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key AI - IITJEE - Model test - 04
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1.b. This is a good example of a passage in which the
questions are harder to answer than the passage is to
comprehend; however, careful reading and some
good strategy will pull you through. Question -1
essentially asks for the velocity of a wave if
wavelength and frequency are known. As a
IIT-JEE student, the equation, frequency (f or v) =
velocity (v) / wavelength (
λ
), hopefully jumps into
one octave, then as the passage states, if should be
double that in an octave lower. Now, it is time to
plug all this in:
f = v/ λ
622/sec = v/0.25 m
v- (6.22 x 102) (2.5 x 10
-1
)
v = 15 x 10
-1
m sec
-1
or choice B
2.d. The passage states that the lowest frequency of a
string is the first harmonic and that the next lowest
frequency is the second harmonic, or first overtone,
and so forth. To make it easier, let us keep track of
this by noting the nth harmonic is the (n-1) th
overtone. Now, consider nodes. Nodes appear along
intervals equal to half the wavelength; this is simply
from looking at the sketch of a wave (Think of a
sinusoid). Therefore, the 1st harmonic will have 1/2
of a wavelength, with one node at one end and
another at the other end. The 2nd harmonic will have
an entire wavelength, with one node at one end, one
node in the middle, and one node at the other end.
Quickly you realize that the 1st harmonic has 2
nodes, the 2nd harmonic has 3 nodes, and the nth
harmonic has (n+1) nodes. Finally, notice that an
antinode occurs betwen two nodes, so for every two
nodes, there is one antinode. Adding this to our quick
survey, we see that the nth harmonic has n
antinodes. Making a very quick list, using the an-
swer choices (note: on testday, you would only have
needed to do the bare minimum of this table to
Choice D is the only answer that accurately describes
the physics.
3.c. The best way to approach this question is to eliminate
the wrong answers. Choice A is not true since an
increase in density is related to increased mass, thus
increased weight (mass x gravity). Choice B is out,
since as we saw in question 2, the wavelength can
be an integer multiple of length, leading to infinitely
many wavelengths. Chice Ds is incorrect since f=
λ v/
, regardless of how that frequency was induced
(i.e., by changing length or density or whatever).
Finally, choice C is corect, since wavelength, and
therefore frequency, depend on string length. At
some point, a desired frequency may be so low that
the length required would be enormous. For
example, if a piano were manufactured relying only
on alterations of string length, the lowest note would
correspond to a string that is 7.5 meters (over 24
feet)!
4.d. This question requires nothing more that analysis of
equation 1. Note that the tension in the string is from
the weight of the block. Let us look at the equation,
plugging in for p = mass of string/length of string
and T= mass of block x gravtity.

1/2
1/2 2 / 1 2 2 / 1
string) of (mass
string) of (Length ) m/s .8 9 block of mass ( ) / t (
f
× λ
× ×
·
λ
ρ
·
Now, in order to double the frequency, we must
quadruple any of the terms in the numerator, have
the wavelength, or deduce the mass of the string to
1/4 its original. Only choice D does any of these
things.
5.c. Do not get intimidated by this seemingly complex
question. As.......... students, the words collision and
inelastic should make your mouth water, or at elast
make you think of conservation of momentum.
Recall that momentum is conserved along a direction
(e.g. x- corrdinate, y-coordinate. Therefore, if we
are looking for the initial velocity of the particle we
only care about the x-coordinate, since its original
velocity was purely horizontal. Let us set up the
equation for an inelastic conservation of energy.
f S P S S P P
V ) M M ( V M V M + · +
But, remember that the portion of the string involved
in the collisionis travelling vertically, since the wave
is transverse). Therefore, its initial horizontal
velocity is zero.
f S P P P
V ) M M ( V M + ·
Solving for V
P
f
p
s
P
f S P
P
V )
M
M
(1
M
V ) M M (
V + ·
+
·
Also, note that the mass of the portionof string
involved in the collision is the only part that counts,
and that this mass is given by the string’s linear
density x the length of the portion. Additonally, the
final velocity is the same for the string and particle,
since they ae stuck together in an inelastic collision.
So,
f
p
p
V )
M
) L (
1 ( V
× ρ
+ ·
We need to know the length of the portion of string
contributing to the collision, the linear density of
the string, the mass of the particle, and the final
velocity of the particle choice C.
Paper - I : Physics - 1 to 50
Solutions
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6.a. On a small element of length ‘dx’ at a distance x
from O. the force on the element is = Bi dx, where
i = current in the element.
O
dx
X
r
B
+
Moment of force about ‘O’ = (Bid x).x

Torque on disc =
2 2
0 0
.
2 2
r
r
x Bir
Bidx x Bi τ
]
· · ·
]
]

But Torque =
2
α α
2
mr
I τ · · ⋅
α = angular acceleration =
2 1
W 2 W n
t t
π −
·
2 2
2 2πnm
: τ =
2 2 θ
Bir mr n
t t
π
∴ · ⋅
7.b.
2
0
2 ; 2
t
t
dv
a t v t dt t
dt
· · ·

1
2 4
tan 45 :
. 4 2 ; 2sec
t
ar V r
at at
v r a t t t
· ·
· ⇒ × · ·
8.a. Resultant of any two vectors must be opposite to
the third vector

cross product will be zero.
8.3
2Cal/mole-K
4.2
· ·
R = 8.3J / mole - K...; Q =
r
nC dT
n = 1
2
5
1
1
3
r
R
C
r
· ·

;
3
2 3
2
· × ·
3
1.3
Q
dt
nCv
· ·
= 1
9.c.
1 1 1 1
Vα T ;
2 2 300 600
dv dt
v T
· ⋅ · ·
10.b. 1 1 2 2
θ
; θ θ H KA A A

· − ⋅ ∆ · ⋅ ∆
∆π
° 100 1
A 2
A
θ
0
as
1 2 1 2
; θ θ ; 100 θ-0 A A > ∆ < ∆ − θ <
100 < 2θ; 50 < θ; θ > 50
11.d.
2 2 2
;
dv ke mv ke
F v
dr r r m

· · · ·
12.c.
ω'

= Weight of ‘x’ length =
. .
M
g x
L
| `

. ,
P
T
l-x
l
x
ω'
ω'

= T =
. ;
M
gx
M T
L
g x v gx
L M ML
| `
· · ·

. ,
0 0
;
l l
dx dn
g x g dt
dt x
· ⋅ ·
∫ ∫
2 2 ; 2
l
g t t
g
· ·
13.d. Minimum distance from wall where anitinode
forms (with maximum. amplitude) is
330 1
0.125m
4 4 660 8
V
n n
λ
· · · ·
×
Antinode
Node
Wall
λ/4
14.a. 1 2
2 sin 3.14 cos 50
6 6
y y y a x t
π π | ` | `
· + · + +

. , . ,
for nodes,
sin 3.14 0
6
x
π | `
+ ·

. ,
i.e., 3.14 0, π, 2 , 3 ,
6
x
π
+ · π π
and for x > 0 for
first 2 nodes
5
3.14 2 ; 3.14 ; 0.833
6 6
x x x m
π π
+ · π · ·
3.14 2 ; 3.14 11 ; 1.833
6 6
x x x m
π π
+ · π · ⋅ ·
15.a. Productive rate = A; decay rate =
λN
; /
λ
= decay
constant, N = constant

Net formation rate (x)=A–
λ
N :
x = 0 rate becomes constant
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2
0693
e
A A AT AT
N
t
· · · ·
λ
.
16.c. No. of daughter nuclei will become constant, if rate
of decay of daughter nuclei = Rate of formation of
daughter nuclei =
Rate of decay of parent nuclei
d d p p
N N ⇒ λ · λ
17.d. As it is a cubical vessel, all sides are equal and equal
to ‘a’ (say). As the incident ray h incidently from the
edge (Q) to reaches opposite comes (S), i = 45º liquid
is upto depth = h
Q R
S
D
b
r
h
a
a-h
a-h
i- 45º
45º
c
P
a
QC CD a b AP ∴ · · − ·
( ) AB a a h b h b ∴ · − − + · ⋅

from snell’s law,
1 2
sin sin i r µ · µ
2 2
13
1 sin 45
8
( )
h b
h h b

⋅ · ⋅
+ −
squaring h = 3b
18.b. for central brought finge
Net path diff. = 0
S
d
S
1
S
2
D
O
x
1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1
: Ss S P Ss S P Ss Ss S p S p + · + ⇒ − · −
:
2 12 2
d D
d
λ λ λ
· λ ·
forms above (D)
if it is taken like this
S
1
S
2
O
2 2 1 1
Ss S P Ss S p + · +
2 1 1 2
2
Ss Ss S p S P
−λ
− · − ·
it means central fring forms above (O) only.
19.d. As initial and final media are same ) (µ
0
.

