FINAL YEAR PROJECT MARKETING

BUYING PREFERENCE OF MIDDLE CLASS YOUTH (MALE CONSUMERS) BETWEEN LOCAL AFFORDABLE BRANDED WESTERN CLOTHING AND NON BRANDED WESTERN CLOTHING IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN
Research conducted by: Sajid Saeed Khan (MBA-53256) javaboyii@hotmail.com PAF-Kiet (City Campus) Karachi Supervisor: Sir, Hammad Masood Version Year : : 1.0 2010 – 2011

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................................................................4 ABSTRACT: ................................................................................................................................................................5 PURPOSE OF STUDY..................................................................................................................................................5 DELIMITATIONS..........................................................................................................................................................6 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS:...................................................................................................................................6 METHODOLOGY / SAMPLING: ....................................................................................................................................6 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 7 MIDDLE CLASS ..........................................................................................................................................................7 YOUTH .......................................................................................................................................................................8 AFFORDABILITY .........................................................................................................................................................8 LOCAL BRANDED W ESTERN CLOTHING ...................................................................................................................9 NON BRANDED CLOTHES..........................................................................................................................................9 W ESTERN CLOTHES ...............................................................................................................................................10 BUYING PREFERENCE .............................................................................................................................................10 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ....................................................................................................................... 11 INDEPENDENT / DEPENDENT VARIABLES................................................................................................................11 RESULTS........................................................................................................................................................... 13 DATA PROCESSING / COLLECTED DATA .................................................................................................................13 FINDINGS .................................................................................................................................................................13 CONCLUSION ...........................................................................................................................................................22 RECOMMENDATION .................................................................................................................................................22 FURTHER SCOPE OF STUDY ....................................................................................................................................22 INSTRUMENT / QUESTIONNAIRE ................................................................................................................. 23 OUTPUT OF THE DATA COLLECTED THROUGH SURVEY ..................................................................... 26 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF RESULT ............................................................................................................43 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF FINDINGS .........................................................................................................75 LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................................................................... 95 MIDDLE CLASS ........................................................................................................................................................95 YOUTH .....................................................................................................................................................................97 AFFORDABILITY .......................................................................................................................................................97 PREFERENCE ..........................................................................................................................................................98 CONSUMER .............................................................................................................................................................98 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ............................................................................................................................................99 BRAND .....................................................................................................................................................................99 THE CLOTHING INDUSTRY .....................................................................................................................................100 PERCEPTIONS .......................................................................................................................................................101 FACTORS CONSIDERED BY CONSUMERS WHILE BUYING BRANDS ........................................................................101 CURRENT FASHION TRENDS..................................................................................................................................102 PRICE ....................................................................................................................................................................102

2

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

W ESTERN CLOTHING ............................................................................................................................................103 QUALITY ................................................................................................................................................................103 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................ 106

3

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the name of Almighty ALLAH, the most gracious and merciful, who gave me the skills, knowledge, power and ability to complete this Final Year Project. I am grateful to many people for the successful completion of this project. First of all, I would like to thank to my Institute‟s Department of Business Administration, PAF-KIET (City Campus), for providing me the opportunity to improve my knowledge and skills in the field of Business Management – Marketing Research. I would not forget to thank to my project supervisor, Sir, Hammad Masood for his openhanded support. I am also grateful to Sir, Qazi Salman who taught me the concepts of conducting research during the course Methods of Business Research. At the end, I am thankful to all my class fellows and my family who spared me gave me time to complete my final year project, helped me, supported me and motivated me in completion of this project.

4

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Abstract:
This is an exploratory study and the purpose of this study is to determine the buying preference of middle class youth between local western branded clothing and nonbranded western clothing in Karachi, Pakistan, whether the middle class youth (males) prefer purchasing branded clothes under their buying range or they are satisfied with non branded clothes, along with, to determine whether the market requires more western clothing local brands (which will be affordable for middle class youth) or not.

