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key AI  IITJEE  Model test  03
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1.a. The time for one orbit is simply the period of the
motion. Recall the period = 1/frequncy.
In the last sentence of the first paragraph wire told
the suttle makes 1.85 x 104 revolutions per second.
This is fgrequency in units of revolutions/second.
Take one over this number to get period in
seconds.
The answer choices are not very close together, so
we can approximate as needed to make the math
easy. Approximate 1.85 x 10
3
by 2 x 10
4
. Then have
1(2 x10
4
)= 5000 seconds.
5000 seconds equals 5000/60 minutes which is close
to choice A. Note that the next closest choice is 4
hrs which is over twice as large as choice A. We’re
certainly not off by nearly as much as a factor of 2
in our approximations. Alternatively, since there are
60 x 60 = 36000 seconds in an hour, we know that
5000 seconds will be between 1 hour and 2 hours.
2.c. The correct answer is C. Rule out choice A, since
g = 0 implies no gravitational force, i.e. the shuttle
is held in orbit by the gravitational force so without
it, the shuttle would fly off into space. The passage
itself states explicitly that gravity is not absent,
things in free fall just behave as if gravity were
absent. Choice B should also be eliminated by
recalling that acceleration due to gravity decr3eases
with height above the surface of the Earth, and the
shuttle isn’t close enough to the surface to
approximate g by this value. Choice D is just the
same as choice B, that’s where the value of 9.8
comes from! Choice C makes sense because we
know that the gravitional force is dependent on
distance and the altitude of the shuttle is high so
we can’t approximate the distance by the radius of
the Earth. The acceleration due to gravity g is found
by applying Newton’s 2nd law to the gravitional
force of the Earth on an object. We write the force
as F = mg where g is the acceleration of gravity,
but we also know this same force is given by F =
GM
e
m/r
2
where Me is the mass of the Earth, m the
mass of the object, G the gravitational constant,
and r the distance from the center of Earth to the
position of the object. Equating the two
expressions gives g = GM
e
/r
2
which is choice C.
Choice D states that g = GMeR
e
2
at the altitude of
the shuttle. From above discussion we see that
this is the value of g at the surface of the Earth,
which is 9.8 m/s
2
. The orbit of the shuttle is
sufficiently higher than the surface of the Earth so
you can no longer approximate g by 9.8 m/s
2
.
3.b. Unfortunately this is a case where we have to
consider all the statements given to reach the
correct answer. Statement II is certainly true. At an
altitude of 1 km, the shuttle will experience
considerable air resistance from the atmosphere.
The air resistance acts as a frictional force which
will decrease the speed of the shuttle below the
speed needed to maintain the 1 km orbit. The result
will be a decay of the orbit with the shuttle finally
crashing into the ground. The engines are needed
to replenish the energy that is constantly being
“bled off” by friction. (For orbits above the Earth’s
atmosphere, the shuttle will maintain a constant
speed with the engines turned of since there will be
no frictional force to slow it down.) Statement III is
incorrect because it is gravity, not the engines, that
provides the centripetal force. We can eliminate
choices A and D. Statement says that gravity is too
strong at an altitude of 1 kilometer. A large
gravitational force implies that the shuttle would
have to have a larger (tangential) velocity in order
to be in this orbit rather than fall to the ground. As
long as the shuttle’s speed is great enough, it could
orbit at 1 km above the surface (neglecting air
resistance); i.e. if the shuttle can sustain unifor
circular motion, it is dealing with gravity, no matter
how strong, just fine. So it’s not the strength of the
gravitational force that prevents an orbit at an
altitude of 1 km. This statement is thus incorrect.
Eliminate choice C.
4.d. All objects in the shuttle including the shuttle itself
are in free fall as the shuttle orbits the Earth. This
means that things behave the same way they do
for free fall in general. Consdier the workings of a
pendulum clock on Earth. What makes the
pendulum swing? The force of gravity that pulls it
down as it swings up. Now consider a pendulum
clock in free fall. As the passage indicates physical
behavior is observed that makes it appear as if
gravity is absent (weightlessness of astronauts,
for example). In the apparent absence of gravity,
the pendulum arm doesn’t swing, making the period
of its motion infinite.
5.b. The correct answer is B. At the end of the passage,
we are told that a circular orbit is a special case
where a which is half the length of the major axis, is
the radius. (I.e., the major axis is the diameter.) In
other words, all the relationships given apply to
circular orbits as well. The comet in an elliptical
orbit has energy.
a
m GM
E
c s
2
1
− ·
. The comet in a circular orbit
has energy:
r
m GM
E
c s
2
2
− ·
We are told in the question sterm that a = 2r:
,
`
.

