k 10 j i 13 + + − ·
76.b. First choose the two letters that go into two correct
envelopes. This occurs in
5
C
2
= 10 ways. Now of the
rest three letters, the first one chosen at random can
be put in only two ways (i.e., in the two envelopes
except its own), the 2nd in I way and the 3rd will
automatically go into the wrong envelope. Thus,
number of ways is 10 x 2 = 20
77.c. (I) True, because the circumference of the unit circle
is
2π
, arcs of length π and  π (each half of the
circle) will both terminate at the circular point (1,0).
The first arc π , being positive, is measured in the
counterclockwise direction, whereas the second arc,
 π , being negative, is measured in the clockwise
direction.
2
2
x
y
3
(II) False. we must always carefully distinguish
between a number (or arc length) and the circular
point on the unit circle with which it corresponds.
Each of the numbers 0, 2 π , 4 π ,... are different,
although they all correspond to the same circular
point, namely, (1,0).
(III) True. It is also true for arc lengths 2+n(2 π ),
where n is any integer.
(IV) True. See the figure.
78.a. Let the equation of the line
θ sin
v y
θ cos
u  x −
·
Any point at a distance ‘r’ from ‘p’ and on the line is
θ) sin r v θ, cos r (u + + . then this will satisfy the
equation of the curve.
θ) sin r (v θ) cos r 2h(u θ) cos r (u a
2
+ + + + + ∴
0 θ) cos r 2g(u θ) sin r (u b
2
· + + + +
+ + +
2 2 2
r θ) sin b θ sin θ. cos 2hv θ cos (a or,
Q
R
P(u,v) *
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r θ) cos 2g θ sin 2bv θ sin 2hu θ cos 2hv θ cos (2au + + + +
0 2 v b 2huv u a
2 2
· + + + + gu
....(ii)
PQ and PR are the roots of the quadratic equation in
‘r’.
∴
Product of the roots PQ.PR
=
θ sin h θ sin b θ cos a
2gu bv 2huv au
2 2 2
2 2
+ +
+ + +
79.c. P(the student passes the exam) =P (the student
passes in I, II, not or passes In I, III not II or passes
in I, II, III)
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
2
1
2
1
× × + − × × + × × · ∴ q p q p q p
0 1 pq p or pq p 2pq 1 · − + − + · ∴
Or p(1+q) = 1 which is satisfied only by p=1, q=0
80.c. Let m and m
2
be the slopes of the lines represented
by ax
2
+2hxy+by
2
= 0
Then,
b
h
m m
2
2
− · +
..(1)
b
a
m m ·
2
.
or
b
a
m ·
3
..(2)
from (1)
3
3 2
2
) (
,
`
.

− · +
b
h
m m
3
3
2 2 6 3
8
) ( . . 3 m
b
h
m m m m m − · + + + ⇒
3
3
2
2
8 2 3
h
a
b
h
b
h
b
a
b
a
− ·
,
`
.

− + + ⇒
{from (1) and
(2)}
2 3
3
2
6 8
) (
b
ah
b
h
b a
b
a
· + + ⇒
or 6
8 ) (
2
· +
+
ab
h
h
b a
81.c. The given circle
0 ) 1 (
2 2 2 2
· + − + − + λ λ a ay ax y x
....(1)
has centre at
,
`
.

≡
2
,
2
a a
C
λ
Equation of any line through the given point
1) (λ a 1), (λ (a P + − ≡ can be written as
)] 1 ( [ ) 1 ( − − · + − λ λ a x m a y ...(II)
The above line intersects the xaxis at the point
,
`
.
 +
− − ≡ 0 ,
) 1 (
) 1 (
m
a
a M
λ
λ
According to the given condition M is the mid
point of the chord PQ, then we have slope of
PQ x slope of CM=1 ] [ CM PQ ⊥ ∵
i.e.,
1
m
1) (λ a
2
λ
1 a
2
a
m − ·
+
+
,
`
.

−
×
0 ) 1 ( 2 ) 2 (
2
· + + − − λ λ m m
....(III)
Therefore, for two real and distinct chords, we
have
0 ) 1 ( ) 2 (
2
> + − − λ λ
[discriminant of equation
(III) > 0]
0 4 12 ., .
2
> − − λ λ e i
82.a.
, 2
2
. ' . ) ' ( ' ' a
e
a
e ZZ e PZ PZ e ePZ ePZ Ps PS · · · + · + · +
if a > b
b a if 2b,
e
2b
e. < · ·
If coordinates of P be (x, y) then
PS + PS’ + SS’ = 2a + 2a e = 2 a (1+e)
∴
s = a (1+e). Semi perimeter of the
∆
and s
SS’=a (1 e)
Now,
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
tan
c s s b s s
b s a s a s c s
− −
− − − −
·
α
e
e
s
a s
+
−
·
−
·
1
1
[a = SS’; PS’ = c, PS= b)
2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2
b
b a a b a a
b a a
b a a − − − +
·
− +
− −
·
2
2 2 2 2
2 2
b
b a a b a − − −
·
S’
Z’
Z
x
y
S
e
a
x =
e
a
x − =
83.d. The function can be rewritten as
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
> +
≤ × ≤ −
− < −
·
1 1
1 1 2
1 1
) (
x x
x x
x f
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y=2
x
Y
(1,0)
(

