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key AI  IITJEE  Model test  06
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1.d. Just by looking at the equation ,what would decrease
L
T ?” Decreasing d ( the numerator ) or increasing
µ
or
0
V .From this ,we could elimainate choice A
.Coices B and C are incorrect because they have
todo with the creation of electron  hole pairs in the
photocoductor , they do not deal with the movement
of these charge carriers . Choice D is correct
because in the number of gaseous ions adsorbed
on the surface increase, it is analogous to increasing
the charge on the plates of a capacitor . The voltage
between the plates would also increase since C = Q
/ V. This voltage is the dark voltage ,and sowe have
increased the deniminator in the expression for the
transit time ,thus decreasing its value.
2.c. Solve the force equation for
0 ε
. The net result is
simply the interchanging of F and
0 ε
. The
π 4
has
no effect since they are dimensionless pure number
.
0 ε
,therefore, has units of charge squared divided
by the quantity newtons times distance suqared .
This is exactly choice C
3.d. One needs to combine the qeuation given in the
passage for the capacitance with the general one
for capacitors C = Q / V . As given in the passage
d
A ke
C
0
·
V
Q
d
A ke
0
·
The surface charge density , Q / A is therefore
:
2 5
0
5
0 0
C/m 10 1600ε
10 1.5
(800) 3ε
d
V ke
A
Q
× ·
×
· ·
2 1
0
2 4
2
2 5
0
C/cm 10 1600ε
cm 10
1m
C/m 10 1600ε × · × × ·
2
0
cm / C 1600ε ·
4.b. If light of the correct wavelength is shone on the
photoconductor, electronhole pairs would be
generated, as stated in paragraph 1.
If no gaseous ions were adsorbed, however, there
would be no external electric field, and so the
electrons and the holes would not move in opposite
directions. they would eventually recombine and
annihilate one another.
Choice C is incorrect because the dark voltage
changes to the light voltage as the holes migrate to
the surface and neutralize the ions. If there were no
ions adsorbed, the dark voltage would in fact be 0,
and there whould be no change to this value even
as light were shone.
5.d. Since the creation of electronhole pairs requires
some minimum energy to raise the electron to
another state, it is analogous to the photoelectric
effect.
How does one suply energy to the
photoconductor?By electromagnetic radiation. If
no electronhole pair is produced, the radiation
may not be energetic enough.
How can one increase the energy? Again,
analogous to the photoelectric effect, the only way
to do this is by decreasing the wavelength (of
increasing the frequency) of the radiation. this is
choice D.
Choice A is incorrect because increasing the
intensity only increases the number of photons; it
does not increase the energy of each photon.
Choice B is incorrect because the gaseous ions are
there only to create the external electric field. If does
not take part in the process of generating the
electronhole pairs.
6.c.
;
di
L Ri
dt
ε − ·
di
Ri L
dt
ε − ·
or
0 0
;
i t
di dt
Ri L
·
ε −
∫ ∫
( )
1
log
e
t
Ri
R L
−
ε − ·
( ) log ;
e
t R
Ri
L
ε − · −
t R
L
e Ri
−
· ε −
1
t R
L
i e
R
− ]
· ε −
]
]
or i.e.,
t R
L
iR e
−
· ε −
2
t R t R
L L
V Ri e e
− −  `
· ε − · ε − ε − ·
. ,
⇒
induced emf decays exponentially.
Hence graph (c) is the choice.
7.b. 1
2 1
2
cos ; cos
V
V V
V
θ · · θ
.
V
2
V
2 V
1
m
M
V2
cos
8.b.
m
m
mu m 0=0 ×
1
m
2
m
m v
1
v
1
v
m v
1
0 —(1) mu mv mv + · +
Paper  I : Physics  1 to 50
Solutions
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1
;
v v
e
u
−
·
1 1
, v v eu v v eu − · · − .
( ) 2 ; mu m v eu mv mv meu · − + · −
2 (1 ) mv mu e · + .
1
2
e
V u
+  `
∴ ·
. ,
.
2
m
3
m
2
mu(1+e)
2 3
2
V
3
V
2 3
(1 )
, ;
2
mu e
mV mV
+
· +
3 2
(1 )
;
2
u e
V V e
+
− · ⋅
2 3
(1 )
2
u e
V V e
+
· −
3 3
(1 ) (1 )
;
2 2
u e eu e
V V
+ +
· − +
2
3
1
2
e
V
+  `
·
. ,
1
1
1 3
2
2 2 4
n
n n
n
e
V x u
 `
+
+  `  `
∴ · · ·
. , . ,
. ,
.
9.a. In a circuit, current i =
r R
E
+
· i
Power consumed (P) is the external resistance
R
2
i ·
2
2
2
( )
E E
P R R
R r R r
 `
· ·
+ +
. ,
This becomes maximum when
0 ·
dR
dP
0 ) 2 ( ) ( ; 0
) (
) ( 2 1 ) (
4
2
· − + + ·
+
+ − +
R r R r R
r R
r R R r R
r R · ∴
∴ Power consumed is a circuit is maximum when
the external resistance is equal to the internal
resistance
100
4
) (
.
) (
2
2
2
2
2
max
· ·
+
·
+
· ∴
R
E
R R
E
R
r R
E
P
...(1)
Current
10
2R
E
R R
E
r R
E
· ·
+
·
+
· · i
...(2)
from (1), (2) E = 40 volts
10.c. In both upward and downward motion function
force at every point is identical, work done against
friction in 2 cases are same i.e., mgh.
∴
Total work done by the force F is against
gravitational force + work done against friction=
2mgh
11d. It displacement will increase after every rebound
and finally becomes maximum displ. becomes
maximum as it comes to rest after several rebounds.
y
max
12.a.
2 2
3 4
3
do ke ke
F
dA dr r r
 ` − −∂ −
· · · ·
. ,
2 2 2
2
2 2
mv mv ke
KE
r r
− · ·
2
2
3
1
;
2 2
ke
KE mv
r
· · But
πr 2
nh
mv ·
2 2 2 2 2
2 3 2 2
4
;
4 2 2
n h ke ke m
r
mr r n h
π
· ·
π ⋅
( )
( )
2 2
3
2 2
3 3
2 2
1 1
6 6
4
ke ke
TE n h
r
RC m
∴ · ⋅ · ⋅
π
6
3
n
TE
m
∴ α
.
13.d. With respect to infinity TE of hydrogen atom in
ground state = –13.6eV
2( ) 2 13.6 27.2eV PE TE ∴ · · − × · −
of the ground state is taken as zero PE, PE of the
atom and
∴
TE increases by 27.2 eV.
2 2
13.6
1 27.2 E
n
−
∴ · + ·
2
13.6
27.2 23.8eV
2
−
+ ·
energy is first excited state.
14.b.
dQ dv dw
C
dt dt dt
· · +
VT ·
constant;
0 ( )
dv
T PV RT
dt
⋅ · ·
V V V
dv V
C C P C P C R
dt T
−  `
· + ⋅ · + · −
. ,
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15.d.
;
2
hc hc
E E E
λ · ·
−
1
3
3
2
hc hc
E E E
⋅
λ · · · λ
−
.
16.c. 2 (2 ) R h h · − . As the value of h lies between
2 and 1.5; R
1
is maximum for h=1.5m.
17.a. From
A B →
. V decreasting and temperature
increases, means pressure should increase and
from
B C →
; V T α
∴
pressure should be constant.
18.b.
2
1
2 log 2
e
v
Q U W U R T U R
v
∆ · ∆ + ∆ · ∆ + ∆ · ∆ +
0
0
2V
n T
V
⋅ ∆
2
2  2 (500 0) 1000
A B A B
Q U R n R ln
→ →
∆ · ∆ + ⋅ − ·
2 0
2  2 (300 500)
2 0
B C BC
V
Q U R n
V
→
 `
∆ · ∆ + ⋅ ⋅ −
. ,
2
2  2 (0 300) 0 600 /
C D CD
Q U R n R n
→
∆ · ∆ + ⋅ − · −
D A B C
Q Q
→ →
∆ · ∆
2
400 /
A B B C C D D A
Q Q Q Q Q R n
→ → → →
∴∆ · ∆ + ∆ + ∆ + ∆ ·
19.d. Heat capacity of gas
dQ dv dw dv dv
C p
dt dt dt dt
+
· · · · + ⋅
But
2
; ; ; 2
RT dt
P V V T V V
V R dv R
α α
α · α · ·
; .
2
V
dv R dv
C
dt V dt
∴ · ·
α
2 1 2
V
R R VR
C C P
V r V
α
· + ⋅ · +
α − α
(2 1) ( 1)
1 2 2( 1) 2( 1)
R R R r R r
C
r r r
+ − +
· + · ·
− − −
20.a. The energy omitted by this shell =
3 2
4
4
3
dT
r U K r
dr
π ⋅ · − π
0 2 2
0
( )
;
3 6
T R
T r
U U R r
dT r dr T T
K K
−
· − ⋅ · +
∫ ∫
21.c. Since foca lengths of the 2 parts will increase, the
parallel rays on the region AB and that on the region
CD will focus away from F towards right. But the
rays passing through the region BC will still focus
at F.
F
F
1
F
2
A
B
C
D
22.a. Path different (for bright finge) =
2 2
2
;
2 2
d
d
xd d d
n n
D D D D
⋅
· · · λ ·
λ
23.b. for point A ;
1 1 1
;
v m f
+ ·
1 1 3
;
20 40 v
+ ·
1
40 0 v A · −
20m
A D
B C
10m
D
C
1
D
1
1 1
40
10 20cm
20
v v
A B AB AB
n n
∴ · × · × · × ·
for point D
1
:
1 11 3
;
30 40 v
+ ·
1 1 1
24cm ;
v
v OD C D CD
u
· · · ×
1 1
24
10 8cm ;
30
C D · × ·
1 1
40 24 16 ; A D m · − ·
area of
1 1 1 1 2
8 20
16 224cm
2
A B C D
+
· + ·
.
24.d. amplitude of incident and reflected wave are a
1
, a
2
respectively amplitude of antinode =
a
1
+a
2
, amplitude of node = a
1
– a
2
given.
2
1 2 2
1 2 2
1 2 1
3 1
; 5 ;
2 25
a a a
a a
a a a
+
· · ·
−
% of energy transmitted =
2
2
2
1
1 100 96%
a
a
 `
− × ·
. ,
.
25.c. Let the source emitted I pulse when it is at A. Then
time taken by the pulse to reach observer =
1
d
t
v
·
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A B
d
a T
2
Source Observer
O
2
1
Let the second pulse be emitted when it is at B.
∴
time taken by pulse to reach B = T
1
T
f
 `
·
. ,
= time taken by source to reach B (=T)
2
1
2
AB at ∴ ·
( 0) u · ∵
2
1
2
BO d at · −
2
1
2
1, ;
2
d at
T
−
+
1
;
d
t
v
·
2
2 1
1
2
at
t t V
v
− · −
∴
Frequency heard by observer =
2
2 1
1 2
2
vf
t t vf a − −
.
26.b.
2 2
0 0 0
1
4
q q
mgx
F r x r
 `
− + ·
π −
. ,
2
1
; 0.1m
2
kr x ·
.
27.a. Volume of elemental shell =
2
(2 ) x dx π
Charge at shell
2
2 dQ x dx · · ρ⋅ π
Potential energy
0 0
1 ( ) ( )
.
4 2
q dQ q
dU x dx
x
− ρ
· · ⋅ ·
πε ε
dx
x
R
2
0 0 0
2 4
R
q q R
U dU x dx
− ρ · ρ
· ρ · ⋅ ·
ε ε
∫
Work done =
2 2
0 0
0
4
q R q R
U U U
n
 ` − ρ − ρ
∆ · α− · − ·
ε ε
. ,
28.a.
2 ;
x
dv
U x y F
dx
−
· − · ·
(2 ) (2 )
x
x
F
y a y
m
− − ∴ · · − −
(2 1) ; (2 1)
y y
dv Fy
F x a x
dy m
−
· · − − · · − −
At (2,1) :
2 2
1, 3 : 10
x y x y
a a a a a · − · − · + ·
29.c. Path difference between light rays reflected=
2 t t t µ +µ · µ from 2 surfaces of coating.
2
2
t
λ
∴ µ ·
(for maximum)
7 5
10 m. =10 cm
4
t
−
λ
⇒ · ·
µ
.
30.d. n
1
, n
2
be the refractive indices of 2 lenses when
lenses are immersed in water.
1
1
1 2
1
n
F nw R
 `  `
· −
. , . ,
and
2
2
1 2
1
n
F nw R
−  ` `
· −
. , . ,
(Say converging) (Say diverging)
Combined focal length =
1 2
1 2
1 1 1 2
w
n n
F
F F F R n
 ` −
· · + ·
. ,
1 2
20 4 1 5
2 2 3 24 9
w
n R
n n
F
− · ⋅ · × × ·
31.a. Path diff.
8
λ
·
,
∴
Phase diff.
2
8 4
λ λ λ
· × ·
λ
Intensity at this point
2 2 cos 2 ( 2 1)
4
I I I I I
π
· · + ⋅ ⋅ · +
Intensity at this centre 4 ( )
C
I I · ·
2 ( 2 1)
0.853
4
C
I I
I I
+
· ·
32.b.
0 0
10 ; 2.5
S S
V V V V m
n n u
V V V V s
 `  ` + −
· − ·
+ +
. , . ,
33.b. From
B A →
chose the path containing the cells
;
8 3 10 15
A B