÷ · ·
r
m
a
m
E
E
E E
c c
2
GM

2
GM
 :
s s
2
1
2 1
Paper  I : Physics  1 to 50
Solutions
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2 : 1
2
1
2
1
4
1
2
1
2
1
· · ÷ · ÷ ·
r r r a
Note that we are told in the question stem that the
comets have equal masses; that is why we cancel
m
c
. ‘Which comet has the higher total energy?’
Surprise: the one in the elliptical orbit! this is so
because the values of the energy are always
negative. That E
1
is half of E
2
means that the energy
of the comet in the elliptical orbit is ‘half as
negative’. It is closer to zero and therefore more
energetic!.
6.d. In this question we are told that not only does a
planet revolve around the Sun, but the orientation
of the orbit itself also rotates. We are asked for a
plausible explanation. Note that in questions like
this, we are not expected to know precisely the
science behind it, we just need to be able to eliminate
the ones that are clearly irrelevant or even wrong.
Choice A is incorrect be cause centrifugal forces
do not cause things to rotate. Choice B is incorrect
because while it is indeed true that the gravitational
attraction of the Sun provides centripetal
acceleration, this is what causes the planet to rotate
in a circle or an ellipse. Choice C is incorrect because
even though energy may be dissipated as a planet
moves through space, this will only cause the
motion to slow down and the planets to gradually
spiral in towards the Sun. If the ellipse maintains its
shape and merely changes in orientation, the energy
is constant, and so this phenomenon is independent
of the dissipation of energy. Choice D provides a
feasible explanation: that the planets do not merely
move in an ellipse means that something else other
than the gravitational field of the Sun must be
influencing their motion. The attraction of the
planets among themselves is certainly a likely
candidate for this additional influence.
7.d. This is a projectile problem. You want to throw a
projectile straight up from the 1
st
floor to the 6
th
floor, and you want it to be in the air during the time
that the elevator is moving. First find the time the
elevator is moving. To solve this problem, you
must calculate the distance needed for the elevator
to reach its maximum velocity (5 m/s as given in the
paragraph above the diagram). This distance is the
same as the distance necessary for the elevator to
slow to a stop from maximum velocity. Use
2 2
2 · +
o
v v ax . This distance is the same as the
distance necessary for the elevator to slow to a
stop from maximum velocity. A trip from the first to
the sixth floor is 25 m; exactly enough distance for
the elevator to reach maximum velocity and then
slow to zero. (To find the time, use:
2
½ · x at
where
x = 12.5 m, a = 1 m/s
2
and t will be the time for half
the trip.) Now be sure to take the time for the whole
trip and plug it into
2
½ · +
o
x v t at where x = 25 m
and t =10s (Note: you must use a = –10m/s
2
because
acceleration is in the opposite direction of
displacement and initial velocity).
8.b. Conservation of energy tells us that
2
1
( cos )
2
· + + θ mgh mg mg r r and therefore the
speed of the puck is determined by the equation
2
2 [ (1 cos )] · − + θ v g h r . The track exerts a normal
force N on the puck and thus the total force in the
radial
mg
Figure 2: The weight mg of the puck has an inward
radial component given by cosθ mg . There is also
a tangential component given by – sin θ mg .
direction is given by cos − − θ N mg . Since the
radial acceleration is
2
/ v r −
we have
2
/ cos mv r N mg − · − − θ . Thus the track exerts a
normal force given by
2
/ cos · − θ N mv r mg .
Using our expression for v
2
we find that
2
2 3cos
 `
· − − θ
. ,
h
N mg
r
Note tht 0 ≥ N and one loses contact with the track
at the moment N vanishes. This occurs at an angle
0
θ given by
0
2
cos 1
3
 `
θ · −
. ,
h
r
If h = r then
0
θ = 90º as expected. If you release it
from the same height as the top of the loopthe
loop, h=2r, then
0
θ = arccos (2/3) ≈ 48º. For the
puck to reach the top of the looptheloop you must
have
5 / 2 ≥ h r
.
9.d. Rising hoop
Let
θ
be the angle through which the bead has
fallen, and let N be the normal force from the hoop
on the bead, with inward taken to be positive. Then
the radial F=ma equation for the bead is
2
cos
mv
N mg
R
+ θ · (1)
The height the bead has fallen is cos R R − θ , so
conservation of energy gives
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2
2
(1 cos ) 2 (1 cos )
mv
mgR v gR
R
· − θ ⇒ · − θ (2)
Therefore, the radial F=ma equation becomes
2
cos
2 (1 cos ) cos
(2 3cos )
mv
N mg
R
mg mg
mg
· − θ
· − θ − θ
· − θ
(3)
By Newton’s third law, this is the force from the
bead on the hoop, with outward taken to be positive.
Note that this force is positive (that is, the bead
pulls outward on the hoop) if
1
cos (2/ 3) 48.2º
−
θ > ≈ .
Since there are two beads, the total upward force
on the hoop from the beads is
2 cos 2 (2 3cos ) cos N mg θ · − θ θ (4)
The θ that yields the maximum value of this upward
force is obtained by taking the derivative, which
gives
2
0 (2cos 3cos )
2sin 6sin cos
d
d
· θ − θ
θ
· − θ + θ θ
(5)
Therefore, the maximum value is achieved when
cos 1/ 3 θ ·
, in which case the upward force equals
1 1 2
2 2 3
3 3 3
mg
mg
 `
 `  `
− ·
. , . ,
. ,
(6)
The hoop will rise up off the ground if this maximum
upward force is larger than the weight of the hoop.
That is, if
2 3
3 2
mg m
mg
M
> ⇒ >
(7)
Remark: Alternatively, we can solve for the minimum
value of m/M by setting the upward force,
2 (2 3cos ) cos mg − θ θ , equal to the weight of the
hoop, Mg, and then using the quadratic formula to
solve for cos θ . A solution for cos θ exists only if
the discriminant is positive, whichis the case only
if m/M>3/2.
10.b. From Archmedes principle the buoyant force is
equal to the weight of water expelled by the abject
floating in it. With the stone in the boat from the
force balance we have (subscripts W, S, B refer to
water, stone and boat, respectively),
· + · +
W W g b B S Bg sg
V F W W M M
ρ
(1)
so the volume of water displaced,
W
V is
· +
S B
W
W W
M M
V
ρ ρ
(2)
With the stone in the water the force balance for
the boat gives
' '
· ·
W w b Bg
V g F M ρ (3)
and the volume of water displaced by the boat
is
'
·
B
W
W
M
V
ρ
(4)
The stone in the water also occupies volume thus
displaces water with volume ·
n
W S
V V and
therefore the net volume of water displaced in this
case (stone in water) by boat and stone is
'
+ · +
n B
W W S
w
M
V V V
ρ
(5)
To compare this with the previous case we take the
difference
'
1
n S B B
W W W S S
W w W
s s
S S
w
M M M
V V V V V
V
s
V V
w
+ − · + − · − ·
 `
− · −
. ,
ρ
ρ ρ ρ
ρ
ρ ρ
(6)
where we worte mass of the stone,
S
M and
. ·
S s S
M V
ρ
Since stone has higher mass density
then water >
S W
ρ ρ the result in negative
meaning that when the stone is in the boat the
displaced volume of water is larger then when
the stone is in the water.
11.b. Using work energy theorem
2 2
2 1
1 1
.
2 2
F ds MV MV · −
∫
where v
2
is the final
velocity of boat.
boat
÷÷→
v = 5 m/s
M=200 kg
F=500N
l
1
2 2
2
1
500 5 200 5
2
v
]
⇒ × · × −
]
2
50 m/s. 7.07m.s v ⇒ · · .
12.a. According to Gauss’ law.
number of field lines is equal to enclosed charge q
divided by
0
ε .
∴ for sphere of radius 2.00 cm
0 flux = 0 q · ⇒
∴ for sphere of radius 3.00 cm
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6 12
5 2 1
2 flux (2 10 ) (0.11 10 )
2.2 10
q c
Nm C
−
−
· µ ⇒ · × × ·
×
∴ for sphere of radius 4.00 cm
6 12
5 2 1
2 1 3 flux (3 10 ) (0.11 10 )
3.3 10
q c
Nm C
−
−
· + · µ ⇒ · × × ·
×
∴ for sphere of radius 5.00 cm
2 1 3 0 flux = 0 q · + − · ⇒ .
13.c.
1
n
v
v
n
·
;
6
2.19 10
m/s
n
×
·
6
2
2.19 10
v m/s
2
×
·
Number of revolutions made in 1s =
2
2
2
v
r π
=
6
11
2.19 10
2 2 4 5.3 10
−
×
× π× × ×
6
8 10 ×
14.a. When the springs at their rest length, just as the
man touches the ground, the net force is mg. The
spring force kx increases until it equals mg. At this
moment the net force is zero, but the man has a
maximum downward velocity. Now kx increases to
greater than mg and the acceleration of the man
increases from zero in the opposite direction until
the springs are at maximum compression.
15.c. Use conservation of energy and of momentum.
There is no initial kinetic energy, just potential.
2 2
2 1 1 2 2
1 1
2 2
· + M gR M v M v
Conservation of momentum involves only the
motion in one dimension, so
1 1 2 2
0 · + M v M v
These are two equations in two unknowns.
Eliminate v
1
between them to get
2
2 2 2
2 1 2 2
1
1 1
2 2
 `
· +
. ,
M v
M gR M M v
M
2
2 2
2 2
1
1
2
 `
· +
. ,
M
M v
M
2 2 2 1
2
1
( ) 1
2
+
·
M M M
v
M
This then gives
1
2 1 2
1 2 1 1 2
2 2
and
( )
· ·
+ +
gRM gR
v v M
M M M M M
16.b. As v > EB, so force on electron due to electric field
is greater than that due to magnetic field. Due to
which the electron will not reach to the undeflected
spot on screen but gets deviated in the direction
opposite to that of electric field and meets the screen
to a spot below the undeflected position.
17.c.
inner outer total
Q Q Q
t t t
 `  `  ` ∆ ∆ ∆
+ ·
∆ ∆ ∆
. , . , . ,
2 2 2
1 2 1 2 2 1
( ) [(2 ) ]( ) K r T T K r r T T
l l
π − π − −
+
2
2 1
(2 ) ( ) K r T T
l
π −
·
or
2
2 1
1 2
( )