final ray will be parallel to the incident ray.
20.c. Focal length doesnot change but sharpness of image
decreases.
21.a. Let the n
th
bright fring of wavelength
n
λ and m
th
bright fing of wavelength
m
λ coincide at a distance
n
x from central maximum.
Then
4
5
520
650
λ
λ
;
2 2
λ
x
m
n
n
· · · · ·
n m
n
m
d
D m
d
D n λ

Least values of m, n are 5.4
2
n
n
n D
x
D
λ
∴ · ·
4
3
4 650 10 120
156 mm
2 10

× × ×
·
×
22.b. L is parallel : L
1
=2L. R is parallel R
1
=
2
R
. Time
constant =
1
1
4 L l
r R
·
23.c. ( ) at T t · − φ , induced emf
( )
d
e
dt

· ·
φ
(0 1) ( ) at a T t − + − ( 2 ) a T t · −
Heat generated in time (T) =
2 2
2
0 0
µ ( 2 )
T T
e a
dt T t dt
R R
· ⋅ · − ⋅
∫ ∫
2
2 2
0
( 4 4 )
T
a
T t tT dt
R
· + − ⋅

2 3 2
2
4
4
5 2
T
o
a t t
T t T
R
]
· + −
]
]
2 3
3
a T
R
·
24.b. In a polytropic process PV
n
= constant :
3
. (4 ) ;
8 2
n n
P
PV V n · −
molar heat capacity of a polytropic process
1 1 1
r
R R R
C C
n r n
· − − · −
− − −
4.2J/k. nol
5 3
2
1 1
3 2
R R R
· − · − · −
− −
25.a.
λ
4; 4; 0:
x y
u u a · · ·
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20
10
2
y
y
F
a
m

· − · · −
(as force is along –y axis)
2
λ λ
1
4 ;
2
y
x u t t y u t a t · · · +
2
2 2
5
4 5 :
16
x
t t y x · − · −
if y = 0, then x = 0, 3.2 m.
26.c. After cut Before cut
T
2
mg cosθ
mg
m
g

s
i
n
θ
T
1
T
T
1
sinθ
T
1
cosθ
mg
Before cut After cut
1
cos T mg θ ·

2 2
2
1
cos ; cos
T
T mg
T
θ · θ
When an object is incircular motion always resolve
the net force acting on it in radial, tangential
direction.
27.b. Given 1 2 2 1
1 2
2
; ; 2
GM GM
Vo Ve r r
r r
· · ·
energy imparted to satellite to transfer it from orbit
(2) →(1) is
1 2
1 2 1
3
2 2 4
GMm GMm GMm
E E E
r r r
| ` −
· − · − − − ·

. ,
Gravitational PE is (1) orbit, 1
1
GMm
v
r
· −

The ratio is
3
4
.
28.d. Impulse change in momentum
( 0)
y
N dt mV µ ⋅ · − – in y-direction
. ( ) 2
x
N dt mV mV mV
λ λ
· − − ·
– in x-direction
N
µN
1
2 tan ; tan (2 )
y
x
V
V

∴ · µ · α α · µ
29.a.
1
( cos ) (1) f dt V v ⋅ · µ − θ −
2
1
( ) ( ) ( )
2
MR
f R dt I · ∆ ω · ω−ω ·
2 1
(2)
2
MR V V
R R
| `

. ,
V
1
f
V cosθ
from (1), (2)
1
(1 2cos )
3
V
V
+ θ
·
30.a. As the particle starts from rest means it moves from
extreme position because its velocity = 0 at extreme
position
cos x A t ∴ · ω
(x is measured from equilibrium
position in SHM)
at
1sec t ·
,
x A a · −
;
cos ω (1) A a A − · −
( 1) cos
A a
t
A

· ω· ∵
at
2sec A ·
,
x A a b · − −
,
cos 2 (2) ( 2) A a b A t − − · ω · ∵
2
(2cos 1) A a b A − − · ω− ·
2
2 cos A A ω−
;
2
2 cos 2 A A a b ω · − −
2
2
( )
2 2
A a
A A a b
A

⋅ · − −
;
2 2 2
2( 2 ) 2 A a Aa A aA bA + − · − −
2
2 4 a Aa aA bA ⋅ · − −
;
2
2 3 a Aa bA ⋅ −
;
2
2
3
a
A
a b
·

.
31.b. Let x
0
and y
0
be the alongation of the springs when
they are in tensions. Equilibrium condition is
0 0
mg kx ky + · .
k(x+y )
0
mg
k(x –x)
0

ky
0
mg
kx
0
m
K
x
0
K
y
0
After displaying through x,

Net restaing force =
ma. ky
0
0 0
( ) ( ) ma k y x mg k x x ⋅ + − − − ·
0 0
( ) 2 ky kx mg kx kx kx + − + + · .
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2 2 2
; ;
k k
a x T
m m
π
· ⋅ ω· · ·
ω
1 2
2 :
2 2
m k
n
k m
π ·
π
32.b. Net potential due to 2 charges can be zero only if
the changes are of opposite nature. As potential at
point p is zero.

q
1
, q
2
must be opposite nature.
33.c. PD a/c PQ = Bv(2a) ;
2Bva
i
R
·
Induced PD a/c a conductor of irregular snape
moving in uniform magnetic. field is equal to PD
a/c a straight conductor joining free ends if given
conductor.
34.c. Let at any instant, the water inside the can is upto h
1
and h
2
outside.
1 0 1
(1) h h h + · −
Applying Bermothis theomen at (1), (2)
h
h
0
V
(2)
(1)
h
1
(P
a
– atm. pressure at (1) in neglected points)
2
2 1
1
2
pgh pv pgh · +
2 1 0
2 ( ) 2 v g h h gh · − ·
1
2 0 1
2 ;
dh
A gh A
dt
· −
0
1
1
0 0 2 0
;
2
h h t
A
dt dh
A gh

·
∫ ∫
1 0
2 0
(
2
A h h
t
A gh

·
35.b. Consider wholebody and x length of body. Their
acceleration are same
2
x
x
F T F T
a
M M M
M
· · ·> ·
| `

. ,
L
F
x
dx
2
F
T x ∴ · ⋅
.
Let d y = elongation of d x length,
Youngs modular
/
/
T A T dx
Y
dy dx A dy
· · ·
F dx
Y x
AL dy
· ⋅ ⋅
;
0 0
y y
F
dy x dx
ALY
· ⋅
∫ ∫ .
;
2
FL y F
y
LAY L AY
· ·
36.d. Charge stored on ‘dl’ length of element =
( ) q q Rd qdv
dq dt
R R
θ
· ⋅ · ·
π π π
from symmetry it can be seen that electric field acts
along x-direction.
+
y
y
x
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
R
d l
o
dq
q
d E
N
dt
0
2 2 2
0 0
cos cos
4 4
x
dq q d
dE
R R
θ ⋅ θ θ
· ·
πε π ε
/ 2
2 2
0 / 2
cos
4
n
q
E dE d
R
π
−π
· · θ⋅ θ ·
π ε
∫ ∫
2 2 2 2
0 0
2
4 2
q q
R R
⋅ ·
π ε π ε
along x axis.
37.b .
2
1
3
rms
mN
P V
V
| `
·

. ,
m = mass of gas, V = volume, N=Aragadro No.
man →halved →m/2,
V
rms
→doubled →2V
rms

P = 2P
0
.
38.c. In steady state, as no current flows, capacitor arm
presents infinite resistance.