V V V − · − + · .
34.b.
E
and
B
are mutually perpendicular
; E Ei B B j · ·
and
x y z
V V i V j V k · + +
.
Since the charged particle goes undeviated, net
force on the charge is zero.
( ) 0 F qE q V B ∴ · + × ·
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EL · +
x y z
i j k
V V V
O B O
( ) ( )
( ) 0
z x
z x
EL i BV k BV
i E BV kBV
· + − +
· − + ·
z
E BV · and 0
x
V · means component of
velocity along
E
(which is in xdirection = 0)
35.b. Due to induction q charge flows to the inner side of
1 plate As A, B are exposed to same medium.
1 4 3 2
Q q Q Q Q q − · + + +
1 2 3 4
2
Q Q Q Q
q
− − −
·
1 2 3 4
1
2
Q Q Q Q
Q q
+ + +
∴ − ·
1
Q q 
2
Q q +
2
( ) Q q  +
3 2
Q Q q + +
3 2
( ) Q Q q  + +
4 3 2
Q Q Q q + + +
A B
36.c.
;
dv
F
dx
· −
Force between & Plates of Condenser =
2
0
1
2
k AE ε
2
0
1
2
U F dr F x kAE x · ⋅ · ⋅ · ε −
∫
V
E
x
·
2
2
0 0 2
1 1 1
;
2 2
V
U kA x kA V
x x
 `
· ε ⋅ − · ε ⋅
. ,
2
0 2
1 1
velocity
2
dv
kAV
dt x
· + ε ⋅ ⋅
2
1 dv
dt x
∴ α
37.a.
∴
Terminal voltage =
; 0 ; 2 Volt V E ir i V E · − · · ·
Slope of the line =
2
; 0.4
5
r r − · − · Ω
38.d. Equation of discharging is,
/
0
t CR
q q e
−
·
/
0
1
t CR
dq
i q e
dt CR
−
 `
· · ⋅ ⋅ − ·
. ,
/
0
0
( )
t CR
q e
q CV
CR
−
− ⋅
·
/
/
t CR
t CR
CV e V
i e
CR R
−
−
· · ⋅
at
0 ;
V
t i
R
· ·
.
0
0 0
V
k A VA V CV d
i
A d d k k
ε ρ
· · · ·
ρ ρ ε ρ ε
.
39.d.
dx
V
Consider an element (dλ) at distance x from centre.
This element is moving with speed, v wx · .
∴
Induced emf across
( ) dx B dx v Bwx dx · · ⋅
∴
emf between centre and edge of disc =
2 2 2
0
1
( )
2
b
Bwxdx Bw b a · −
∫
40.c. When free end which is at distance l moves with
velocity ν, then the element located at x moves
with velocity
1
v
x
l
ν · ⋅
.
V
l
dx
x
mass length λ · ;
m
l
λ ·
;
mass of element ( ) dm dx · · λ
KE of spring =
2
2
0
1
( )
2 6
l
xv mv
dx
l
 `
λ⋅ ·
. ,
∫
.
41.c. Gravitational force is the internal force
1 2 1 2
; 2
2
M
v M v v v ⋅ · ⋅ ·
from energy conservation :
V
1
Earth
V
2
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2 2
1 2
1 1
2 2 2 2
M M
v M v gh ⋅ · ⋅ ·
1
2 3 v gh ∴ · .
42.b. Max. extension in spring during oscillation =
M g
A
k
⋅
+
∴
Max. force acting on M during oscillation of
1
1 max
M g
M F K A
k
 `
· · +
. ,
for M
2
to be at rest,
max 2
; F M g ≤ µ
1 2
; M g kA M g + ≤ µ
1
2 2
M kA
M M g
µ ≥ +
.
43.c.
;
dv
a V
dt
· · −α
0
0
;
V t
V
dv
dt
v
· −α
∫ ∫
0 0
;
t t ds
V V e V e
dt
α α
· ·
0
0
0 0
;
t V
ds V e dt S
ρ α
α
· ⋅ ·
α
∫ ∫
44.d. Power = F.V. =
2 3 3
sin 2 sin 2 sin mg gl m g l θ⋅ θ · θ
45.d. At any instant, points are situated at the vertices
of equilateral triangle.
∴
Relative velocity of approach =
cos 60º Kt kt −
0
( cos 60º ) ;
T
Kt kt dt a − ·
∫
2
cos 60º
a
T
K k
·
−
4a
K
· .
46.c. Space is homogeneous enough to be considered a
blackbody. This is a straightforward calculation
question  given the temperature, can you determine
the wavelength of maximum intensity emitted by
the cosmic background radiation?
m 10 1
3
10 2.9
λ
3 
3
max
× ·
×
·
−
47.c. The real question here is, do you know what
wavelengths correspond to visible light?
Visible light ranges from about 400 to 700 nm in
wavelength. If the light is emitted at the low end,
400 nm, the object’s temperature is:
K 7250
10 400
10 2.9
T
9
3
·
×
×
·
−
−
On the other had, an object that emits light at the
high end of the visible spectrum has a temperature.
K 4143
10 700
10 2.9
T
9
3
·
×
×
·
−
−
The temperature of the blackbody must be
somewhere between these two values, choice (C)
is correct.
48.b. In this problem, you are asked to figure out the
relationship between the color of an object and the
surface temperature. Since the color of light
depends on its wavelength, the real question is :
how does wavelength of emission and temperature
relate?
The passage tells us that the emission spectra of
stars are pretty close to the blackbody spectrum.
So we can make use of Wien’s displacement law: as
the temperature goes up, the wavelength at
maximum intensity goes down. (Not that we aren’t
overlooking the “maximum intensity” requirement
the color of light we see from a thermally radiating
object is generally from the most intense photons.
Remember that photon intensity depends on the
number of photons, not their energy.)
So we need the color with the lowest wavelength.
That’s blue and violet light, which radiates around
400 to 450 nm. The correct answer is choice (B).
Since the question calls for extremes, we could
probaly have eliminated choices (C) and (D) right
away, since answer choices (A) and (B) are more
extreme choices.
49d. The quantization condition means that the energies
of the system take the form: E = nhf
So the energy difference between consecutive
energy states is just hf. (For example, the energy
difference between consecutive energy states n =
2 and n = 3 is 3hf2hf = hf)
For a mass oscillating on the end of a spring, the
frequency of oscillation f is :
m
k
2
1
f
π
·
Consequently, we can write the energy gap between
consecutive states as :
m
k
2
h
E
π
· ∆
50.b. The specific heat of a substance is the energy
needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of that
substance by 1 degree K. In this case, we use 3840
J to heat a 3kg block of lead up by 10 K. Apply the
definition to calculate the specific heat:
T mc Q ∆ · ∆
K . kg
J
128
k) (10 kg) (3
J 3840
T m
Q
c · ·
∆
∆
·
60º
60º
60º
Kt
Kt
Kt
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51.d. The eqn. of chord OA is
1
Tan
x
b
y
a
θ  `
·
. ,
The eqn. of chord OC is
2
Tan
x
b
y
a
θ  `
·
. ,
, where
O is centre (0,0)
1 1
( cos , sin ), A a b · θ θ
2 2
( cos , sin ) C a b · θ θ .
As these are conjugate diameters,
2
1 2
2
Tan Tan b b b
a a a
θ θ −  ` `
·
−
. ,. ,
1 2 2
Tan cot Tan
2
π  `
⇒ θ · − θ · + θ
. ,
1 2
2
π
⇒ θ θ · ∼
.
52.a.
2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin , AO a b CO · θ+ θ ·
2 2 2 2
sin cos a b θ + θ
2 1
2
π ¹ ¹
θ · + θ
' '
¹ ¹
∵
2 2 2 2
AO CO a b ∴ + · +
53.c.
2 2
AO CO AO CO · ⇒ · ⇒
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin sin cos a b a b θ + θ · θ + θ
2 2 2 2 2
( ) ( ) cos a b v a b ⇒ − · − θ
Tan 1 ⇒ θ · t
3
or
4 4
π π
⇒ θ ·
54.a. Given equation is
0 6 ) ( 4 ) (
2 2 2 2 4 4
· + − − + y cx y x bxy y x a
...(1)
Equation (1) is a homogeneous equation f fourth
degree and since it represents two pairs at right
angles. i.e., sum of the coefficients of
2 2
& y x
should be zero.
Let
0 6 ) ( 4 ) (
2 2 2 2 4 4
· + − − + y cx y x bxy y x a
=
) (x ) (
2 2 2 2
y qxy ay pxy ax − + − +
where p & q are constants
On comparing similar powers, we get
p + aq =  4b .....(2)
2a + pa = 6c ...(3)
Again, given two pairs coincide, then
q
q
p
·
or p = aq ...(4)
from (2) & (3),
b and
a
b
q 2
2
− · − ·
Substituting the values of p and q in (3), we get
ac b c
a
b
a 3 a 6
4
2
2 2
2
· + ⇒ · + −
⇒
ac a b 3 2
2 2
+ ·
55.d. Suppose, iof possible,
Equation of line through (4, 5) with slope m is
y + 5 = m (x  4)
⇒ mx  y  4m  5 = 0
Then
12
1
5 4 3 ) 2 (
2
·
+
− − − −
m
m m
⇒ ) 1 ( 12 ) 8 6
2
+ · − − m m
On squaring
) 1 ( 144 ) 8 6 (
2 2
+ · + m m
⇒ ) 1 ( 144 ) 4 3 ( 4
2 2
+ · + m m
⇒ ) 1 ( 36 ) 4 3 (
2 2
+ · + m m
⇒
0 20 24 27
2
· + + m m
...(1)
Since the discriminant of (1) is (24)
2
 4.27.20 =
1584 which is negative, there is no real value of m.
Hence no such line is possible.
56.b. Given circle is the intersection of the sphere
0 19 )
ˆ
4
ˆ
2
ˆ
2 .(
2
· − − − + k j i r r
or
0 19 4 2 2
2 2 2
· − − − + + + z y x z y x
and the plane
0 8 )
ˆ
2
ˆ
2
ˆ
.( · + − − k j i r
P Q
5
c(1,1,2)
M
We have
CM = Length of the
⊥
from
ˆ ˆ ˆ
2 i j k − + +
to the plane
(ii)
4 4 1
8 )
ˆ
2
ˆ
2
ˆ
).(
ˆ
2
ˆ ˆ
(
M
+ +
+ + − + + −
· ⇒
k j i k j i
C
3
3
8 4 2 1
M ·
+ + − −
· ⇒ C
Paper  I I : Mathematics  51 to 100
Solutions
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4 9 25 M
2 2
· − · − · ∴ CM CP P
57.a. The equation of xy  plane is z = 0 i.e., 0x+0y+z=0.
Clearly, the given plane is perpendicular to this
plane.
58.c.
cos sin
) cos sin
) (
x x
x x
x f
+
−
·
....(1)
) cos in 
) os ) in
cos( ) ( sin
) ( cos ( sin
) (
x x s
x c x s
x x
x x
x f
−
−
·
+ + +
+ − +
· +
π π
π π
π
) (
cos sin
cos sin
x f
x x
x x
·
+
−
·
) ( ) ( ) ( x f x f x f ⇒ · + π has period π
59. d.
x e x f
x x
∀ ≥ ·
+ −
0 ) (
2 3
2
Evidently f is increasing function and so f is one 
one map.
3
5 3 2 4
: ( , 1] (0, ],
x x
f e e e
− +
−∞ − → ·
if x = 1
Range of f is
f ] , 0 ( ] , 0 (
5 4
∴ ⊂ e e
is into map.
60.a. ⇒ + · ⇒ · + − 3 3 0 3 3 x y y x slope of normal
= 3 ....(1)
slope of normal of f(x) = 0 as x = 0 is
) 0 ( '
1
f
−
..(2)
By (1) and (2),
3
1
) 0 ( ' − f
) 7 ( 4 ) 4 ( 5 ) (
lim
2 2 2
2
0
x f x f x f
x
x
+ −
→
) 7 ( ' 56 ) 4 ( ' 40 ) ( ' 2
2
lim
2 2 2
0
x xf x xf x xf
x
x
+ −
·
→
) 7 ( ' 28 ) 4 ( ' 20 ) ( '
1
lim
2 2 2
0
x f x f x f
x
+ −
·
→
3
1
) 0 ( ' 9
1
) 0 ( ' 28 ) 0 ( ' 20 ) 0 ( '
1
− · ·
+ −
·
f f f f
61.c. x = 0 is a point of (1, 2). At x = 0, log t and
t
t sin
both are not defined.
∴
(a) & (b) are false.
2
2
1
t  1
t t
t
+ +
+
is continuous and differentiable
). 2 , 1 (− ∈ ∀t
∴
c is true
62. a. If we take
x e x f
x
sin ) ( − ·
−
] 0 sin sin 1 sin [ · − ⇒ · ⇒ ·
− −
x e e x x e For
x x x
then
0 ) cos ( 0 ) ( ' cos ) ( ' · + − ⇒ · − − ·
− −
x e x f and x e x f
x x
1 cos 0 cos 1 − · ⇒ · + ⇒ x e x e
x x
.
63.c.
64.d. Since, it is given the the reciprocal of the square of
the length of semiconjugate axis is less than the
reciprocal of the square of the length of semi
transverse axis i.e.
2 2
1
b
1
a
<
Let they differ by a constant
2
k
2 2 2
1 1
a
1
k b
+ · ∴
Hence, the equation of the family of hyperbolas is
1
a
x
2
2
2
2
· −
b
y
1
1 1
2
2
2 2
2
· −
,
`
.