( 3 )
r T T
K K
l
π −
+
2
2 1
4 ( ) K r T T
l
π −
·
1 2
3
4
K K
K
+
∴ ·
18.a.
2 2 2 2
[gT ] [4 ] MLT T ML r
−
· · ≠ π
2 2
2 2 3
2
4 [Force] [distance] L
[ ]
3 [Mass]
Gr Gr ML
−
⋅ ]
πρ · ρ ·
]
]
=
3 2
4 2 –2
2
L = L T [g]
ML MLT
M
⋅ ≠
2 2 2 3 2
[gr ] LT L L T
− −
· ·
Also,
2
[Force] [distance]
[Gm]=
[mass]
=
2
2 3 2 2
[ ]
MLT
L L T gr
M
−
−
⋅ · ·
2 2 –2
2
4 [ ] L T
LT [ ]
3 [ ] L
Gr
Gr g
r
−
ρ ]
πρ · · · ·
]
]
.
19.a. When the distance between the screen and object
is greater than four times the focal length there are
two positions of the lens when it forms real images
of the object on the screen. There positions are
conjugate and the product of the magnifications =
1
If d is the size of object and d
1
and d
2
the sizes of
images, then
1 2
d d d ·
∴ distance d (distance between virtual sources)
3 3
4.05 10 2.9 10 d
− −
· × × ×
3
3 3
5893 10 1
4.05 10 2.9 10
D
d
−
− −
λ⋅ × ×
β · ·
× × ×
4
1.72 10 m
−
· × .
20.c. Usually a medium has only one frequency for a
given harmonic. The difference in this case is that
by increasing the frequency, we are increasing the
tension in the string and, in effect, actually altering
the medium. From sqrt( / ) · µ v T we know that
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increasing the tension in the string increases the
velocity of the wave. From · λ v f we know that
frequency and velocity are proportional to each
other. From question #705 ( / 4 · L nv f ) we see
that velocity is proportional to string length, while
frequency is inversely proportional. Thus, as
velocity increases, frequency increases by the same
proportion resulting in the same string length at
any velocity and frequency. (Since the string is
not perfectly elastic, there is a shortening of the
wavelength that complicates calculations.) In this
particularly odd situation, we can achieve
resonance for any harmonic at any frequency on
the same string. Note: It is a very good idea to try
this experiment at home. A long string of beads or
a telephone cord work particularly well. Try to
establish different harmonics and then change the
frequency.
21.a.
2 2
3 2
3
do ke ke
F
dA dr r r
 ` − −∂ −
· · · ·
. ,
2 2 2
2
2 2
mv mv ke
KE
r r
− · ·
2
2
3
1
;
2 2
ke
KE mv
r
· ·
2 2 2 2 2
2 3 2 2
4
;
4 2 2
n h ke ke m
r
mr r n h
π
· ·
π ⋅
( )
( )
2 2
3
2 2
3 3
2 2
1 1
6 6
4
ke ke
TE n h
r
RC m
∴ · ⋅ · ⋅
π
6
3
n
TE
m
∴ α
.
22.a. In a concavo convex lens, centres of curvature of
both the surfaces lie on the same side. Therefore,
R
1
and R
2
have same sign (both + or both negative).
Therefore, focal length shall not depend on
direction from which light is incident.
As
1 2
1 1 1
( 1)
f R R
 `
· µ − −
. ,
1 1 1 1
( 1)
2 2 f R R R
µ −  `
· µ − − ·
− −
. ,
2
1
R
f ·
µ −
(in magnitude)
C
1
P
1
P
2 C
2
23.c. Let T
c
be the temperature of point C in the steady
state. As T
B
> T
A
, therefore, heat flows from B to A
directly as well as through C. In the steady state,
Rate of heat flow in BC = Rate of heat flow in CA
( 2 ) ( )
C C
KA T T KA T T
BC CA
− −
·
If , 2 AB BC l CA l · · ·
∴
2
2
C C
T T T T
l l
− −
·
or 2 2
C C
T T T T − · −
or ( 2 1) 3
C
T T + ·
3
2 1
C
T
T ·
+
.
24.a.
2
2 2 –1
2
[charge] 1
[ ] [Force]
[force] [distance]
Q L
−
ε · ⋅ ·
2
2 2
2
[force] [distance]
[ ] [Force]
[mass]
G M L
−
· ·
1 1
[force]
[ ] [distance] [Force]
[charge]
V Q L
−
· ⋅ ·
2 1 1
2 2 2
[power] [force] [velocity]
[ ] [Force]
[current] [charge] [Time]
R Q LT
−
−
· · ·
Clearly,
1 1
1
[ R] L T
velocity
−
]
ε · ·
]
]
1 1
[velocity] = R
− −
⇒ ε
2
[V ] [force] ε ·
1 1
[ V] Q L [dipolemoment] ε · ≠
angular displacement is dimensionless
∴ [angular displacement] =
0 0 0 0
ε R G V
25.c. Before collision, the mirror is at rest, let object is at
a distance x from the mirror and image is at a distance
y from mirror.
As, y = x
dy dx
=
dt dt
=
u −
r
(as x is decreasing)
After collision object stops and mirror starts moving
with u rightwards.
Let from the object at any time mirror is at a distance
x and image is at a distance y.
From reflection at mirror,
y = 2x
dy dx
2
dt dt
⇒ ·
= 2 u
r
(as x increasing)
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II) False
max 0 max
( . .) ( . .) · − ⇒ · ∞ K E hv hv K E V
Thus maximum kinetic energy is proportional to
frequency and not Intensity.
30.a. x = angle at which ray of light leaves the plate
1 0
0 3
3
sin sin sin sin
n
n n x x
n
−
 `
∴ α · ⇒ · α
. ,
Thus x depends on angle of incidence and refractive
indices of the media on both sides of the plate.
At any point in the plate, n sin θ = constant = n
0
sin α.
∴
When n=n
0
sin α, θ = 90º ⇒ T.I.R.inside the
plate.
31.a. Since hydrogen and oxygen are both diatomic the
adiabatic exponent of the mixture formed by their
masses in any ratio is also equal to that of a diatomic
gas i.e.,
7
5
.
5
7
1 2
1
5
v
R R R
C · · ·
γ −
−
When they combine chemically a triatomic gas (H
2
o)
is formed.
4/ 3 γ · m.
´
3
4
1
3
v
R
C R · ·
−
; ´
5 5
2 3 6
v
v
C R
R C
∴ · ·
×
5
6
n ∴ ·
32.a. To conserve momentum in a system of colliding
objects, all unbalanced forces must act only
between objects in the system. No outside forces
must affect the objects. In a system isolated in this
manner, an object’s momentum will change only
because of collisions with other objects, which will
gain or lose momentum with respect to each other.
The overall system momentum will stay constant,
however.
33.a. (I) True
When conducting rod AB moves parallel to xaxis
in a uniform magnetic field pointing in the positive
zdirection, then according to Fleming’s left hand
rule, the electrons will suffer a force towards B.
Hence the end A will become positive.
(II) False
When the angular displacement is 20º. the mass is
at an extreme end
2
cos − θ·
mv
T mg
r
At extreme end · θ v
∴ cos − θ T mg
26.c. Of course the hot air balloon also follows the
buoyant force equation:
ρ · ρ
outsideair air inballoon
Vg Vg
. The volumes are
equal at all altitudes, so the density will decide
whether or not the balloon rises. Since the bottom
of the balloon is open to the outside atmosphre,
the pressures are equal at all altitudes. From
· PV nRT
, we know that increasing temperature
at constant volume and pressure requires reducing
the number of moles, and thus reducing the
dentisty, raising the balloon.
27.d. After one month the original material is still almost
all there, but there is now some of the second
element present, so it contributes to the number of
decays per time also. The activity is now higher
than at the start. One month is a lot longer that two
days, so by now on average as much of the second
element is decaying per time as is created per time.
It has come to an equilibrium. On average for every
decay of the first element there will be one of the
second. Ther are then about 20,000 decays per
second.
The one month interval is a lot less than the five
year halflife of the third element so not much of it
has decayed and it doesn’t contribute much to the
activity.
100 years however is a lot longer than five years.
At this time there are about as many decays per
time of element #3 as of element #2, which in turn
has about as many as #1. The total activity is then
about 30,000 decays per second.
28.a. e = 0, when conductor moves along its length. In
(c) and (d), conductor moves at right angle to its
length and B is perpendicular to that, therefore, e =
B
λ
v.
29.a. I).
τ ·
uur
r
uur
dl
dt
Since
0 τ ·
r
∴ L constt ·
ur
∴
1 1 2 2
2
1 1
2 2 2 2
2
2
2
1 1
2
2
2
1
2
1 1 4 1 5
2 2 4 8 8
?
1
8 4
2
5
2 5 5
8
·
· ·
+  `
· + · ·
. ,
·
×
· · · ·
×
l w l w
l MR w w
M
l MR R MR MR
w
MR w
l w
w w w
l
MR
M
R
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π
π
π
π
θ
θ
T
sinθ mg cosθ mg mg
34.c. (I) True
2 2 1 x x y
V V V V = + >
2 2 5 x x y
V V V V = + >
y
V
1
1
V
2 X
V V =
x
V
x
V
3
V
Y
1
V
As shown in the figure, the velocity at 1 and 3 i.e., at
any arbitrarty points before and after the topmost
point is greater then v
x
.
(II) True
Speed of sound waves in water is greater than in air.
35.d. (I) False
If the sound reaches the observer after being reflected
from a stationary surface and the medium is also
stationary, the image of the source will become the
source of reflected sound. Thus in both the cases,
one sound coming directly from the source and the
other coming after reflection will have the apparent
frequency (Since velocity of source w.r.t. observer is
same in both the cases). Therefore no beats will be
heard.
(II) False
The electrons in a conductor are free and have
thermal velocities. Thus electrons will be in motion
even in the absence of potential difference.
36.d. R = radius of bigger sphere
∴
3 3
4 4
8 2
3 3
R R R r π · π ⇒ ·
E
1
= Electrical energy of the bigger sphere
=
2
9
8
(4.5 10 )
Q
R
 `
×
. ,
E
2
= Electrical energy of eight smaller spheres
=
2
9
(4.5 10 ) (8)
Q
R
×
Percentage of electrical energy that has been
converted to the other forms of energy is
1 2
1
64
8
2
100 100 75%
32
E E
E
]
−
]
−
× · × ·
]
]
]
]
37.a. Let r be the radius of ball. Since the block is large
final temperature is 0ºC. If
ρ
is the density of ball
and s its specific heat then the heat lost by iron ball
3
4
3
r s · π ρ θ
Heat absorbed by ice =
3
2
´ L
3
r · π ρ×
Where ´ ρ is the density of ice
3 3
2 4
´L =
3 3
r r s π ρ π ρ θ
´L
2 s
ρ
θ ·
ρ