Studies have been conducted pertaining to consumer behavior / brands / fashion clothing. The sources from where taking help is taken, are:-

1. Perception of branding in the clothing industry: a survey among black adolescents. (Anderissa, Grobler, & Herbst, 2004) 2. Consumer preference of international brand over local brand. (Kanwal) 3. Consumer buying behavior in fashion retailing, empirical evidences (Azevedo, Pereira, Ferreira, & Pedroso, 2008). 4. Fashion involvement and buying behavior and Consumer impulse buying in local markets. (Douglas, Lawrence, & Charles, 1976)

Purpose of study
The purpose of this study is to determine: buying preference of middle class youth (males) between local affordable western clothing and non branded western clothing. Whether the market requires more western clothing local brands (which will be affordable for middle class youth) or not. Additionally, it will be determined categorically that, which income group buy western clothes in which price range, so the marketers will be able to find out that where they should invest their money or which income group they should target as per their requirements.

5

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Delimitations
This research is restricted to Karachi, Pakistan due to insufficient funds and time constraint. This study is based on limited number of respondents as it may be difficult to gather data from all over the Pakistan (time and resources constraints). The respondents may not be sincere / truthful and fill in the questionnaires unwillingly or can give a false or biased picture. The research does not cover all of the categories of clothing. In fact it deals only with the local branded western clothing.

Statement of Hypothesis:
H0: H1: Middle Class youth do not prefer to buy local branded western clothes. Middle Class youth prefer to buy affordable local branded western clothes.

Methodology / Sampling:
The sampling technique which will be used is convenience sampling.

Primary data will be collected through survey, simple questionnaire (hardcopy). Further, the data will be analyzed on SPS18. The sample size will be 300 max, it is not possible to conduct survey among the whole middle class youth of Karachi so to represent the Karachi‟s population sample of 300 is taken and to collect the data Dolmen Centre Tariq Road and Zainab Market Saddar Karachi is selected, where from all over the Karachi youth come to shop and both of these markets are considered as middle class markets,.

The purpose of the questionnaire will be to determine the facts regarding the middle class male consumer‟s (youth) buying preferences between the local branded western clothing and non branded western clothing in Karachi, whether consumer prefers to buy the local affordable branded clothes or they are satisfied with non branded clothes.

6

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

INTRODUCTION

Middle Class
The group of people in the middle of a social hierarchy. The middle class is the large group of people in a society who falls between lower class and upper class. (http://en.wikipedia.org, Middle Class)

However, in Pakistan the category of middle class represents those social class of society whose income are moderate means not higher nor lower. According to IRI survey of Pakistani public opinion in the year 2008, the breakdown of monthly incomes of middle class in Pakistan as follows:The people who earn Rs. 3,000 are 10%, who earn Rs. 3,001 – 10,000 are 57%, earner between Rs. 10,001 – 15,000 are 16%, those who earn between Rs. 15,001 – 25,000 are 9% and people earning more than Rs. 25,000 are 2% only (Butt, 2008)

Most possibly, the sample is some how a truthful representation of the population as a whole (i.e, after all, the point of census). The percentage of Pakistanis who earn more than Rs. 25,000 is only 2%. (Butt, 2008)

According to the article written by Ahsan Butt in the year 2008 published on www.asiancorrespondant.com and survey conducted by IRI under reference in the above said article, the moderate income falls between Rs 10000 to Rs. 30000 (above 25000). (Butt, 2008)

7

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

According to the Household Integrated Economic survey published on the website of Federal Bureau of Statistics, an average household in Pakistan spends 0.5 per cent of its income on recreation. The average income of a middle class family is to be around Rs. 50,000 per month, (Ishtiaq, 2010)

In the light of above surveys, this study is being conducted in Karachi which is an urban city, and the middle class income range is taken between Rs. 10000 to 40000. In this study all are included like a person who is independent and earning in between Rs 10000 to Rs. 40000 and those also on which family is dependent and earning between Rs 10000 to Rs. 40000, in this case a person who get money as a pocket money or get money to buy clothes from his father or mother or guardian, the provided money starts from Rs. 1000 to Rs. 10000 (monthly / occasionally / semi annually / annually).

Youth
In this study the youth is considered as age between 15 to 28 males only.

Affordability
The term affordable in this research refers to the buying range of middle class Youth. In Pakistan we find two types of people in youth those who do not earn money, they spend money from their pocket money which they get by their parents / guardians on daily, weekly or monthly basis or to buy the clothes parents / guardians provide them extra money apart from their pocket money and second who earn money (the source of income is not the concern).