+ ⇒
b
y
k b
x
2 2 2
2 2
1 1
( ) ( ) 1 x y x
b k
∴ − + ·
Which is independent of a and has 4 points
) , ( k k t t satisfying the above equation.
65.c.
16
9
1
16
9 16
2
1
− ·
−
· e
and
16
9
1
16
9 16
2
2
+ ·
+
· e
2 2
1 2
3 e e ∴ + ≤
66. b. Let the coordinates of A be (a, 0) and of B be (0, b),
then AOB being a right angled triangle, the centre
of the circumscribed circle is the midpoint of AB
i.e,
,
`
.

2
,
2
b a
and Radius is OC =
4 4
a
2 2
b
+
O
A(a,0)
(0,b)B
M
X
Y
2
b
,
2
a
C
L
Equation of the circle is
0 ) ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) ( · − − + − − b y y x a x
0
2 2
· − − + ⇒ by ax y x
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0 ) 0 (
2
) 0 (
2
) 0 ( ) 0 ( · + − + − + y
b
x
a
y x
0 · + ⇒ by ax
Let AL and BM be the perpendiculars from A and B
on equation (1)
thern,
m
b a
a
AL ·
+
·
2 2
2
and
n
b a
b
BM ·
+
·
2 2
2
2 2
a n m BM AL b + · + · + ∴
= diameter
of circle
67. d
C’
O
B
S
C
R
Q P
8 A
X
Y
8
.
,
`
.
 −
·
,
`
.