38.d. The density of the plasma generated from the
mercury vapor is very low, around 10
15
charged
particles per cubic meter. As a result, the extremely
high temperature of the plasma is balanced by an
extremely low heat capacity. Very little of the energy
from the disassociated electrons and ions in the
plasma is given off as heat.
39.a. (I) True
For the light to split, the material should have
refractive index greater that 1 through which the
light passes.
Since the prism is hollow, we get no spectrum.
(II) False
Total energy of the ring =
(K.E.)
Rotation
+ (K.E.)
Translational
2 2
2 2 2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
( )
2 2
C
C
l mV
mr w m rw l mr
V rw
· ω +
· × + ·
·
Q
Total K. Energy of the cylinder
= (K.E.)
Rotational
+ (K.E.)
Translational
2 2
2 ' 2 2
2 2
1 1
'
2 2
1 1 1
( ')
2 2 2
3
' ....(1)
4
· ω +
 `
· +
. ,
·
C
l MV
Mr w M rw
Mr w
Equating (i) and (ii)
2 2 2 2
3
4
· mr w Mr w
⇒
' 2
2
4 4 0.3
1
3 3 0.4
· · × ·
w m
M w
⇒
' . · w w
⇒ Both will reach at the same time.
The statement is False.
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40.b. (I) False.
When water is heated at end x, the density decreases
and the water moves up. This is comparated by the
movement of water from y to x i.e., in clockwise
direction.
X Y
(II) True
The statement is True. The metallic sphere which
gets negatively charged gains electrons and hence
its mass increases.
The metallic sphere which gets positively charged
loses electrons and hence its mass decreases.
41.a. By Anpere’s law
0 2 0
(2 ) B dr I B R I φ ⋅ · µ · π · µ
0
2
1
2
dB dI
dt R dt
µ  `  `
·
π
. , . ,
2
d dB
E dr AN
dt dt
φ
φ ⋅ · · −
R
2
R
1
( )
2 2 0
2 2
2
1
(2 )
2
N dI
E R R
R dt
µ
 `
π · − π ⋅
π
. ,
0 2
4
N dI
E
dt
µ  `
·
π
. ,
7
10 5 0.2
−
· × ×
=
7
10
−
volt/metre
42.d. 18gm of water arises from the melting of an
equivalent amount of ice ( ∆m) due to the friction
between the blocks.
Q = amount of heat required = ( ∆m) L
W = amount of work done
= f ∆S
= (
µ
mg) ( ∆S) [Qm=10.2kg>>∆m]
∴ Q=W
3 5
(∆m) (L) (18 10 ) (3.4 10 )
∆S= 1km
( ) (m) (g) (0.06) (10.2) (10)
× ×
· ·
µ
43.c. When a wave pulse strikes the boundary between
two strings, part of the pulse is transmitted along
the heavy string at velocity v
2
. Since the second
string is denser, however, most of the pulse is
reflected back of velocity v
1
. The light string exerts
an upward force at the boundary, causing an
upright transmitted pulse, while the heavy string
.... a downward force, causing an inverted reflected
pulse.
44.c. For simplicity, assume that the balls are separated
by a very small distance, so that the relevant
bounces happen a short time apart. This
assumption isn’t necessary, but it makes for a
slightly cleaner solution.
Just before the basketball hits the ground, both
balls are moving downward with speed (using mv
2
/
2=mgh)
2 v gh · (1)
Just after the basketball bounces off the ground, it
moves upward with speed v, while the tennis ball
still moves downward with speed v. The relative
speed is still 2v. (This is clear if you look at things
in the frame of the basketball, which is essentially a
brick wall.) Since the upward speed of the
basketball essentially stays equal to v, the upward
speed of the tennis ball is 2v+v=3v. By conservation
of energy, it will therefore rise to a height of H=d +
(3v)
2
/(2g). But v
2
= 2gh, so we have
h = d + 9h.
45.c. Gyromagnetic ratio
=
magnetic moment q
=
angular momentum 2m
Magnetic moment
2 2
q 2 q
mR ω= R ω
2m 3 3
 `
. ,
.
46.d. Reflected sound from the wall approaches the
observer with velocity u.
⇒ Both source and observer approach each
other with velocity u.
∴ Apparent frequency =
v u
f
v u
+  `
−
. ,
.
47.c. The passage says that each wave form represents
the same note, and that a note is the same set of
harmonics. This means that A, B and D are not
true.
48.b. The wave form shown is a combination of all the
harmonics for that note. The first harmonic would
have the same wavelength, and thus the same
frequency and perid.
first harmonic
second harmonic
Flute
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49.a. From the equation
/ 2 L n · λ
where n= 1, 2, 3, ....
for each harmonic, we see that the second harmonic
has half the wavelength of the first, so the period is
half as long. From question #967 we know that the
period of the note is the same as the period of the
first harmonic. It is the sum of these harmonics
that gives the wave its irregular shape. For the
oboe, the ratio of the amplitudes is different, so the
oboe sound wave has a different shape. This is the
difference that the ear perceives when we hear the
same note on different instruments.
50.b. From the equation
/ 2 L n · λ
where n = 1, 2, 3, ...
for each harmonic, we see that the third harmonic
has one third the wavelength of the first, so the
period is one third as long. From question #967 we
know that the period of the note is the same as the
period of the first harmonic.
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Paper  I I : Mathematics  51 to 100
Solutions
51.b. 1 [ ] 1 x x ∴− ≤ + ≤ clearly [0,1) x ∈
52.a.
2
( ) 2cos 3sin 2 1 f x x x · + + ·
2sin 2 2 or 2cos 2 2
6 3
x x
π π  `  `
+ + + +
. , . ,
Let X=domain of [ 3, 6] f · −π π or
[ 6, 2 3] π π & Y = Range of [0, 4] f ·
: f x y ∴ → is both oneone & onto.
1
( ) f x
−
∴ exist &
1
: f y x
−
−
is
1
1 2
sin
2 2 6
x
−
] − π  `
−
]
. , ]
or
1
1 2
cos
2 2 3
x
−
− π ]
−
]
]
53.c.
2
2 2
1 1
1
2 2
x
x x
+
· −
+ +
, also
2
2 2 x x R ≤ + < ∞∀ ∈
2
1 1
0
2 2 x
⇒ ≥ >
+
2
1 1
0
2 2 x
⇒ − ≤ − <
+
2
1 1
1 1 1
2 2 x
− ≤ − <
+
;
2
2
1 1
1
2 2
x
x
+
≤ <
+
∴
Range of
2
1
2
1
sin
2
x
x
−
 ` +
+
. ,
is [ 6, 2) π π
54.a. 1, ( ) x f x x < · identity mapping
1
( ) f x x
−
∴ ·
2
1 4, ( ) , x f x x ≤ ≤ ·
2
let y x y x · ⇒ ·
1
( ) f x x
−
∴ ·
4, ( ) 8 , x f x x > ·
2
let 8
64
y
y x x · ⇒ ·
2
1
( )
64
x
f x
−
∴ ·
55.b. Given : [1, 3] , g Y →
here [log 5, log 19] (range)
e e
Y ·
Let
2 2
e
y=log ( 3 1) 3 1
y
x x e x x + + ⇒ · + +
2
3 (1 ) 0
y
x x e ⇒ + + − ·
3 9 4(1 )
2
y
e
x
− t − −
⇒ ·
1
3 5 4
( )
2
x
e
f x
−
− + +
∴ ·
56.c.
3 2
2 2 1 0 z z z + + + ·
2
( 1) ( 1) 0 z z z ⇒ + + + ·
2
1, , are the roots of (1) z ⇒ · − ω ω
1985 100
Again when 1, 1 z z z · − + +
1985 100
( 1) ( 1) 1 · − + − +
1 1 1 1 0 · − + + · ≠
1985 100
When , 1 z z z · ω + +
1985 100
1 · ω + ω +
3 661 2 3 33
( ) ( ) . 1 · ω ω + ω ω+
2
1 · ω + ω+
3
0 [ 1] · ω · Q
2 1985 100
When , 1 z z z · ω + +
2 1985 2 100
( ) ( ) 1 · ω + ω +
3970 200
1 · ω + ω +
2
1 0 · ω+ ω + ·
2
Hence common roots are , ω ω
(c) is correct ∴
57.a.
3 cos sin 2 x x − ≥
3 1
cos sin 2
2 2
x x ⇒ − ≥
cos cos
6 4
x
π π ]
⇒ + ≥
]
]
;
4 6 4
x
π π π
⇒ ≤ + ≤
5
12 12
x
π π
⇒ ≤ ≤ ;
0,
12
x
π ]
∴ ∈
]
]
andin general
2 2
4 6 4
n x n
π π π
π− ≤ + ≤ π+
5
2 2 andfor 1
12 12
n x n n
π π
⇒ π− ≤ ≤ π+ ·
19 25
12 12
x
π π
≤ ≤
;
19
2π
12
x
π
⇒ ≤ ≤
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19
, 2
12
x
π ]
∴ ∈ π
]
]
19
0, , 2
12 12
x
π π ] ]
∴ ∈ ∪ π
] ]
] ]
58.b. 1 – (probability of not selecting the right number in
the two trials)
9 8
1
10 9
 `  `
· − ×
. , . ,
.
(choose all 9 incorrect out of the total ten available
=
9
10
and choose all 8 incorrect out of 9 available
in the second trial =
8
9
.
59.a. If S is the circumcentre of the
∆
, let AS meet BC at
D.
Then
Area of ABD
Area of ADC
BD
DC
∆
·
∆
Area of SBD
Area of SDC
∆
·
∆
Area of BS
Area of SC
A
A
∆
·
∆
(by ratio and proportion rule)
2
2
1
sin
2
1
sin
2
R ASB
R ASC
∠
·
∠
sin 2
sin 2
C
B
·
Hence, the position vector of point
(sin 2 ) (sin 2 )
...(1)
sin 2 sin 2
C c B b
D
C B
+
·
+
Similarly,
Area of BSA
Area of
AS
SD BDS
∆
·
∆
Area of ASC
Area of CSD
∆
·
∆
Area of SA B ∆
+ area of ASC
Area of BDS
∆
·
∆
+ area of CSD ∆
(by ratio and proportion rule)
sin 2 sin 2
...(2)
sin 2
C B
A
+
·
Hence, by section formula P.V. of S
(sin 2 ) (sin 2 )
(sin 2 sin 2 )
sin 2 sin 2
C c B b
C B
C B
¹ ¹
+ ¹ ¹
+
' '
+
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
(sin 2 )
(sin 2 sin 2 ) sin 2
A a
C B A
+
· −
+ +
=
sin 2
sin 2
A a
A
Σ
Σ
60.c. Every element of A can have image in B in 3 ways.
So, the total number of ways in which 3 elements of
A can have images in B = maximum number of
definitions of 3 3 3 f · × × . The number of ways
of arranging 1, 2, 3 in places of a, b, c is 3!= the
maximum number of definitions of oneone function
g.
61.c.
10 10
log log 2 x y + ≥
10
log 2 100 xy xy ⇒ ≥ ⇒ ≥
Now
2 2
( ) ( ) 4 x y x y xy + · − +
2
( ) 400 400 x y ≥ − + ≥
∴ the smallest possible value of x+y=20.
[ 0, 0] x y > > Q
62.a. The equation of any tangent to
2
4( 1) y x · + is
1
( 1) y m x
m
· + +
using the formula
a
y mx
m
· +
...(1)
and the equation of any tangent to
2
8( 2) y x · + is
2
'( 2)
'
y m x
m
· + +
...(2)
Since (1) and (2) are at right angles
1
´ 1 ´ mm m
m
−
· − ∴ ·
The equation of the second tangent, now is
1
( 2) 2 y x m
m
−
· + −
...(3)
The equation to the locus of the point of
intersection is found by eliminating m, between (1)
and (3).
Subtracting (3) from (1).
2 1
2 0
x
mx m m
m m m
+ + + + + ·
1 1
3 0 x m m
m m
 `  `
+ + + ·
. , . ,
3 0 x ∴ + ·
63.b. Since t
4
= 200 (given)
3
3
1
1
6 log 1
12
3
200
x
C x x
+
 `
 `
∴ ·
. ,
. ,
3
1
2(1 log )
4
20 200
x
x x
+
⇒ ·
A
B
C
D
S
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3 1
2(1 log ) 4
10
x
x
¹ ¹
+
' '
+
