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key AI  IITJEE  Model test  05
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1.d. The question is asking for the value of d that provides
these experimental results  a sure clue that you’ll
need to use the equation provided by the passage :
θ · λ sin d 2 n
n(3 cm) = 2d sin 19
0
n
2
9
3
1
2
n 3
d ·
,
`
.

·
The first maxima, at n = 1, yields d = 4.5 cm answer
choice (D) Noitce that other, higher interatomic
separations are possible, but all of the other answer
choices are smaller.
2.d. As the layers are separated, the intensity of the
reflected waves drops; the path lengths of the
reflected wave are increased, and so they don’t meet
in phase any longer. However, as the planes of atoms
(or steel balls) are separated, eventually the
difference in path length between microwaves will
be another multiple of the wavelength, and
constructive interference will occur again. So, the
intensity will initially drop, but it will then rise again
answer choice (D) is correct.
3.c .Nothing about Bragg diffraction, as described in the
passage, has anything to do with the intensity of the
incoming microwaves. The microwaves will interfere
with each other as they bounce off of consecutive
layers, whether or not they are strong or weak. We
expect, therefore, this to have no impact on the
experiment, and choice (C) is correct.
4d. Destructive interference occurs when two waves
meet out of phase, that is, that the peak of one meets
the through of the other, and viceversa. This will
occur when the path length between the two
interfering waves is a halfinteger multiple of the
wavelength. The difference in path length, according
to the passage, is 2d sin θ , only answer choice (D)
expresses this as onehalf, or threehalves, or five
halves the wavelength.
5.d. We can calculate the frequency of microwaves if we
knew their wavelength. The passage intimates that
microwaves have wavelengths in the centimeter
region, so:
Hz 10 3
m 0.01
m/s 10 3 c
f
10
8
× ·
×
·
λ
·
Answer choice (D) is correct.
6.a. Resonating frequency for a closed pipe
4
V
n
L
· ⋅
for 1; n · 1
340
1 100
4 83.2
f · ⋅ ×
×
102.16Hz ·
for closed pipe, next possible overtones will be for n
= 3, 5, 7, 9.
1 1
3; 3 3 102.16 316.48Hz n f f · · × · × ·
1 1
5; 5 5 102.16 510.8Hz n f f · · × · × ·
1 1
7; 7 7 102.16 715.00Hz n f f · · × · × ·
1 1
9; 9 9 102.16 919.00Hz n f f · · × · × ·
for
11 1
11; 11 11 102.16 n f f · · × · ×
which is > 1000Hz ·
∴
Possible overtones will be for n = 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, i.e.,
5.
7.d. Let f =frictional force between the bar and one of the
disk.
Then
2
1
4 ;
2
Mg f Ma fr mr
 `
− · · α
. ,
( ) a r · α
2
1 1 1
;
2 2 2
a
f r mr mra f ma
r
∴ ⋅ · ⋅ · ·
1
4 ; ( 2 )
2
Mg ma Ma Mg M m a · ⋅ · · +
5 5
9 9 9
M g
a g g · ⋅ · ⋅ ·
8.b. Final angular velocity,
0
T ω· ω + α
0 0 0
O
T T T
ω−ω −ω ω
α · · ·−
Torque on the disc
2 0
1
( )
2
I ma
T
ω  `  `
τ · α · −
. , . ,
But
0
;
2
ma
Fa F
a T
ω τ
τ · · ·
.
9.c. Given sin (1000 (3) ) y a t x · π − ,
2 2
3 ;
3
k
π π
∴ · · λ ·
λ
Phase diff. of
2π
= Path diff.
λ
Phase diff. of
3
π
= Path diff. =
3
π
.
1 1 2
2 6 6 3 9
λ π π
λ× · · × ·
π
.
10.c. W = weight of cone =
Paper  I : Physics  1 to 50
Solutions
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2
1 2
1 1
,
3 3 81
A h h
d g Ah d g
h q
 `
⋅ ⋅ · ⋅
. ,
2
2 1 2
1 1
3 3 4 2
A h h
W Ahd g d g
h
 `
+ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
. ,
1
1
24
Ah d g · ⋅
1 2 1
1 1 1
;
81 3 24
Ah d g Ahd g Ah d g ⋅ + · ⋅ ⋅
1 2 1 2
1
57
:
81 3 24 648
d d d d
d
+ · ·
.
11.d.
2
1
2
dv mv ·
= change in energy
But,
1
v
R
dv C d T d T
r
· ⋅ · ⋅
−
2
2
1
; ( 1)
1 2 2
R mv
d T mv T r
r R
∴ ⋅ · · −
−
But
7
5
r ·
for diatomic gas
2 2
7
1
2 5 5
MV mv
T
R R
 `
· − ·
. ,
12.c. (1–2) :
: : ;
P
P T P kT PV RT PV R
k
α · · ·
Constant V ∴ ·
1
0 W ∴ −
(2–3) : Pressure is constant :
; PV RT V T · α
Since P is constant
( ) ( )
f i
w P V PV RT R T T ∆ · ∆ · ∆ ⋅ ∆ · −
(2400 800) R · −
(3–4) : V= Constant :
(4–1) :
( ) (400 1200)
f i
w R T T R ∆ − · − ·
2
3
4
1600
0
800
500
w R
w
w R
w R
∆ ·
∆ ·
∆ ·
− − − − − − −
∆ ·
− − − − − − −
500 800 8.3 6640J W R ∴∆ · · × ·
This is the work done per mole.
∴
Work done by three moles =
3 6640 19920J 20KJ × · ≈
.
13c.
: :
m
A B V T PV RT
M
→ α · ⋅
To obtain P V relation we eliminate = T
m V
PV R
M K
· ⋅ ⋅
(K is constant)
a constant P ∴ ·
B C →
V=Constant.
C A →
: T=Constant.
∴
PV= Constant
∴
Plot suitable is (c) graph.
14.b.
0
;
A Q
V Q V
C d
ε
· · ×
When the dielectric basis put capacitance increases
to C
1
1 1 0 0
; 3
A A
C Q VC V
d d
ε εε
· ε⋅ · ·
0 0
3. . . : 3
A A
V V
d d
ε ε
· ε ε ·
15.a. When the charge developed on the capacitor is q,
the PD across it is
q
C
. Hence the voltage in the
circuit is
q
C
ε −
∴
Work done to develop total charge
0
Q
q
Q dq
C
 `
· ε −
. ,
∫
2 2
1
( )
2 2
Q
O
q Q
w q Q
C C
 `
· − · ε −
. ,
( ) Q C · ε ∵
2 2 2
1 1
2 2
C C C · ε − ε · ε
(V) energy stored =
2 2
1 1
2 2
CV C · ε
2 2
1 1
. : 1:1
2 2
wV C C · ε ε ·
.
16.b.
23 8 5 0
2 3 4
q q q
− + − − − ·
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q
A B
2 8V 5V
25V
q q
1 1 1
26
2 3 4
q
 `
· + +
. ,
24 q C ∴ · µ
24
/ 3 8Volt
3
q
V PDa c F
C
∴ · µ · · ·
.
17.a.
2
0.1( 6 ) ;
d
t t E
dt
−
· − ·
φ
φ
(0.2 6) 6 0.2 t t · − − · −
∴
as t increases, E decreases.
Hence graph (a) in the choice.
18.d. E = emf developed a/c first coil
d
dt
 `
. ,
φ
1
1
0.3
0.2 66Volts
0.001
di
L
dt
 `
· · × ·
. ,
the same emf will be developed a/c II coil as being
wound round the (same) common core
2 2 2
60
60 ; 0.1A
600
I R I ∴ · × · ·
19.c.
0
di
E L
dt
− ·
;
E dt L di ⋅ · ⋅
;
2
2
0 0
(3 2 ) 0.25
i
t t dt di + ·
∫ ∫
48 i ∴ ·
; Energy =
2
1
2
Li
=
0 2
1
0.25 (48) 288 J
2
× × ·
20.d.
di
E L
dt
· ⋅
;
2 10
5
4
di E IR
A Sec
dt L L
×
· · · ·
.
21.a. For square coil of side ‘L’,
oI
4
L
B
µ
· ⋅
π
for circular coil of radius ‘R’,
oI
2
B
R
µ
·
Ratio of
4 oI 2 8R 8 1 1
'B'
L oI πL π π 2
R µ
· ⋅ · · × ×
π µ
2 π R=2, π R =1;
1
π
R ·
1
4 2;
2
L L · ·
;
2
16: · π
22.d.
2
2
2
E
P i R R
r
R
· ·
 `
+
. ,
.
R R
r/2
E
E
E
r
r
When
dP
dR
is =0, P is maximum
2 2
2 2
2
;
2 2
dP E E R
D
dR
r r
R R
∴ · − ·
 `  `
+ +
. , . ,
2
r
R ·
23.d. 1 1 1 1 1
.....16 lenses
2 4 8 F f f f f
· + + + +
1 1 1 1 1
1 .....
2 4 8 F f
 `
· + + + +
. ,
1 1 2
1
1
2
f f
· ⋅ ≈
−
;
2
f
F ∴ · .
24.c. Consider an element of thickness (dx) at a distance x
from the axis of rotation force acting on the element.
h
dx
x
p
p+dp
– axis
L
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2
( ) dm x · ⋅ ω
If a = cross sectional area of tube.
dm a dx · ⋅ ∫ ⋅ ⋅
(
∫
=density of liquid)
Net pressure acting on element =
2
dt dm x
dp
a a
⋅ ω
· ·
2
2
a dx x
dp x dx
a
⋅ ∫ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ω
· · ∫ ω ⋅
But net pressure acting on horizontal position of the
liquid position =
0
L
g h d p ρ ·
∫
2
2 2 2
2 2
0 0
2 2
L
x L
g h x dx
] ω
ρ · ρω ⋅ ·ρω · ρ
]
]
∫
2 2
2
L
h
g
ω
·
.
25.c. acceleration of system,
. unbalanced force
Total mass 2
c
m g
a
m m mc
· ·
+ +
m .g
c
mg
ma
µN
N
.
(1)
3
c
m g
a
m mc
· −
+
r mg µ ·
( ) ma mg µ ·
(2)
g
a · −
µ
.
3
c
m g g
m mc
∴ ·
+ µ
;
c
m =mass of block
3
1
m
c ·
µ −
.
26.c. In minimum deisation position,
; and
2
A
i i D A A A i A r + · + · + · ·
2sin cos
sin sin
2 2
sin
sin sin
2 2
A A
i A
A A
r
∴µ · · ·
1
2cos
2
A
−
µ
·
.
27.a. for plane surface,
1 1 h
V mR
µ −
− ·
− ∞
V mR ·−µ