1
,
0
)
O
1

x
=
y
1
+
x
=
y
∴
In the figure thickly shaded portion is the
required curve clearly it is continuous at all points
but not differentiable at x = 1 and 1.
84.b. Here two straight lines, α α α · + y x ) (sin ) (tan
and
(α cose α ) x+ (cos α ) y = 1 have their point of
intersection as,
α sin
α x tan α
y and
α α sin
α sin α cos α
x
−
·
−
−
·
∴
when , 0 → α we obtain the point P.
i.e.,
α 0 α 0
α cos αsin α
limx lim
sin α  α
→ →
·
,
`
.

form
0
0
(applying LHospital’s rule)
2
sin 2
2
cos
2
sin 2
lim
2 / sin 2 
α sin 
lim
0 α
2
0 α α
α α
α
α
α
2 → →
,
`
.

· ·
2
2
tan
2
2
lim
2
tan
α
lim
0 α 0 α
· · ·
→ → α
α
α
Again as,
,
`
.

− ·
−
· ·
→ → → α α
α
α
α α
cos sin
lim
sin
tan
lim lim
0 α 0 α 0 α
x x
y
α 0 α 0
x
lim lim
sin cos
α
α α
→ →
· −
1 y lim 2 x lim 2 1
0 α 0 α
· ⇒
]
]
]
· − ·
→ →
as
Hence, in limiting position, P (2, 1)
85.b. We have
4 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( x x x x x x x x + + · − + · + − + +
Now,
8 4 4 2 4 2 2 2
1 ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( x x x x x x x x x x + + · + − · + − + − + +
Continuing in this way, we have
) 1 )...( 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
2 2 8 4 4 2 2 2
1 n n
x x x x x x x x x x + − + − + − + − + +
−
) 1 (
1
2 2
·
+ + ·
n n
x x
Now, for
get we (1), in n Limit Taking 0, x 1, x ∞ → · <
∞
1 )... 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
8 4 4 2 2 2
· + − + − + − + + x x x x x x x x
Taking logarithm of both sides, we get
0 )... 1 ( ln ) 1 ( ln ) 1 ( ln ) 1 ( n
8 4 4 2 2 2
· + − + + − + − + + + ⇒ x x x x x x x x l
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
0 ....
1
8 4
1
4 2
1
2 1
1
2 1
8 4
7 3
4 2
3
2 2
· +
+ −
+ −
+
+ −
+ −
+
+ −
+ −
+
+ +
+
⇒
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x
x x
x
Hence
3 3 7
2 2 4 4 8 2
1 2 2 4 4 8 1 2
...
1 1 1 1
x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x
− − − +
+ + + ·
− + − + − + + +
86.a. The integral can be written as
2 7 5 3
2
2
2 10 7
Let 1=
2
x x x x
dx
x
−
− − +
+
∫
2 2 4
2
2
3 ( 4) 1
+
2
x x
dx
x
−
− +
+
∫
2
4 2
2
0
1
0 2 3( 2 )
2
I x x dx
x
 `
⇒ · + − +
+
. ,
∫
2
5 3 1
0
6
4 2 tan
5 2
x
I x x
−
 `
⇒ · − +
. ,
16
I= 2
5 2 2
π
∴ +
87.b. In
( ) 2
10
3 , 10 , 1
2
·
]
]
]
]
−
x
y=2
x
x=1
10 = x
∴
the area required is the area bounded by
1 , 10 , 1 · · · y x x and y = 2 is the area of
the shaded rectangle in the Figure
( )( ) . 1 10 1 2 1 10 − · − − ·
88.a. F(x) is discontinuous at x =0
0 ,
(
12
) ( '
2 3 3
)
2
≠
−
−
·
−
x
e e
x
x f
x x
∴
(f)x is a decreasing function in (
∞ 
, 0) and
also in (0,
∞
) i.e., in R  {0} and hence also a one 
0ne function.
Also,
1 ) ( lim , 1 ) ( lim · −
∞ → ∞ →
x f x f
x x
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∞ · ∞ −
+ → − →
) ( lim , ) ( lim
0 0 0 0
x f x f
x x
∴
Range of
] 1 , 1 [ ) , 1 ( ) 1 , ( − − · ∞ ∪ − −∞ · R f
Since, Range equals codomain Hence, f is onto.
89.a. Given
5
1 1
f b f(x) a − ·
,
`
.

+
x x
...(1)
or,
5 ) ( bf
1
f a − · +
,
`
.

x x
x
(Replacing x by
x
1
)
Multiply equation (i) by a, equation (ii) by b and
subtracting, we get
2
1
f(x) ab f 5
a
a a
x x
 `
+ · −
. ,
b bx x f b
x
5 ) (
1
f ab
2
− · +
,
`
.