¹ ¹
⇒ ·
taking log to base 10 on both sides, we have
10 10
3 1
log log 10
2(1 log ) 4
x
x
¹ ¹
+ ·
' '
+
¹ ¹
10
6 (1 log )
log 1
4(1 log )
x
x
x
+ +
⇒ ·
+
2
10 10 10 10
6log log (log ) 4 4log x x x x ⇒ + + · +
2
10 10
(log ) 3(log ) 4 0 x x ⇒ + − ·
2
10 10 10
(log ) 4(log ) (log ) 4 0 x x x ⇒ + − − ·
10 10
(log 1) (log 4) 0 x x − + ·
10
1
log 1 0
10
x
x
− ·
·
10
4
log 4 0
10
x
x
−
+ ·
·
64.a. Focus of x
2
= 4by is at (0, b) and the equation of the
directrix is y = –b
Hence, the equation of the circle is
2 2 2
( ) (2 ) x y b b + − · or
2 2 2
2 3 0 x y by b + − − ·
This meets the parabola x
2
= 4by at the point given
by
2 2
2 3 0 y by b + − ·
i.e., ( 3 ) ( ) 0 y b y b + − ·
y b · is the only solution as y is positive.
When
2 2
, 4 or 2 y b x b x b · · · t
∴ the point of intersection is ( 2 , ) b b t .
65.a. The equation
2 2
25 x y + · represents a circle with
centre (0, 0) and radius 5 and the equation
2
4
9
y x ·
represents a parabola with vertex (0, 0) and focus
(0, 5).
Hence
' R R ∩
is the set of points indicated in the
figure by shaded portion, such that
' {( , ): 3 3, 0 5} R R x y x y ∩ · − ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤
Thus, dom ' [ 3, 3] R R ∩ · −
and range ' [0, 5] [0, 4] [0, 5] R R ∩ · ∪ ·
T
e
s
t
L
i
n
e
(3,4)
(0,5)
(3,4)
(3,0) (3,0)
The given relation is not a function as according to
VPL Test, if we draw a Vertical Parallel Line it
intersects the curve at two real and distinct points
i.e., for one value of x we have two different values
of x, which is against the definition of function.
66.b. Let a be the first term. ∴ first (2n+1) terms are in
A.P. with common difference =2
2 1
2 4
n
T a nd a n
+
· + · +
Last (2n+1) terms are in G.P. with common ratio =
1
2
∴ its first term = a + 4n = A (say)
Middle term of A.P. =
1 n
T a nd
+
· +
= a + 2n
Middle term of G.P. =
n
Ar
1
( )
2
n
a an
 `
· +
. ,
∴
1
2 ( 4 )
2
n
a n a n + · + ⋅
4 2
2 1
n
a n
a n
+
·
+
4 2
4 2 2 1
n
n
a n
a n a n
+
·
+ − − −
⇒
4 2
2 2 1
n
n
a n
n
+
·
−
⇒
1
2
4
2 1
n
n
n
a n
+
⋅
+ ·
−
∴ middle term of the sequence =
2 1 n
T
+
=
1
2
4
2 1
n
n
n
a n
+
⋅
+ ·
−
.
67.b.
2 2
9( 3) 16( 4) 144 x y − + − ·
2 2
2
( 3) ( 4)
1
4 3
x y − −
+ ·
2
Shifting the origin to (3, 4), equation becomes
2 2
2
1
4 3
x y
+ ·
2
... (1)
If ACX · θ , then
A = (CAcosθ,CAsinθ) and
B = (CB cos (90+θ), CBsin(90+θ))
= (CB sinθ, CBcosθ)
A B
C
X
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Since (CA cos θ, CA sin θ) satisfies the equation
(1) of the ellipse
2 2 2 2
CA cos θ CA sin θ
+ = 1
16 9
2 2
2
1 cos θ sin θ
...(2)
16 9 CA
∴ · +
Similarly
2 2
2
1 sin θ cos θ
...(3)
16 9 CB
· +
Hence
2 2
1 1 1 1 25
16 9 144 CA CB
+ · + ·
68.d.
4 2
2
1
( )
1
x x
f x
x x
¹
<
¹
·
'
≥
¹
¹
4
1
( )
1
x x
f x
x x
¹
<
¹
⇒ ·
'
≥
¹
¹
4
1 1
( )
1 1
x x
f x
x x or x
¹
− < < ¹
⇒ ·
'
≤ − ≥
¹
¹
4
1
( )
1 1
1
x x
f x
x x
x x
≤ − ¹
¹
⇒ ·
− < < '
¹
≥
¹
Case1: at x = –1
LHL =
1
lim ( )
x
f x
→−
Let x = –1–h (h>0)
As 1 0 x h → − ⇒ →
0 0
LHL lim ( 1 ) lim( 1 ) 1
h h
f h h
→ →
∴ · − − · − − · −
and RHL =
1
lim ( )
x
f x
→−
Let 1 ( 0) x h h · − + >
As
1 0 x h
+
→ − ⇒ →
4
0 0
RHL lim ( 1 ) lim( 1 ) 1
h h
f h h
→ →
∴ · − + · − + ·
Since LHL RHL ≠
∴ the limit of ( ) f x as
1 x → −
does not exist.
Case 2: at x = 1
1
LHL = lim ( )
x
f x
→−
Let 1 ( 0) x h h · − + >
As
1 0 x h
+
→ − ⇒ →
4
0 0
LHL lim (1 ) lim(1 ) 1
h h
f h h
→ →
∴ · − · − ·
Also,
0
RHL lim ( )
h
f x
→
·
Let 1 ( 0) x h h · + >
As
1 0 x h
+
→ ⇒ →
0 0
RHL lim (1 ) lim(1 ) 1
h h
f h h
→ →
∴ · + · + ·
Since LHL RHL ·
∴
the ,imit of ( ) f x as 1 x → exists.
69.b.
1 1
sin sin
3
y x
− −
π
− ·
1 1
cos cos
2 2 3
y x
− −
π π π  `  `
⇒ − − − ·
. , . ,
1 1
cos cos ...(1)
3
x y
− −
π
⇒ − ·
1 1
cos cos ...(2)
3
x y
− −
π
+ ·
Hence,
1
cos
3
x
−
π
·
;
1
cos
3 2
x
π
⇒ · ·
and
1
cos 0 y
−
· ; cos0 1 x y − · ·
1
( , ) ,1
2
x y
 `
⇒ ·
. ,
Hence, only one pair.
70.a. Since distance covered by a particle at any time t is
4
3 2
2 4 7
4
t
S t t · − + +
Case 1: Extreme Distance
3 2
6 8
dS
t t t
dt
· − +
;
( 2) ( 4)
dS
t t t
dt
⇒ · − −
Distance covered will be maximum or minimum if
0
dS
dt
·
( 2) ( 4) 0 t t t ⇒ − − ·
i.e., t = 0, 2, 4
Now,
2
2
2
3 12 8
d S
t t
dt
· − +
2
2
0
d S
dt
>
for t = 0, 4, and
2
2
0
d S
dt
>
for t = 2
∴
distance is minimum at t = 0, 4
Option (III)
Case II : Extreme Velocity
Now, velocity of the particle is given by
dS
v
dt
·
2
3 12 8
dv
t t
dt
⇒ · − +
Velocity of the particle is maximum / minimum if
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X´
X
O
Y
Y´
and
OY´
2
i j +
·
r r
Then the component of
a
r
in the direction of OX´
( )
2 2
i j x y
xi y j z k
 `
+ +
· + + ⋅ ·
. ,
r r
r r r
and the component of
a
r
in the direction of OY´
( )
2 2
j i y x
xi y j z k
 `
+ −
· + + ⋅ ·
. ,
r r
r r r
Given
2 2
2
x y +
·
and
3 2
2
y x −
·
4
1 and 5
6
y x
x y
y x
+ · ¹
· − ·
'
− ·
¹
Hence
a
r
in the first system = (–1, 5, 4)
73.b. For the family of curves represented by the first
differential equation, the slope of the tangent at
any point (x, y) is given by
1
2
2
1
1
C
dy x x
dx y y
+ +  `
·
+ + . ,
For the family of curves represented by the second
differential equation, the slope of the tangent at
any point is given by
2
2
2
1
1
C
dy y y
dx x x
+ +  `
·
+ + . ,
Since,
1 2
1
C C
dy dy
dx dx
 `  `
× ·−
. , . ,
Hence, the two curves are orthogonal.
74.b. 2 x >
1
0 1
( ) (6 †) dt (4 †) dt
x
f x ⇒ · − + +
∫ ∫
2
1 4
2
x
x · + +
2 ( ) 5 1 x f x x ≤ ⇒ · +
At
2. (2) (2 ) (2 ) 11 x f f f
− +
· · · ·
( ) is continuous of 2 f x x ⇒ ·
0
(2 ) (2)
LHD Lt
2 h
f h f
→
− −
·
−
0
dv
dt
·
2
3 12 8 0 t t ⇒ − + ·
12 144 96 6 2 3
6 3
t
t − t
⇒ · ·
Now,
2
2
0
d v
dt
>
at
(6 2 3)
3
t
+
·
and
2
2
0
d v
dt
<
at
(6 2 3)
3
t
−
·
∴
Velocity is maximum if
(6 2 3)
3
t
−
·
Option (I)
CaseIII: Extreme Acceleration
Let a is the acceleration of the particle, such that
2
2
dv d S
a
dt dt
· ·
6 12
da
t
dt
⇒ · −
Acceleration of the particle is minimum or maximum
if
0
da
dt
·
2 t ⇒ ·
Now,
2
2
0
d a
dt
>
throughout
∴
Acceleration is minimum if t = 2
Option (II)
71.b. Clearly ( 2)! a x · + ;
11
x
b P ·
( 11)! c x · −
Since a = 182 bc
∴
!
( 2)! 182. ( 11)!
( 11)!
x
x x
x
+ · ⋅ −
−
2
2
( 2) ( 1) ! 182 !
3 2 182
3 180 0
( 15) ( 12) 0 12.
x x x x
x x
x x
x x x
⇒ + + ·
⇒ + + ·
⇒ + − ·
⇒ + − · ⇒ ·
[ x Q cannot be –ve]
72.d. Since the coordinate system oxyz is rotated about
oz through an angle
4
π
, the z component of
a
r
is
not altered.
Let a xi y j z k · + +
r r r r
in the first system.
OX´ cos sin
4 4 2
i j
i j
π π +
· + ·
r r
r r
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5(2 ) 1 11
5
h
h
− + −
· ·
−
0
(2 ) (2)
RHD Lt
h
f h f
h →
+ −
·
2
0
(2 )
4(2 ) 1 11
2
Lt
h
h
h
h →
+
+ + + −
·
0
(2 4)
Lt 6
h
h
h →
+
· ·
.
LHD RHD ≠
i.e., ( ) f x is not differentiable at x = 2.
75.d. Let the source of light be situated at A(a,0,0), where
a ≠ 0. Let OA be the incident ray and OB the
reflected ray. ON is the normal to the mirror at O.
A(a,0,0)
0(0,0,0)
<
l
m
n
>
— —
N
B
1,1,1
2 2
AON = NOB =
2
θ
∴ ∠ ∠
D.R.´s of OA are (a, 0, 0) and so D.C.´s are (1, 0, 0)
Similarly, D.C.´s of ON are
1 1 1
, ,
3 3 3
 `
−
. ,
1
cos
2
3
θ
∴ ·
Let l, m, n be the D.C.´s of the reflected ray OB.
Then,
1 1 0 1
, and
2cos / 2 2cos / 2 3 3
0 1
2cos / 2
3
l m
n
+ +
· ·
θ θ
+
·
θ
2 2 2
1, ,
3 3 3
l m n
−
⇒ · − · ·
1 2 2
, ,
3 3 3
l m n ⇒ · − · − ·
Hence, D.C.´s of the reflected ray are
1 2 2
, ,
3 3 3
 `
− −
. ,
76.c.
1/ 2
exp. log
a x
b
y
]
 `
]
]
. ,
]
/ /
1/ 2 1/ 2
exp. log
a b a b
x x
y y
]
 `  `
]
· ·
]
. , . ,
]
/
1/ 2 1/
and exp. log
a c
b
a y y
c
x x
 `  `
·
. , . ,
/
/
1/ 1/
B
a
a b
a c
c b
x y
y x
]
 `
 `
]
∴ · +
]
. ,
. ,
]
/
/
1
1/ 1/
a r
r
a b
a c
a
r r
c b
x y
T C
y x
−
+
]
]
 `
 `
]
· ]
]
. , ]
. ,
]
]
( )
( )
a a
a r r
a b bc
r
a a
a r r
bc c
C x
y
 `
−
. ,
 `
−
. ,
·
If powers of x and y are same, then
( ) ( )
a a a a
a r r a r r
b bc bc c
− − · − − +
( 1)
2
a c
r
b c
−
∴ ·
+ +
.
77.c.
1 1
( ) 1 1
sin cos
n n
f x
x x
 `  `
· + +
. , . ,
1 1 1
1
sin cos sin cos
n n n n
x x x x
· + + +
1
2
1
´( ) sin cos
sin
n
n
f x n x x
x
−
∴ · − ⋅
1
2
1
cos sin
cos
n
n
n x x
x
−
+ ⋅
1 1 1 2
2 2
1
(sin cos sin cos )
sin cos
n n n n
n n
n x x x x
x x
− + + +
− −
( )
2 2
1 1
sin cos
sin cos
n n
n n
n
x x
x x
+ +
+ +
· −
2 2
1 1
(sin cos ) ...(1)
sin cos
n n
n
x x
x x
+ +
+ −
( ) 0 sin cos
4
f x x x x
π
∴ · ⇒ · ⇒ · .
At , ´( )
4
x f x
π
· changes sign from negative to
positive
( For , sin cos
4
x x x
π
< < Q and
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for , sin cos
4
x x x
π
> > )
Hence at ( )
4
x f x
π
· is minimum.
The minimum value is
2
2
1 2
n
 `
+
. ,
.
78.b. I) False
Given that, 2 y x y * x + − · is rational.
Consider 2 y , 2 2 x · ·
then 2 3 2 2 2 2 y * x · + − · (irrational)
0 2 2 2 2 x * y · + − · (rational)
∴ x * y y * x ≠
Hence * is not symm ⇒* is not equivalence
relation.
II) True
The given inequality can be written as
1
( !)
2
n
n
n
+  `
<
. ,
for n > 1.
Let us use mathematical induction to check the
validity of given inequality.
For n = 2, we have
2
3 9
2!
2 4
 `
< ·
. ,
which is true
∴ Inequality is valid for n = 2.
Let it be valid for n = k then
1
!
2
k
k
k
+  `
<
. ,
....(1)
Consider
1
( 1)! ( 1) ! ( 1)
2
k
k
k k k k
+  `
+ · + < +
. ,
Using (1)
Now we will try to check
1
1 2
( 1)
2 2
k k
k k
k
+
+ +  `  `
+ <
. , . ,
..........(2)
Which is equivalent ot write
1
1
2
2
+
,
`
.