A
B
C
R mR R
for curved surface =
1 1
( )
h
R mr R R
−µ
− ·
− µ + −
1 1 2
;
( 1) 2 ( 2)
h
m
R R m R
µ
+ · ⋅ ·
µ + µ µ−
28.a. We have frindge width,
red red
D
d
β · λ ⋅
”
blue blue
D
d
β · λ ⋅
Let
0
x be the distance within which there are n red
fringes and (n+)
th
blue fringes.
Then
0
( 1)
red blue
x n n · β · + β
, ( 1)
red blue
or n n λ · + λ
7800 ( 1) 5200 ; 2 nx n n · + ∴ ·
29.b. N
decayed
=
t
o
N e
−λ
⋅ and
t t
o o
A A e N e
−λ −λ
· · λ ⋅
( )
t
left over o decayed o o
N N N N N e
−λ
∴ · − · − ⋅
o o o
o
A A
N N N
N
· − ⋅ · −
λ λ
This is the equation of a straight line in the –ve
slope.
30.b. E (total energy) =
1
;
2
V K K U + ·
(U is negative);
2 t K K K · − + · −
3.4 K − · −
3.4 eV K ·
.
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31.a. This is a bit of trivia that you should know for the
Test: The gravitational force everywhere inside a
uniformly dense sphere or ring, due to that sphere or
ring, is zero. However, the uniformally dense ring or
sphere does not block the gravitational field due to
other sources, so the force due to the smaller ring
still affects a particle at position D.
32.c. Initially the two pistons are in equilibrium; hence,
the pressure underneath them must be equal. Since
there is vacuum above the pistons, the force of
pressure acting on each piston must balance the
weight of that piston. Thus, the piston having twice
the mass must have twice the crosssectional area.
We can denote these two areas A and 2A.
If we double the total load on the lighter piston, the
extra load on the pistor would cause it to drop all the
way to the bottom of its cylinder and all of the gas
will be squeezed into the second cylinder. Since there
is negligible variation inhydrostatic pressure across
the height of a 40cm column in a typical gas under
reasonable conditions, one can assume the pressure
is the same everywhere throughout the gas. But the
pressure in this second cylinder must continue to
hold up the second piston, whose weight has not
changed. Thus, the gas pressure will be the same
before and after adding the extra 1kg load.
Furthermore, the temperature and the number of
moles are the same. Thus, the volume of the gas
must be conserved. The initial volume is 3Ah. The
final volume is 2AH. Equating these two expressions
gives H=1.5h=0.60m.
33.c. The inclined plane cuts out an area given by:
Area =
2
cos cos30º 3
s s s
· ·
θ
Let the average intensity at the incline be x. Then:
2
( ) (1 )
3
s
x A
 `
· ·
. ,
(constant output power of bulb).
Finally,
3 1
2
A
x
s
 `
 `
·
. ,
. ,
34.c. A ray through the center of the lens is not bent at all.
O
35.a. Since V c · α (Where 1 α<< )
the electrn is moving at nonrelativistic speed. By
Law of Conservation of Momentum
'
h h
mv + ·
λ λ
2
'
hc h mv
mcv ⇒ + · ·
λ λ α
... (1)
By Law of Conservation of Energy
2
1
2 '
hc h
mv · −
λ λ
... (2)
Adding (1) and (2), we get
2 2
1 1
2 ( )
2
hc
mv mv · +
λ α
2 2
4 2
hc mv mv
E
γ
⇒ · · +
λ α
Since 1 α<<
1
1 ⇒ >>
α
;
2 2
4 2
mv mv
⇒ <<
α
2
1
2
mv
E
γ
 `
⇒ ·
α
. ,
2
1
2
mv E
γ
⇒ · α
36.a. Intensity
2
1
d
α
and Current α Intensity
⇒ Current
2
1
d
α
i.e. when d becomes 3d
1 becomes
1
2mA
9
·
Where as stopping potential is independent of
intensity.
37.d.
38.b. The pressure at a given point in the small pipes would
double, but twice as much presure would be required
to support the same volume of the heavier fluid.
39.d. v = sqrt(gh) and v = f λ , g is smaller on the moon, so
velocity would decrease. The frequency is dictated
by t, the period. Since t does not change, frequency
remains constant and λ must decrease.
40.d. The net total force exerted on the chain (by both the
surface and gravitation) at any time is equal to its
mass times the acceleration of its center of mass.
X
X
L
l=linear
mass density
of the chain
M
L
=
To find the equation of motion of the center of mass,
according to the figure, we can write (all the distances
are evaluated with respect to the hanging point):
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( ) ( )
2
cm
L x
x L L x x
mx
x
m L
−  `
λ + − λ +
Σ
. ,
· ·
Σ λ
2 2
2
L x
x
L
−
· +
'
' '
cm
xx
x x
L
⇒ · −
2 2
'' ' '' '
'' '' '' ''
cm cm
xx x xx x
x x Mx Mg N M x
L L
 `
+ +
· − ⇒ · − · −
. ,
N; the normal force of the surface
But x´´= g since the chain is falling freely and also we
have:
2
' 2 x gx ·
(equation of motion with constant acceleation). So
we have
3
( 2 )
M M
N xg gx gx
L L
· + ·
41.c. Let k be the spring constant of the spring. In
equilibrium, PA=kh. (P is presure, A is the area of the
piston, and h is theheight of the piston above the
bottom.) Therefore
1 2 1 2
/ / P P h h · . From the ideal
gas law we have
1 1 1 2 2 2
/ / PV T PV T · , (T is the
abosolute temperature.)
1 1 1 2 2 2
, so / / V hA Ph T P h T · · .
With
2 1
2 T T · , we have
2
2 1 1 2 1 2
1
2 / , ( / )
2
P Ph h h h · ·
.
The piston rises to a height 2 h when the gas
temperature is 2T.
42.c. Notice that the voltage is a property of the field, and
is independent of the charge or sign on q
2
. The
formula for voltage is: V=kq/r. Voltage is inversely
proportional to r. As we move against the lines of
force (toward positive), voltage increases.
43.a. Let us put the origin of our reference frame over the
midpoint of the axes of the cylinders, at the level of
the center of the board, and let us call x the horizontal
position of the center of the board in this reference
frame (x axis pointing to the right). The vertical
equation for the forces acting on the board is
1 2
0 N N Mg + − · and the equation for rotational
equilibrium is
1 2
0
2 2
d d
N N Mgx − − · .
(
1
N is the normal at the right cylinder, and
2
N at the
left cylinder.) From these two equations we obtain
1 2
1 1
and
2 2
x x
N Mg N Mg
d d
 `  `
· + · −
. , . ,
.
The kinetic friction forces are
1 1 k
F N · −µ and
2 2 k
F N · +µ (the first points to the left, and the
second to the right). Applying Newton’s second
law to the center of the board, we have
1 2
1 1
2 2
k k
x x
F F M x Mg Mg
d d
 `  `
+ · ⇒ µ + + µ −
. , . ,
2 2
0
k k
g g
x x x
d d
µ µ
· ⇒ + ·
.
This is the equation for simple harmonic motion with
angular frequency ω.
2
2
( )
k
g
d
µ
ω ·
Conclusion: The center of the board will oscillate
with period.
2
2
kg
d
T · π
µ
around the origin of our reference frame. The
amplitude of the motion will depend on the “initial”
situation, i.e., on the initial “asymmetry” of the board
when it is placed on the cylinders. In the original
figure, the center of the board seems to be (initially)
slightly at the right of our origin, so the board will
begin the oscillation moving to the left.
44.d. For a series RLC circuit
0
dl
L RI V
dt
− − − ·
dV
Q CV I C
dt
· ⇒ ·
2
2
0
d V dV
LC RC V
dt dr
− − − ·
or
1
´´ ´ 0
R
V V V
L LC
+ + ·
For the parallel RLC circuit shown
C L
I
1
I
2
R
p
2
1
,
dI dQ
Q CV I L
dt dt
· · − · −
2
1 2
( )
p
dI
V R I I L
dt
· + · −
1 2
( ´ ´ )
p
dV
R I I
dt
· +
´´
p p
V
CR V R
L
· − −
1
´´ ´ 0
p
V
V V
R C LC
+ + ·
Hence for the same L, C, Q we need
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1
p
p
R L
R
R C L RC
· ⇒ ·
45.c. Use the right hand rule. If we imagine positive charge
in the bar as it moves through the magnetic field,
point your fingers of your right hand in the direction
of the magnetic field, and your thumb in the direction
of the moving charge (the direction of the moving