Subtracting,
a b bx
x
a
b a x f 5 5 ) ( ) (
2 2
− + − · −
2
1
2
2
1
2 2
b(x 5(a
2
bx
Inx a dx f(x) ) b (a
]
]
]
]
− − − · −
∫
)
2
7
5 2 (
1
dx f(x)
2 2
2
1
b
a In a
b a
+ −
−
·
∫
90.d.
∫ −
−
−
+
· dx
4e 9e
6e 4e
1 Let
x x
x x
Using the Rule
) ' . . ( ' ' D of c d D N µ λ + ·
) 4 9 ( ) 4 9 ( 6 4e
x x x x x x
e e e e e
− − −
+ + − · + ⇒ µ λ
x
4e 6 9( ) 4( )
x x x
e e e λ µ µ λ
− −
⇒ + · + + −
4
6
9
4
− · − · + ∴ µ λ µ λ and
Solving, we have
36
35
;
36
19
· − · µ λ
r r
r
D (d.c. of D )
I
D
dx
λ µ +
∴ ·
∫
r
r
d.c. of D
I
D
dx dx λ µ ⇒ · +
∫ ∫
r
I λx µ log D c ⇒ · + +
19 35
I  log (9 4 )
36 36
x x
e e c
−
⇒ · ×+ − +
c
e
x
+
,
`
.

−
× · ⇒
4 9e
log
36
35
36
19
 I
2x
c e
x
+ − − + × · ⇒ log
36
35
) 4 (9e log
36
35
36
19
 I
2x
c + − + ×
,
`
.