The local branded clothes should be affordable (in buying range) to those who earn Rs. 10000 to 40000 per month, (frequency of buying is not the concern).

8

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

The local branded clothes should be affordable (in buying range) to those who do not earn, but, who get money to buy the clothes from their parents / guardians from Rs. 1000 to 10000 (frequency of buying is not the concern).

Local Branded Western Clothing
The meaning of local branded western clothing here is, persistent quality clothing on which one can rely, quality better than the non branded clothes, but prices are not much higher than non branded clothes suppose if a non branded shirt‟s price is Rs. 300 the local branded shirt‟s price should be Rs. 400 to 600 as per the quality of the product.

Like branded clothing stores in Karachi but these are exclusive stores, Musa Jee, Bonanza etc., they have their own stores they have their prices, and these stores are considered expensive, a person belongs to middle class does not enter in these stores because he knows the prices of clothing will be out of his buying range.

However, branded western clothes should be produced locally for middle class youth (male consumer) by that they will get persistent best quality in their buying range. The purpose of this research is to determine their middle class youth‟s buying preference regarding local branded and non branded western clothing in Karachi.

Non Branded Clothes
The clothes middle class youth use to buy on routine basis regardless to know that who is producing, the fabric, from where it is coming and who is stitching, the quality they do not know until and unless they use / experience it, they do not even think, will it satisfy them or not, although a brand tag they find on every cloth they purchase, sometimes the famous brand name on the product they buy and they may know that in this price they cannot buy that brand, these local manufacturers just to sale their products, they put

9

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

those branded tags on and sales men use to tell the price on higher side and then bargaining starts. However, despite all these unanswered questions they buy the non branded clothes because they know that they cannot buy branded clothes in this price, so they buy non branded clothes, they also know that they cannot even find branded (whether local or international) clothes near to the price of non branded western clothes (pants, shirts, t-shirts, jeans etc).

Western Clothes
Denim Jeans Formal / Casual Shirts T-Shirts Official dress (trouser and shirt)

Buying Preference
Buying preference in this study means, the consumer (middle class youth) wants to buy branded local western clothes in their buying range or they are satisfied with the non branded clothes.

10

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Independent / Dependent Variables
In this study the independent variable is “non branded cloth consumers” on which dependent variables depend. Dependent variables are many as follows:1. Quality: Quality can be the biggest factor of buying a brand, sometimes consumer can compromise on price but can not compromise on quality that is why brand mean for a persistent best quality, but now the quality is not the main object people are becoming more price conscious, they seek better quality in low prices.

2. Value Proposition: Value proposition now is the main gist of maximum selling of any product and middle class consumers deeply seek where the value is for them. Some value proposition strategies are follows:

i. ii. iii.

More benefits for same cost. More benefits for less cost. Less benefits for very less cost.

3. Price: Price of a product / brand is really important and for middle class because they earn moderately and plan their budget for whole month, they have to spend wisely and within their buying range, those who earn their selves and those who get money as pocket money or getting money for purchasing the clothes by their father / mother / guardian. Thus every person in middle class is bound to spend wisely within the buying range and the price is the key influencer for buying the product / brand.

11

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

4. Fabric: Fabric has quite high importance, because non-branded consumers do not buy clothes as branded cloth consumer buy, they seek better fabric for the price they are paying, 5. Design: Design of Fabric, leads consumer to buy the cloth because consumers of non branded clothing buy clothes usually if they like the design of Fabric. 6. Color: Color of fabric has its own importance; consumers of non branded clothing may choose clothing on the basis of color of fabric, usually ratio of choosing clothes by color of fabric, remains high. 7. Income: Income is the main source of finding consumer‟s preference, buying power make consumer to take decision while purchasing, for middle class it is the key factor affordability (purchasing power) and everything purchase depends on income.

12

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

RESULTS
Data processing / Collected Data
Data collected through questionnaire and analyzed on SPS-18, Descriptive statistics (mode), Graphical representation of analysis in a form of Pie Charts and Comparison among different variables in a form of Bar Chart. A total of 400 questionnaires were filled in which 300 were realized to be included in the results, the division of questionnaire is on the basis of age, 100 filled by 15 to 20 years old male, 100 filled by 21 to 25 years old male and remaining 100 were filled by 25 to 28 years old male to get the clear findings / results.