+
+
<
k
k
k
...........(3)
Now,
1 1
1
1
1
1
2
+ +
,
`
.

+
+ ·
,
`
.

+
+
k k
k k
k
...
1
1
! 2
) 1 (
1
1
) 1 ( 1
2
+
,
`
.

+
+
+
+
+ + ·
k
k k
k
k
(Using Binomial expansion)
2
1
2
1
>
,
`
.

+
+
∴
+ k
k
k
⇒(3) holds and hence (2) holds
⇒
1
2
( 1)!
2
k
k
k
+
+  `
+ <
. ,
∴ Statement is also true for n = k + 1.
Hence by Principle of mathematical Induction given
is true, 1 > ∀n .
79.c.
cot cot
dy
x y
dx
·
tan cot y dy x dx ⇒ ·
log(Csec ) logsin y x ⇒ ·
where C is a suitable constant.
C s e c s i n
w h e n
4 4
1
C 2
2
y x
y x
⇒ ·
π π
· ·
⇒ ·
1
. .
2
2sin sec
i e C
x y
·
∴ ·
80.c. I) True
C , B , A
are three unit vectors s.t.
0 C . A B . A · ·
and angle between
B
and
C
is
6 / π
.
Now eq. (1) shows that
A
is perpendicular to both
B
and
C
A C B A C B λ · × ⇒ ×
where λ is any scalar.
⇒
A C B λ · ×
⇒ λ t · π 3 / cos
(as
3 / π
is the
∠
between
B
&
C
)
⇒ 2 / 1 t · λ
⇒
) C B ( 2 A A
2
1
C B × t · ⇒ t · ×
∴ Given statement is true.
II) True
1 1 1
iy x z + · then give that
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2
& y y x x z z iy x z ≤ ≤ ⇒ ∩ + ·
Let iy x z + ·
then y x z < < ⇒ ∩ 0 & 1 1 (by def.)
Consider
1 1 ( )
1 1 ( )
(1 ) (1 )
(1 ) (1 )
z x iy
z x iy
x iy x iy
x iy x iy
− − +
· ·
+ + +
− − + −
×
+ + + −
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O
1
A(Z )
3
C(Z ) 2
B(Z )
2 2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2
) 1 (
2
) 1 (
1
) 1 (
) 1 1 (
) 1 (
1
y x
iy
y x
x
y x
x x iy
y x
x
+ +
−
+ +
−
·
+ +
+ + −
−
+ +
−
·
0
) 1 (
1
0
1
1
2 2
2
≤
+ +
−
⇒ ∩
+
−
y x
x
z
z
and
0
) 1 (
2
2 2
≤
+ +
−
y x
y
1
2
≥ ⇒ x and 0 ≥ y which is true as 0 & 1 > > y x
∴ The given statement is true V z.
81.a. Since the given systems has a nontrivial solution.
2 2 0
a b a c
b c b b
a b a
+
∴ − ·
Operate R
3
–R
1
2 2 0
0 0
a b a c
b c b b
c
+
⇒ − ·
−
2
( 2 ) 0 c ab b bc ⇒− − + ·
( 2 ) 0 2 bc a b c b a c ⇒− − + · ⇒ · +
( 0, 0) b c ≠ ≠ Q
, , are in A.P. a b c ⇒
82.b. In
2
8 8, 2 2
64
x
x y
 `
− < < · + ·
. ,
.
∴ the required area = the shaded area
1
(1 3) 2 4
2
· + · .
X
Y
O (1, 0)
Y=2
(3,2)
Y=X–1
83.c. I) True
Let
dx
x a f x f
x f
l
a
∫
− +
·
2
0
) 2 ( ) (
) (
....(1)
[ ]
dx
x a a f x a f
x a f
a
∫
− − + −
−
·
2
0
) 2 ( 2 ) 2 (
) 2 (
[Using
∫ ∫
− ·
a a
dx x a f dx x f
0 0
) ( ) (
]
∫
+ −
−
·
a
x f x a f
x a f
l
2
0
) ( ) 2 (
) 2 (
......(2)
Adding (1) and (2), we get
∫ ∫
· ·
− +
− +
·
a a
dx dx
x a f x f
x a x f
l
0
2
0
. 1
) 2 ( ) (
) 2 ( ) (
2
a x
a
2 ] [
2
0
· ·
a l · ⇒
∴ The given statement is true.
II) True
Consider
!
) )...( 2 )( 1 (
r
r n n n + + +
=
! !
)! (
! . ... 3 . 2 . 1
) )...( 2 )( 1 ( ) 1 ...( 3 . 2 . 1
r n
r n
r n
r n n n n n +
·
+ + + −
=
r
r n
C
+
= some integral value
⇒ ) )...( 2 )( 1 ( r n n n + + + is divisible by r!
Thus given statement is true.
84.c.
2
2
( 1) ( ) ( 2 1)
( 1)
( )
f x f x b x x
c x d
bx cx d
+ − · + +
+ + +
− + +
2
8 3
bx b c
x
· + +
· +
2
4 and 1
The roots of the equation
x 0 are
4 20
2 5
2
b c
bx c
⇒ · · −
⇒
+ + ·
− t
· − t
Hence, roots are irrational.
85.b. I) False
If ) ( r x − is a factor of ) (x f repeated m times then
'( ) f x is a polynomial with ) ( r x − as factor repeated
at least ) 1 ( − m times.
∴Statement is False.
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II) True
2 / tan
2 / cos 2 / sin 2
2 / sin 2
sin
cos 1
tan
2
B
B B
B
B
B
A · ·
−
·
then
B
B
B
A
A
A tan
2 / tan 1
2 / tan 2
tan 1
tan 2
2 tan
2 2
·
−
·
−
·
∴
Statement is true.
86.c. The box contains 2n shoes. We can choose 2r
shoes out 2n shoes in
2
2
n
r
C ways. We can
choose one complete pair out of n pairs in
1
n
C ways.
Now we have to avoid a complete pair. While
choosing (2r–2) shoes out of remaining (n–1) pairs
of shoes, we first choose (r–1) pairs out of (n–1)
pairs. This can be done in
1
1
n
r
C
−
−
ways. From
each of these (r–1) pairs choose (r–1) single
(Unmatching) shoes from each pair. This can be
done in 2
r–1
ways. Thus the no. of favourable ways
is
1 2 1
1 1
( ) ( )
n n r
r
C C
− −
−
Hence the prob. of the reqd. evert
1 1
1
2
2
( ) 2
n r
r
n
r
n C
C
− −
−
⋅
.
87.c.
[ 2, 1) ,
2 2
x
x
−π `
∈ − − ⇒ π ∈ −π
,
0 1 cos 1
2
x π
⇒ ≤ + < ;
1 cos 0
2
x π ]
⇒ + ·
]
]
1 cos 1 1 ...(1)
2
x
x
π ]
⇒ + + ·
]
]
[ 1, 0) , 0
2 2
x
x
π π `
∈ − ⇒ ∈ −
,
1 1 cos 2
2
x π
⇒ < + <
1 cos 1
2
x π
⇒ + >
1 cos 1
2
x π ]
⇒ + ·
]
]
;
1 cos
2
x
x x
π ]
+ ·
]
]
1 cos 1 [1 ] 0
2
x
x x
] π ]
+ + · + ·
] ]
]
]
(Q x is negative)
[0,1] 0 cos 1
2
x
x
π
∈ ⇒ ≤ ≤
1 cos 1 ...(2)
2
x
π ]
⇒ + ·
]
]
1 cos 0
2
x x
] π ]
⇒ + ·
] ]
]
]
1 cos 1 1 ...(3)
2
x x
] π ]
⇒ + + ·
] ]
]
]
1 0 1
2 1 0
I 0 dx dx dx
−
− −
∴ · + +
∫ ∫ ∫
= 1 + 1 = 2
88.c. I) True
Consider
2
) ( ) (
) (
x f x f
x
− +
· φ which is an even
function.
Now
) (
2
) ( ' ) ( '
) (
2
) ( ' ) ( '
) ( ' ) (
x
x f x f
x
x f x f
x x
ψ − ·
+ −
· − ψ
− +
· φ · ψ
∴
ψ
is odd.
∴ Statement is true.
II) True
Statement can be restated as– ‘three lines are
concurrent’ for which
0
5 1 2
10 2 1
0 4 5
· −
LHS on expanding gives 5 (10+10)–4(5+20)
=100 – 100 = 0
∴ Statement is True.
89.c. Any line PC through the intersection of
7 5 0 x y − + · and 3 2 0 x y + − · is of the form
7 5 ( 3 2) 0 x y x y − + + λ + − ·
or (1 ) (7 3 ) 5 2 0 ...(1) x y + λ − − λ + − λ ·
B
CC
A
P
x x
Equation of PA: 7 5 0 x y − + · with a slope
1
7
Equation of PC: 3 2 0 x y + − · with a slope
1
3
−
APC BPC ·
tan APC tan BPC ⇒ ·
1 1
7 3
1 1
1
7 3
 `
− −
. ,
 `  `
+ −
. , . ,
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,
`
.

−
,
`
.
 +
+
,
`
.