− − · ⇒ ) 4 (9e log
36
35
36
35
36
19
I
2x
2x
54 35
I log (9e 4)
36 36
c ⇒ ·− ×+ − +
c + − + × − · ⇒ ) 4 (9e log
36
35
2
3
I
2x
36
35
,
2
3
A · − · ∴ B
and c is a constant
91.a. f (x) is continuous and attains only rational values
a x f · ⇒ ) ( constant. For otherwise f(x) assumes
irrational values as there are an infinite number of
irrational numbers between any two real numbers.
Hence f (2) = f (0) = f (6) = f (1) = 4
∴
the equation becomes
0 ) 1 ( 4
2
· + + x x
and
discriminant is negative.
92.a I )
n a x a x f
n n
, 0 , ) ( ) (
/ 1
> − · om +ve integer
[ ] [ ] { ¦
n
n
n n n n
x a a x a f x f f
/ 1
/ 1 / 1
) ( ) ( ) (
]
]
]
− − · − ·
( ) x x a a
n
n
· − − ·
/ 1
∴ Statement is Correct
II ) Let E be use event “No two S’s occur
together”.
A, A, I, N can be arranged in
! 2
! 4
=12 ways
—A—A—I—N— Creating 5 places for 4 S. Out of 5
places 4 can be selected in
4
C
s
= 5 ways.
∴ No two S’s occur together in = 60 5 12 · × ways
Total No. of arranging all letters of word ‘assassin’
840
! 2 ! 4
! 8
· ·
∴ Req. prob.
4
1
840
60
· ·
∴Statement if wrong
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93.d I) False
3 2
3 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
) 1 (
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
C C
C C
c c
b b
a a
c c
b b
a a
c by R
b by R
a by R
abc c c
abc b b
abc a a
abc
ab c
ca b
bc a
⇔
⇔
− · ·
·
a n d
then
∴ Equal. Hence statement is Correct.
II) .False
0 1 3 2
2
· + + x x
2 / 1 , 1 − − · ⇒ x both are rational
∴ Statement is correct.
Alternative
As coefficients are rational and D=9–8=1 is
perfect square.
∴ roots must be rational.
∴ Statement is F.
94.c I )
⇒ · 0 A . X
either
0 A ·
or
A X ⊥
⇒ · 0 B . X
either
0 B ·
or
B X ⊥
⇒ · 0 C . X
either
0 C ·
or
C X ⊥
In any of three cases,
0 ] C B A [ 0 C , B , A · ⇒ ·
Otherwise if
C X , B X , A X ⊥ ⊥ ⊥
then
C , B , A
are coplanar
0 ] C B A [ · ⇒
∴ Statement is correct
II ) As
3 2 1
Z Z Z · ·
∴z
1
,
z
2
, z
3
are equidistant from origin.
Hence O is circumcentre of ABC ∆ .
But according to Question ABC ∆ is equilateral
and we know that in an equilateral
∆
circumstance and centriod coincide
∴ Centroid of ABC ∆ = 0
0 0
3
3 2 1
3 2 1
· + + ⇒ ·
+ +
⇒ z z z
z z z
∴ Statement is true.
95.b.
ix y
iy x
iZ
Z
+ −
+ +
·
+
+
) 1 (
2 ) 1 2 (
1
1 2
2 2
) 1 (
} ) 1 {( } 2 ) 1 2 {
x y
ix y iy x
+ −
− − + +
·
∴
imaginary part = 2
1) (2x x  y)  (1 2y + ⇒
} ) 1 {( 2
2 2
x y + − − ·
y x y 4 2 2 + − · − ⇒
2 2 · + ⇒ y x which is a straight line.
For questions 96  100 :
First series :
20 , ,
2
, , ) (
1
+ · x z
x
y x S
Second series :
4 3 2 1 2
, , , ) ( a a a a S ·
Now,
z x a a a a − + · · · · 20 and
2
x
 Z y, 
2
x
x,  y
4 3 2 1
60 4y 3x gives 30 a a
1 2
· − · · ...(i)
20 4z 3x gives 30 a a
3 4
· − · · ...(ii)
and
4 2
a  a 60 gives x 2z 80 · − · ...(iii)
Solving these equations we get the values of x =
100, y = 60, z = 70
120 , 70 , 50 , 60 , 100
1
· ∴S
50 , 20 , 10  , 40
2
− · S
96.c.
97.d
98.a
99.c
100.b.
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Paper  I I I : Chemistry  101 to 150
Solutions
101.c Bromine and chlorine are both halogens, so they are
similar in many ways, but bromine appears below
chlorine in the periodic table. This means that bromine
has a larger electron could; xray dIfraction data
shows that bromine has a diameter about 10
Angstroms greater than that of chlorine. Since
bromoform is larger than chloroform, it will separate
the bucky balls more effectively from the electrons;
the passage states that scientists believe this
increases the number of positive gaps and hence the
superconductivity of the material.
Choice (A) is incorrect because although bromoform
is heavier than chloroform, the proximity of size to
the buckyball is irrelevant to the molecule’s
effectiveness at creating positive gaps. (B) is
incorrect because although bromoform has more
electron density than chloroform, canceling out the
positive charges is not desirable for increasing the
superconductivity for material. (D) is incorrect
because bromoform and chloroform contain the same
number of atoms; it is the size of the halogen atom
that makes a dIference in their ability to separate
electrons from the buckyballs.
102.c. As stated in the passage, allotropes are dIferent forms
of an element  some are groups of atoms, such as
buckyballs C
60
.
While others are simply arrangements of atoms in
dIferent forms. Graphite is composed of two
dimensional sheets of carbon atoms in hexagonal
arrangements, while the carbon atoms in diamond
are arranged in a tetrahedral formation that is three
dimensional. Since allotropes must contain only