Findings
After analyzing the data it is found that the H1 (Claim) is proved, the youth prefer affordable local branded western clothing although the strata (middle class) which was selected is not much into brands but, they want persistent better quality for the price they are paying and a place (manufacturer / customer service dept.) where they can lodge their claims pertaining to the defects in product or quality related issues.

The age group of 15 to 20 years old are not earning, they are dependent on the pocket money which they get by their parents / guardians. Almost 38% of 15 to 20 years old males get pocket money from their parents / guardian which is around 1000 to 2000 Rs. per month, 20% of the same age

13

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

group get around 2000 to 3000 Rs., 06% get around 3000 to 4000 Rs., about 04% get around 4000 to 5000 and 5000 to 6000 Rs.

Almost 33% of 21 to 25 years old males are earning 10000 to 20000 Rs. per month and 08 % of the same age group earning 20000 to 40000 Rs. per month rest are not earning and getting money as pocket money.

07% of 21 to 25 years old males get pocket money around 1000 to 2000 Rs., 15% of the same age group get 2000 to 3000 Rs., 03% get 3000 to 4000 Rs. and 02% get 4000 to 5000 Rs. According to results 32% of 25 to 28 years old males are earning 10000 to 20000 Rs. per month and 28% of the same age group earning 20000 to 40000 Rs. per month. 25 to 28 years old males are not getting pocket money, they are self dependent. Shirt / T-Shirt purchasing range as per income is as follows:o 23 % of those who are earning 10000 to 20000 Rs. are buying Shirts / T-shirts in a range of 300 to 400 Rs. whereas, 21% of the same earning group range of buying shirt / t-shirt is 400 to 500 Rs. 13% are buying in a range of Rs. 500 to 600 and 06% are buying in a range of above 600 Rs. o Consequently, almost 17% of male who are earning between 20000 to 40000 Rs. per month, buy shirt in a range of Rs. 300 to 400 Rs. whilst, 9% are buying in a range of Rs. 400 to 500 Rs., 7% are buying in a range of 500 to 600 Rs. and only 4% are buying in a range of above 600 Rs.

14

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Shirt / T-shirt purchasing range as per Pocket Money is as follows:-

Pock. Money 1000 to 2000 2000 to 3000 3000 to 4000 4000 to 5000 5000 to 6000 6000 to 7000 8000 to 9000
9000 to 10000

SHIRT BUYING RANGE AS PER POCKET MONEY (%) 200 to 300 300 to 400 400 to 500 500 to 600 Above 600 4 14 13 8 4 0 7 3 18 7 0 0 0 7 1 0 3 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2

Shirt / T-Shirt buying range as per the age is as follows:o 1% of 15 to 20 years old males are buying shirts / t-shirts in a range of Rs. 200 to 300, whilst, 8% of the same age group‟s buying range is between 300 to 400 Rs., 6% are buying in a range of Rs. 400 to 500, 15% are buying in a range of Rs. 500 to 600 Rs. and 3% are buying in a range of over 600 Rs. o 0.5% of 21 to 25 years old males are buying shirts / t-shirts in a range of Rs. 200 to 300, whilst, 11% of the same age group‟s buying range is between 300 to 400 Rs., 12% are buying in a range of Rs. 400 to 500, 6% are buying in a range of Rs. 500 to 600 Rs. and 4% are buying in a range of over 600 Rs. o 1% of 25 to 28 years old males are buying shirts / t-shirts in a range of Rs. 200 to 300, whilst, 14% of the same age group‟s buying range is between 300 to 400 Rs., 7% are buying in a range of Rs. 400 to 500, 7% are buying in a range of Rs. 500 to 600 Rs. and almost 4% are buying in a range of over 600 Rs.