PD a/c capacitor = PD a/c r
2
current through 2
1 2
V
r
r r
·
+
;
PD a/c
2
2
1 2
. V r
r
r r
·
+
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39.d.
2
1 1 1
2
2 2 2
4 16
;
1 1
neV r V
i neVA
neV r V
π
· · · ·
π
1 1
2 2
4 1
;
1 2
i r
i r
| `
· ·

. ,

40.d. We have
V ir · ε −
For point ‘C’ of graph : 0; I V q · · ε ·
v
q
p
A
C
B
i
q ∴ · ε
For point ‘B’ : 0 : : V I P O pr · · · ε −
;
q
q pr r
P
· ·
.
41.d. The law for parallel resistor is
R
R
R
R
T
R
Hence
R
1
R
1
t
∑ ·
;
R
4
R
1
T
·
Ω · · M R R
T
4
1
4
1
The reduced circuit is a basic RC circuit. From
Krichoff’s law
0 ' 0 · + · − −
τ
Q
Q or
C
Q
RI
with
RC · τ
as the time constant. The solution is
τ /
0
t
e Q Q

·
s RC
4
1
10 1 10
4
1
6 6
· × × × · ·

τ
/
0
t
e I I

·
A 40 10
4
1
/ 10 10
6 6
0
· × × · ·
R
V
I
25 . / 5 .
40

· e
= 5.41 A
42.a. Sound waves in a gas may be modeled as adiabatic.
Hence
·
Vr
p
constant where
3
5
γ · for three
degrees of freedom. Differentiate to get
0 γpV ) (
γ 1 -
· + ·
dV
dp
V pV
dV
d
γ γ
Thus
V
γp
− ·
dV
dp
The sound speed is
ρ ρ
B
S B
c
m
·
+
·
)
3
4
(
1
for an ideal fluid which has zero shear modulus and
p
dV
dp
V B γ · − ·
Finally
ρ
γp
1
· c
and hence doubling p changes the sound speed
1
c
by a factor of
2
.
43.a. First consider the situation immediately after the
perfectly inelstic collision between B and C but
before A has begun to slip onto C; label this as the
intial configuration “i”. Clearly v v
Ai
· and
2 / v v v
Ci Bi
· · by momentum conservation. On
the otehr hand, in the end (labeled “f”) all three
masses have the same final speed, so that
3 / 2v v v v
Cf Bf AF
· · · by again applying
momnetum conservation. The sum of the kinetic
energies of the boards thus angles by
) ( ) (
Ci Bi Ai Cf Bf Af
K K K K K K K + + − + + · ∆
,
12
1
2
mv − ·
...(1)
where m is the mass of each board. This net loss in
mechanical energy is the result of the
nonconservative “internal work” done by friction,
), (
0
C A
L
C A NC
x x d fdx fdx W − ∫ − · ∫ + ∫ − · .(2)
where the equal and opposite internal force of friction
between blocks A and C is given by
,
L
x x
mg N f
C A
k k

· · µ µ
...(3)
with L the length of each board. Here,
A
x and
C
x
are the rightward displacements of block A and C
from thier initial positions; the ration L x x
C A
/ ) ( −
thus gives the fraction of block A, which is on top
of block C, and hence the ratio of the normal force
N of A on C to the weight mg of A. Subsitute Eq.
(3) into Eq. (2) to find
2
2
L
L
mg
W
k
NC
µ
· ...(4)
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It is worth pausing to note that it would have been
extremely difficult to attempt to separately calculate
the two frictional work terms in the middle
expression in Eq. (2)! Finally equate the right-hand
sides of Eqs. (1) and (4) to obtain the answer,
g
v
L
k
2
µ 6
·
44.c. Since the downward acceleration is EQ/m,
increasing m will decrease the downward
acceleration and increase the maximum height. This
is because the mass of this projectile represents the
inertia the inertia of the projectile, or its tendency to
continue moving upward.
45.b. Any disturbance in an electromagnetic field travels
at the speed of light. d = vt.
46.c. According to the formulas given in the passage, emf
varies by the number of turns in the coil, the magnetic
field, the area of the coil and the frequency of
rotation. The question states that the frequency must
be exactly 60 Hz, therefore you cannot alter the
rotational speed as that would also alter the rotational
frequency. Choices (A), (B) and (D) all increase
emax, and so would increase the potential voltae
generated.
47.d The passage states that a small I/IO ration results in
greater power generation. Answer (A) would
decreases Io, effectively decreasing the denominator
and increasing the ratio. (B) Because of the thickness
of the material is part of the negative exponent of
the intensity equation, increasing X would decreased
1. (C) Concentrating more sunlight would effectively
increase 1o, decreasing the overall ratio. (D)
minimizing reflective losses would also increase the
amount of photons penetrating the surface of the
solar panel.
48.d. The question states that the photonic energy must
be sufficient to liberate electrons. It also implies
that energy in excess of this would create heat.
Choice (d) allows for the widest range of energy
conversion with minimal loss of conductivity to heat.
(a) Does not address the issue of heat. (b) The
question states that the best photovoltaic substances
require light in the visible range of the spectrum. lR
is below visible in frequency, and thus would not
have sufficient energy. These photons are relatively
inconsequential. Even if they did contribute to heat
generation in the substrate, it would not be a better
solution than choice (d) would be. (c) This reduces
the maximum potential of energy conversion.
49.b. We can use the principal of conservation of energy
because the question instructs us to neglect air
resistance. Therefore :
E = K + U and
final
K should equal
initial
U at the
point of contact with the generator Since the units
of Power are Joules/Second we need to modify
initial
U to be the rate of potential energy produced
by 1kg/secof water. Also don’t forget to take the
mechanical efficiency into account.
3/4 (m/t)gh = Power
h = 4(Power) (t) 3mg
h = 4(20 Watts) (1 sec )/3 (1 kg) ) s / m 8 . 9 (
2
h = 2.72 m
50.c. There are two areas prone to shear stress in this
problem. The fan blades and the mounting pole. If
you increase the size of the rotor blade, that will
create a larger cross sectional area thus increase
force. Since the rotor is connected to the mounting
pole at a small point, the resulting pressure on the
mounting pole at this point increases significantly.
With greater presure, you would expect to observe
greater strain. (a) Decreasing h would decrease x
because the shear modulus and stress would remain
the same. (b) This does the opposite of answer
choice (c) (d) This would also decrease the cross
sectional area, as in (b)
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51.a.
+
0 x 1
Lt ( ) Lt 0
1
1
h
h
h
f x
e
→ →
· ·
+

1
0
Lt
h
h
e

| `
·∝

. ,

-
0 x 1
1
Lt ( ) Lt 0
1
1
h
h
h
f x
e
→ →
· ·
+

1
0
Lt 0
h
h
e

| `
·

. ,

Therefore ( ) f x is continuous at
0 x ·
.
52.d. For any
1
0, 1 sin 1 x
x
≠ − ≤ ≤
, but As
1
0, sin x
x

does not approach to any particu-
lar value but oscillates between –1
and 1.
53.d. We have
0 x 0
Lt ( ) Lt sin(log )
c
h
f x h

→ →
· − ·
0
Lt sin(log )
c
h
h

which does not exist but lies
between –1 and 1. Similarly
0
Lt ( )
x
f x
+

lies
between –1 and 1 but cannot be determined.
54.d.
0 0
Lt ( ) Lt ( ) 0 if 0
x x
f x f x m
− +
→ →
· · >
.
55.c.
2
x
Since
y
y i
x m
| `
+ −