bar). Now, with your hand in this position, push
with your palm. This is the direction of the current,
up through the bar. This creates a counterclockwise
current in the loop.
46.d. Keeping in mind the relationship with poer and
energy, let’s focus on how much energy is required
to excite a proton from the lower to higher spin
energy. The passage states that the RF pulse has to
be applied at the specific Larmor frequency in order
to excite a proton. By using E=hf to calculate the
energy resulting from an RF wave at the Larmor
frequency, we can then calculate the amount of power
require to maintain this wave for 2 seconds. So, using
f
0
= γ B
0’
then E=h γ B
0
so:
E = (6.62 x1034J/s) (1.5T)
(42.56MHz/T) = 4.22 x 10
26
J
Finally, divide by 2 sec to calculate the power P =
2.11 x10
26
W.
47.d. These types of questions ask you to examine an
equation and are testing your understanding of the
parametes of the equation. The question refers to
Equation 1, which has temperature as part of the
equation, so eliminate choice (B). Decreasing the
magnetic field or using a different target atom would
change B
0
and
γ
respectively, which dictates the
energy difference between spin states, so eliminate
choices (A) and (C). changing the wavelength of the
RF pulse would not affect the spin ratio, and choice
(D) is correct.
48.a. You know that the energy gap between the spin states
of the proton is directly proportional to the Larmor
frequency, and that the Larmor frequency is
proportional to the applied field. It folows that
doubling the magnetic field strength will double the
energy gap choice (A) is correct.
49.c. This is basically a discrete question  it has nothing
to do with the passage. You are asked to consider
how two forces act on the electronmagnetic and
gravitational. Except that there is no magnetic force,
since the electron moves antiparallel to the magnetic
field. Moving charges have to have a component of
their velocity be perpendicular to the magnetic field
for the field to exert a force on it. So the only force on
the electron is gravitatonal, and the correct answer
is choice (C)
50.b. How many times greater” is IITJEE speak for”
calculate the ratio”  in this case, the ratio of the X
ray photon energy to the RF photon energy, used in
the MRI described in the passage. Since the energy
of a photon is proportional to its frequency, it will be
sufficient to calculate the ratio of the frequencies.
What is the frequency of the RF photons used in the
MRI? At 1.5T.
) T / Hz 10 56 . 42 ( B f
6
0 RF
× · γ ·
Hz 10 6.38 T) (1.5
7
× ·
So the ratio of frequencies is:
11
7
19
FR
x
10 57 . 1
10 38 . 6
10 1
f
ray f
× ·
×
×
·
−
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51.a.
1
2 2
(1 ) (1 )...(1 )
n
x x x
−
+ + +
represented by
1
2 2 4 2
1
(1 ) (1 ) (1 ).....(1 )
1
n
x x x x
x
−
− + + + ·
−
1 1
2 2 2
(1 ) (1 ) 1
1 1
n n n
x x x
x x
− −
− + −
·
− −
by taking log prod
uct & diff. on b.s. w.r to x
1
1
1 2
2
2
1 1 2 1
...
1 1
1
n
n
n
x
x x
x
−
−
−
−
+ + + ·
+ +
+
1
2
2
1 2 1
1
1
n
n
n
x
x
x
−
−
−
−
−
.
52.a. If
1
2 2
  1, 0
n n
n n
x Lt x Lt x
−
→∞ →∞
< · ·
So, the sum of the series to infinite terms =
1
1 x −
.
53.d.
1 2
( ) sin sin .....sin
n
f θ · θ θ θ , taking log on
b.s. & diff.
1
logsin ... logsin
n
· θ + + θ ⇒
1
1
1
( ) cot ... cot
( )
n
f
f
θ · θ + + θ
θ
.
54.a.
1
2 2
(1 ) (1 )...(1 )
n
x x x
−
+ + +
represented by
1
2 2 4 2
1
(1 ) (1 ) (1 ).....(1 )
1
n
x x x x
x
−
− + + + ·
−
1 1
2 2 2
(1 ) (1 ) 1
1 1
n n n
x x x
x x
− −
− + −
·
− −
by taking log
product & diff. on b.s. w.r to x
1
1
1 2
2
2
1 1 2 1
...
1 1
1
n
n
n
x
x x
x
−
−
−
−
+ + + ·
+ +
+
1
2
2
1 2 1
1
1
n
n
n
x
x
x
−
−
−
−
−
.
55.a. f(1) = a  b + c < 1 .....(1)
f (1) = a + b + c > 1
⇒  a  b  c < 1 ....(2)
F (3) = 9a + 3b + c < 1
From (1) and (2)  2b < 2
⇒ b + 1 > 0
56.c. If n is the total number of players, there would have
been
n
C
2
games. Since the two players say A and B
quit after playing 3 games each the loss of games.
= 2 (n  1) 1
= 2 n  3
(1 is subtracted since the particular match in which A
and B play is counted twice)
∴
number of games played
6 3) (2n C
2
n
+ − − ·
(Both play 3 games each)
) 18 5 (
2
1
2
+ − · n n
= 84 (given);
0 150 5
2
· − − ⇒ n n
0 ) 15 ( ) 10 ( · − + ⇒ n n ;
15 · ⇒ n
57. c. In , 90
o
OAP A ∆ ·
3 1
1
0
Z Z t
i and
Z r
−
∴ ·
−
In
2
3 2
0Z r
∆OBP, = i
Z Z t
∴
P(Z )
3
t
O
B(Z )
2
A(Z )
1
3 1 2
1 3 2
Z Z
1
Z
Hence
Z Z Z
 `  ` − −
· −
− −
. , . ,
3 3
1 2
Z
1 1
Z
or
Z Z
+ · −
;
1 2
3
1 2
2 Z Z
Z
Z Z
∴ ·
+
58. a.
cot 84 cot 48
tan 24 tan12
o o
o o
A
B
·
o
o o
cot 84 cos 48 cos 24 cos 12
sin 84 sin 48 sin 24 sin12
o o o
o o
·
o
o o
(cos 108 cos 60 ) ( cos60 + cos 36 )
(cos 60  cos 108 ) (cos 36 cos60 )
o o o
o o
+
·
−
1 5 1 1 5 1
2 4 2 4
1 5 1 5 1 1
2 4 4 2
 ` `
− +
− +
. ,. ,
·
 ` `
− +
+ −
. ,. ,
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 5 3+ 5
1 5 5 1
−
·
+ −
;
4
1
4
· ·
Paper  I I : Mathematics  51 to 100
Solutions
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59.c. Solving, y = m
1
x and x + y = 1,
we get the x coordinate of A as
1
1
1 m +
1
1
1
OL
m
∴ ·
+
A
B
C
O
N M L
Similarly,
2
1
1
OM and
m
·
+
3
1
1
ON
m
·
+
Now, AB = BC ⇒ LM = MN. being projection on
the xaxis
1 2
1 1
1 1 m m
⇒ −
+ +
;
2 3
1 1
1 1 m m
· −
+ +
1 2 3
1 1 1
, . .
1 1 1
and are in AP
m m m
⇒
+ + +
1 2 3
1+m ,1 ,1 m m ⇒ + + are in H.P.
60.b. C = (8  4, 24  6) or (4, 18)
2 2
(4 4) (18 6) 12 AC ∴ · − + − ·
Since AC = AB = 12
3
B C
π
· ·
;
3
Since A
π
·
∴
the
∆
is equilateral and the radius of the
incircle =
1
3
altitude
1
3
·
AC sin 60
o
1 3
12
3 2
· ×
2 3 ·
61. a.
2 2 2
2 2
; 1
49 576
b m a mx y
y x
+ t · · + is a
tangent
i.e., 25 t · x y is a tangent
Solving with the equation of the ellipse, we get
0 ) 576 ( ) 576 ( ) 25 ( 2 625
2 2
· + t x x
0 ) 576 25 (
2 2
· t x
25
576
+ · ∴x
and correspondingly
25
49
t · y
62.c The points with position vectors
, a b a b + − and
a kb +
are collinear if and only
if ( ) ( ) a kb l a b m a b + · + + − for some real
values of l and m .
This implies that
1 m + ·
and
m k − ·
and
hence
1
2
k +
·
and
1
2
k
m
−
·
Hence, for these values of
and m (correponding
to any k) the given points are collinear.
63.a. Position vector of P, the midpoint of
2
b c
BC
+
·
( )
0
2
b c
b c d
 ` +
− − ·
. ,
⇒ DP is perpendicular to BC.
∴ DP is the perpendicular bisector
Similarly, DQ is the perpendicular bisector of CA.
∴
D is the circumcentre of
∆ABC
A
B C
D
Q
P
b+c
2
d
c+a
2
64.b. A normal vector
n
to the plane OQR is
i j k
OQ × OR 1 3 4
2 1 2
= 10 i +10 j 5k
and
2i + 2 j  k
ˆ n =
3
∴
the perpendicular from P on OQR = projection of
OP
on
ˆ n
(2i + 2j  k)
= (3 i  2j + k .
3
 6  4  1 11
3 3
· ·
65.d. The probability of getting an odd number in a
throw = 1 / 2
The probability of getting an odd number 2 times in
n trials
2 n2
n
2
1 1
= C
2 2
 `  `
. , . ,
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similarly the probability of getting an even number
3 times in n trials
3 n  3
n
3
1 1
= C
2 2
 `  `
. , . ,
It is given
n n
n n
2 3
1 1
C C
2 2
 `  `
·
. , . ,
or
n n
2 3
C C 5 n · ⇒ ·
Then the probability of getting an odd number odd
number of times
n n n
n n n
1 3 5
1 1 1
C + C + C
2 2 2
 `  `  `
. , . , . ,
where n = 5
5 5 5
1 3 5
1 1
= C + C + C =
32 2
]
]
66.a.
π − ·
− 2 1
cos x y
π π ≤ − ≤ ⇒
2
0 x
π π 2
2 2
≤ ≥ ⇒ x and x
and x o x r π π ≥ − ≤ ⇒
π π 2 2 ≤ ≤ − x
[ ] [ ] π π π π 2 , , 2 ∪ − − ∈ ⇒ x
67.c.
,
`
.