− −
+
·
3
1
3λ  7
λ 1
1
3
1
3λ  7
λ 1
This becomes
1 1
2 2
·
−λ
giving
λ =0 or λ =4
λ =0 gives PA itself and λ =4 gives PB
Equation of PB is 5x + 5y – 3 = 0
90.b. I) False
Consider
! 1
) ( ,
! 1
) (
a x
a x
x g
a x
a x
x f
−
−
·
−
−
·
then
( ) ) ( ) ( lim x g x f
a x→
exists but
) ( lim x f
a x→
and
) ( lim x g
a x→
does not exist.
∴ Statement is false.
II) True
The circle passes through the points
) 3 , 1 ( ), 3 , 1 ( − B A and ) 3 , 3 ( C .
Here line AB is parallel to yaxis and BC is parallel
to xaxis, there 0 · ∠ABC
∴ AC is diameter of circle.
∴ Eq. of circle is
0 ) 3 )( 3 ( ) 3 )( 1 ( · + − + − − y y x x
⇒ 0 4
2 2
· − + x y x
Let us check the position of pt (5/2,1) with respect
to the circle (1), we get
0 10 1
4
25
1
< − + · S
∴ Pt lies inside the circle.
∴ No tangent can be drawn to the given circle
from pt (5/2, 1).
∴ Given statement is True.
91.d. Let
12 9 4
E 1 x x x x · · + − +
9 3 3
( 1) ( 1) 1 x x x x · − + − +
9 3
( ) ( 1) 1 x x x · + − +
3 8
E ( 1) ( 1) 1 1 0 x x x · − + + ≥ >
for 1 x ≥
for 1, E 0 x ∴ ≥ >
Again
12 4 5
E (1 ) (1 ) x x x x · + − + −
When 0 1 x < < , the terms
5
1 x −
and 1 x − are both
+ve.
E 0 ∴ >
When 0 x < , the terms with minus signs i.e.
9
x
and x are both less than zero.
9
0 E 0 x x ∴− − > ∴ > in this case also.
Hence
E 0 >
for all
x R ∈
Hence reqd. largest interval is x −∞ < < ∞.
92.d. The graph of y = x is shown in the Figure, when x
< 0, y = –x and when x >0, y = x.
At x = 0, f(0) = f(0–) = f(0+)
⇒ f(x) is continuous at x = 0
LHD = –1 and RHD = +1 at x = 0
⇒ f(x) is not differentiable at x = 0
Note: Choices A and B are not correct because f(x)
is continuous both x=
1
2
and–
1
2
.
93.a.
'( ) 2sin cos 2sin cos
3 3
f x x x x x
π π  `  `
· + + +
. , . ,
sin cos cos .sin
3 3
x x x x
π π  `  `
· − + − +
. , . ,
2
sin 2 sin 2 sin
3 3
x x x x
π π  `  `
· + + − + +
. , . ,
2sin 2 cos sin 2
3 3 3
x x
π π π  `  `
· + − +
. , . ,
sin 2 sin 2 0
3 3
x x
π π  `  `
· + − + ·
. , . ,
( ) constant = K(say) f x ∴ ·
2
But (0) 0 sin cos 0.cos
3 3
f
π π
· + +
2
3 1 3 1 5
2 2 4 2 4
 `
· + · + ·
. ,
5 5
K ( )
4 4
f x x R ∴ · ∴ · ∀ ∈
5
( ) ( ) ( ( )) 1
4
gof x g f x g
 `
· · ·
. ,
94.c. Check options, by taking the values of x, y and z
accordingly with the given conditions.
95.c. Check options, by taking the values of x, y and z
accordingly with the given conditions.
96.d.
Q
limiting points are
( , ), ( , ) C O C O −
real
C O ⇒ ≥
.
97.a. In coaxal system of Oles line of centres always
⊥
to radical axis & the Ole eqn is of the form
S L O +λ ·
, where S=O is member of system of
Oles & L=O is R.A.
98.c.
Q
R.A. is 1 0 x y + − · line of centre is
0 y x k − + · (R.A.
⊥
line of centres) αpassing
thro centre ( ) 1, 3 2 − .
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it is (c) ∴
99.c. From definition of R.A.,
11 22
S S · (Powers same)
11 22
S S ⇒ · ⇒lengths of tangent same
⇒ α · β
100.a. Radius of Ole is
2
g C −
, it is real only when
2
0 ( ) ( ) 0 g C g C g C g C − ≥ ⇒ − + ≥ ⇒ ≤ −
centre of this Ole is ( , 0) g − ∴
there is no such of
in b/w
& C C −
( , 0), ( , 0) C C − Q
are limiting points.
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Paper  I I I : Chemistry  101 to 150
Solutions
101.c Exciting an electron requires increasing its kinetic
energy. This would allow it to move to a higher
energy state. I, II, and III all lead to an increase in
the kinetic energy of the electron. Thus, I, II, and
III must all be true.
102.a. The New Zealand scientist noted that most alphs
particles were propelled straight through or
deflected at very small angles. He also noticed that
very few electrons were backscattered at 180
degrees. The “PlumPudding” Model proposes
that the electrons and protons are uniformly
distributed throughout the atom. If this were true,
then the alpha particles would never be
backscattered at 180 degrees because the electrons
and protons have considerably less mass than the
alphaparticles (He). The New Zealand scientist
observed that the alpha particles went back with
almost all their original energy. Thus, they must
have collided elastically with a much much larger
mass due to the fact that they maintained almost all
their kinetic energy AND after the collision they
were not attached to the structure with which they
collided. Choice b and d claim ineleastic collisions.
Furthermore, Choices c and d claim that the collision
occurred with otehr electrons of the gold atom. This
could not be the case since they possess
considerably less mass than the alphaparticles. If
the collision were with one of the protons or
electrons of the gold atoms, the electrons and
protons would have escaped from the gld atoms,
ionizing the atom.
103.c. You should always think of differences and
similarities between theories when asked to
compare. The “Planetary Model” differs from the
Bohr Model on the point that the Bohr Model places
the electrons in discrete orbits around the nucleus,
where the “Planetary Model” simply has electrons
revolving around the nucleus without any fixed
orits. Thi is even stated in the passage. Thus, in
both models the electrons are in circlar motion about
the nucleus. As a result, centripetal force of the
nucleus would pull the electrons into the nucleus,
unless they were in fixed orbits from the nucleus.
As the electrons are pulled into the nucleus, their
electrical potential energywould decrease. Choice
a is wrng because it says there is no electrical
potential energy. There will always be electrical
potential energy when two charges separated over
a distance. Choice B is incorrect because it claims
a gain in electrical potential energy. Choice d is
wrong because it refers to the Bohr Model.
104.a. The passage provides an equation to estimate the
number of particles at a particular angle of deflection.
The number of particles is inversely related to the
sin of the angle of deflection. Thus, you want an
angle with the smallest sin value. As an angle
increases from 0 to 90 the sin increases Although
IITJEE students are notrequired to know specific
trigonometry function, they must know the
relationship between angles and sin and cos. Thus,
you want the smallest angle of the four answer
choices.
105.d The equation that tells you the number of electrons
in any given principal quantum numebr (including
all the subshells) is
2
n 2
. Replacing n in this
equation with 4, will given you 32.
106.b. LeChatelier’s principle states: If a system at
equilibrium is disturbed by a change in temperature,
pressure or the concentration of one of the
components, the system will shift its equilibrium
position so as to counteract the effect of the
disturbance. If the addition of heat caused the
reaction to shift to the right, (i.e. away from the
reactants), this, implies that heat is required for the
reaction to ‘go’. This is indicative of an endothermic
reaction.
107.c. In
4
[Ni(CO) ] , 4s electrons are shifted to 3d making
it3d
10
4s
0
and in
2–
4
[Ni(CN) ] , all the 8 electrons
get paired up in the crystal field.
108.c. You may have been looking for hydrogen bonding,
which would probably be the best answer, but it’s
not there. Polarity is a prerequisite for hydrogen
bonding, so choice C is the best alternative.
109.b. Use process of elimination: C is false; you can even
ionize an atom without affecting its nucleus. A,
although true as far as elements in their ground
state are concerned, says nothing about excited
states. It is difficult to see what would make choice
D correct. But choice B agrees with something that
you should know about orbitals (higher n means
greater size), and gives a plausible explanation for
the observations.
110.d. An electrolyte is a substance that conducts
electricity in aqueous solution. The fact that it’s an
electrolyte does not make it a voltage source itself,
so no current would flow if it were merely attached
to a resistor.
111.d. The reaction proceeds as follows:
CO(CH
2
) CH
4 3
CO(CH
2
) CH
5 3
H H
2 2
NN KOH
112.d. According to the ideal gas law, both pressure and
volume are directly proportional to (absolute)
temperature.
113.a. The experiment describes the mixture along the
dotted line in the diagram.
114.c. Don’t think about this until you look at your
choices! You may come up with a perfectly
reasonable explanation, but it may not be the one
the questionwriter had in mind. Instead, use
process of elimination. You can eliminate choices
either because they are factually incorrect or
because they have nothing to do with the
phenomenon described.
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Taking the choices one at a time: choice A would be
an explanation if it were true, although a
hydrophobic residue would not activate an acid.
Choice B is factually untrue (many proteins are
found in nearly neutral environments), and it also
wouldn’t explain the phenomenon (an acidic
environment makes weak acids less likely to
dissociate, by Le Chatelier’s principle). Choice C
would be an explanation if it were true; plus, since
basic amino acids are stronger bases than water,
this looks like a good answer. In considering choice
D, realize that at high concentrations acids tend
tobe less dissociated, at least on a percentage basis.
At any rate, weak acids do not dissociate to a very
great extent, even at low concentrations.
115.d. The Nernst equation is really about nonstandard
conditions, so A seems doubtful. Standard potential
is just the potential at standard conditions. This
definition does not directly involve equilibrium, so
B seems doubtful as well. C is kind of silly if you
thing about it; standard potentials are measured
under standard conditons. But D is a true statement:
you need two halfreactions to make an actual
reaction.
116.d. The rate of a reaction is correctly described by
choices A, B, and C. Choice D however is incorrect.
There is no such equation as the Eurim equation.
They Eyring equation is used at times to calculate
the rate of a reaction. Whether or not it is applicable
is determined by the partition function of the
species involved.
117.c. A first order reaction follows the same trend as a
half life reaction. The rate is directly proportional
to the concentration. On the graph, the slope is the
reaction rate. Since the concentration is moving
toward zero, the slope should also be moving
toward zero. This is curve C.
118.c. Since electrons are flowing into the sample, the
probe must be the site of reduction, i.e., the cathode.
Furthermore, since the sample is receiving
electrons, H
+
in the sample is being converted into
H
2
, raising the pH. Concentration cells are trying
to equalize the concentration in the two cells, so if
the pH in the sample is increasing, it must have
started at a pH below 2.0.
119.a. The resonance structure below shows the double
bond on the nitrogen.
O
H–C=NH

2
120.d. As we boil the mixture the escaping vapor contains
more of the more volatile component, benzene. The
remaining liquid becomes richer in toluene.
According to the graph, a liquid mixture 25 mole %
in benzene will boil at ~100ºC. As we boil the liquid
its composition and boiling point move to the left
and up on the “boiling point line” until we reach
the desired point.
121.c. If a reaction is second order by virtue of a first
order rate dependence on each of two reagents
where rate
= k [A] [B] it is possible to derive an expression for the
variation in concentrations of A and B with time.
122.d. Gases can be written either as concentrations or as
partial pressures in equilibrium expressions. The
two can be related by the ideal gas law, and thus
the numerical values will differ.
123.d. The larger alkane chain the stronger the London
dispersion forces leading to a solid. Answer D is
the longest alkane chain in the answers. The alkanes
in answers A, B and C are all liquids.
124.b. A+B C+D; K
e
= 2.25 (given)
Reaction quotient,
[ ] [ ] 3 3
9
[ ] [ ] 1 1
C D
Q
A B
×
· · ·
×
Since Q > K
e
, the reaction will proceed in the
backward direction. Let ‘x’ mole of C be converted
into ‘A’ till the attainment of new eqm. state.
1 mole 1 mole 3 mole 3 mole ...initially
A B C D
(1+x) (1+x) (3–x) (3–x) ...at eqm.
2
2
(3 ) (3 ) (1 )
2.25
(1 ) (1 ) (1 )
e
x x x
K
x x x
− − −
· · ·
+ + +
or
3
1.5
1
x
x
−
·
+
whence x = 0.6
Now, [A] at eqm. = 1+x = 1+0.6 = 1.6
[C] at eqm. = 3–x = 3–0.6 = 2.4
or [A] : [C] = 1.6 : 2.4 or 2 : 3.
125.a. If MgCO
3
can decompose to yield CO
2
at 1.0 atm
(to push back the air), it will do so.
2
1atm
p CO
K P · ·
8500
log log1 0.00 7.310
p
K
T
· · · −
8500
1163 K = 890ºC
7.310
T · ·
.
126.b.
3
3
0.3 moles AgNO 1 liter
(26.7 ml AgNO solution)
1000 ml 1 liter solution
 `  `
. , . ,
–3
3
= 8.0 10 moles AgNO ×
– –
–3
3
3
1 mole Cl 35.5 g Cl
8.0 10 moles AgNO
1 mole AgNO 1 mole Cl
 `  `
×
. , . ,
–1 –1
2.84 10 gCl · ×
–1 –1
–1
2
2
2.8 10 g Cl
100 2.0%Cl in H O
14.0 g sample of H O
×
× ·
127.d. This is very basic thermodynamics: breaking up
water to produce hydrogen, and then using the
hydrogen to make water, cancel each other out,
which means that there is no net gain of energy (in
keeping with the First Law of Thermodynamics).
You may wonder, then, what the big deal is about
fuel cells, both in the general media, among
scientists, and on Wall Street. The answer is that a
fuel cell can provide a convenient way to store
energy. For example, a gas, oil or nuclear
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plant produces a lot less pollution per Joule than a
car engine. So by running an electric plant and
using the energy to split water, and then using the
products in a fuel cell in a car, the total amount of
pollution can be reduced. Likewise, equipping your
house with solar panels normally only gives you
power when it’s sunny! But a fuel cell could be a
convenient way to store the energy for later use.
128.a. The addition of four hydrogen atoms indicates two
double bonds, so answer A is the only correct
answer. The fact that the saturated alkane is still 4
hydrogens short (would be 32 hydrogens if there
were no rings) indicates two rings in the structure.
129.a. Volume of Ag to be deposited
= area
×
thickness
= 80 cm
2
×
5
×
10
–3
cm
= 0.4 cm
3
Mass of Ag to be deposited
= Vol.
×
densitty=0.4 cm
3
×
10.5 gm. cm
–3
= 4.2 gm.
Number of gm. eq. of Ag to be deposited
–1
4.2 gm.
= 0.0388
108 gm. eq.
·
Number of Faradays needed to deposit 0.0388 eq.
of Ag = 0.0388
Number of coulombs needed =
0.0388
×
96500
Time to coat the metal surface =
Charge in coulombs
Current in amp.
=
0.0388 96500
2496.13seconds
1.5
×
·
= 2500 seconds.
130.a.
– +
2 2
Cl — CH COOH Cl — CH COO +H
van’t Hoff factor
using Ostwald’s dilution law of weak electrolyte
3
1.36 10
0.37
0.01
a
K
x
c
−
×
· · ·
( ) 1.37 i l x ∴ · + ·
hence,elevation in b.p ( ) (molarity)
b b
T K m i ∆ ·
0.51 0.01 1.37 0.007º · × × ·
hence, b.p. of solution
0
( )
b
T T T · + ∆
= 100 + 0.007º = 100.007ºC.
131.d. The conversion proceeds as follows:
Br + Mg
dry
ether
Bromobenzene
CO
2
H Br
MgBr
+ MgBr
2
+ CH OH
excess
3
O
CO–OH
 