. ,
2 2
2 2
1 31
2 16
x y x y
y x i y x
| `
· + + + +

. ,
[By the given condition]
2
2
2
x 2
y
y i x y i
x m y x m
| ` | `
∴ + − + +

. , . ,
2 2
2 2
1 31
2 16
x y x y
y x i y x
| `
· + + + +

. ,
2 2
2 2 2
2 1
2
x y i x y
y x m y x m
| `
⇒ + + − + −

. ,
2 2
2 2
1 31
2 16
x y x y
y x i y x
| `
· + + + +

. ,
2
1 2
2
x y
m im y x
| `
| `
⇒ − + +

. ,
. ,
1 31
2 16
x y
i y x
| `
· + +

. ,
2
1 31 2 1
2 and . . 4
16 m 2
i e m
m
⇒ − · · ·
56.c. Let z = x + iy. Thus,
0 az az + ·
becomes
( ) ( ) 0 a x iy a x iy + + − ·
( ) ( ) 0 a a x i a a y ⇒ + + − ·
( ) ( ) 0 a a x a a i y ⇒ + − − ·
0
2 2
a a a a
x y
i
+ −
⇒ + ·
= Re (a)x + Im (a) y = 0
Slope of the above line =
Re( )
tan
Im( )
a
a
φ − ·
Thus, angle between the given line and its
reflection in real axis = 2φ
1 -1
2
2 tan
tan (tan 2 tan
tan
φ
φ) ·
1 − φ

| `
·

. ,
1
2
Re( )
Im( )
tan 2
Re ( )
1
Im ( )
a
a
a
a

| `

· −

| `

. , . ,
1
2 2
2 Re ( ) ( )
tan
(Re( )) (Im( ))
a Im a
a a

| `
·

. ,
57.a. We show that
2 2 2
0. RI SI RS + − >
The result then follows from the cosine rule.
BI is perpendicular to MK and hence also to RS.
So
2 2 2
IR BR BI · +
and
2 2 2
. IS BI BS · +
Obviously RS = RB + BS,
so
2 2 2
2 . RS BR BS BR BS · + + ×
Hence
2 2 2 2
2 2 . RI SI RS BI BR BS + − · − ×
Consider the
BRS ∆
.
The angles at B and M are
A
90 and 90 - ,
2 2
B

so
the angle at R is
90 .
2
C

Hence
cos
2
cos
2
A
BR
C
BM
·
(using the sine rule). Similarly considering the , BKS ∆
z lm
Incident
Ray θ
φ
Reflected
Re(z)
Ray
φ
Paper - I I : Mathematics - 51 to 100
Solutions
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cos
2
cos
2
C
BS
A
BK
·
So
2
BR BS BM BK BK × · × ·
Hence
2 2 2 2 2 2
2( ) 2 0 RI SI RS BI BK IK + − · − · >
58.d.
EBA BDM ∠ · ∠
(because CD is parallel to AB)
ABM · ∠ (because AB is tangent at B).
So AB bisects EBM. Similarly, BA bisects
. EAM · ∠
Hence E is the reflection of M in AB. So EM is
perpendicular to AB and hence to CD. So it
suffices to show that MP = MQ
Let the ray NM meet AB at X. XA is a tangent so
2
. . XA XM XN · Similarly, XB is a tangent, so
2
. . XB XM XN ·
Hence XA = XB. But AB and
PQ are parallel, so MP = MQ.
59.c.
1
2
0
0 0
lim lim .
( 3)
n n n n
k k k
k k
n n
k k
C C
x dx
n k n
+
→∞ →∞
· ·
+
∑ ∑

1
2
0
0
1
lim .
n
n k
k k
n
k
C x dx
n
+
→∞
·
·

1
2
0
0
lim
k
n
n
k
n
k
x
x C dx
n
→∞
·
¹ ¹
¹ ¹ | `
·
' '

. ,
¹ ¹
¹ ¹

1
2
0
0
lim 1
n
n
n
k
x
x dx
n
→∞
·
¹ ¹
¹ ¹ | `
· +
' '

. ,
¹ ¹
¹ ¹

1
2
0
.
x
x e dx ·

x
using lim 1
x
a
a
e
x
→∞
¹ ¹
¹ ¹ | `
+ ·
' '

. ,
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
1
2 1
0
0
( ) 2 .
x x
x e x e dx · −

1
1 1
0
0
1. 2( . ) 2
x x
e x e e dx · − +

1 1 0
2 ( ) 2( ) e e e e · − + −
2 2 2 e e e · − + −
= e - 2
60.d. The function
2 2
( ) ( 1) | 3 2| cos(| |) f x x x x x · − − + +
Here | x | is not differnetiable at x = 0 but
cos( ), 0
cos(| |)
cos( ), 0
x x
x
x x
− < ¹
·
'

¹
cos( ), 0
cos(| |)
cos( ), 0
x x
x
x x
≥ ¹
⇒ ·
'
<
¹
∴ cos (|x|) is differentiable at x = 0
Again,
2
| 3 2| | ( 1) ( 2) | x x x x − + · − − ...(ii)
( 1) ( 2), if x < 1
-(x - 1) (x - 2), if 1 x < 2 ....( )
(x - 1) (x - 2), if x 2
x x
iii
− − ¹
¹

'
¹

¹
So,

2
2
2
( 1) ( 1) ( 2) cos , if - x < 1
( ) -(x - 1) (x - 1) (x - 2) + cos x, if 1 x < 2
(x - 1) (x - 1) (x - 2) + cos x, if 2 x <
x x x x
f x
¹ − − − + ∞ <
¹
· ≤
'
¹
≤ ∞
¹
Now to check differentibility at x = 1, 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
( 1) (2 3) (2 ) ( 3 2) sin , - x < 1
( ) -(x - 1) (2x - 3) -(2x)(x -3x + 2) - sin x, 1 x < 2
(x - 1) (2x - 3) (2 )(x - 3x+2) -sin x, 2 x <
x x x x x x
f x
x
¹ − − + − + + ∞<
¹
· ≤
'
¹
+ ≤ ∞
¹
Thus, for f’(1) we have
sin1, 1
'(1)
sin1, 1
x
f
x
− < ¹
·
'
− >
¹
Thus f(x) is differentiable at x = 1
3 sin 2, 2
'(2)
3 sin 2, 2
x
f
x
− − < ¹
·
'
− >
¹
Thus, f(x) is not differentiable at x = 2
61.a. The function
1
( )
1
u f x
x
· ·

is discontinuous
at the point x = 1.
The function
2
1 1
( )
2 ( 2)( 1)
y g x
u u u u
· · ·
+ − + −
is dis
continuous at u = - 2 and u = 1.
When u = -2,
1
2
1
u
x
· · −

1
1
2
x ⇒ − · − ⇒ x = /2 ...(ii)
when u = 1,
1
1
1
u
x
· ·

⇒ x - 1 = 1 ⇒ x = 2 ....(iii)
Hence, the composite function y = g (f(x)) is
discontinuus at three points
1
, 1, 2
2
x ·
62.c. Here n = 6, p = 9
∴ no of rectangles exclusing squares
6
1
6.9
(6 1) (9 1) (7 ) (10 )
4
r
r r
·
· + + − − −

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6
2
1
945 (70 17 )
r
r r
·
· − − +

6(6 1) 6(6 1) (12 1)
945 70 6 17
2 6
+ + +
· − × + −
= 945 - 420 + 357 - 91
= 1302 - 511 = 791.
63.b. In the mouth, there are 32 places for the teeth.
For each place, two choices are possible i.e.
either tooth or not.
Choices fo 1 teeth = 2
Similarly choices for 2 teeth =
2
2 2 2 × ·
Choices for 3 teeth =
3
2 2 2 2 × × ·
..........................................
.........................................
Hence choices for 32 teeth =
32
2
But this includes one case where there is no teeth.

reqd. no. of ways =
32
2 1. −
64.b. Let A represents the event that sample taken does
not posses any narcotic tablet.
9
3
15
3
12
=P(A)=
65
C
C
·
⇒ Probability that traveller would be arrested
12 53
1
65 65
· − ·
65.c.
2
4 0 b ac − <
For b = 1 any a and c wich can be chosedn in 4
ways.
For b = 2 either a = 1, c = 2
or a = 2, c = 1
or a = 2, c = 2
= Required probability = 7/8
66.c. Given that for a, b, c ε R,
2
ax 0 bx c + + ·
has
two real roots α and β, where
α<-1
and β >1.
There may be two cases depending upon value of
a, as shown below.
In each case (i) and (ii) a f(-1) < 0 and af (1) < 0
⇒ a (a - b + c) < 0 and a (a + b + c ) < 0
1 − 1 α
β
0 a >
c bx ax y + + =
2
1 − 1
α β
c bx ax y + + =
2
0 < a
Dividing by
2
( 0), a > we get
1 0
b c
a a
− + <
....(1)
and
1 0
b c
a a
+ + <
....(2)
Combining (1) and (2) we get
1 0
b c
a a
+ + <
or
1 0
c b
a a
+ + <
67.c. To find the value of
cos
1 1
(2 cos sin ) 1/ 5 x x at x