circle smallest the of
centre the of ordinates Co
C point
of s Coordinate
,
`
.
 −
·
,
`
.

square smallest the of
centre the of ordinates Co
C point
of s Coordinate
∴
(Coordinates of point C) = (4, 4)
PQ = 8  2  2 = 4 = QR
{
∴
radius of each large circle = 2 cm}
2 4 4 4 PR
2 2
· + · ∴
and hence, 2 2
2
2 4
PC − ·
∴
Radius of smallest circle
2 2 2 − ·
Hence, the required circle is
2 2 2
( 4) ( 4) (2 2 2) x y − + − · −
68. d.
D) (C cos C sin C cos
D) (B cos B sin B cos
D) (A cos A sin A cos
,
+
+
+
· ∆ Since
Applying ) sin cos (
2 1 3 2
D C D C C C − − →
0
0 C sin C cos
0 B sin B cos
0 A sin A cos
· · ∆ ⇒
which is independent of A, B, C and D.
69. a. Roots of equation
0 8 9
2
· + − x x
are 1 and 8
2 log ] ... sin sin [sin
e
6 4 2
∞ + + + · to Lety α α α
2 log tan 2 log
sin 1
sin
y
2
2
2
e e
α
α
α
·
]
]
]
]
−
· ⇒
) (2 log y
2
tan α
e
· ⇒
α
2
tan y
2 e · ∴
Given
3 tan
2 8 2
2
· ·
α
3 tan
2
· ⇒ α
3 tan
2
· ⇒ α
3
α
α · ⇒
Noew,
α
π π
π
π
· · − ·
,
`
.

−
3 3
2
3
2
sin sin
1
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
≤ ≤
2
3
3
2
2
π π π
∵
70.d. Putting x = 0 and both sides of the equation we
have
9
1 0 2
2 1 0
0 2 1
· · g
Differentiating both sides and then putting x = 0,
we get f = 5.
71. a. The system has non  zero solution if
sin3 1 1
cos 2 4 3 0
2 7 7
θ
θ
−
∆ · ·
Applying
1 3 3 1 2 2
7 4 R R R R and R R + → + →
0
14 0 3 sin 7 2
7 0 3 sin 4 2 cos
1 1 sin
·
+
+
−
· ∆ ⇒
θ
θ θ
θ
0 3 sin 49  14  3 sin 56 2 cos 14 · + ⇒ θ θ θ
0 2  3 sin 2 cos 2 · + ⇒ θ θ
0 3 sin ) 1 2 (cos 2 · + − ⇒ θ θ
0 sin 4 sin 3 sin 4 
3 2
· − + ⇒ θ θ θ
0 ) 3 sin 4 sin 4 ( sin
2
· − + + − ⇒ θ θ θ
0 ) 3 sin 2 ( ) 1 sin 2 ( sin · + − ⇒ θ θ θ
1 3
sin 0, sin , sin
2 2
θ θ θ
−
⇒ · · ·
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, ( 1)
6
n
n n
π
θ π θ π ⇒ · · + −
72.a. Clearly,
µ λ
7 7 +
will be divisible by 5 if
either :
λ
7
has 3 or 7 in the unit place and
µ
7
has 7 or 3 in the unit place
or :
λ
7
has 1 or 9 in the unit place and
µ
7
has 9 or 1 in the unit place.
∴
For any chice µ λ, the digits in the unit
place of
µ λ
7 7 +
is 0, 4, 6, 8.
It is divisible by 5 only when this digit is 0.
∴
The required probability
4
1
·
73.d. Let P (E) be the probability that first 6 is tossed on
the k
th
toss is
th
th th
probabilty that probabilty that
6 was never that
P(E) = tossed before 6 is tossed
k toss in on the
(k1) tosses k toss
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
∴
' ' ' '
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
,
`
.

,
`
.

· ⇒
−
6
1
6
5
P(E)
1 k
The probability that Anthony will toss the first 6 is
the sum of the probabilities that he will toss the
first 6 on his first turn (i.e., 3rd toss of game), second
turn (i.e. 6th toss of game). etc.
∴
Required Probability i.e. P(EP is given by
∞ +
,
`
.

,
`
.

+ +
,
`
.

,
`
.

+
,
`
.

,
`
.

·
−
...
6
1
6
5
....
6
1
6
5
6
1
6
5
) (
1 3 5 2 n
E P
2
3
5 1
.
6 6
( )
5
1
6
P E
 `
. ,
⇒ ·
 `
. ,
25
Required Probability =
91
∴
74. b.
c x b x a · +
2 2
cos sin
a c x a − · ⇒
2
cos )  (b
) tan (1 a)  (c )  (b
2
x a + · ⇒
Now,
d y a y b · +
2 2
cos sin
b  d y cos )  (a
2
· ⇒ b
) tan (1 ) ( )  (a
2
y b d b + − · ⇒
b d
d a
y
a c
c b
x
−
−
·
−
−
· ∴
2 2
tan , tan
d)  (a ) (
b)  (d ) (
tan
tan
2
2
a c
c b
y
x
−
−
· ⇒
.....(1)
But a tan x = b tan y
a
b
y
x
· ⇒
tan
tan
.....(2)
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2
2
d a a c
b d c b
a
b
− −
− −
·
{ using (1) & (2)}
2
2
a ( ) ( )
b ( ) ( )
c a a d
b c d b
− −
⇒ ·
− −
75.a. From the given equations we have
) 1 (
4
3
,
1
6 , 1 u w
w
w
v v u − ·
−
· − ·
Which are satisfied by the pair
0 0 1 w u v ≡
76.c.
3 1 3 1
) (cos ) (sin E Let x x
− −
+ ·
3 1 1
) cos (sin E x x
−
+ · ⇒
) cos (sin cos 3sin
1 1 1 1
x x x x
− − −
+
2
cos (sin 3 
8
E
1 1 
3
π π
x x
−
· ⇒
,
`
.