− · + ·
4
cos 2 sin cos
1
π
x x x y
1
1
4
π
2
π
4
3π
4
5π
− =
4
cos 2
π
x y
1
y
2
y
3
y
− =
4
sin 2
π
x y
,
`
.

− · − ·
4
sin 2 cos sin
2
π
x x x y
1
3
· y
Plotting the curves on a graph
2
0 cos sin ) (
π
≤ ≤ + · x x x x f
4
5
2
cos sin
π π
≤ ≤ − · x x x
From the graph, it is clear that f(x) is differentiable
at both
6
5
6
π π
and
]
]
]
4
5π
0, in continuous is f(x)
68.a.
2
Putting tan θ 1 xz − ·
∫
+
·
2 tan
2
θ
dz
I
; ∫
+
·
3
2
z
dz
,
`
.

+ + · 3 log
2
z z
C +
,
`
.

+ + − · 2 tan 1 tan log
2 2
θ θ
69.a.
( )
2
n
1 4 3 n r r
n
Lt
r
n
+
∑
·
∞ →
( )
2
4 r/n 3
1
.
/
1
2
1
+
·
∑
∞ →
n r
Lt
n
( )
2
1
0
4 3 +
·
∫
x x
dx
;
dt
t
1
.
3
2
2
7
4
∫
·
,
`
.

·
7
1

4
1
3
2
;
14
1
·
70.a.
dx x I cot cot
1
3
2
2
0
0
−
−
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+ + + ·
π
π
π
π
π
π
dx x ) cot( cot
1
0
+ ·
−
∫
π
π
dx x cot cot
1
0
−
∫
+
π
dx x ) cot( cot
1
2
π
π
π
− +
−
∫
dx x ) 2 cot( cot
1
3
2
π
π
π
− +
−
∫
dx x dx x ) (
0
0
∫ ∫
+ + ·
−
π
π
π
dx x dx x ) 2 ( ) (
3
2
2
π π
π
π
π
π
− + − +
∫ ∫
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2
2 2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2
π
π π π π
· + + + ·
71c. Distance from the origin, of the line y = mx = C is
) ( 1
1
2
given
m
C
·
+
t
) 1 (
2 2
m c + · ⇒
) 1 ( ) (
2 2
m mx y + · + − ⇒
Replace m by
dx
dy
(slope)
2 2
1
,
`
.

+ ·
,
`
.