+ ·
where
1 -1
0 cos π and -π/2 sin π/2 x x

≤ ≤ ≤ ≤
We have
1 1
cos (2cos sin ) x x
− −
+
1
cos(cos π/2) x

· +
-1 1
{Using cos sin π/2} x x

+ ·
1
sin(cos ) x

· −
{Using cos(π/2 + θ) = - sinθ
2 1
=- 1-cos (cos ) x

1 2
= - 1- [cos (cos )] x

2
1 x · − −
1
[(cos (cos ) ] x x

·
1 1/ 25 · − −
[for x = 1/5]
24 2 6
= -
5 5

·
68.a. Let 8/ 7 6/ 7
( ) ( )
dx
I
x a x b
·
+ −

6/ 7
2
( )
dx
x b
x a
x a
·
− ¹ ¹
+
' '
+
¹ ¹

x - b
put
x + a
t ·
6/ 7
( ) .
dt
a b t
·
+
∫ 2
( )
a b
dx dt
x a
+
⇒ ·
+
1/ 7
6/ 7
1 1
.
( ) ( ) 1/ 7
t
t dt c
a b a b

· · +
+ +

1/ 7
7
( )
x b
I c
a b x a
− | `
· +

+ +
. ,
69.b. Here,
4
4
sin
cos
( )
(cos 2 ) ( )
t
t
f z dz
I
f t z f z

·
− +
∫ ...(i)
4
4
sin
cos
(cos 2 )
(cos 2 ) ( )
t
t
f t z dz
I
f t z f z
− −
·
− +

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{using ( ) ( ) ]
b
b
a
a
f x dx a b x dx · + −
∫ ∫
adding (i) and (ii), we get
4
4
sin
cos
2
t
t
I dz

·

4
4
sin
cos
2 ( )
t
t
I z

·
4 4
1
(sin cos )
2
I t t · − +

2 2
1
(1 2sin cos )
2
t t · − −
;
2
1 1
1 sin 2
2 2
t
| `
· − −

. ,
2
1 1
sin 2 .
2 4
I t · − +
70.b. Curves are
2 3
( ) y x x − ·
y x x x − · t
y x x x · + ...(i)
y x x x · − ....(ii)
x = 1 ...(iii)
and Which could be drawn as; shown in fig.
Hence the required area
1
0
{( ) ( )} x x x x x x dx · + − −

1
0
(2 ) x x dx ·

4
sq. units
5
·
71.d. Equation of tangetn at any point (x, y) is
( )
dy
y y X x
dx
− · −
.
Only Y-axis, intercept is given by putting
X = 0.

Y-intercept
dy
y x
dx
· −
According to the problem,
2
dy dy
y x xy or y x xy
dx dx
| `
− · − · t

. ,
or
y xy dy
dx x
t
· (Homogeneous)
Solving we get
2 ( / )
.
y x
x ce
t
·
72.a. Let O be any point in the plane of the polygon
1 2
, ,...,
n
A A A
O
l
A
2
A
3
A
4
A
5
A
n
A
Now the torque (moment) of force represented
by the side
1 2
A A acting at
1
1
1 1 2 2
2(A.A. ) OA A A of OA A · × · ∆

Sum of the torques about O of the foces
represented by th sides of the polygon taken in
order
1 2
1 2 2 3 1
... n
n
OA A A OA A A OA A A · × + × + + ×

1 2 2 3
2[V.A. of . . ... OA A V A of OA A · ∆ + ∆ +
1
V.A. of ]
n
OA A + ∆
= 2 (Vector area of the polygon.)
73.a. Here A, B, C are the vectors representing the sides
of the triangle ABC where A = ai + bj + ck,
B = di + 3j + 4k, C = 3i + j - k.
Given that, A = B + C.
∴ a i + b j + ck = (d + 3)i + 4j + 2k
⇒ a = d + 3, b = 4, c = 2.
Now
2 1 3
4 3 C B

· × d
k j i
= - 10 i + (2d + 12)j + (d - 9) k

Area of the | C B |
2
1
× · ∆ ABC
] ) 9 ( ) 12 2 ( 100 [
2 2
2
1
− + + + · d d
6 5 ·
(Given)
or
6 10 ) 325 30 5 (
2
· + + d d
or
0 275 30 5
2
· − + d d
or
0 55 6
2
· − + d d
or (d + 11) (d - 5) = 0

d = 5 or - 11
When d = 5, a = 8, b = 4, c = 2,
and when d = -11, a = - 8, b = 4, c = 2.
74.b. The equations of the two curves are,
ax y 4
2
·
...(1)
3 2
4x ay ·
....(2)
Solving, the points of intersection of (1) and (2)
are (0, 0), (a, 2a) and (a, -2a).
Diff. (1), dy/dx = 2a/y = ) (
1
say m
Diff. (2), dy/dx =
2
2
6 /( ) (say) x ay m ·
(i) At (0, 0), tan
1 1 1
π/2 m Ψ · · ∞⇒ Ψ · and
Y
O
1/2
1
2
x = 1
y = x - x x
x
x
y
+
=
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2 2
tan m Ψ ·
2 3/ 2
3/ 2
(0, 0)
(0, 0)
6 3
2 ( )
x x
a a ax
]
]
·
]
]
] ]
]
2
0 0. · ⇒ Ψ ·

Angle of intersection =
1 2
~ π/2 Ψ Ψ ·
(ii) At (a, 2a),
1
1, m ·
2
3 m ·

Angle of intersection
1 1 1 2
1 2
~ 1
tan tan
1 2
m m
m m
− −
| `
· ·

+
. ,
Similarly at (a, -2a), the angle of intersection is
1
tan (1/ 2)

Taking the point of intersection (a, 2a) as the point
P, the equations of normals on two curves at P are
(y - 2a)
1
0 m x a + − ·
and (y - 2a)
2
0 m x a + − ·
or (y - 2a). 1 + x - a = 0
and (y - 2a). 3 + x - a = 0
or y + x - 3a = 0 ....(3)
and 3y + x - 7a = 0 ....(4)
(3) and (4) intersect the axis of x at
1
G and
2
G
respecitively,
∴ putting y = 0 in (3) and (4), we get
x = 3a =
1
OG and x = 7a =
2
OG
1 2 2 1
4 . G G OG OG a ∴ · − ·
75.c. Since cos (x - y), cos x, cos (x + y) are in H.P.
) cos( ) cos(
) cos( ) cos(
cos
2
y x y x
y x y x
x + −
+ + −
· ∴
y x
y x
2 2
sin cos
cos . cos 2

·
y x y x cos . cos sin cos
2 2 2
· − ⇒
y y x
2 2
sin ) cos 1 ( cos · − ⇒
2
cos
2
sin 4
2
sin 2 . cos
2 2 2 2
y y y
x · ⇒
2
2
sec . cos
2 2
· ⇒
y
x
⇒ cos x .
. 2
2
sec t ·
y
76.a. x x x − + · + + 1 1 tan ) 1 1 (
x
x
x
+ +
− +
· ⇒
1 1
1 1
tan
Let then θ, cos · x
2
θ
cos 2
1
2
θ
sin
2
1
2
θ
cos 2 1
2
θ
sin 2 1
tan
+
+
·
+
+
· x
2
θ
cos
4
π
cos
2
θ
sin
4
π
sin
+
+
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+
·
4
θ
8
π
cos
4
θ
8
π
cos 2
4
θ
8
π
cos
4
θ
8
π
sin 2

,
`

.
|
+ ·
4
θ
8
π
tan
θ
2
π
4
4
θ
8
π
+ · ⇒ + · ∴ x x
x θ cos θ
2
π
sin 4 sin · ·
,
`

.
|
+ · ∴ x
77.a. Let Q be the pt. (x, y). Let A divides PQ
externally in the ratio K : 1 and point B divides
PQ internally in the ratio l : 1
O A
y) Q(x,
1) P(-2,
B

ordinate of A will be
1
0
1
Ky
k

·

axis] - on x lies A [∵
y
1
1
K
QA
PA
y
1
K · · ⇒ · ∴
y
or
y −
·

· ⇒
1
1
PQ
PA
1
1
QA - PA
PA
i.e.
y − · ⇒ 1
PA
PQ
Again abcissa of B is
0
1
2
·
+

l
lx
axis] - y on lies B [∵
x
l
2
· ∴
x x +
·
+
⇒ · ∴
2
2
QB B P
PB 2
QB
PB
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2
2
2
2
PQ
PB x
PB
PQ
x
+
· ⇒
+
· ⇒
If PA, PQ, PB are in H.P., then
PQ
2
PB
1
PA
1
· +
2
PA
PQ
· + ⇒
PB
PQ
2
2
2
) 1 ( ·
+
+ − ⇒
x
y
y x x y 2 0 2 2 2 · ⇒ · + + − ⇒
∴ locus of Q is x = 2y.
78.a Putting x y 3 · in the curve ,we ,get
2 3 3
5 3 . 3 3 3 x x x x x + + +
0 1 3 5 4 3 . 3
2
· − + + + x x x
i.e.
2 3
) 14 3 3 ( ) 3 3 1 ( x x + + +
0 1 ) 3 5 4 ( · − + + x
This is cubic in x giving three roots . , ,
3 2 1
x x x