− − · ⇒
−
x x
1 1 
3
sin
2
sin
2
3
8
E
π π π
( )
2
1 1 
2 3
sin
2
3
sin
4
3
8
E x x
−
+ − · ⇒
π π π
]
]
]
− + · ⇒
− −
x x
1 2 1
3
sin
2
) (sin
2
3
8
E
π π π
32
3
4
sin
2
3
8
E
3
2
1 
3
π π π π
−
,
`
.

− + · ⇒ x
2
1 
3
4
sin
2
3
32
E
,
`
.

− + · ⇒
π π π
x
3
So, the least value is
32
π
2 2
1 
4
3
4
sin since,
,
`
.

≤
,
`
.

−
π π
x
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∴
The greatest value is
8
7
2
3
16
9
32
3 2 3
π π π π
· × +
77.c.
B A x Let
2 2
sin sin + ·
{given}
B A x
2 2
sin cos 1 + − · ⇒
2 2
1 sin cos x B A ⇒ · + −
) ( cos ) ( cos 1 B A B A x − + + · ⇒
1 cos cos( ) x C A B ⇒ · − − } C B A { π · + + ∵
1
1 cos ( )
2
x A B ⇒ · − − −
Now,
1
cos ( ) 1
2
A B − ≤ − ≤
2
1
1 ) ( cos
2
1
1
2
1
1 + ≤ − + ≤ − ⇒ B A
1 2 1
2 2
x
+
∴ ≤ ≤
78. a. The equation of a line parallel to x + 2y = 4 is x + 2y
= k
The distance between these two lines is 3
3
4 1
4
4 1
k
·
+
−
+
∴
5 3 4 k + · ⇒
This shifted line cuts xaxis at (k, 0).
After rotation the slope of the line is tan
) 30  (
o
θ
,
where
2
1
tan − · θ
{slope f x+2y=4}
Thus, the equation of the line in the new position is
0 tan ( 30 ) (x  k)
o
y θ − · −
where,
5 3 4 + · k
79. d.
O
X
Y
P(x,y)
C(g,f)
Let the given line be the yaxis and the circle to
have the equation
0 2 2
2 2
· + + + + c fy gx y x
,
then according to given condition, we have
) ( ) ( ) (
2 2 2 2 2
c f g f y g x x − + − + + + ·
,
`
.

−
− − · + ⇒
g
c f
x g
2
2 f) (y
2
2
which represents a parabola with its axis
perpendicular to yaxis.
80.b. Since, P and D are the ends of semiconjugate
diameters of ellipse respectively, therefore, the co
ordinates of P and D are (a cos
θ
be sin
θ
) and
,
`
.

,
`
.

+
,
`
.

+ θ
π
θ
π
2
sin b ,
2
cos a
respectively
θ θ
2 2 2 2 2 2
sin cos CP b a CD + · + ∴
θ θ
2 2 2 2
cos sin b a + +
2 2 2 2
CP CD a b ∴ + · +
81. d.
M
B
C
A
O
D
E
By symmetry area ABM) ( Area ADE) (∆ ∆ ·
So, integral is minimum when m = 0
82.a.
∫
+
+ +
· dx
x x
x
) 1 (
x x
I Sinc,
3 / 1
6 / 1 2/3
Put x = t
6
have we dt , 6t dx
5
· ⇒
∫
+
+ +
· ∴ dt
t t
t t t
I
) 1 (
) ( 6t
2 6
4 6 5
∫
+
+ +
· ⇒ dt
t
t
I
1
) 1 (t 6
2
3 5
∫ ∫
+
+ · ⇒ dt
t
dt t I
1
6
6
2
3
c t tan 6
4
t
6 I
1
4
+ +
,
`
.

· ⇒
−
2/ 3 1 1/ 6
3
6tan ( )
2
I x x c
−
∴ · + +
83. d.
∞ + + + · ...
! 7
6
! 5
4
! 3
2 1
,
e e e
x
Since
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
∞ + + + · ⇒ ...
! 7
3
! 5
2
! 3
1
2
1
e
x
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( ) S e
x
2
1
· ⇒
Such that
! ) 1 2 (
1
+
·
∑
∞
·
n
n
S
n
Now,
]
]
]
]
+
− +
·
∑
∞
·
! ) 1 2 (
1 1 2
2
1
1
n
n
S
n
]
]
]
]
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+
− · ⇒
∑
∞
·
1 2
1
! ) 2 (
1
2
1
1
n n
S
n
( )
1
2
1
−
· ⇒ e S
Substituting respective value of S in (1), we have
1
2
1
2
1
·
,
`
.

·
e
e
x
dy y f
y
1 log ) ( I
1
0
∫
· ∴
{where, y > 1}
0 I ⇒ ·
84.c. Here,
x x f x g f y
2
cos ) (cos )] ( [ · · ·
Again,
0 π) π)(6x π)(3x (3x π x 9 18x
2 2
· − − − · + · π
6
,
3
x
π π
· ⇒
Hence, the required area is
dx x xdx A ) 2 cos 1 (
2
1
cos
3
6
2
3
6
+ · ·
∫ ∫
π
π
π
π
3
6
1 sin 2
2 2 12
x
A x
π
π
π  `
⇒ · + ·
. ,
85. a.
]
]
]
∈ ∀
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
·
2
, 0
3
1
, cot , tan ) ( ,
π
x x x MIN x f Since
O
X
y = tan x y = cot x
C
B A
Y
3
1
= y
6
π
3
π
2
π
The Area bounded is shown in the figure such
that, A is
,
`
.

3
1
,
6
π
and B is
,
`
.

3
1
,
3
π
Hence, Required Area
dx x dx xdx A cot
3
1
tan
2 /
3 /
3 /
6 /
6 /
0
∫ ∫ ∫
+ + ·
π
π
π
π
π
/6 /3 / 2
0 / 6 /3
1
A (log sec x) ( ) (log sin )
3
x x
π π π
π π
⇒ · + +
,
`
.

− +
,
`
.

· ⇒
6 3
3
1
0 sec log 
6
sec log A
/6
0
π π π
π
,
`
.

+
3
sin log 
2
sin log
π π
,
`
.

+
,
`
.

· ⇒
6
3
1
3 log
2
1
 2 log
π
A
,
`
.

+ + 2 log 3 log
2
1
 1 log
3
4
log
3 6
π
A + · ∴
86. c. Equation of the tangent at (x, y)
x) (X
dx
dy
y Y − · −
,
`
.

− ·
,
`
.

− ·
dx
dy
x y
dy
dx
y x P , 0 P and 0 ,
2 1
dy
dx
y  x 3x · ⇒
and
,
`
.

·
dx
dy
x  y 2 3y
Both give the differential equation
0 ydx 2xdy · +
whose solution is xy
2
= c
87.a.
1 1 1
Since, i j k (a b) (c d)
6 3 3
+ · × × ×
1 1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ
i j k [a b d ] c [a b c] d
6 3 3
⇒ + ·
c ] d b a [ k
ˆ
3
1
j
ˆ
3
1
 i
ˆ
6
1
· + ⇒
....(1)
coplanar} are c , b , a {
∵
Now., d b
. a ] d b a [ × ·
θ cos a ] d b a [ d b
× · ⇒
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} b a  d b d , a d {
∵ × ∴ ⊥ ⊥
1) .1.) 30 sin ] d b a [ t · ⇒
o
ab
2
1
1) .( 1 .
2
1
. 1 . 1 ] d b a [ t · t · ⇒
Substituting respective value in (1), we have
3
k 2 j 2  i
k
3
2
j
3
2
 i
3
1
+
t ·
,
`
.

+ t · c
88. c.
O
) a A(
B ) b ( ) c C(
), c b (
2
1
V , ) b a (
2
1
V
2 1
× · × ·
3 4
1 1
V (c a) and V {( c a) (b a)}
3 2
· × · − × −
Now, 0 V V V V
4 3 2 1
· + + +
1 2 3 4
V V V V 0 ∴ + + + ·
89. a. Let OA = 2 unit then OB = 4 unit and OC = 6 unit.
Now,
k
ˆ
3 j
ˆ
2 i
ˆ
2 AB'
2
1
AC'
2
1
OA OD + + · + + ·
D’
B’
O’ A’
C’
O
A
C
D
B
Also,
k
ˆ
6 j
ˆ
2 i
ˆ
O' B'
2
1
CB'
2
1
OC OD' + + · + + ·
' OD OD
OD' . OD
' cos , · DOD Now
36 4 1 9 4 4
(6) (3) (2) (2) (1) ) 2 (
' cos
+ + + +
+ +
· ⇒ DOD
1
24
' cos
697
DOD
−
 `
∴ ∠ ·
. ,
90. a.
2
a 100
100
1
log a 2log E Let
,
`
.