15

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Trouser purchasing range as per income is as follows:o 17 % of those who are earning 10000 to 20000 Rs. are buying Trousers in a range of 500 to 600 Rs. whereas, 19% of the same earning group‟s range of buying trouser is 600 to 700 Rs., 8% are buying in a range of Rs. 700 to 800 and 20% are buying in a range of above 800 to 1000 Rs. o Consequently, almost 2% of male who are earning between 20000 to 40000 Rs. per month, buy shirt in a range of Rs. 500 to 600 Rs. whereas, 13% are buying in a range of Rs. 600 to 700 Rs., 14% are buying in a range of 800 to 1000 Rs. and only 7% are buying in a range of above 1000 Rs.

Trouser purchasing range as per Pocket Money is as follows:Pock. Money 1000 to 2000 2000 to 3000 3000 to 4000 4000 to 5000 5000 to 6000 6000 to 7000 8000 to 9000 9000 to 10000 TROUSER BUYING RANGE AS PER POCKET MONEY (%) 500 to 600 600 to 700 700 to 800 800 to 1000 above 1000 7 14 18 3 0 11 14 3 7 0 0 7 1 1 0 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 2

Trouser buying range as per the age is as follows:o 6% of 15 to 20 years old males are buying in a range of Rs. 500 to 600, whilst, 13% of the same age group‟s buying range is between 600 to 700 Rs., 9% are buying in a range of Rs. 700 to 800 and 6% are buying in a range of Rs. 800 to 1000 Rs.

16

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

o 12% of 21 to 25 years old males are buying in a range of Rs. 500 to 600 Rs. whereas, 13% of the same age group buying range is between 600 to 700 Rs. 4% are buying in a range of Rs. 700 to 800 Rs. and only 6% are buying in a range of Rs. 800 to 1000. o 4% of 25 to 28 years old males are buying in a range of Rs. 500 to 600, whilst, 9% of the same age group‟s buying range is between 600 to 700 Rs., 3% are buying in a range of Rs. 700 to 800, almost 14% are buying in a range of Rs. 800 to 1000 Rs and only 4% are buying in a range of above Rs. 1000.

Jeans purchasing range as per income is as follows:o 14% of those who are earning 10000 to 20000 Rs. are buying in a range of 300 to 400 Rs. whereas, 19% of the same earning group‟s range of buying trouser is 400 to 500 Rs., 11% are buying in a range of Rs. 500 to 600, 9% are buying in a range of above 600 to 700 Rs, 4% are buying in between 700 to 800 Rs. and 6% are buying in a range of Rs. 800 to 900. o Consequently, almost 8% of those who are earning 20000 to 40000 Rs. are buying in a range of 300 to 400 Rs. whereas, 17% of the same earning group‟s range of buying trouser is 400 to 500 Rs., 8% are buying in a range of Rs. 500 to 600, and 5% are buying in a range of Rs. 600 to 700.

17

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Jeans purchasing range as per Pocket Money is as follows:Pock. Money 1000 to 2000 2000 to 3000 3000 to 4000 4000 to 5000 5000 to 6000 6000 to 7000 8000 to 9000 9000 to 10000 300 - 400 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 JEANS BUYING RANGE AS PER POCKET MONEY (%) 400 - 500 500 - 600 600 - 7000 700 - 800 800 - 900 14 22 1 0 3 13 11 8 3 1 7 1 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2

Jeans buying range as per the age is as follows:o 2% of 15 to 20 years old males are buying in a range of Rs. 300 to 400, whilst, 15% of the same age group‟s buying range is between 400 to 500 Rs., 12% are buying in a range of Rs. 500 to 600, 3% are buying in a range of Rs. 600 to 700 Rs, 2% are buying in between 700 to 800 Rs. and only 3% are buying in a range of Rs. 800 to 900.. o 4% of 21 to 25 years old males are buying in a range of Rs. 300 to 400 Rs. whereas, 13% of the same age group buying range is between 400 to 500 Rs. 6% are buying in a range of Rs. 500 to 600 Rs., 7% are buying in a range of Rs. 600 to 700, 3% are buying in a range of 700 to 800 and only 02% per buying in a range of Rs. 800 to 900. o 9% of 25 to 28 years old males are buying in a range of Rs. 300 to 400, whilst, 12% of the same age group‟s buying range is between 400 to 500 Rs., 8% are buying in a range of Rs. 500 to 600, almost 3% are buying in a range of Rs. 600 to 700 Rs., and only 3% are buying in a range of 800 to 900 Rs

18

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Percentage of preference to Fabric to make a purchase, as per the age, is as follows:o 25% of 15 to 21 years old males are always prefer fabric to make a purchase. Almost 10% of the same age group sometimes prefer fabric. o 28% of 21 to 25 years old males are always prefer fabric to make a purchase. Almost 5% of the same age group sometimes prefer fabric, only 1% rarely prefer fabric. o 28% of 25 to 28 years old males are always prefer fabric to make a purchase. Almost 15% of the same age group sometimes prefer fabric.