O
CO–OH

OCH

3
O
C–OCH

3
H SO
4 2
O
CO
 
–
Mg Br
++ –
H SO
4 2
+ H O
2
Hence, the correct sequence is magnesium, dry
ether, carbon dioxide, HBr, excess methanol and
sulfuric acid (twice).
132.c. In the reaction in choice II, internal energy merely
changes forms, from potential (chemical) to kinetic
(thermal). Or perhaps some of the chemical energy
is used to do work, in which case the internal energy
of the system decreases. In any case, II is incorrect,
which leaves C as the only answer.
133.a. The fact that the addition is antiMarkovnikov
indicates that the hydroxyl group will add to the
least substituted carbon.
134.c.
x
HCl
(g)
NH
3(g)
y
200 cm.
a cm. p(200–a)cm.
Since the tube is of uniform cross section, the rate
of diffusion is directly proportional to the length of
the tube. Let the distance of point “P” from the
HCl end be ‘a’ cm. Then distance of “P” from the
NH
3
end = (200–a)cm.
Thus,
HCl
r a ∝
3
(200 )
NH
r a ∝ −
Now, according to Graham’s law of diffusion,
3
3
NH
HCl
NH HCl
M
r
r M
·
17
(200 ) 36.5
a
a
·
−
or
0.68
(200 ) 1
a
a
·
−
or 200 0.68 0.68 a a · × −
or 1.68 200 0.68 a· ×
or
200 0.68
80.95 cm
1.68
a
×
· ·
135.d.
.
2
A B
A
A m B A
u h
u
u
λ
· ∴ · ·
λ λ
( 2 )
B A
λ · λ Q
.
B
B m
h
u ·
λ
Now
2
2
4
; Also 1.50
1
A A
A B
B
B
mu
T
T T
T mu
· · − ·
0.50
B
T ∴ ·
0.50 1.50 2.00 eV
A
T · + ·
Also 4.25 =
0
A
A
hv T +
,
0
4.25 2.00 2.25eV
A
hv ∴ · − ·
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0 0
4.20 , 4.20 0.50 3.70eV
B B
B
hv T hv · + · − ·
136.a. The primary functional group of this compound is
nitrogen. Thus, this compound is a member of the
aniline family. The ring substituents are named
according to their relative position to the functional
group. The methyl group is directly opposite the
amine group and this is indicated by the p (for para).
Both the isopropyl and methyl groups are attached
to the functional group of the compound and this
is indicated by the ‘N, N’ prefix.
137.b. Choices A and C misrepresent the role of a catalyst:
catalysts do not change the stability of a certain
set of products, but they are actively involved with
reactions (because they change the transition
state). As far as choice D goes, catalysts certainly
do affect the reverse reaction, but that isn’t ruled
out by the observations; also, what is a “kinetic
promoter”? It’s madeup phrase, but it sure sounds
like a description of a catalyst!
138.b. Step I is the rate determining step, so it must be
slower than Step II.
139.a. Surface area of spherical drop =
2
4 r π
(a) When radius is 3.0mm
1
( 3.0 10 cm)
−
· ×
surface area
2
1
4 (0.09) cm A · π
(b) When radius is
3
3.0 10
−
×
mm
4
( 3.0 10 cm)
−
· ×
surface area
8 2
2
4 (9 10 ) cm A
−
· π ×
number of drops formed =
3
volume of a drop of radius 3.0mm
volume of drops of radius 3 10 mm
−
×
3
3
1
9
3 3
3
2
4
3
3
10
4
(3 10 )
3
r
r
−
π
· · ·
×
π
Hence, surface area of 10
9
drops =
8 9 2
4 (9 10 ) 10 =4 90cm
−
π × × π×
increase in surface area =
(4 90) (4 0.09) π× − π× ·
2 2
4 89.91cm =1129.842cm π
∴
work done in dispersion =
increase in area = γ×
4
72.8 1129.842=8.2252 10 erg × ×
= 8.2252
×
10
–3
J.
140.a. Determination of number of moles of hydrogen gas,
1 1
0.0409
0.082 298
PV
n
RT
×
· · ·
×
The concerned reaction is
–1
2
2 ; 436kJ mol H H H ÷÷→ ∆ ·
Energy required to bring 0.0409 moles of hydrogen
gas to atomic state
436 0.0409 17.83 kJ · × ·
Calculation of total number of hydrogen atoms in
0.0409 mole of H
2
gas
1 mole of H
2
gas has
23
6.02 10 ×
molecules
0.0409 mole of H
2
gas =
22
6.02 10
0.0409
1
×
×
Since 1 molecule of H
2
gas has 2 hydrogen atoms
23
6.02 10 0.0409 × ×
molecules of H
2
gas
23 23
2 6.02 10 0.0409 4.92 10 · × × × · ×
atoms.
Energy required to excite an electron from the
ground state to the next excited state
2 2
1 2
1 1 1 1
13.6 eV 13.6
1 4 n n
 `
 `
· − · × −
. ,
. ,
21
3
13.6 10.2eV = 1.632 10 kJ
4
−
· × · ×
Therefore energy required to excite
22
4.92 10 ×
electrons =
21 22
1.632 10 4.92 10 kJ
−
× × ×
= 8.03 10 80.3kJ × ·
Therefore total energy required = 17.83 + 80.3 =
98.17 kJ.
141.d. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that in
an isolated sytem, spontaneous processes occur
in the direction of increasing entropy. The
substances that react in the first reaction both show
an increase in entropy: from solid to liquid and from
liquid to gas. However, in the second reaction the
net entropy remains the same since one substance
changes from a solid to a liquid and the other
changes from a liquid to a solid. Hence, the total
“randomness” of the sytem remains the same.
142.d. This time, the experiment was explicitly performed
under standard conditions: 1 atmosphere of oxygen
gas. Yet the graph shows a negative free energy
change at that temperature, which implies that the
reaction is spontaneous. Many spontaneous
reactions, are so slow at certain temperatures that
they effectively do not occur. The reaction between
oxygen and gasoline is a typical example (you need
a spark to get it started).
143.a. The leaving group would be CH
3
–
before the
substitutions of the 1atoms for hydrogens. After
the substitutions the leaving group isCl
3
–
, Cl
3
–
is a
better leaving group beacuse the 1 atoms are
electron withdrawing and stabilize the negative
chage.
144.d. Both carbon oxygen bonds are involved in the
resonance of the negative charge. The bond length
is between the single and double bond.
145.c. An electrochemical cell consists of two electrodes
dipped into an electrolyte. If both of the electrodes
are dipped into the same electrolyte, the solution
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potential φ (s) is common to both electrodes and
the arrangement is called a cell without a liquid
juction, see the figure below.
H
2
H
2
Pt
Pt wire
Pt wire
AgCl/Ag
A simple electrochemical cell without a liquid
juction.
146.b. Long wavelengths correspond to low frequencies
and short wavelengths correspond to high
frequencies. The wavelength and frequency of
electromagnetic radiation are inversely related
according to the equation This is also ilustrated in
the diagram below. Since infrared radiation has the
longest wavelength of the choices listed, choice
(b) is correct.
Wavelength
Frequency
10
10
−
20
10
) meters (
10
10
) onds (sec
1 −
0
10
147.c. In order for the equation using energy transferred
to be dependent upon the color of light, it must
somehow be dependent on the wavelength or
frequency of the incident light. Color is dependent
upon the wavelength of visible light. The different
colors of light (visible to teh naked eye) are located
in the visible region of the electromagnetic radiation
spectrum. The equation relating wavelength to
frequency is v c λ · where c is the speed of light,
λ is the wavelength of light, and v is the frequency
of the light. Because of this relationship ), / c v ( λ ·
both equations (II and III) relate wavelength to
energy. Choice (c) is correct. Equation I only relates
energy to mass and velocity, so it does not apply
and choices (a) and (d) are incorrect.
148 Each one of the process shown in Figure 1 results
in a change in energy. The energy transferred
durign absorption an fluorescence is quantitized
and of equal magnitude involving the absorption
or emission of an electron or photon.
Electromagnetic radiation (light) is composed of
photons, which exhibit both particle and wavelike
properties. Electrons can only be promoted to
levels of a certain energy from the lower ground
state to the higher excited state (and vice versa)
according to thier quantitized energy levels.
Intersystem crossing to the triplet state is also an
energy transfer that does not emit energy as a
radiative process. When the
triplet state is released the energy transferred is
emitted as phosphorescence. Internal conversion
is also a transfer of energy, however it is attained
by other nonradiative means such as the release of
heat or transfer to another molecule via collision or
internal vibrational relaxation. Quenching is
another nonradiative process that releases the
energy from the excited state back down to the
ground state.
149.a. Choice (a) is correct because the absorption of
energy is quantitized from the ground state to the
excited state. Each molecule exhibits its own
inherent quantitized energy levels, which give rise
to each element displaying a unique line spectrum.
Choice (b) is incorrect because fluorescence results
from the emission of energy from the excited
1
S
state to the ground
o
S state, not from internal
conversion. Choice (c) is incorrect because
intersystem crossing, not internal conversion, is
involved with phosphorescence. Finally, choice
(d) is incorrect because conversion from the
1
T to
the
o
S state is called phosphorescence, no
vibrational relaxation.
150.d. In order to anwer this question, we must consult
the diagram; we want to focus on the energy levels
fo the excited
1
S state and the excited
1
T state.
emission from the excited
1
S state (which is of a
higher energy level than the
1
T state) to the
o
S state is called fluorescence. Emission from the
1
T state to the
o
S state is called phosphorescence.
There is no emission of light from internal
conversion (which is nonradiative) or from the
absorption process (the molecule absorbs light to
become excited). How do we determine whether
fluorescence or phosphorescence corresponds to
the longer wavelength ? The key to this equestion
s that the
1
T state is of lower energy. This is clear
in Figure 1 and it is mentioned in the last paragraph
of the passage. Using the relationship between
energy and wavelength ), / hc E ( λ · we see that
they are inversely proportional. That means that
as the waelength increases the energy of the light
decreases or vice versa, so choice (d) is correct
Emission of light from the lower energy
1
T state to
the
o
S ground state(phosphorescence) results in
a smaller transfer of energy, hence, a longer
wavelength.
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