3 2 1
x x x = product of roots =
3 3 1
1
+
1 3 3
1 3 . 3
.
1 3 3
1

+
·
26
1 3 . 3
1 27
1 3 3 −
·

·

OA.OB.OC =
) 1 3 3 (
26
8
8
3 2 1
− · x x x
) 1 3 3 (
13
4
− ·
) 3 , (x is A [
1 1
x ∵
.] 2 3 OA
1
2
1
2
1
etc x x x · + · ∴
79.a. The four circles are shown in the figure.
The smallest circle touching all of them has the
radius = 2 ( 2 1) a a a − · − and the greatest
circle touching all of them has the radius =
2 ( 2 1). a a a + · +
Y
O
80c. Any pt. on the parabola
by 4 x
2
·
is
). bt (2bt,
2
From
b
x
dx
dy
by x
2
, 4
2
· ·
Slope of normal at
t bt
b
bt bt
1
2
2
) , 2 (
2
− · − ·

normal is
) 2 (
1
2
bt x
t
bt y − − · −
2
2 bt b
t
x
y + + − · ⇒
(1) touches
if 4
2
ax y ·
at
t
a
bt b − ·

· +
1
2
2

]
m
a
c if 4 y touches [
2
· · + · ax c mx y
0 2
2
· + + ⇒ b at bt
For distinct real roots, Disc. > 0
. 8 0 8
2 2 2 2
b a b a > ⇒ > − ∴
81.b. Let the pole be (h, k)

its polar is
1
2 2
· +
b
ky
a
hx

k
b
x
k
h
a
b
y
2
2
2
+ − · ⇒
This touches the ellise
1
2
2
2
2
· +
a
y
b
x
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
4
. . a
k
h
a
b
b
k
b
+ · ∴
2
2 4
2 6
2
4
a
k a
h b
k
b
+ · ⇒
4 4 2 6 2 6
b a b a h b · + ⇒

locus is
4 4 2 6 2 6
b a y a x b · +
which is an ellipse.
82.a. Equation of normal at any point (ct, c/t) is
0
3 4
· − + − c ty xt ct

slope of normal =
2
t
Let P be (h, k)
0
3 4
· − − − ⇒ c tk ht ct
0 and · Σ · Σ ⇒
j i i
t t
c
h
t
λ ) (
2 2 2 2
c h t t
i i
· ⇒ Σ · Σ ∴
⇒ Required locus is
2 2
λc · x
83.b. Any plane through the given line is
0 5) 4z 3y λ(2x 4 3 2 · + + + + + + + z y x ..(i)
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If it passes thorugh origin (0, 0, 0), then
0 λ 5 4 · +
i.e.
5
4
- λ ·
Substituting this in equation (i), plane through
origina dn given line is

0 ) 5 4 3 2 (
5
4
) 4 3 2 ( 5 · + + + − + + + + z y x z y x
0 2 3 · + + ⇒ z y x
Again, if l, m, n be the d.c’s of the given line, then
n m l , , be the d.c.’s of the given line, then
0 3 2 · + + n m l
and
0 4 3 2 · + + n m l
Solving these equation, we get
4 3 4 6 9 8 −
·

·

n m l
1 2 1
n m l
·

· ⇒
Therefore, equation of the plane through the
origin (0, 0, 0) and perpendicular to the given line
(i.e. the line is a normal to the plane and has d.c.’s
proportional to (1, -2, 1) is
x = 2y + z = 0 ....(iii)
The line of intersect of (ii) and (iii), is the required
perpendicular from the origin to the given line and
equations are
3x + 2y + z = 0, x - 2y + z = 0
i.e.
2 6 3 1 2 2 − −
·

·
+
z y x
4 1 2 −
·

· ⇒
z y x
84.a.
85.c. Given
} 3 ) 1 2 ( 2 2 {
2
2
− + × n
n
} 2 ) 1 ( 57 2 {
2
− + × · n
n
1 57 3 6 4 − + · − + ⇒ n n
11 · ⇒ n
86.d. c) and a of H.M c and a of GM ( > > b ac
Also,
G.M.) (A.M 2 > > +
n n n n
c a c a
n n n n n n
b b c a c a > > > + ⇒ 2 2
i.e. (a) (b) (c) are ture.
87.b. The given expression can be written as
θ cos - | θ sin | 4 4
2 2
x x +
2 2 2
(2 | sinθ|) cos θ-sin θ x · + −
1 1 ) | θ sin | 2 (
2
− ≥ − + · x
88.a. ° + ° · ° + 420 sin 420 cos 840 sin 1
and ° − ° · ° − 420 cos 420 sin 840 sin 1
89.a. f (1) = (1 - 3) log 1 = 0
f (3) = (3 - 3) log 3 = 0
⇒ f(1) = f(3)
Hence, by Rolle’s theorem, there will be at lease
one value of x in (1, 3) such that
0 ) ( ' · x f
0 log
3
· +

⇒ x
x
x
. 3 log x x x − · ⇒
90.a.
91.b. Give,

b ax b ax b ax
b b
b ax ax ax
x f
+ + + +
− +
+ + −
·
2 1 2 2 ) ( 2
1 1
1 2 1 2 2
) ( '

,
`

.
|
− →
− →
− +
− −
+ −
·
1 2 2
1 3 3
1 ) ( 2
1 1
1 1 2
C C C
C C C
b b ax
b b
b ax
( )
2 3 3
1 1 ) ( 2
1
1 2
C C C
b b ax
b b
b ax
+ →
− +

·

,
`

.
|
+ →
+ →
+
+

·
1 3 3
1 2 2
1 0 ) 2 ( 2
0 0 2
1 2
R R R
R R R
b ax
ax b
b ax
= b + 2ax
ax b x f 2 ) ( ' + · ⇒ ...(i)
Since, f(x) has minimum value at x =
,
2
5
therefore
0
2
5
' ·
,
`

.
|
f
⇒ b + 5a = 0 ...(ii)
Now, from equation (i),
, ) (
2
c bx ax x f + + ·
(c is constant) ..(iii)
Given, f(0) = 2
⇒ c = 2
Also, f(1) = 1
⇒ a + b + c = 1
⇒ a + b = - 1 (iv)
(ii) From equations (ii) and (iv),
4
5
,
4
1
− · · b a
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From equation (iii), 2
4
5
4
) (
2
+ − · x
x
x f
Hence,
4
5
,
4
1
− · · b a
and
2
4
5
4
1
) (
2
+ − · x x x f
92.b. The given equation can be written as
2
π) ( 1
2
sin − · − x
x
L.H.S

0 and R.H.S

0
Thus, solution is obtained, if
L.H.S. = R.H.S = 0 and π · x satisfies both.
93.c. Put x = y = z
Now, coefficient of
r
x
in
r
3n 3n
C x) (1 · +
Alternately put n = 1 and r = 3 and verity
94.d. We have