Percentage of preference to manufacturer to make a purchase, as per the age, is as follows:o 5% of 15 to 21 years old males are always prefer manufacturer to make a purchase. Almost 12% of the same age group sometimes prefer manufacturer, 13% rarely prefer manufacturer and 2% never prefer manufacturer. o 3% of 21 to 25 years old males are always prefer manufacturer to make a purchase. Almost 17% of the same age group sometimes prefer manufacturer, 14% rarely prefer manufacturer and 1% never prefer manufacturer.

19

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

o 3% of 25 to 28 years old males are always prefer manufacturer to make a purchase. Almost 23% of the same age group sometimes prefer manufacturer, 6% rarely prefer manufacturer and 3% never prefer manufacturer.

Percentage of preference to Fashion to make a purchase, as per the age, is as follows:o 17% of 15 to 21 years old males are always prefer fashion to make a purchase. Almost 12% of the same age group sometimes prefer fashion, 4% rarely prefer fashion and 0% never prefer fashion. o 17% of 21 to 25 years old males are always prefer fashion to make a purchase. Almost 6% of the same age group sometimes prefer fashion, 6% rarely prefer fashion and 3% never prefer fashion. o 15% of 25 to 28 years old males are always prefer fashion to make a purchase. Almost 14% of the same age group sometimes prefer fashion, 3% rarely prefer fashion and 3% never prefer fashion.

Percentage of preference to Price to make a purchase, as per the age, is as follows:o 28% of 15 to 21 years old males are always prefer price to make a purchase, and almost 6% of the same age group sometimes prefer price.
o

22% of 21 to 25 years old males are always prefer price to make a purchase, and almost 12% of the same age group sometimes prefer price.

20

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

o

28% of 25 to 28 years old males are always prefer price to make a purchase and almost 7% of the same age group sometimes prefer price.

Percentage of influence(s) on purchase decision, as per the age, is as follows:o 28% of 15 to 21 years old males say that their own choice always influence on purchase decision, and almost 5% say own choice doesn‟t influence on purchase decision.
o

25% of 21 to 25 years old males say that their own choice always influence on purchase decision, and almost 6% say that their own choice sometimes influence on their purchase decision and 1% say that their own choice never influence on their purchase decision.

o

26% of 25 to 28 years old males say that their own choice always influence on purchase decision, and almost 6% say that their own choice sometimes influence on their purchase decision, 1% say that their own choice rarely influence on their purchase decision and 1% say that their own choice never influence on their purchase decision.

21

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Conclusion
According to the results, this is proved that middle class youth (males) prefers to buy local affordable branded western clothing, which means there is a huge market still vacant to capture / target, it can be segmented on the basis of age group or on the basis of income or as per buying range (in which price range youth is purchasing the most). Youth prefers to wear the best they can possibly buy in their buying range, it is determined by price, fashion, their own choices, fabric, color and design respectively, all slots are available till now to be filled . This is clearly visible that big slice in a cake are those who are dependent on pocket money the age group 15 to 20 totally dependent on pocket money and small amount of 21 to 25 years old males (along with their own earning or not) get money as pocket money from parents / guardian, and second, high rate of youth is earning 10000 to 20000 Rs. per month, these two segments are the most attractive segments to target, and remaining are earning 20000 to 40000 which is not in a big size but yes segment is vacant. The buying pattern of these segments can be viewed in findings section and graphically, in graphical representation of results.

Recommendation
It is suggested / recommended that the marketers who pertain to the western clothing businesses in Karachi should start screening / analyzing the above mentioned vacant segments in order to get the highest market share in these vacant segments, as per this study, its a big opportunity for them and really a huge market to enter in order to enjoy the fruitful results.
Note: Do not rely solely on this study, as this study is conducted for academic project.