−
dx
dy
dx
dy
x y
72.b. We have
θ θ 2 cos 2 4 1 2 cos 2
3 3 6 2
− −
+ · ×
θ
θ
2 cos
2 cos
9
81
3
9
12 + · ⇒
cos2θ 2
9 x where 0 243 36x x · · + − ⇒
9 27 9 0 ) 9 (x ) 7 2 x (
cos2θ
or · ⇒ · − − ⇒
1. 2θ cos But 1. or
2
3
2θ cos > = ⇒
Hence cos
2θ
= 1
∴
the numbers are 3, 6, 9 ⇒c. d = 3
73.d. The different faces are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. For displaying
the face containing 1, 3 dice can be chosen in
3
18
C
.
After this for the face 2, the number of ways =
3
15
C
and so on.
Hence the required number is
3
3
3
6
3
9
3
12
3
15
3
18
. . . . . C C C C C C ·
;
( )
6
3
18
∠
∠
·
74.b.
( ) ( )
6 6
3
y 2 z 3 2 + · + + x y x
2
3
2
4
2
6 3 5
1
6
3 ) 2 ( z 3 ) 2 ( z y x C y x C + + + +
3
4
2
4
6 3
3
6
3 ) 2 (x .3 ) 2 ( y C y x C + + + +
5
6 6 2
3
5 6
( 2 ) 3 .3 C x y C + + +
In RHS the first term contains 4 terms with rational
coefficients (1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th), the 4th term 2
terms with rational coefficients and the last term 1
Hence the total number of terms with rational
coefficients = 4 + 2 + 1 = 7
75.d.
100 100 4 400
) 80 1 ( ) 3 ( 3 + · ·
The expansion of
100
1
100 100
80 ... 80 . 1 ) 80 1 ( + + + · + C
Except the first term all other term have at least 3
zeros as the last three digits.
∴
the last two digits
are 0 and1.
76.c. The given determinant =
2 0 1
1 1 1
1 0 0
−
−
( [x 1] [x] 1 etc + · + ∵ and [x] =  1, [y] = 0 [z] = 1)
= 1 = [z]
77.b. 2 2 · − Z is a circle with centre at (2, 0) and radius
2.
Y
X
O
(2, 0)
4 i) (1 Z i) (1 Z − + + −
4 ) Z (Z i  ) Z (Z − + + ⇒ is a straight line.
Clearly Z = 2 satisfies this straight line
∴
It is a diameter of the circle. Hence the number
of points of intersection = 2.
78.b. β and α satisfy the equation
a y tan sec x · + θ θ
) 1 (sec tan y ) a sec (x or
2 2 2 2 2
− · · − θ θ θ y
0 sec 2 ) ( sec
2 2 2 2 2
· + + − − y a ax y x θ θ
This is a quadratic in sec
θ
, whose roots are sec
α and sec β
2 2
2 2
a
β sec . α sec
y x
y
−
+
·
79.b. Both the circles pass through the origin and hence
they have common tangent at the origin.
Both gx + fy = 0 and g’x + f’y = represent the same
line.
fg' g f' or
f'
f
g'
g
· · ∴
80.a. The circles pass through origin and the yaxis is
the common tangent at the origin.
A divides LM externally in the ratio 1 : 3
A
M(3, 0)
P
C
O L
(1, 0)
Q
S
B
R
∴
C = ( 3, 0)
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Equation of APC is
) 3 (
3
1
+ · x y
Equation of ARS is
) 3 (
3
1
+
−
· x y
For the
∆ABC
, AO is a median L is the centroid.
∴
centroid = (1, 0)
The other choices can be verified to be wrong.
81.c.
, 1
x
for
2
2
2
2
· +
b
y
a
slope of the tangent at the
point of intersection ) y , (x
1 1
is
2
1
1 2
1
b x
m 
a y
·
For
,
2 2 2
c y x − −
slope of the tangent at
) , (
1 1
y x is
1
1
2
y
x
m ·
2
1 1
1 2 2
1 1
b x
Since mm 1, 1
a y
x
y
 `  `
· − · −
. , . ,
2
2
1
2
2
1 2
1
2 2
1
2
a
x
b
b
y
y a x · ⇒ · ⇒
2 2
1 1
2 2
x
1
a
2 2
y
b
+
⇒ ·
Substituting in the equation of the hyperbola,
2
2 2
2 2
c
b a
· −
2 2 2
2 ) ., . ( c b a e i · −
82.b. ) 6 2 ( ) 2 2 ( ) ( + − − · + − · x f x f x f
) 4 ( + − · x f
) 2 2 ( + + − · x f
R ) 8 ( ∈ ∀ + · x f
∴
the period of f is 8.
83.d.
. 0
} {
·
a
x
Let
Then
,
`
.

+ ·
4
sin 2 ) (
π
θ x f
which attains its
maximum at
4
π
θ ·
;
4
} { π
· ∴
a
x
1 {x} 0 But .
4
aπ
{x} < < · ⇒
π
π 4
a 0 1
4
0 < < ⇒ < < ∴
a
84. a.
c bx ax x f y + + · ·
2
) (
satisfies the conditions
of Lagranges mean value theorem in [p, q].
∴
there exists a, ‘e’ in (p, q) such that at (c, f(c))
the tangent is parallel to the chord joining the given
points (p, f(p)) and (q, f(q)). Hence
p q
p) b(q ) p a(q
b 2ac
2 2
−
− + −
· +
b p) (q a b 2ac + + · + ⇒
2
c
q p +
· ⇒
85. a. Since the result does not involve these particular
equation, the parabola can be taken as y
2
= 4ax
( ), ) ( , t at T 0); (a, S
2 1 2 1
t t a + · ·
( ) ( )
2
2
2 1
2
1
2at , at Q , 2at , at P · ·
2
2 1
2 2
2 1
2 2
) t (t a 1) t (t a ST + + − ·
( ) ( )
2
2
2
1
2
t 1 t 1 a + + ·
( ) ( )
2
2
1
2 2
1
2
2
2
1
2
t 1 a t 4a a at SP + · + − ·
( )
2
2
2
2 2
t 1 a SQ + ·
Hence
SQ SP ST
2
× ·
86.d. Case I : 0] , ( Let x −∞ ∈
Then f (x) = b  ax  cx and f (0) = b
Case II :
]
a
b
, 0 ( Let x∈
a
bc
a
b
f and cx ax  b f(x) Then ·
,
`
.

+ ·
Case III :
) ,
a
b
( Let x ∞ ∈
.
Then f(x) = ax  b + cx
In f(x) ,0) (−∞ is decreasing and in
b
, f(x)
a
 `
∞
. ,
is increasing
If f(x) is to be minimum at x = 0, then f(x) must be
increasing in
]
]
]
a
b
0,
Hence f(x) = c  a should be positive
a c < ∴
87. c.
( ) 1
13
3
13
2
13 3 2
2 / 2 /
2 /
2 / 2 /
·
,
`
.

+
,
`
.

⇒ · +
x x
x
x x
Which is of the form
2
2
x
. 1 sin cos
2 / 2 /
· ∴ · + α α
x x
.
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88.d. We have f(0) = 2, therefore we cannot say
R. x , 2 ) ( ∈ ∀ > x f
Also, y f(x) does not represent a hyperbola and
neither y = f(x)
2
+4 represent a parabola.
89. Area of the region =
dx
a
x a
a
2
5/2
2
0
x 2 −
∫
dθ θ cos θ sin 4a dx θ sin 2a Put x
2
· ∴ ·
π/2 2 5/2
2
0
2a cosθ (2asin θ) 4a sin θ cos θ dθ
a
∫
θ θ θ
π
d cos sin (4) ) 8 (
2 6
/2
0
∫
·
2 2
8
5
2
.
2 . 4 . 6 . 8
1 . 1 . 3 . 5
. 32 a a
π π
· ·
Also area of circle =
2
a π
8
5
:
8
5
ratio reqd.
2 2
· · ∴ a a π
π
= 5 : 8
90. b.
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
−
∫ ∫
+
→
dt e dt e
x
Lt
t
a
y x
t
x
2 2
sin sin
a
y
0
1
,
`
.