− ·
} 100 log {log 2 E
100 g
a + · ⇒
G.M. A.M. Since ≥
1 100 log log
2
100 log log
100
100
· × ≥
+ +
⇒
a
a
a
a
2 100 log log
100
≥ + ⇒
a
a
100
min (log log 100) 2
a
a ∴ + ·
91.a. We have
,
5
2 r i
e
π
α ·
where r = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Clearly,
0 1 1
4 3 2 5
· + + + + · α α α α α and
Now,
α
α α
1
1
4 5
· ⇒ ·
4 3 2 3 2
1
1
1 α α α α
α
α α α − + + + · − + + + ∴
] 1 [ 2 2 2 
4
4 4 4
· · · · − · α α α α α ∵
. 1 log
1
1 log
2
3 2
2
· · − + + + ∴
α
α α α
92.d.
93.c. The given expansion can be written as
factors n factors n
y y y y x x x x
− −
+ + + + + + + + ) 1 )...( 1 )( 1 )( 1 )}{ 1 ( )... 1 )( 1 )( 1 {(
factors n
z z z z
−
+ + + + )} 1 )....( 1 )( 1 )( 1 {(
There are 3n factors in this product.
To get a term of degreer, we choose r factors out of
these 3n factors and then multiply second terms in
each factor. There are
r
n
C
3
such terms each having
coefficient 1.
Hence, the sum of the coefficients =
r
n
C
3
.
94.a. First equation is
2
10
log x
∴
G.P. for 2 S ·
∞
or y x ·
10
log 2 ...(1)
From second equation
) (
2
l a
n
S
n
+ ·
∴
We have
y y y
y
x
7
40
10 log 7
20
) 5 3 (
2
2
· ·
+
[By (1)]
0 100 60 7
2
· − − ⇒ y y
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0 ) 10 7 ( ) 10 ( · + − ⇒ y y
7
10
, 10 − ≠ · ⇒ y y
5 log 10 log 2
10 10
· ⇒ · ⇒ x x
5
10 · ⇒ x
95.a. The given inequality
2
1
  1
1
2
1
  1
 