,
`

.
|
>
− +
x
x
1
5 5
2 2

x
x
2
2
5 5

+
>
x
x
2
2 − > +
] [ n m a a
n m
> ⇒ > ∵
0
2 2
2
>

,
`

.
|
+ +

x
x x
0
1
0
1 ) 1 (
2
> ⇒ >
+ +

x x
x
0 1 ) 1 ( [
2
> + + x ∵
for all real values of x ]
) , 0 ( 0 ∞ ∈ ⇒ > ⇒ x x
95.c. 1
3
1
3
1
3
72
>
,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
x x
0 72
3 1 3 · > ⇒
− − x x
0 72 > − − ⇒ x x
0 72 < − + ⇒ x x
0 ) 8 )( 9 ( < − + ⇒ x x
But 0 all for 0 9 ≥ > + x x
8 0 8 < ⇒ < − ∴ x x
64 0 < ≤ ∴ x
Thus ). 64 , 0 [ ∈ x
96.a.
3 1
( ) 3 1 ( ) f x x x f x · − + ⇒ ·
2 1
3( 1), ( ) 0 1 x f x x − · ⇒ · t we have
(1) 1, ( 1) 3, f f · − − · which are of opp. signs.
Hence ( ) 0 f x · has all different real roots.
97.d. We have ( 1) 3 0, (1) 1 0 f f − · > · − < also
(0) 1 0, (2) 3 0& ( 2) 1 0 f f f · > · > − · − <

if , , α β γ are 3 distinct real roots,
2 1, 0 1, 1 2 − < α < − < β < < γ < ⇒ non
integral roots.
98.c. As in above sol.
we have 2 1, 0 1, 1 2 − < α < − < β < < γ <
[ ] 2, [ ] 0, [ ] 1 α · − β · γ ·
[ ] [ ] [ ] 1 ∴ α + β + γ · − .
99.a.
3 2
( ) 8 20 6 9 f x x x x · − + + ,
1 2 1
( ) 24 40 6, Now ( ) 0 f x x x f x · − + ·
3 1
,
2 6
x ⇒ ·
3
2
x ∴ · is a repeated root
3
0
2
f
| `
·

. ,

100.c.
3
2
x · ∵ is a repeated root of ( ) 0 f x · ,
2
(2 3) x − is a factor of ( ) f x . Let
2
( ) (2 3) ( ) f x x ax b · − + ≡
3 2
8 20 6 9 x x x − + +
By comparing coefficients, we get a=2, b=1, so,
2
(2 3) (2 1) x x − +

roots of ( ) 0 f x · are
3 3 1
, ,
2 2 2

.
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101.b. Hydrocarbons of low molecular weight have very
low boiling points, due to their weak intermolecular
forces. However, at much higher pressures, the
hydrocarbons will boil at temperatures that are higher
and easier to deal with in the laboratory. Once a few
data points have been determined, a plot can be made
of boiling point vs. pressure. This graph can then be
extrapolated 1 atmosphere, giving the normal boiling
point.
Choice A) is incorrect because lowering the
temperature will not affect the boiling point the
pressure stays at 1 atm. choice (C) is incorrct because
mixing the compound with another compound may
raise the boiling point to a more manageable level,
but it will not give an exact determination of the
boiling point of the desired compound. Choice (D)
is incorrect because lowering the pressure will lower
the boiling point, making a determination even more
difficult. Again, the answer is choice (B).
102.a. By inspection, you can eliminate choices (C) and
(D) these tell you that the boiling points of silanes
are lower than those of hydrocarbons, and this is
untrue from the tables. When deciding between
choices (A) and (B), the best strategy is to consult
the periodic table. Silicon appears below carbon in
the periodic table, so it must be heavier and have
more electron density. This means that the
compounds that it forms will have stronger
intermolecular forces, because these depend on the
polarizability of the molecule. When a molecule has
a large electron cloud, it will exhibit more van der
Wasls forces than a molecule with less electron
density. Again, the answer is choice (A).
principal quantum number, n and the Azimuthal
quantum number, &ell;. The value for n is the
number of the energy shell - the outermost electron
in silicon is in the 3rd energy level, so the value for
ell; ranges from 0 to n-&ell;; in this case, it may
have values of 0, 1 or 2. 0 corresponds to an s orbital,
&ell; correponds to a orbital and 2 corresponds to a
d orbital. Since the outermost electron in silicon is
in a 3p orbital, its quantum numbers are n=3 and
&ell;=2 choice (C).
104.b. As stated in the passage, the Si
4
H
10
is actually a
mixture of two isomers: branched-chain and straight-
chain. since they contain the same overall molecular
formula, these two isomers difer only in their
structure, so they will have different boiling points.
Therefore, you can immediately eliminate choice
(D). Next, eliminate choice (A). There is no
hydrogen bonding involved in silane compound
since there are no electronegative elements present,
so choice (A) is incorrect. Now, you have two
choices left (B) and (C). These both involve van der
Waals interactions, so the one with stronger
intermolecular bonds will have the higher boiling
point. Straight-chain isomers can pack more tightly,
so they will have more significant van der Waals
interactions, leading to a higher boiling point.
Therefore, the answr is (B).
105.d. As with all Roman numeral statement questions, you
should examine the answer choices to see which
statements appear most frequently and evaluate those
first. If they appear equally, eliminate as you go
along. In this case, each statement appears twice, so
begin with statement I. This statement is untrue, since
a compound has iniform structure; individual
molecules of the same substance are identical.
Therefore, you can eliminate choices (A) and (C).
Is the second statement true? Yes, each additional
compound does act as a solute to raise the boiling
point of a solution, so this will partly account for
the range. Now, evaluate the third statement to see
whether the answer will be (B) or (D). Since the
solution is a mixture of similar compounds, what
boils off will not be pure, they will form azeotropes
since they do not differ significantly.
106.a. But, 4 is different, because
3
O decolourises
4
KMnO solution.
107.b.
energy lattice
1
water in compound
ionic an of Solubility

,
`

.
|
A compound is water soluble if its
hydration energy is higher than lattice
energy.
108.a. Si can bear more than one -OH groups at the same
atom because Si-O bond energy is high thus Si-O
bond is strong, but, C cannot because C-O is
relatively weaker.
109.c. They show variable oxidation states but it is not
necessary that the states differ by two units only.
110.c. Aluminium is obtained by electrolysis of fused
alumina ) O (Al
3 2
using cryolite ) AlF (Na
6 2
and
fluorspar ) (CaF
2
as auxiliary electrolytes.
111.b.
3
ppt) (White
3
NaNO AgCl AgNO NaCl + ↓ → +
NaCl is white coloured salt, whose aqueous solutions
is neutral to litmus. Further, AgCl is insoluble in
dilute
3
HNO .
112.a.
hydrogen) Nascent ( H 2 H
arc Electric
2
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷
Hydrogen cannot reduce
3 2
O Al because Al-O
bonds are very strong. Further, finely divided
of its large surface area. But, nascent hydrogen is
best obtained by treating Na with absolute alcohol
not with ordinary alcohol.
113.b. Measurements of the cell e.m.f.s are a source of
information on the G s, ∆ ∆ and
H ∆
of a given
Paper - I I I : Chemistry - 101 to 150
Solutions
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reaction.
FE G
m
− · ∆ and S T) G/ (
p
∆ − · ∂ ∆ ∂
Therefore, the variation of the cell e.m. f with
temperature is
F / S T) / (
m p
∆ · ∂ ∂ E
Thus the measure of the gradient of the e.m.f. of a
cell with respect to temperature gives the value of
the entropy change of the cell reaction (as
demonstrated by the above equation).
114.b. Osmotic pressure (k) where k = MRT and M is the
molarity. R is the ideal gas constant and T is the
temperature in degrees kelvin. The concentration
of glucose that will be isotonic (i.e. of the same
osmotic (Ji.e of the same osmotic pressure) with
blood can be determined as follows :