·
∫
+
→
form
x
dt e
Lt
t
y x
y
x 0
0
2
sin
0
1
0 ) (
) ( sin
0
2
− +
·
+
→
y x
x
e y x
dx
d
Lt
y
e
2
sin
·
91.c.
) ( ) (
. . ) ( ' ) ( ' . ) ( ) ( '
x f x x x f x
e e e f x f e e f x y + ·
) 0 ( 0 0 ) 0 ( 0
) ( ' ) 0 ( ' ) f(e (0) y'
f f
e e e f f e + · ∴
) 0 (
1 . ) 1 ( ' ) 0 ( ' ' ) 1 (
f
e f f e f + ·
0
) 2 ( ) 0 ( ' ) ( 0 e f e + ·
= 2 . 1 = 2
92. d. Let no. of green balls = g
No. of red balls = r
and no. of blue balls = b
∴
r = 2g and g + r + b = 10
10 2 · + + ⇒ b g g
g b 3 10 − · ⇒
The possible values of g are 0, 1, 2, 3
0 ) 0 ( 2 0 · · ⇒ · r g
b = 10 3 (0) = 10
2 ) 1 ( 2 1 · · ⇒ · r g
b = 10  3 (1) = 7
4 ) 2 ( 2 2 · · ⇒ · r g
b = 10  3 (2) = 4
6 ) 3 ( 2 3 · · ⇒ · r g
b = 10  3 (3) = 1
∴
total number of ways = 4
93. d. Equations of x, y and z axes are
1
z
0
y
0
x
and,
0
z
1
y
0
x
,
0
z
0
y
1
x
· · · · · ·
respectively.
The given line is
0
1  z
1
2  y
3
3  x
· ·
We obsereve that 3
×
0 + 1
×
0 + 0
×
1 = 0
Hence, the line is perpendicular to z  axis.
94. a. Here, the centre of the sphere is in OX Y’Z octant.
So, let its coordinates be (r, r, r)
Since the spehre touches 2x  y + 2z  4 = 0. Therefore,
2
1
, 2 3 4 5
4 1 4
4 2 2
· ⇒ · − ⇒ ·
+ +
− + +
r r r r
r r r
Thus, the equation of the sphere is
2
1
2, r where , r r) (z r) (y r) (x
2 2 2 2
· · − + + + −
95.a. Since 1
2
+ + x x is a factor of
d cx bx ax + + +
2 3
) (
2 3
d cx bx ax + + + ∴
) ( ) 1 (
2
a x x x a − + + ·
where α is a real root of the given equation.
Equating constant term on both sides,
a
d
 α α a  d · ∴ ·
96.a. The graph of
1
( ) y f x · is symmetrical about y
axis, so ( ) f x is an even function.
97.b.
11
( ) 0 f x > as
11
0& ( ) 0 x f x < < as
0 x >
0 x ∴ ·
is the point of inflexion.
98a. As ( ) f x is odd, so
( ) 0
a
a
f x dx
−
·
∫
.
99.a.
1
( ) 0 f x x ≤ ∀ , so ( )
a
f x
−
is always decreasing.
100.b. (0) 0 f · , so ( ) f x is an odd function (Derivative
of odd function is even)
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101.b. The iron oxide surface acts as a catalyst to speed up
Reaction 1. Even though we are not given any psecific
information about how it does its job, we can see
how choice B is a reasonable description of its role:
In order to form ammonia, the nitrogennitrogen bond
must be broken at some point. Facilitating the
dissociation of moleculear nitrogen would then
certainly allow the reaction to go faster.
We can examine the other choices and see why they
could not be an accurate description of the role of
the iron oxide surface:
Choice A is incorrect because if gaseous ammonia is
on the surface, the reaction has already taken place.
Facilitating its desorption from the surface would
not make the reaction itself go any faster.
Choice C is incorrect since NH bonds are found
only in the product of the reaction. Destabilizing the
product will not make a reaction proceed more rapidly.
Choice D can be eliminated because a catalyst cannot
change the thermodynamics of a reaction.
102.b. The correct answer is option (b). The important part
of this question is that it is asking about the
decomposition of ammonia, i.e., the reverse of
Reaction 1. More specifically, the reaction we are
interested in is:
2 2 3
H
2
3
N
2
1
NH +
We can eliminate choice D since it contains a true
statement there is 1 mole of gas on the left and 2
moles on the right, the decomposition thus leads to
an increase in entropy.
How is the equilibrium constant for this reaction
related to the equilibrium constants given in the
passage for Reaction 1? Since the two are reverse
reactions, the larger the K for one, the smaller the K
of the other.
If K of reaction 1 is gtreater than 1, then the K for the
decomposition reaction is smaller than 1, and vice
versa.
At 298 K, the K for reaction 1 is given in the second
paragraph of the passage as 6 x 105. The K for the
decomposition reaction is therefore less than 1.
choice A is a correct statement and hence not the
correct choice.
What about at 800 K? a little bit of work is needed to
first find out the equilibrium constant for reaction 1
at this temperature. This is done with equation 2.
11
800 298
7 10 K K
−
· × ×
5 11 6
6 10 7 10 42 10 1
− −
· × × × · × <
for the forward reaction at 800 K.
The equilibrium cosntant for the decomposition
reaction at 800 K is therefore greater than 1. Choice B
is a false statement and the answer we are looking
for
It is stated in the passage that raising the temperature
shifts the equilirbrium in favor of the reactants. We
know also from equation 2 that the value of the
equilibrium constant decreases at a higher
temperature. Either of these two pieces of information
should tell us that the reaction is exothermic. The
decomposition reaction is therefore endothermic.
103c.. This question examines howle Chatelier’s principle
can be used to drive the reaction towards the
formation of ammonia. We are looking for the choice
that will NOT shift the reaction to the right.
Low temperature and high pressure (from small
volume) favors the formation of the product. This
means that the scheme in choice C will work.
104.d.
11 5 11
800 298
7 10 6 10 7 10 K K
− −
· × × ≈ × × ×
6 5
42 10 4 10
− −
· × ≈ ×
105.c. Of the 4 answer choices provided an examination of
the nucleophilicity of the nitrogen shows that
diethylamine is the most basic of the structures and
will therefore react with the most affinity.
The electron withdrawing carbonyl in the amide pulls
charge away from the nitrogen electrons making it
less negative B.
While the thylamine is stabilizing because of its
inductive electron donating properties, it does not
provide as much electron density as the more electron
donating diethyl side groups.
While a benzene ring offers great stability it is not
more electron donating when compared to 2 ethyl
groups
106.d. All the other factors except (E) (thermal) affect the
energy content of the system of N molecules.
107.a. The functional groups of eugenol are circled below.
aromatic ring
alkene
OH
OCH
3
ether
hydroxyl
108.a. The final answer has the same number of significant
digits as the measurement with the least number of
significant digits.
109.c. The JouleThompson experiment is carried out for
real gases undergoing a throttled adiabatic
expansion.
110.d. The delocalized electrons of benzene stabilize the
molecule by creating shorter stronger bonds between
the carbons. The bonds are not as strong as double
bonds, but they are stronger than single bonds.
Paper  I I I : Chemistry  101 to 150
Solutions
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111.a. DGlucose and DAltrose are stereoisomers that are
not mirror images and they are different at more than
one carbon.
112.c. All are diastereomers because none of them are mirror
images and all are stereoisomers. Epimers are
diastereomers.
113.c. All three statements are accurate, note that
G ∆
,
not
Gº ∆
, is dependent on pressure.
114.b. The first step of an E1 mechanism involves the
formation of a carbocation after protonation of the
alcohol. The alcohol in answer B will form the most
stable carbocation.
115.d. Electronegativity measures the attraction of an
element for electrons within a chemical bond.
116.d. Using the ideal gas law, PV/RT equals 1. In the real
methane we can see that PV/RT equals less than one
at 200 atm and more than one at 600 atm. So the
calculated V must be greater than the real V at 200
atm and less than real V at 600 atm.
117.c. Applying Kohlransch’s law, we have:
4 4
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) O NH OH O NH Cl O NaOH O NaCl
λ λ λ λ
· + −
=150+248–127=271.
118.a. The ketyl group substitutes for a hydrogen on the
aromatic ring. It is an aromatic substitution reaction.
119.c. The methoxy group is ring activating. The other
substituents are deactivating. Memorize the table of
activating and deactivating groups.
120.c. First, balance the reaction :
12 22 11 2 2 2
( ) 12 ( ) 12 ( ) 11 ( ) C H O l O g CO g H O g + → + .
From there, the stoichiometry is easy.
121.d. A primary alcohol loses one αhydrogen during
oxidation (note that αhydrogen is the one attached
to the carbon bearing the –OH group)
– OH