Further scope of study
Further study can be conducted on middle class youth (females), to know the preference of females between non branded western clothing and local affordable branded western clothing.

22

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

INSTRUMENT / QUESTIONNAIRE
1. What is your age?  15 to 20 2.  21 to 25  25 to 28  above 28

What is your gender?  Male  Female

3.

Do you buy clothes?  Yes  No

4.

What is your Income? If you do not earn please switch to question No: 5  Above 10000 to 20000  above 60000 to 80000  above 20000 to 40000  above 80000 to 100000  above 40000 to 60000  above 100000

5.

How much money you get by your parents / guardian to buy clothes?  1000 to 2000  above 4000 to 5000  above 7000 to 8000  above 10000  above 2000 to 3000  above 5000 to 6000  above 8000 to 9000  above 3000 to 4000  above 6000 to 7000  above 9000 to 10000

6.

Do you wear trousers, shirts, tshirts, jeans?  Yes  No

7.

What do you consider while purchasing clothes?  Quality  Price  Quality and Price both

8.

Please indicate how much importance you give to each of the following factors before you buy your clothes. (Please tick one box for each characteristic) Almost Always Fabric Design Sometimes Rarely Never

23

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi Colour Manufacturer Comfort Fashion Price

9.

How important would you rate the following factors in influencing the choice of clothes purchased? (Tick one box for each characteristic) Almost Always Fashion Magazines Beauty Magazines Television Radio Newspapers Billboards Internet Promotional Leaflets Own Choice Sometimes Rarely Never

10.

In which price range you use to buy shirts / tshirts?  Above 200 to 300  above 300 to 400  above 400 to 500  above 500 to 600  Or above 600

11.

In which price range you use to buy a trouser?  Above 500 to 600  above 600 to 700  above 700 to 800  above 800 to 1000  Or above 1000

12.

In which price range you use to buy jeans?  300 to 400  above 400 to 500  above 500 to 600  above 600 to 700  above 700 to 800  above 800 to 900  above 900 to 1000

24

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

13.

The clothes you use to buy, do you know, which company is manufacturing those clothes?  Yes  No

14.

Would you give preference to known manufacturer of clothes over unknown manufacturer?  Yes  No

15.

Would you pay little bit extra amount for the clothes manufactured by the known reputable manufacturer? (e.g. if the price of a shirt you use to buy is Rs. 350 would you like to pay Rs. 450 or 550 for a branded shirt (price as per the quality of fabric))  Yes  No

16.

Do you think that wearing branded clothes would reflect: (Tick one box for each characteristic) Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree

Confidence Superior Image Exclusivity Snob Appeal

25

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Output of the Data Collected Through Survey
Frequencies
Statistics Age N Valid Missing 300 0 Buy 300 0 Income 300 0 Pocket Money 300 0 wear 300 0 consideration 300 0

Statistics Fabric N Valid Missing 300 0 Design 300 0 Color 300 0 Manufacturer 300 0 Comfort 300 0 Fashion 300 0 Price 300 0

Statistics Fashion Mag N Valid Missing 300 0 Beauty Mag 300 0 Television 300 0 Radio 300 0 Newspaper 300 0 Billboards 300 0

Statistics Internet N Valid Missing 300 0 Promotional LL 300 0 Own Choice 300 0 Shirt Range 300 0 Trouser Range 300 0

26

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Statistics Jeans Range N Valid Missing 300 0 Know 300 0 Preference 300 0 Extra 300 0 Confidence 300 0 Superior Image 300 0

Statistics Exclusivity N Valid Missing 300 0 Snob Appeal 300 0

Frequency Table

Age Cumulative Frequency Valid 15 to 20 21 to 25 25 to 28 Total 100 100 100 300 Percent 33.3 33.3 33.3 100.0 Valid Percent 33.3 33.3 33.3 100.0 Percent 33.3 66.7 100.0

27

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Buy Cumulative Frequency Valid Yes Total 1 299 300 Percent .3 99.7 100.0 Valid Percent .3 99.7 100.0 Percent .3 100.0

Income Cumulative Frequency Valid Above 10000 to 20000 Above 20000 to 40000 Total 133 106 61 300 Percent 44.3 35.3 20.3 100.0 Valid Percent 44.3 35.3 20.3 100.0 Percent 44.3 79.7 100.0