atoms of the element in question, PH
3
is not an
allotrope of phosphorus. Choice (C) is correct.
103.b In order to determine the shape of a molecule, look at
the number of substituents that surround the central
atom, it will have a tetrahedral shape. VSEPR theory
dictates that all the atoms repel each other due to
their electron clouds, so a tetrahedral structure
minimizes the electron repulsions for four
substituents.
Choice (A) is incorrect because a trigonal bipyramidal
structure minimizes the repulsions when the central
atom is surrounded by five substituents. (C) is
incorrect because the trigonal planar arrangement
minimizes electron repulsions for a central atom with
three substituents. (D) is incorrect be cause a bent
structure results when the central atom has two
atomic substituents in addition to one or more lone
pairs of electrons.
104.d. This question might seem intimidating with so many
atoms to consider, how can the dipole moment of the
molecule be determined? The thing to keep in mind
is that the buckyball has a great deal of symmetry.
Even I there are individual dipoles within the molecule
(temporary dipoles due the fluctuation in electron
density) they cancel out overall because of the
symmetry of the overall molecule. Therefore, any
dipole moments that point into the cage will be
cancelled by those on the opposite side of the cage,
and any that point out will also be cancelled, so the
overall dipole moment of the C
60
colecule is zero.
Choice (A) is incorrect because the number of valence
electrons in a carbon atom is irrelevant to the dipole
moment of a conglomeration of atoms in a molecule.
Choice (B) is incorrect because only carbon atoms
are involved in a C
60
molecule. Finally, choice (C) is
incorrect because any magnetic field created within
the cage will be cancelled overall due to symmetry.
105.a This is the type of that you should treat more like a
Verbal Reasoning question. The answer is started
specIically in the passage  your job is to read
critically. The passage states that separating the
buckyballs with other molecules increases the number
of positive gaps. Chloroform and bromoform
molecules accomplish this separation effectively.
Choice (B) is incorrect because there is no evidence
in the passage that chloroform or bromoform
molecules insert themselves into the buckyball
molecules. Choice (C) is incorrect because although
chloroform and bromoform have strong dipole
moments, there is no evidence in the passage that
this affects the separation of the buckyballs. Choice
(D) is incorrect because the passage does not say
anything about the volatility of the separator
molecules.
106.a.
Electric
2 2(g) 2 disch arg e
2H O 2H O
2vols 1vol 40ml
40ml 20ml
+ ÷÷÷÷→
H
2
O is a gas (steam) at 383 K (110ºC), but a liquid at
room temperature.
40 ml of H
2
will react with 20 ml of O
2
to form 40 ml of
H
2
O(g)
Out of 40 ml of O
2
, 20 ml will be left unreacted.
(a) Volume of the gaseous mixture at 383 K = 40 ml
H
2
O(g) +20 ml O
2
= 60 ml
(b) Volume of 40 ml H
2
O(g) at room temperature
will be negligible because it will be condensed
to liquid. So, only 20 ml O
2
will be there at room
temperature.
107.b.
108.b. For ground state of hydrogen, n=1;
For first excited state of Li
2+
, n = 2
For H and Hlike ions : E
n
=
2
2
K Z
n
×
−
Energy of e
–
in the ground state of hydrogen =
2
2
K l
l
×
−
= –K
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Energy of e
–
in the Ist excited state of Li
2+
(Z = 3)
=
2
2
K 3
2
×
− =
9K
4
−
Ratio of these energies =–K;
9K
4
−
109.b. Keto form is more stable because
C 0
\
/
·
bond is
stronger than >C=C< bond of enol form, thus keto
form is about 92.7% and enol form is about 7.3% in
the mixture. Enol form is volatile because of
Intramolecular Hbonding but number of σ and π
bonds plus lone pair of electrons in both the forms
are same.
CH
3
–C–CH
2
–C–OC
2
H
5
O O
Keto form
(92.7%)
CH
3
–C–CH=C–OC
2
H
5
O
H–O
Intramolecular Hbonding
(Enol form)
(7.3%)
110.a. O O
R
1
–C–O
18
–H+H–O–R
2
→R
1
–C–O–R
2
+H
2
O
18
The carboxylic acid molecule undergoes acyloxygen
fussion in esterIication reaction.
111.c. Resonance energies of benzene, nephthalene and
anthracene are 36, 61 and 84 kcal mole
–1
. Resonance
energy per ring (Kcal/mole).
Benzene Naphthalene Anthracene
36
36
1
·
61
30.5
2
·
84
28
3
·
Hence, the correct answers are C and D.
112.c. CHCl
3
molecule has irregular geometry due to
dIference in atomic size of H and Cl atoms. TeCl
4
has
irregular geometry due to the presence of a lone pair
of electrons on central Te atom. Only SI