R — C — OH

H
a 1º alcohol
H

R — C O
an aldehyde
=
α–Hydrogen
+ –
5 5 3
C H NH CrO Cl
Also, a primary alcohol is oxidized readily to a
carboxylic acid in the presence of potassium
permanganate. Under milder conditions  such as in
2 5 3
C H NHCrO Cl and
2 2
CH Cl  the primary
alcohol is oxidized to an aldehyde.
122.b. The only step of the S
N
2 reaction is a substitution
occuring with the new bond and old bond forming
and breaking simulataneously.
123.b. Nearly all reaction rates increase with increased
temperature regardless of their enthalpy change. The
problem is that heat is a product, so the equilibrium
would shift to the left according to LeChatelier’s
principle.
124.d. We want to maximize P
n
in the second equation.
Although delta T remains constant, from the second
equation we see that at higher temperatures, P
n
is
greater. Black objects have a higher emissivity than
white objects, which also increases P
n
.
125.d. All the choices except (d) are true. Hence (d) is the
correct choice. Ammonia, along with primary and
secondary amines are especially powerful catalysts
for the Michael addition. Not only do they abstract a
proton from the reagent, generating a carbanion, but
they also react with the carbonyl group to form an
intermediate which is particularly reactive towards
nucleophilic addition.
126.c. The hydrogen bonding in cyclohexanol raises its
melting point causing it to be a solid at room
temperature.
127.b. When using proportional reasoning, be careful to
make sure that all other factors are constant.
Although D is a true statement, it’s technically only
true when temperature and number of moles are both
constant.
128.c. Supercritical fluid is the fluid state temperatures and
pressures above the critical temperature and
pressure.
129.c. q It ·
1
(15.0 ) (1.25hrs) (3600 s hr ) q A
−
∴ ·
note that in order to convert units to number of
Coulombs (C) it’s necessary to convert hours to
seconds. Since
1 1 1Sec.; C A · ×
answer (c) is the correct one.
130.c. Since 1bromobutane proceeds by a S
N
2 mechanism
the rate depends on the concentration of the
nucleophile. However the 2chloro2methylpropane
proceeds by S
N
1 so the rate only depends on the
concentration of the electrophile and not the
nucleophile (1
–
).
131.a. Calculation of % of nitrogen.
50 ml. of 0.05 MH
2
SO
4
=50ml. of 0.1NH
2
SO
4
(
∵
Normally of H
2
SO
4
=2×Molarity)
Excess of acid requires 25ml. of 0.1M or 0.1N NaoH
(
∵
Normally of NaOH – Molarity of NaOH)
25ml. of 0.1N NaOH=25ml. of 0.1N H
2
SO
4
∴
Vol. of 0.1N H
2
SO
4
used for the neutralisation of
NH
3
=50–25=25ml.
Now we know that, % of nitrogen =
1.4 Normality of acid Vol. of acid
Wt.of compound
× ×
1.4 0.1 25
11.55%
0.303
× ×
· ·
Hence % of oxygen =
100–(69.4+5.8+11.55)=13.25
Calculation of empirical formula of the compound.
Element
C
H
N
O
Percentage
69.4
5.8
11.55
13.25
Relative No. Of atoms Simplest whole ratio
= 7
= 7
= 1
= 1
69.4
5.8
12
=
5.8
5.8
1
=
11.55
0.825
14
=
13.25
0.825
16
=
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Thus the empirical formula of the aromatic compound
= C
7
H
7
NO
Calculation of molecular formula.
Empirical formula wt. of the compound =
84+7+14+16=121
Hence
Mol. wt. 121
n 1
Emp. formula wt. 121
· · ·
Hence molecular formula of the compound=
(C
7
H
7
NO)
1
= C
7
H
7
NO
Structure of the aromatic compound: Since the
compound C
7
H
7
NO is aromatic, it may be written as
C
6
H
5
CH
2
NO or C
6
H
5
CH=NOH (benxaldoxime).
Benzadoxime can exist in the following two isomeric
structures.
C H – C – H

N – OH
6 5
synBenzaldoxime
C H – C – H

HO – N
6 5
synBenzaldoxime
132.a.
,
`
.

× ·
2
2
1
2
1 1
n n
R v
H
,
`
.

− ·
2
2
2
1
1 1
678 , 109 032 , 23
n n
,
`
.

− ·
2
2
2
1
n
1
n
1
109,678
23,032
133.a. Studies reveal these patterns for a blackbody.
Classical physics could not account for these
patterns. Planck used a quantum hypothesis to
explain the blackbody radiation.
134.d. The structure in answer D has the lowest pK
a
therefore it has the most acidic proton.
135.c. Representing the given facts in the form of equation.
heat
16.8g 4.4g 1.8g
(X) (g) A(g) + B(g) + Y(s) ÷÷÷→
The above equation leads to the following facts :
(i) Since the gas A turned lime water milky, it
must be
2
CO .
(ii) The compound Y gives alkaline solution
in water which when treated with
2
BaCl forms a
white precipitate of Z. Since the compound Z when
treated with acid gives effervescenes of
2
CO , Z
and hence Y must be carbonate,
2
3
CO
−
. Hence Y
may be written as metal carbonate
3
MCO or
2 3
M CO .
(iii) When X is heated, it yields a carbonate (Y) along
with the evolution of
2
CO (A) and another gas (B),
it must be a bicarbonate.
(iv) The above facts point out that B may be water.
Thus the above reaction can be written as below:
heat
3 2 2 2 3
4.4g 1.8g 16.8g
2MHCO CO + H O + M CO ÷÷÷→
Calculation of molecular weight of
3
MHCO
44g of
2
CO is given by 16.8g of
3
MHCO
44g of
2
CO is given by =
16.8
44 168g
4.4
× ·
Since two molecules of
3
MHCO are taking part in
the reaction, the molecular weight of
3
168
MHCO (X) 84
2
· ·
Calculation of atomic weight of metal M
3
MHCO = 84
M + 1 + 12 + 48 = 84
M + 61 = 84
M = 84 – 61 = 23
Thus the metal must be Na and hence the given salt
X is NaHCO
3
. The above facts coincide with the given
thermal decomposition.
heat
3 2 2 2 3
(A) (B) (X) (Y)
2NaHCO CO + H O + Na CO ÷÷÷→
2 3 2 3
(white)
Na CO BaCl BaCO 2NaCl + → +
Thus A is
2
CO , B is
2
H O, Y is
2 3
Na CO .
136.c. Compound (A) on treatment with AgNO
3
gives white
precipitate of AgCl, which is readily soluble in
dil.aq.NH
3
. Therefore it has at least one Cl
–
ion in the
ionization sphere furthermore chromium has
coordination number equal to 6. So its formula is
[ ]
3 4
Cr (NH ) Br Cl Cl .
Compound (B) on treatment with AgNO
3
gives pale
yellow precipitate of AgBr soluble in conc. NH
3
.
Therefore it has Br
–
in the ionization sphere. So its
formula is [ ]
3 4 2
Cr (NH ) Cl Br .
3+
Cr (Z 24) ·
3d 4s
4p
State of hybridization of chromium in both (A) and
(B) is
2 3
d sp .
Spin magnetic moment of (A) or (B),
spin
n(n+2) 3(3 2) 15 3.87BM µ · · + · · .
137.d. The compound is a dicarboxylic acid and when heated
it yields an anhydride.
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O