RT
π
M MRT π · ·
k) 300 )(
mol - K
atm. - 1
(0.082
atm 3 . 12
·
= 0.50 M
115.a. Use the ideal gas law, PV = nRT. If the volume is
cut in half, then the number of moles will be cut in
half. In addition, the pressure is dropped to 90% if
what it was, so the numbe rof moles should drop by
this factor as well. With the temperature constant,
this gives a new number of moles which is 45% of
20 grams, or 9 grams.
116.a. Note that molarity of HCl is defined as
HCl/1000) (ml
) 2 )( CO Na moles (
liter
HCl moles
3 2
·
HCl/1000) ml ( ) CO Na wt. mol. (
) 2 ( ) CO Na (
3 2
3 2
g
·
The factor 2 is needed, Since each mole of
3 2
CO Na
reacts with 2 moles HCl.
117.c. Real gas molecules have volume making real volume
greater than ideal volume. Real gas molecules exert
attractive forces on one another slowing them and
lowering pressure. The rms velocity of ideal or real
gas molecules is directly proportional to the
temperature.
118.b. Because the only difference betweeen the two
chambers is the presence of a catalyst, the two
chambers will eventually have the same proportion
of product to reactant. Initally, however, the chamber
with the catalyst will produce product at a greater
rate.
emissivity were zero, than P would equal zero. Its
emissivity should be the maximum possible, which
is one.
120.d. Choice b would certainly encourage solubility, but
you should know that the intermolecular bonding in
all alkanes is quite similar. In such a case as the one
described in the question (an “ideal” solution), the
solvation is driven by the entropy of mixing.
121.c. Potential is defined as energy per unit charge, and
thus, when I and II double, III reamins the same.
122.d. Nitrogen 8 is
3
sp
hybridized so one s and three p
orbitals combine to form four
3
sp
hybridized
orbitals which means three fourths (75% is p
character.
123.a. According to the table, ethylene is the least stable
because it has the highest heat of hydorgenation.
This follows the rule that the most substituted alkene
is the most stable.
124.c. The carbon labeled 3 has a lone pair of electrons
and a negative charge. It is very electron rich leading
to increased nucleophilicity.
125.d. The ester and the quaternary amine (four alkyl
groups attached, always positively charged) are
circled below.
O
O
N
126.d. Baeyer strain is the angle strain of the cycloalkanes
due to their deviations from the normal tetrahedral
angle. Pitzer strain is the torsional strain due to
deviations from the staggered conformations.
Dipole-dipole interactions result from the attraction
or repulsion of groups by dipole forces.
Non -bonded interactions are due to the steric strain
introduced by repelling or attracting atoms. There
is no such effect as Strecker strain Strecker refers to
a method of synthesizing - α amine acids
127.c. In this reaction sequence an adrenal hormone is the
final prdocut. The first 2 steps constitute an
acylation. Fries rearrangement and the next steps
were used by Stolz to synthesize the adrenal
hormone, adrenaline. It proceeds as follows:
OH
OH
HCl -
Cl
C
O
Cl CH
2
O
O
OH
Cl CH
2
3
POCl
O
Cl
C
OH
OH
C
O Cl CH
2
2 3
NH CH
HCl -
OH
OH
3 2
CH NH CH - C O − − =
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Pd
2
H
OH
OH
3 2
CH - C - H CH NH − −
OH
128.a. Trichloroacetic acid H) CO (CCl
2 3
has a molecular
weight of 163.5 g/mole. In one mole of
trichloroacetic acid there are two moles of carbon
atoms. Solving

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
acid acetic trichloro mole 1
C 2moles
g/mole 163.5
g 27.3

,
`

.
|
×
mole 1
atoms 10 6.02
23
129. b.The percentage of iron in the sample will be equal
to the weight of iron in the sample divided by the
weight of the sampl,e itself times 100.
Grams iron (g) is equal to :
7 . 159
) 85 . 55 ( * 2
286 . 0 × · g
) O Fe moles 2 iron moles (*
3 2
× ·
% iron
100
563 . 0
8
× ·
% iron =
100
563 . 0
] 7 . 159 / )) 85 . 55 ( 2 ( 286 . 0
×
130.d. Isotopes of a particular element are characterized
by the same atomic number and different atomic
masses. The only difference in composition between
them is in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
Thomson and Aston in 1912-1913, discovered the
first isotopes (neon). All the other choices are
inaccurate and therefore should be ruled out.
131.c. The phrase that is key to answering this question
correctly is “based on the Third Law of
Thermodynamics.” The Third law states: All perfect
crystals have the same entropy at absolute zero.
132.a. Within a homologous series, the logarithm of the
retension volume is a linear function of the number
of carbon atoms once the experiement is performed
meticulously.
133.a. According to the First Law of thermodynamics the
energy of an isolated system is constant. Only by
work or heat passing through the walls of such a
system can its energy be changed. Thus, the energy
of a closed system cannot increase without
interacting with its surroundings and therefore a
prepetual motion machine as described cannot exist.
134.d. Remember that to be absorbed, the photon must have
exactly the right energy to boost the electron from
one level to another, or enough energy to ionize the
atom. It’s also important to realize the question asks
for the photons that could be absorbed by an electron
in its ground state, so we are starting at the -14.9 eV
(or lowest-energy) level. From there it takes 6.7 eV
to raise the electron to the next level, 9.6 eV for the
level after that, and so on. This suggests choice d.
The last two entries choice d (15.0 eV and 16.1 eV)
have enough energy to ionize the atom, and are thus
allowed.
135.b. This is just a plug and chug problem. Use the
equation : . ] A log[ 303 . 2 / ] log[
0
+ · kt A
t
. 2 ] 100 [ log ] A log[
0
· ·
. 1 3 . 2 / 000 , 46 10 5 303 . 2 /
5
− · × × − · −

kt
Thus . 10 ] A [ 1 ] A log[ · ·
t t
or
136.d. Note G vs. In p, should be in the form of a straight
line. Since G =
o
G
+ RTIn
) (P/p
o
is a linear
function of the form y = mx + b. Note that (c) is
incorrect. Since the p axis is expressed in the form
of natural logarithms.
137.d. Any single step reaction has a rate law in which the
powers are the number of a given type which collide.
Half a molecule cannot collide !
138.a. A catalyst increases the rate by lowering the energy
of activation. It does not effect the equilibrium.
139.c. Free energies and entropies can be manipulated in
the same way as enthalpies. We are given the
following data :
229kJ/mol ) ( ) ( ) (
2 2 2
1
2
− · ∆ → +
o
G g O H g O g H
kJ/mol 237 ) ( ) ( ) (
2 2 2
1
2
− · ∆ → +
o
G l O H g O g H
140.c. First of all, the concentration is 1 molar, so we are at
standard conditions. Since the temperature of the
solution drops, we know that the reaction is
absorbing heat from its environment, and so we
know that the reaction is endothermic. This means
o
H ∆
is positive. Since the solution is still
unsaturated at 1 molar, dissolving more salt at
standard.conditions must be spontaneous.
o
G ∆
is
therefore negative, and the correct answer is c.
141.b. The amide functional group on the molecule below
is circled. The “am” prefix indicates a functional
group with a nitrogen atom.
O
N H
2
O
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142.c. The tertiary carbons a circled on the structure below.
l cholestano - 3β
HO
143.b. The 1, 4-addition product is more stable because it
is more substituted than the 1, 2-addition product.
144.a. The leaving group would be

3
CH
before the
substitutions of the 1 atoms for hydrogens. After
the substituions the leaving group is

3
CI
.

3
CI
is a better leaving group because the 1 atoms are
electron withdrawing and stabilize the negative
charge.
145.a. The nitrogen in histidine has a lone pair of electrons
that form the bond with iron. The amine is the Lewis
base and the Fe is a Lewis acid.
146.d. The correct answer is Choice D, the only insoluble
salt listed. Choices A and B are incorrect because
salts of virtually all alkali metals (such as sodium
and potassium) are soluble. Choice C is incorrect
because all chlorides (except silver, lead, and
mercury) are soluble.
147.a. The correct answer is Choice A. Regardless of the
solution, the hydrogen ion concentration and pH are
related by the equation pH = -log [H
+
] Starting with
the pH, the antilog of the -5 is 1 x 10
-5
, which is the
hydrogen ion concentration in M.
148.c. Every calcium on (Ca
2+
) in solution will be
exchanged for two sodium ions (Na
1+
) in order to
preserve charge neutrality. Therefore, choice A is
true and is thus an incorrect choice. Freezing point,
boiling point, and osmotic pressure are all colligative
properties which depend upon the number of moles
of particles in solution choice B is incorrect because
more ions in solution (caused by adding twice as
many sodium ions) will add to the freezing point
depression. Choice D is similarly incorrect because
more ions in solution will lead to boiling point
elevation. Choice C is the correct choice because
more ions in solution will actually raise rather than
lower the osmotic pressure of the solution.
149.a. Methanol is freely soluble in water, so it will affect
the boiling point of water solutions. However, it does
not ionize to any appreciable amount in solution,
and thus will not conduct electricity. Choices B, C
and D are incorrect because acetic acid, sodium
chloride, and sodium benzoate will all ionize in
solution, and will therefore conduct electricity in
solution. It should be noted that acetic acid, being a
weak acid, will only ionize about 1% in water,but
will still carry a weak charge.
150.d. Liquid water will always have some ions in solution
because of its autoionization process. Choice A,
which involves a lowering of the temperature, may
lead to a decrease in the value of the equilibrium
constant of the autoionization process, but will not
eliminate the presence of ions entirely.