4
molecule
has a regular tetrahedral geometry.
113.a. Because, the reaction of iodine with alkane is
reversible and it becomes irreversible in the presence
of strong oxidising agents like conc.
HNO
3
, HIO
3
, HgO etc. because a strong oxidising
agent oxidises HI to I
2
.
114.b. The equation
2 2
4 2 4 2` 3
MnO C O MnO CO
− − −
+ → + is
split into oxidation and reduction half :
Oxidation half :
2 2
2 4 3
C O CO
− −
→
Step 1. Multiply by 2 on the right side to balance ‘C’
atoms
2 2
2 4 3
C O 2CO
− −
→
Step 2. Add 2H
2
O to the left to balance ‘O’ atoms
2 2
2 4 2 3
C O 2H O 2CO
− −
+ →
Step 3. Add 4H
+
on the right side to balance ‘H’
atoms
2 2
2 4 2 3
C O 2H O 2CO 4H
− − +
+ → +
Step 4. Add 2e
–
on the right to balance charges :
2 2 _
2 4 2 3
C O 2H O 2CO 4H 2e
− − +
+ → + + .....(i)
Reduction half :
4 2
MnO MnO
−
→
Step 1. Mn atom is balanced. So, add 2H
2
O to the
right side to balance ‘O’ atoms.
4 2 2
MnO MnO 2H O
−
→ +
Step 2. Add 4H
+
on the left to balance ‘H’ atoms.
4 2 2
MnO 4H MnO 2H O
− +
+ → +
Step 3. Add 3e
–
on the left to balance the charges :
4 2 2
MnO 4H 3e MnO 2H O
− + −
+ + → + .....(ii)
Now, multiply equation (i) by 3 and (ii) by 2 and add
these two equations which gives :
2 2
4 2 4 2 2 3
2MnO 3C O 2H O 2MnO 6CO 4H
− − − +
+ → + +
Since, this reaction takes place in alkaline medium.
So, add 4OH
–
, ions on both sides in the above
balanced equation we get,
2 2
4 2 4 2 2 3
2MnO 3C O 2H O 4OH 2MnO 6CO
− − − −
+ + + → +
4H 4OH
+ −
+ +
Or
2
4 2 4 2 2
2MnO 3C O 2H O 4OH 2MnO
− − −
+ + + →
2
3 2
6CO 4H O
−
+ +
[H
–
and OH
–
give H
2
O on combination]
Or
2 2
4 2 4 2 3 2
2MnO 3C O 4OH 2MnO 6CO 2H O
− − − −
+ + → + +
It is the completely balanced equation.
115.b. Attachment of methyl group to the ring increases its
reactivity because it is an O,P–directing group
(activating group). Thus, toluene will be more
reactive than benzene. On the other hand, chlorine
decrease the reactivity of +vely charged ring. Thus,
chlorobenzene is less reactive than benzene. Further,
anilinum chloride is a salt and is the least reactive.
Hence, the correct answer is b.
116.b. Metal cation having higher reduction potential will
be reduced first at cathode and get deposited. So,
the order of metal deposition is : Ag, Pb, Ni, Mg(s)
will not be deposited at cathode because Eº
red.
of
Mg
2+
(aq) is less than that of water.
117.d. –1 effect of –NO
2
group decreases reactivity of the
ring and after release of H
+
ion. Phenoxide ion shows
5 reasonating structures (as compared to phenol
which shows two only) and becomes more stable.
118.d. 2NO
(g)
+ Cl
2(g)
2NOCl
(g)
. On increasing (doubling)
the volume of this equilibrium system, the
concentrations of all the species will be halved. But
the eqm. being disturbed, the reaction will go in the
backward direction, i.e., NOCl will be dissociated to
2 of 6
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NO and Cl
2
till new eqm. is attained. Thus, the number of
moles of NO and Cl
2
will be increased, i.e., moles of
Cl
2
is greater than that present at the first eqm.
119.d. Degree of unsaturation =
2x y 2
2
− +
Where x = number of carbon atoms.
y = number of hydrogen atoms.
1 ring = 1 degree of unsaturation
∴Degree of unsaturation =
2 10 10 2
6
2
× − +
·
120.c. Suppose the initial pressure, P
1
=P atm, volume of
vessel V litre, and initial temperature T
1
=T Kelvin.
I M is the molecular mass of the gas, then from the
relation,
P
1
V
1
= n
1
RT
1
P
1
= P, V
1
= V, n
1
=
m
M
, T
1
= T
Thus, P× V =
m
M
, RT ........(i)
Let x gm of the gas remain in the flask when final
pressure P
2
=
P
2
and T
2
=
2
3
T ; V remains constt.
Thus
P x 2T
V R
2 M 3
× · × ×
.........(ii)
On Dividing (i) by (ii)
P V m/ M R T
P 2
V x / M R T
2 3
× × ×
·
× × ×
or 2 =
m 3
x 2
× or 4x = 3m x =
3m
4
So, the amount of the gas escaped is
= m –
3m
4
= (1/4) m.
121.c
NC
π
NC
CC=C
π π π
CN
CN
CN
π
NC
 H
+
(Acetic
behaviour)
NC
CC=C
CN
CN
CN
H
i.e. –1 effect of –CN group leads to detachment of
hydrogen as H
+
. After formation of carbanion
negative charge may be conjugated with cyanide
groups as well as C = C bond i.e. cyano groups show
resonance effect.
122.b. In the formula of the mineral AB
2
there are two ‘B’
atoms per ‘A’ atom. ‘A’ atoms are cubic close packed
hence, there two tetraheral sites for one atom. The
formula AB
2
is possible I ‘B’ atoms occupy all the
tetraherdral sites. Hence, the fraction of tetrahedral
sites occupied by B atoms is 100%. The mineral AB
2
has fluorite structure with A and B having co
ordination number 8 and 4 respectively.
123.a
Br Br
 