1 ≥
+
⇒ ≥
+
−
x x
x
2   1 ≤ + ⇒ x 1   ≤ ⇒ x
1 1 ≤ ≤ − ⇒ x ] 1 , 1 [− ∈ ⇒ x
96.c. Put cos , sin x r y r · θ · θ,
then 3 4 5 x y + ·
3 cos 4 sin 5 r r ⇒ θ+ θ ·
5
3cos 4sin
r
⇒ θ+ θ ·
97.a. The eqn. 11+0
2
cos sin
r
θ+ θ ·
is
cos sin
K
r
θ+ θ ·
& passing thro`
( )
1, 0 1 1
2
1
K
K
π
⇒ + · ⇒ ·
1
cos sin
r
∴ θ + θ ·
is required eqn.
98.b. The
0 cos sin
l
a b
r
⊥ + θ+ θ ·
is
cos sin
2 2
K
a b
r
π π  `  `
θ +θ + θ + θ ·
. , . ,
passing thro` pole (0, 0) ⇒ ⇒
( )
K
O b O O b K
O
+ · ⇒ + ·
K O ⇒ ·
∴
required eqn. is
sin cos 0 a b − θ+ θ ·
1
Tan Tan
b b
a a
 `
⇒ θ · ⇒ θ ·
. ,
99.d. cos( ) P r · θ− α is eqn. of line in normal form.
Here 3,
4
P
π
· α · .
( )
cos 3
4
r
π
∴ θ− ·
1 1
cos _ sin 3
2 2
r
 `
⇒ θ⋅ θ⋅ ·
. ,
3 2
cos sin
r
⇒ θ+ θ · .
100.d. Convert the eqn. in normal form. Then
2 2
cos( ),
l
r
a b
· θ−α
+
1
Tan &
b
a
−
α ·
2 2
l
P
a b
·
+
∴
foot of ⊥ r is ( , ) ρ α i.e.,
1
2 2
, Tan
l b
a
a b
−
 `
+
. ,
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101.b. The bismuth endpoint is the point at which all the
bismuth in the solution has reacted with EDTA,
and the additional EDTA that is added then begins
to react with the coper ions. While the EDTA reacts
with bismuth, no increase in absorbance takes place.
This produces the straight line betwen x=0 and x= 3
on the graph. When the EDTA reacts with copper, a
complex is formed that absorbs light. As this reaction
progresses, absorpotion increases; this is indicated
by the linear portion of the graph with positive slope.
The bismuth endpoint is the point at which
absorption just begins; this is clearly at the point
where 3 mL of EDTA has been added, so choice B is
correct. Chice A is wrong because when 2.5 mL
EDTA has been added there is no absorption
occurring. This means that there is still some
bismuth in the solution that is reacting with the
EDTA. Choice C, 4.0 mL, is wrong because at this
point the copper complex is forming, meaning that
all of the bismuth has alreadyreacted. The other
horizontal line, on the upper right side of the graph,
indicates that, once all the copper has reacted, no
further complex is formed and the basorption
remains constnats as more EDTa is added 5 mL is
therefore the copper endpoint, but we are looking
for the bismuth endpoint, so choice D is wrong.
102.a. Choice B is contradicted in the passage. We looked
at the K’s and determined that the copper complex
is less stable. Choice C is half right and half wrong,
the copper complex absorbs, but the bismuth
complex does not, and thus has a zero slope. The
statement in choice D is true, but not an answer to
this question. For one thing, it is not necessary
that the absorbance occur in the visible region. It is
true that the copper EDTA complex absorbs light,
and so produces color, but there is nothing in the
passage to indicate that an especially intense color
would be needed, so choice D is wrong.
103.d. This question is a good candidate for last to be
done. Whenever we do answer it howerver, it should
be done with a minimum of actual calculation.
g
mol
g
mol
mol
L
EDTA mol
mL
L
mL
EDTA
Bi
· × × × ×
For question 1, we found that the volume of EDTA
(Y) needed was 3 mL, the question gives us the
concentration of EDTA as 0.1 M, the passage, or its
equations, tell us that the reaction is one to one,
and the periodic table says that bismuth weights
209 g/mol. We can thus plug in and calculate:
0627 . 0
1
209
1
1
1
1 . 0
1000
1
3 · × × × ×
This could have been simplified to (0.3) (0.2)=0.06,
choice D or, better still, 2 x 3 with a decimal
somewhere is 6 with a power of ten after it, also
choice D only.
104.b. This is a typical “qhat if” question if you understood
what was happening in figure 1 you should’ve been
able to apply your understanding to this question.
Q: What will happen at the begining of this new
reaction?
A: At the beginning of the reaction, only the
reactnat, which absorbs light, is present/ The graph
should thus begin with a high positive value
Q: Now, s the titrant is added one drop at a time, it
reacts with the reactant to form the product. What
happens to the curve at this time?
A: The conentration of the reactant decreases. As
the reaction proceeeds, the amount of light
absorbed by the reactant therefore also decrease,
and the vurve should slope wownward.
Q: When the endpoint is reached, what happens?
A: A minimum is reached. When the endpoint is
reached, only the product will be present. At that
point the basorbance will be zeor since the product
doesn’t absorb light?
Q. Then what?
A: As additional titrant is added, the titrant, which
no longer has anything to react with, will accumulate
in the solution. The titrant does absorb light, so
the absorbance will increase after the end point.
Therefore choice B is the correct answer. (this
question illustrates again, the importance of
understanding versus memory.
105.b. This question can be answered via Beer’s law. The
stem says that the container is twice as long, and
the answer choices al have something to do with
absorbance; absorbance and pathlenght through
the container are compared in Equation 1.
Absorbance is directly proportional to the
pathlength. So if we double b, we double the
absorbance at every point in the titration. The
absorbance would therefore increase twice as fast,
i.e. the slope is doubled.
The width of the container is the variable b; the
path length that the beam must travel through . ε
is a constant and doesn’t change, c is the molar
concentration,and b is the path length. You an see
that b and c are directly related to the absorbance,
so any change in b or c will result in a similar change
in A. If, for example, the solution contains the
copper(II) EDTA complex, this solution would have
a certain constant absorptivity, ε . However, the
amount of light actually absorbed by a particular
sample will depend on the concentration of the
solution and the length of the path through which
light travels. If the concentration is increasede,
which means that the value of cc increases, then
the absorbance will also increase. Likewise, if the
distance traveled by the
Paper  I I I : Chemistry  101 to 150
Solutions
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light moving through the solution increases, this will also
increase the absorbance. So, if the diameter of the
flask containing the solution is increased from 10
centimeters to 20 centimeters, twice as mich ight
will be absorbed. Therefore the value of A, for any
given concentration, will be twice as great, even
though the absorptivity per centimeter will, of
course, remain the same. The absorbance is a
measure of the actual amount of light absorbed,
not of the solution’s characteristic capacity to
absorb light. Now, if the absorbance during a
titration had originally increased form zero to x,
and the length of the light path were doubled, the
absorbance would then increase from zero to 2x
when the same amount of titrant is added. This
would double the slope of the graph, so the correct
answer is choice B.
106.d. Since Z is the number of protons and A is the
number of protons plus neutrons, Z cannot be larger
than A.
107.c. The atomic number defines the element.
108.b. The functional groups are indicated below.
O
ester
phenyl ring
carboxylic acid
O
O
OH
109.c.
2 4 2
2 0
N H N ÷÷→
Equivalent weight of
2 6 4
130
32.5
4
N H SO · ·
Number of equivalents of
4
5 1
20
50 1000 500
KMnO · × ·
×
and if weight of hydraize sulphate be x gm then
equivalents of hydrazine sulphate =
32.5
x
1 32.5
or 0.065g
500 32.5 500
x
x ∴ · · ·
Hence wt. of
2 6 4
N H SO in 10 ml solution = 0.065g
∴ Wt. of
2 6 4
N H SO in 1000ml solution = 6.5g.
110.c. Note that when the concentration of Y is held
constant at 2.0M the concentration of X is tripled,
the rate of tripled. Also, note that when [X] is held
constant at 2.0M and [Y] is tripled, the rate of
unchanged. Hence the rate is directly related to
the concentration of [X] but independent on the
concentration of [Y].
111.b. A sneaky loophole, and probably not one you
would have though of before seeing the answer
choices. Always read all answer choices before
making your selection!
112.a. The change in Gibbs´ free energy is related to H ∆
and S ∆ by the equation G ∆ = H ∆ –T S ∆ , at
equilibrium, however G ∆ =0, and T=
equib
T hence
H ∆ =
eq
T S ∆ , equib
H
T
S
∆
·
∆
.
113.c. The longest chain is seven carbons, a heptene.
Answer C gives the lowest numbered carbon
attached to the double bond.
114.a.
19
2
21.76 10
of J
n
E H
n
−
− ×
·
19
2
2
21.76 10
of Z J
n
E He
n
−
+
− ×
∴ · ×
19
3
21.76 10 4
of J
9
E He
−
+
− × ×
∴ ·
Hence energy equivalent to E
3
must be supplied to
remove the electron from 3rd orbit of He
+
.
Wavelength corresponding to this energy can be
determined by applying the relation.
E=
hc
λ
or
34 8
19
6.625 10 3 10 9
21.76 10 4
hc
E
−
−
× × × ×
λ · ·
× ×
10
0.255 10 m=2055Å
−
· ×
115.d. β in this equation represents the compressibility
factor of the system.
116.c. Along with a collision, the molecules must have
enough energy and must strike each other with the
proper spatial orientation in order for a collision to
occur.
117.d. Note that only I and II are correct statements.
At
1
T
Gº ∆
is on the positive side of the ordinate.
Note also that the slope
Gº
T
P
 ` ∂ ∆
∆
. ,
, at the minima
(T
3
), is zero.
118.c. The carbon atom of a carboxylic acid is at a higher
oxidation state than the carbon atom in either an
alcohol or an aldehyde. Potassium chromate is a
strong oxidant. Although ozone produces an
oxidized product, it only works on alkenes.
119.a. Volume of balloon =
3
4 4 22 21 21 21
4851ml
3 3 7 2 2 2
r π · × × × × ·
Calculation of total volume of hydrogen in the
cylinder at N.T.P.
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1 1 2 2
1 2
P P V V
T T
·
1
P =1 atm
2
P =20 atm
1
V =?
2
V =2.82l
1
T =273K
2
T =273+27=300K
1
20 2.82 273
51.324 51324ml
300 1
V l
× ×
∴ · · ·
×
Actual volume to be transferred into balloons =
51324–2820ml=48504ml.
No.of balloons that can be filled up =
48504
9.999 10
4851
· ·
120.a. If matter can leave our universe, it must be open.
Incidentally, Stephen Hawking has theorized that
black holes also radiate mass into our universe.
121.b. The only correct choice here is II, although the two
halves of the cell are connected by the salt bridge
which permits a current to flow, the salt bridge does
not allow mixing of the two solutions. Note also
that only the oxidation of zinc, to zinc ions (Zn
2+
)
occurs at the zinc electrode.
122.c. Tautomers are formed when a hydrogen is moved
within a structure. The shifted hydrogen is circled
below.
O
H H
OH
Structure A Structure B
123.b. Initial concentration of each gas = 1 mole
Let the No. of moles of NO
2
reacted at equilibrium =
x
Then,
2 2 3 3
(1 ) (1 ) (1 ) (1 )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
x x x x
SO g NO g SO g NO g
− − + +
+ +
Now we know that,
[ ][ ]
[ ][ ]
3
2 2
c
SO NO
K
SO NO
·
or
(1 ) (1 )
16
(1 ) (1 )
x x
x x
+ +
·
− − ;
2
2
(1 )
16
(1 )
x
x
+
·
−
or
(1 )
4
(1 )
x
x
+
·
−
1 4 4 x x + · −
or
5 3 x ·
;
3
0.6
5
x · ·
Thus the concentration of NO at equilibrium
= 1 1 0.6 1.6moles x + · + ·
Concentration of NO
2
at equilibrium
=1 1 0.6 0.4moles x − · − ·
124.b. If each cycle returns to the same state, then the
change in energy (a state function) should be zero.
But, from the first law of thermodynamics,
system in out
E Q W ∆ · − , or, in this case,
in out
60, 000kJ Q W · · . Some of you who have
studied thermodynamics may be bothered by this
answer, because you think the second law of
thermodynamics demands
out in
W Q < . The
problem here is that confusion can sometimes arise
between two definition of
in
Q . In this problem, we
are using it as the net flow of heat into the system.
In some situations, this is broken down into a
in
Q and a
out
Q , and in that sense, it is true that
out in
W Q < . But that’s not the way this problem is
set up.
125.b. When two ions come together to form an ionic bond,
energy is released. The more energy released, the
stronger the ionic bond. The amount of energy
released is determined by the equation :
1 2
2
q q
E 1.44
r
·
where E=energy in eV, q
1
and q
2
are the charges on
each ion, and r is the distance between the two
nuclei. While changes in ionic charge and ionic
radius will effect the energy of the bond, changes
in temperature will not.
126.c. Fatty acids are stored as triglycerides.
127.a. Standard enthalpy of hydrogenation of cyclohexene
(–199kJ mol
–1
) means the enthalpy of hydrogenation
of one double bond. Now benzene has three double
bonds, the enthalpy of the reaction would be
–1
3 119 357 kJ mol · ×− · −
+ 3 H
2
Actual enthalpy of the reaction can be evaluated
as below.
º º
(Reaction) f f
∆H =∆H (Product) –∆H (Reactants)
156 (49 0) · − − +
–1
205kJ mol · −
Exp cal
Resonance energy ∆H ∆ ∴ · −
357 ( 205) · − − −
–1
152 kJ mol · −
128.c. Vapor pressure always increases with increasing
temperature.
129.d. In vapour phase 1 mole (or 78g) benzene has volume
at 20ºC
78 1
2750ml
0.877
×
· ×
1 mole (or 92g) toluene has volume at
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20ºC
92 1
7720ml
0.867
×
· ×
º
78 2750
1 0.0821 293
760 0.877 1000
B
P ×
∴ × · × ×
×
or
º
74.74mm
B
P ·
Similarly,
º
92 7720
1 0.0821 293
760 0.867 1000
r
P ×
∴ × · × ×
×
or
º
22.37mm
r
P · ;
mixture
46.0 mm (Given) P ·
º º
;
M B B r r
P P X P X ∴ · ⋅ + ⋅
46 74.74 22.37(1 )
B B
X X ∴ · ⋅ + −
( 1)
B r
X X ∴ + ·
∴
on calculation
B (liquid phase)
0.45; X ·
r (liquid phase)
0.55 X ·
Also,
(1)
º
B B B
P P X · ⋅
or
74.74 0.45 46.0 × ·
( )
0.73
g
B
X ⇒ ·
130.c. Minimum number of β particles required
=346 min
–1
No. of β particles required for carrying out the
experiment for
6.909 60 ×
minutes
346 6.909 60 143431 · × × ·
∴
Amount of β particles required
19
23
143431
2.3814 10 mol
6.023 10
−
· · ×
×
Now we know that,
1
1
2
0.693 0.693
= 0.0104hr
T 66.6
−
λ · ·
Further we know that,
2.303
= log
t
a
a x
λ
−
where
a=Initial concentration of β particles
x=Consumed concentration of β particles
0.0104 6.909
log 0.0312
2.303 2.303
a T
a x
λ ×
· · − · −
−
0.31
a
a x
·
−
19
23814 10
0.31
a
a
−
− ×
·
On usual calculations,
18
3.451 10 mol a
−
· ×
131.b. Cyclopropane suffers from a great deal of ring strain,
making it far less stable than propene, Cyclohex
anone is far more stable than the ring structure of
the oxirane. The meta
–
and para–xylenes are
approximately equal in stability. Benzene is far more
stable than a multiply unsaturated compound and
cyclopentane is significantly more stable than
1ethylecyclobutene due to the ring strain in the
latter.
132.c. A high heat capacity means that water gain or lose
energy with smaller changes in temperature. This
corresponds to I and III only.
133.c. The chemical reactions taking place at the two
electrodes are
At cathode :
2
2 Cu e Cu
+ −
+ →
2
H O H OH
+ −
+
However, note that only
2
Cu
+
ions will be
discharged so as these are present in solution and
H
−
ions will be discharged only when all the
2
Cu
+
ions have been deposited.
At anode :
2
2 2 OH H O O e
− −
→ + +
2
O O O + →
Thus in first case,
2
Cu
+
ion will be discharged at
the cathode and
2
O gas at the anode. Let us cal
culate the volume of gas (
2
O ) discharged during
electrolysis.
According to Faraday’s second law
31.75g 8g of oxygen Cu ·
2
5.6 litres of O at NTP ·
2
5.6
0.4 g 0.4 litres of O at NTP
31.75
Cu · ×
=0.07055 litres=70.55 ml
As mentioned earlier, when all the
2
Cu
+
ion will be
deposited at cathode,
+
H
ions will start going to
cathode liberating hydrogen (
2
H ) gas, i.e.
2
H e H H H H
+ −
+ + →
However, the anode reaction remains same as
previous. Thus in the second (latter) case, amount
of
2
H collected at cathode should be calculated.
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2 2
8 g of O 1 g of H ·
2
5.6 litres of O at NTP = 11.2 litres of hydrogen
Quantity of electricity passed after 1st electrolysis,
i.e. Q=Ct
1.2 7 60 504 couloumbs × × ·
504 coulombs will liberate
5.6 504
29.24 ml
96500
×
· ·
Similarly,
2
H liberated by 504 coulombs
504
=11.2 58.48 ml
96500
× ·
Total volume of
2
O liberated =
70.55+29.24 = 99.79 ml.
Vol. of
2
H liberated = 58.48 ml
134.d. We can rearrange G H T S ∆ · ∆ − ∆ to:
H G
T=
S
∆ − ∆
∆
substituting given values :
6028 22
T 273º K
22
−
· ·
135.d. The first step is the formation of a Grignard reagent
(cyclohexylmagnesium bromide). This reacts with
ketone as shown below:
Cl
MgCl
O MgCl OH
+ HOMgCl
H , H O
+
2
O
+ Mg
MgCl
136.a. On an oxyacid, when the central atom is different
and each central atom has the same number of
oxygens, the central atom with the greatest
Electronegativity produces the strongest oxyacid.
137.d. The Nearnst equation is really about nonstandard
conditions, so A seems doubtful. Standard potential
is just the potential at standard conditons. This
definition does not directly involve equilibrium, so
B seems doubtful as well. C is kind of silly if you
think about it: standard potentials are measured
under standard conditions. But D is a true statemnt:
you need two halfreactions to make an actual
reaction.
138.c. The rate d[XY
2
] / dt is unaffected by changes in
[X], therefore it is zero order in X. Tripling [Y] causes
the rate to increase nine times, that is, by a factor of
3
2
. Since the rate increases with the square of the
increase in [Y], the rate is second order in Y, the rate
law is:
d [XY
2
] / dt = k[Y]
2
139.d. As we boil the mixture the escaping vapor contains
more of the more volatile component, benzene. The
remaining liquid becomes richer in toluene.
According to the graph, a liquid mixture 25 mole%
in benzene will boil at –100ºC. As we boil the liquid
its composition and boiling point move to the left
and up on the “boiling point line” until we reach
the desired point.
140.d. Geletinous precipitate e.g. Al(OH)
3
are among the
most difficult to filter.
141.d. A spontaneous reaction is one in which the Gibbs
free energy is negative. A negative G ∆ can only
be possible if H ∆ is negative and S ∆ is positive.
142.c. The Arhenius Law states that
K=A exp (–E
a
/RT)
This can be rearranged to :
In K= In A –E
a
/RT
If we plot in K vs 1/T, the slope of the graph is –E
a
/
R.
143.a.
1 13
3
1 10
sec 10 1
cm 10 3
sec cm. 10 3
λ
c
v
−
−
−
× ·
×
×
· ·
144.b. CH