C
O

C
C

O
C

O
H C

2
H C
2
H C
2

H C
2
heat
OH
OH
O + H O
2
All the other compounds, especially the ester and
the xanthate, when heated yields alkenes. Note how
similar the structure of (C) to the xanthate and ester
structure (respectively). This in itself should give us
a hint that these compounds would react similarly
under similar conditions.
138. b. Nylon 6.6 has nitrogen atoms next to carbonyls,
indicating an amide. The brackets with the subscript
n denote a repeating group.
139.a. In such a case
2 4 3
( ) , , A Ca OH B NH HCO · ·
2 3 4 2
, and C Na CO D NH Cl E CaCl · · ·
2 2
( )
( )
A
CaO H O Ca OH + ÷÷→
3 2 2 4 3
Sod. Bicarbonate (B)
NH CO H O NH HCO + + ÷÷→
4 3 3 4
Amm. chloride (D)
NH HCO NaCl NaHCO NH Cl + ÷÷→ +
3 2 3 2
(E) can be
used again
2 2 2 NaHCO CaCl NH H O
∆
÷÷→ + +
140.a. The required reaction can be obtained the following
way.
2
2
3
º 0.15 ( º º )
, º 0.40
2 , º 0.84
Cu e Cu G F G nFE
In e In G F
In In e G F
+ − +
+ − +
+ + −
+ ÷÷→ ∆ · − ∆ · −
+ ÷÷→ ∆ · +
÷÷→ + ∆ · −
On adding,
2 2
, º 0.59 Cu In Cu E F
+ + +
+ ÷÷→ · −
Now we know that º 59 nFE F − · −
or
0 0
cell cell
0.59 or 0.59 E V E V − · − ·
0
cell cell
0.0591
log ;
1
c
E E K · −
0 0
cell cell
0.0591
0, than log
c
E E K
n
· ·
0.0591
0.59 log
1
c
K ·
10
0.59
log 10; 10
0.0591
c c
K K · · ·
141.c. For the mechanism shown, step (1) represents
initiation, while steps (2), (3) AND (4), (5) represent
propagation and termination respectively. Step(2)
is the most difficult step to occur, this step thus
limits the overall reaction rate, and we would expect
this tep to be the rate determining step. Addition of
oxygen to the reaction, would inhibit, rather than
increase, the reaction rate. Oxygen would compete
with chlorine, reacting with the methyl radical; step
(3). This would slow down the overall reaction since
the rate of the propagation step is decreased.
142.a. Avagadro’s number
13
6.023 10 · ×
At wt. of mercury (Hg) = 200
∵ In 1 g of Hg, the total number of atom =
13 13
2
6.023 10 6.023 10
200 2 10
× ×
·
×
21 21
3.0015 10 3.012 10 · × · ×
Density of Mercury (Hg) = 13.6 g/c.c.
∴ Volume of 1 atom of mercury (Hg) =
17
1 10
. . . .
3.012 136 409632
c c c c
−
· ·
×
3
21
10 10
. .
3012 10 136
c c
×
× ×
17 17
10 10
. . . .
3012 136 409632
c c c c
− −
· · ·
×
23
23
1000000 10
. . 2.44 10 . .
409632
c c c c
−
−
×
· ×
Since each mercury atom occupies a cube of edge
length equal to its diameter, therefore,
diameter of one Hg atom =
1 1
23 24
3 3
(2.44 10 ) cm (2.44 10 ) cm
− −
× · ×
8
=2.905 10 cm 2.91Åcm
−
× ·
143.c. Let the number of moles of A left after 100 min = x
Total number of moles after 100 min =x+12+0.525
12
300 500
12 12
mix A B
x
P p p
x x
 `  `
· + · × + × ·
+ +
. , . ,
6000 300
12
x
x
+
+
According to Raoult’s law
6000 300
400
0.525 12
6000 300
12 0.525
12
x
x
x
x
x
+  `
−
+
. ,
·
+
+ +
+
On usual calculations, x = 9.9
Now according to first order kinetics,
K=
4 1
2.303 10
log 1.005 10 min
100 9.9
− −
· ×
144.c. Element
C
H
N
O
%
42.86
2.40
16.67
38.07
Relative no. Of atoms Simplest Ratio
42.86
3.57
12
=
3.57
3
1.19
=
2.40
2.40
1
=
2.40
2
1.1
=
16.67
1.19
14
=
1.19
1
1.19
=
38.07
2.38
16
=
2.38
2
1.19
=
9
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∴ Empirical formula of the minor product is
3 2 2
C H NO
Molar empirical formula mass of the minor pdt =
2
3 12 2 1 1 14 2 16 84g mol
−
× + × + × + × ·
Let M be the molar mass of the minor pdt. For 5.5g
of the minor product dissolved in 45g.
benzene, the molality (m) of the solution =
5.5g/M
0.045kg
Substituting this in the expression of elevation of
boiling point,
1
5.5g/M
1.84 (2.53 kg mol )
0.045kg
b b
T K m K K
−
 `
∆ · ⇒ ·
. ,
or
1
168 g mol M
−
·
No. of unit of empirical formula in molecular formula
=
1
1
168 g mol
2
84 g mol
−
−
·
Hence the molecular formula of the minor product
is
3 2 2
2( ) C H NO , i.e.
6 4 2 2
( ) C H NO .
The product is m – dinitrobenzene.
145.c. Standard enthalpy of hydrogenation of cyclohexene
(–199kJ mol
–1
) means the enthalpy of hydrogenation
of one double bond. Now benzene has three double
bonds, the emthalpy of the reaction would be
1
3 119 357kJ mol
−
×− · −
2
+3H
Actual enthalpy of the reaction can be evaluated
as below.
º º
(Reaction)
(Product) (Reactants)
f f
H H H ∆ · ∆ − ∆
156 (49 0) ·− − +
1
205kJ mol
−
· −
∴ Resonance energy =
1
Exp Cal
357 ( 205) 152kJ mol H
−
∆ − ∆ · − − − ·
146.c. Table 1 indicated the solubility of sodium chloride as
35.7 grams per 100 mL. (.1L). The molar mass of sodium
chloride is 58.4527 grams per mole. To speed up the
math, we can estimate 35.7 grams/58.425 grams per
mole to be roughly 35/60 which is the same as 7/12,
or, in decimal form, approximately. 6. Therefore, 35.7
grams is approximately. 6. moles of sodium chlordie.
Since. 6 moles of sodium chloride is soluble in 100
mL of water at 0 degrees Celsius, 6 moles of sodium
chloride must be soluble in 1L of water at the same
temperature. It should be noted that, given the degree
of difference between the answer choices, our
estimation was appropriate
147.c The molar mass of ammonium nitrate is approximately
80 grams/mole. We can round 61.11 grams of
ammonium nitrate to 60 grams of ammonium nitrate.
Therefore, we have 60/80 or 75 moles of ammonium
nitrate. Figure 1 indicated the enthalpy of solution of
ammonium nitrate is 25.69 mJ/mole. Therefore,
multiply. 75 moles by 25.69 kJ/mole to get the answer.
Indeed, at this point we can determine only c is a
reasonable answer.
148.c. The solubility of silver chloride in water is .000089
grams per 100 mL. Therefore the amount of water
needed to dissolve a practical amount of silver
chloride and produce neasurable enthalpy changes
would be far too great. Perhaps this answer could be
reached through elimination. Choice A says silver
chloride is not an ionic compound and it is not soluble
in water. Silver chloride is an ionic compound and,
though only slightly, it is soluble in water. The
enthalpy of solution of silver chloride is only 61 kHJ/
mole, which is just over twice as much as that of
ammonium nitrate, so choice B is not the answr.
Finally, choice D can be ruled out because as table 1
indicates, the dissolution of silver chloride is
endothermic
149.b. In order to calculate the change in the freezing point,
we use the formula
T ∆
= K/m, where
T ∆
is the
change in the freezing point, Kb is the freezing point
depression constant for water and m is the molality
of the solution. A saturated aqueous solution of
sodium floride will have 0.3 grams of LiF per 100 mL
of water, which translates to 3 grams per liter. Since
the definition of m is moles of solute per kilogram of
solvent, we need to convert 3 grams of LiF to moles.
The molar mass of Lif is 25.941. This can be rounded
to 27 grams. In order to calculate moles of LiF, we
take 3 grams / 27 grams per mole which is equivalent
to 1/9 moles. We can round 1/9 moles of LiF to 0.1
moles ofs LiF. In order to calculate molality, we can
assume the mass of water is 1 kg/L. Therefore, the
molality is 0.1. Therefore,
T ∆
=0.1 x  1.86 K/m = 
0.186 K. Finally, since the freezing point of pure water
is 0 degrees Celsius and the magnitude of one degree
Celsius and one degree Kelvin are equivalent, the
presence of LiF in solution will lower the freezing
point to •0.186 degrees Celsius
150.a. According to the Gibbs free energy equation,
, S T H G ∆ − ∆ · ∆ the two factors which
determine the spontaneity of a chemical reaction are
entropy changes ) S (∆ and enthalpy changes
) H (∆ . Since this reaction includes a solid reactant
and a gaseous reactant being cnverted into a single,
solid product, entropy has decreased and
S ∆
is,
therefore, negative. Since
H ∆
is negative
(spontaneous), temperature becomes important. At
low temperatures,
S T∆
will be low and will not
significantly affect
G ∆
. However, at high
temperatures,
S T∆
will be high and may make
G ∆
positive and, therefore nonsportaneous.