CH CH C C CH
3 2
− − − −
3
3
 
CH H
CH CH CH CH CH
3 2
− − − −
2 3
3

Ch
Zn
/ \
CH CH C C CH
3 2
− − −
3
3
 
CH H
Zn dust
2HI
Znl
2
124.c. The given reaction is 1st order in A because on
doubling the concentration of A, rate of formation of
‘D’ is doubled. Similarly, it is first order in C. But, the
reaction is zero order in B because the doubling of
its concentration does not affect the reaction rate.
So, the rate equation for the reaction becomes,
dx
dt
=k
[A] [B]
0
[C].
125.c. Teflon is addition polymer.
126.c. Let us consider the association of a solute A in a
nonpolar solvent :
1 mole 0 ...initially
nA (A)
n
(1–α )
n
α
...at eqm.
Total number of particles at eqm.
i = 1 –
n
α
α +
For solute ‘‘X’’ :
n = 2, for dimerisation,
α = 0.8
i = 1 – 0.8 +
0.8
2
= 0.6
2
For solute Y :
n = 3, α = 0.9
i = 1 – 0.9 +
0.9
3
= 1 – 0.9 + 0.3 = 0.4.
Since i is higher for solution ‘X’.
∆
T
f
will be higher
in X. So, freezing point of X < F.P. of Y.
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127.d.
OH
CCl
4
(i)CHCl /NaOH
(ii) Oxidation
3
NaOH 340K
Salicylic acid
OH/CO, 400K
2
4.7 alm
Dil. Hcl
NaCl
OH
COOH
OH
COONa
OH
COOH
OH
COOH
128.c. Number of millimoles of Ca
2+
ions in the 60 ml 0.1 F
(0.1M) solution of Ca(NO
3
)
2
= 60
×
0.1 = 6
Number of millimoles of
2
3
CO
−
in 40 ml of 0.125 F
(0.125 M)
Na
2
CO
3
solution = 40
×
0.125 = 5
Ca
2+
and
2
3
CO
−
react as :
2 2
(aq) (aq) 3(s)
Ca CO CaCO
1mole 1mole 1mole
− −
+ ÷÷→
i.e., 5 millimoles of
2
3
CO
−
combine with 5 millimoles
of Ca
2+
leaving behind one milli mole of Ca
2+
unreacted.
Molarity of Ca
2+
ions in the solution after the reaction.
=
1m mole
(60 40) ml +
= 0.01 M.
[
2
3
CO
−
] in the resulting solution =
sp 3
2
K of CaCO
[Ca ]
+
=
9
7
5 10
5 10 M.
0.01
−
−
×
· ×
129.b.
4
Pd BaSO
Re duction
(Acid halide) (Aldihyde)
RCOCI RCHO
+
÷÷÷÷→
catalytic reduction of an acidhalide to an aldehyde
is known as Rosenmund’s reaction. Reimer
Tiemann’s reaction involves the reaction of phenol
with strong base like aq. NaOH and chloroform in
order to introduce a –CHO (formyl group), Kiliani
Fischer’s synthesis is conversion of an aldopentose
into two aldoheptoses (gradation of carbon chain)
while Beckmann’s rearrangement is an arrangement
of oximes to amides in the presence of dilute acid.
130.c. Number of millimoles of NaOH = 0.1
×
100=10
Number of milliequivalents of HCN = 0.1
×
150=15
On mixing, 10 meq of NaOH will neutralize 10 meq. of
HCN to give 10 meq of NaCN (salt). [15–10] = 5 meq
of HCN will be left unneutralized. The resulting
solution being a mixture of HCN (weak acid) and
NaCN (salt) will behave as a buffer.
131.b. In alkaline medium of solution, fructose rearranges
to form a mixture of glucose and mannose.
132.a. The greater the amount of heat evolved in the
formation of a compound, greater is its stability.
O
3
( ∆H
+
f
(+142.2 kJ mol
–1
) and HI ( ∆H
+
f
+25.9 kJ
mol
–1
) indicates these are endothermic substances
hence less stable than CO
2
( ∆H
+
f
–343.3 kJ mol
–1
)
and NH
3
( ∆H
+
f
–46.2 kJ mol
–1
).
∴ Increasing stability order is : O
3
, HI, NH
3
, CO
2
.
133.d. Among the known amino acids, glycine is not
optically active.
134.d. Volume of gold dispersed in one litre of
Water =
mass
density
= 3
0.193gm
19.3gm cm
−
= 0.01 cm
3
.
Volume of one sol particle of gold
3 4 3 12 3
4 4 22
r (1.2 10 cm) 7.24 10 cm
3 3 7
π
− −
· × × × · ×
Number of gold sol particles in 0.01 cm
3
of gold
=
3
12 3
0.01 cm
7.24 10 cm
−
×
= 1.381
×
10
9
.
This number of particles is dispersed in one litre of
water.
∴ Number of gold partciles per mm
3
=
9
6 3
1.381 10
10 mm
×
[One litre = 10
6
mm
3
] = 1381
= 1380.
135.a. But, D is dIferent, because O
3
decolourises KMnO
4
solution.
136.a.
Solubilityof anionic 1
compoundin water lattice energy
α
 `
. ,
A compound is water soluble I its hydration energy
is higher than lattice energy.
137.a. This information is about sodium, which when reacts
with water produces a combustible gas (H
2
) and an
aqueous NaOH solution. This solution reacts with
zinc to produce H
2
like with dilute H
2
SO
4
. Sodium
imparts golden yellow colour to a smokeless Bunsen
flame. Hence, A, B, C and D are Na, H
2
. NaoH and Zn
respectively.
2 2
(A) (C)
(B)
2Na 2H O 2NaOH H (g) + ÷÷→ + ↑
2 2 2
(D) (C)
(B)
2NaOH Zn Na ZnO H + ÷÷→ + ↑
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2 4 4 2
(D)
(B)
Zn dil.H SO ZnSO H + ÷÷→ + ↑
138.b.
3 2 2 2
(Y)
(X) (Z) (A)
CHCl O H O CO2 Cl + ÷÷→ + +
H
2
O is a neutral oxide which turns cobalt chloride
paper pink. CO
2
turns lime water milky while Cl
2
is a
pungent smelling gas. CO
2
on dissolving in H
2
O
produces an aqueous solution. It must be noted
that pure chloroform does not give ppt. with AgNO
3
solution and 70% chloroform+30% ether mixture is
used as an anaesthetic.
139.a. Known interhalogen compounds are of AB, AB
3
,
AB
5
and AB
7
, types in which A is a less
electronegative halogen while B is a more
electronegative, FBr
3
cannot exist because in such a
compound the oxidation state of F is +3, which is not
possible. The structure of CI, can be explained on
the basis of VSEPR theory but the structure of I
7
cannot because I
7
has a normal structure due to
absence of lone pair electrons at I atom.
140.a. Banana B–H b onds are longer (1.33A) than normal
B–H bonds (1.19A). But, banana bonds are stronger
than normal B–H bonds because hydrogen atoms of
banana bonds are present between two boron atoms.
Diborane is also known as 3c–2e compound as two
electrons are present between three centres (atoms).
The hybrid state of boron atoms in B
2
H
6
is sp
3
.
Further, diborane can be prepared by treating BF
3
with LiAH
4
in the presence of dry ether.
141.a. The most stable oxidation state of transition elements
is +3, whose stability decreases across the period
while that of +2 increases. Ni, Fe and Cr have zero
oxidation state in carbonyis like Ni(CO
4
), Fe(CO)
5
,
Mn
3
(CO)
12
. Further, atomic sizes of elements of 3d
transition series are almost constant from Cr to Cu
because an increase in effective nuclear charge is
balanced by increase in screening effect.
142.a. Zn (speleter) is purIied by electrolysis process or
fractional distillation.
143.a. The three layers are of dIferent densities. The upper
layer (pure aluminium) acts as cathode, middle layer
consists of BaF
2
and cryolite (Na
3
AI
6
) and that of
bottom layer is of impure aluminium which acts as
anode.
144.a. K
3
[Cu(CN)
4
is stable while K
2
[Cd(CN)
4
is unstable.
145. b The keywords “water solubility” and “boiling point”
in the question stem suggest that we look for an
answer involving interparticle forces. Answer choice
(B) overtly mentions interparticle forces and is
consistent with our knowledge of them  only N, O
and F can form hydrogen bonds, so CI, Br and I
cannot. Therefore, this choice is correct. Now let’s
examine the other choices to see why they’re
incorrect. Answer choice (A) is incorrect, according
to the last paragraph in the passage, within a group
(here, the hydrogen halides) lattice energy decreases
with increasing atomic number answer choice (C) is
incorrect  It is the weakest acid, but this is irrelevant
to the boiling point and melting point. Answer choice
(D) is incorrect yes, HF is the smallest, but Table 1
indicates that, except for HF, solubility increases with
increasing size. We therefore an eliminate all answer
choices except (B). (Note: of the hydrogen halides,
only HF forms intermolecular hydrogen bonds. For
the others, the strongest interparticle force is dipole
dipole, with a small contribution form van der Waals
forces (or London dispersion forces) that increases
with increasing molecular size.).
146.d. Since the question stem indicates the need for
additional heat, we should immediately consider
thermodynamics. Choices (B) and (D) both mention
thermodynamic quantities, while (A) and (C) do not.
Only answer choice (B) makes sense in this context.
Since heat is required to drive the reaction, it must be
endothermic. This does not fit with choice (D), which
suggests that the reaction is exothermic. Choice (A)
is incorrect viscosity isn’t necessarily ameliorated
by heating. Answer choice (C) is incorrect because
the statement refers to fre radical reaction steps:
. H 2 H
2
÷→ ÷ ; Br HBr Br . H
2
+ + +
The first reaction doesn’t occur, and the second
reaction is a viable propagation step in the actual
reaction mechanism. However, nothing in this answer
choice refers in any way to an energy requirement.
147.a. Inspection of Table 2 shows that statement I is true;
as we move down the table, size increases but boiling
point decreases, so eliminate choice (C). Statement
II is incorrect, anions are larger than cations of the
same period. K
+
and CI