CH CHCH CH Br
3
3 2 2
CH

CH CHCH CH C H
3
3 2 2
≡
HC CH ≡
NaNH
2
NH
3
has no protection group.
In (1) the protected form of the reactant is
O O
Br
In (2) it is
O
O
Si(CH )
3 3
145.b. Crystal field spiltting energy for tetrahedral
complexes
t ∆
( where only four ligands approach
the central metal ion producing weak field around
it ) is lesser ( about half ) than the crystal field
splitting energy of octahedral complexes
0
∆ (
where six ligands approach the central metal ion
producing strong field around it )
∆t
and
0
∆ are
related to each other as
0
4
∆t = ∆
9
146.d ‘1000 tunch’ silver is 100% pure silver.
147.d. The ideal gas law is PV = nRT.
148.d. As described in the question stem, a semilog plot is
generated when one of the coordinates (usually
the ycoordinate) is plotted as the logarithm.
Equation 5 is an exponential equation. You may
know that the semilog plot of such a function would
result in a straight line. This can also be seen
directly by actually taking the logarithm of both
sides.
The equation of a generic straight line has the form
y = mx+b, where m is the slope and b the yintercept.
In this case, if we take y=In k, and x as (1/T), then
the equation above conforms to that for a straight
line,
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with m=Ea/R and b = In A.
The yintercept is b, which in this case is In A.
1/T
In k In A
Note that the yintercept corresponds to a point
where T is infinity, and so obviously it is not an
actual data point we can measure. This is obtained
by extrapolating a straight line that can be
constructed with values from physically resonable
temperatures.
149.a. As the pressure increases, we can see from equation
2 that the numerator and denominator wuld become
very close in value, i.e., the fraction would
approach 1.
Choice B is incorrect because it depicts the initial
region as linear, but the form of the equation is not
that of a straight line. Also, it has the yvalue become
one abruptly, rather than approaching it
asymptotically.
Choices C and D are incrrect because they show
the value of
θ
increasing without bound.
150.b. You probably know already that increasing the
temperature would increase the rate of a eaction.
Specifically, a general rule of thumb is that for every
10
0
C or 10 K increase, the rate doubles. So we know
that statement II is correct.
In order to determine if statements I and III are
correct, we need to know more about HOW a
temperature increase leads to a higher reaction rate.
The temperature is an indication of the energy of
the molecules. The higher the temperature, the more
energetic these molecules are, and thus the more
likely it is that they have enough energy to overcome
the activation barrier for a reaction
Note that a high temperature does not actually lower
the activation barrier, it just makes it easier for the
molecules to overcome it. So statement III is
incorrect.
An increase in temperature does lead to a higher
rate constant. This can be seen from equation 5. As
T increases, Ea/RT becomes less negative: it thus
increases in value, and so does exp (Ea/RT). k.
therefore also increases. Statement I is correct and
so B is the correct choice.
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