are isoelectronic species.
This eliminates answer choice (D). Statement III is
incorrect. Note that both the cation and anion of
each salt in Table  2 increase in size going down the
table. The result is that because the relative size
dIference between the cation/anion pair of a
compound remains roughly the same, there should
be no change in the crystal lattice structure.
Therefore, a decrease in lattice energy cannot be used
to predict decreasing boiling point in this instance.
Only statement is true, so the correct answer is choice
(A).
148.b The reaction forms a gas, so precipitation is incorrect
 eliminate choice (A). Disproportionation involves
the separation of a compound into its components,
the opposite is at work here, so choice (C) is
incorrect. Don’t be tempted by choice (D)  although
a product is being formed, the reaction conditions
do not meet the requirements for a formation reaction,
choice (B), combination, accurately describes the
reaction of gaseous hydrogen and chlorine.
149. c We need to find the value of the velocity ratio
HBr HBr / HCI
V
V
V
Formally, this is given by
Graham’s Law of DIfusion.
HCI
HBr
V
V
MM
M M
HBr
HCI
·
Where MM denotes a molecular mass (here,
equivalent to formula weight). Therefore,
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2
3
3
9
36
81
96
86 . 34
92 . 80
HBr
HCI
V
V
· · ·
The temperature T has no bearing on this problem.
Even I you gorget Graham’s Law of DIfusion, you
should know that HCI(g) moves faster than HBr(g
simply because HCI/(f) is a lighter molecule; the
velocity ratio must therefore be greater than 1/1. This
eliminates two answer choices right away  choice
(A) which is the result of an inverted formula weight
ratio in the expression for Graham’s Law and choice
(B), which is the result of thinking that all gas
molecules travel at the same rate. (An essential
feature of the kinetic theory of gases is that at the
same T, all gases have the same kinetic energy. Of
course I the masses dIfer, the velocities must also
dIfer to satisfy the 1/2 mv
2
requirement for kinetic
energy.) Answer choice (C) results form using the
molecular mass ratio instead of its square root.
150. b The first paragraph of the passage tells us that the
initiation step of the gas phase reaction of hydrogen
and chlorine is the cleavage of the halogen into its
component atoms. Answer choice (A) shows an
initiation reaction, but the wrong one. Answer choices
(C) and (D) show propagation steps of the reaction;
add them to get the overall reaction equation
Cl H 2 Cl H
2 2
÷→ ÷ +
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