28

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Pocket Money Cumulative Frequency Valid 1000 to 2000 Above 10000 Above 2000 to 3000 Above 3000 to 4000 Above 4000 to 5000 Above 5000 to 6000 Above 6000 to 7000 Above 8000 to 9000 Above 9000 to 10000 Total 167 57 2 45 12 7 4 3 1 2 300 Percent 55.7 19.0 .7 15.0 4.0 2.3 1.3 1.0 .3 .7 100.0 Valid Percent 55.7 19.0 .7 15.0 4.0 2.3 1.3 1.0 .3 .7 100.0 Percent 55.7 74.7 75.3 90.3 94.3 96.7 98.0 99.0 99.3 100.0

wear Cumulative Frequency Valid Yes 300 Percent 100.0 Valid Percent 100.0 Percent 100.0

29

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

consideration Cumulative Frequency Valid Price Quality Quality and Price both Total 5 18 35 242 300 Percent 1.7 6.0 11.7 80.7 100.0 Valid Percent 1.7 6.0 11.7 80.7 100.0 Percent 1.7 7.7 19.3 100.0

Fabric Cumulative Frequency Valid Almost Always Rarely Sometimes Total 214 3 83 300 Percent 71.3 1.0 27.7 100.0 Valid Percent 71.3 1.0 27.7 100.0 Percent 71.3 72.3 100.0

Design Cumulative Frequency Valid Almost Always Sometimes Total 199 101 300 Percent 66.3 33.7 100.0 Valid Percent 66.3 33.7 100.0 Percent 66.3 100.0

30

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Color Cumulative Frequency Valid Almost Always Sometimes Total 223 77 300 Percent 74.3 25.7 100.0 Valid Percent 74.3 25.7 100.0 Percent 74.3 100.0

Manufacturer Cumulative Frequency Valid Almost Always Never Rarely Sometimes Total 29 17 101 153 300 Percent 9.7 5.7 33.7 51.0 100.0 Valid Percent 9.7 5.7 33.7 51.0 100.0 Percent 9.7 15.3 49.0 100.0

31

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Comfort Cumulative Frequency Valid Almost Always Never Rarely Sometimes Total 186 6 41 67 300 Percent 62.0 2.0 13.7 22.3 100.0 Valid Percent 62.0 2.0 13.7 22.3 100.0 Percent 62.0 64.0 77.7 100.0

Fashion Cumulative Frequency Valid Almost Always Never Rarely Sometimes Total 1 150 16 40 93 300 Percent .3 50.0 5.3 13.3 31.0 100.0 Valid Percent .3 50.0 5.3 13.3 31.0 100.0 Percent .3 50.3 55.7 69.0 100.0

32

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Price Cumulative Frequency Valid Almost Always Sometimes Total 225 75 300 Percent 75.0 25.0 100.0 Valid Percent 75.0 25.0 100.0 Percent 75.0 100.0

Fashion Mag Cumulative Frequency Valid Almost Always Never Rarely Sometimes Total 19 76 105 100 300 Percent 6.3 25.3 35.0 33.3 100.0 Valid Percent 6.3 25.3 35.0 33.3 100.0 Percent 6.3 31.7 66.7 100.0

33

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Beauty Mag Cumulative Frequency Valid Almost Always Never Rarely Sometimes Total 1 7 124 101 67 300 Percent .3 2.3 41.3 33.7 22.3 100.0 Valid Percent .3 2.3 41.3 33.7 22.3 100.0 Percent .3 2.7 44.0 77.7 100.0

Television Cumulative Frequency Valid Almost Always Never Rarely Sometimes Total 1 73 43 58 125 300 Percent .3 24.3 14.3 19.3 41.7 100.0 Valid Percent .3 24.3 14.3 19.3 41.7 100.0 Percent .3 24.7 39.0 58.3 100.0

34

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Radio Cumulative Frequency Valid Almost Always Never Rarely Sometimes Total 5 2 185 56 52 300 Percent 1.7 .7 61.7 18.7 17.3 100.0 Valid Percent 1.7 .7 61.7 18.7 17.3 100.0 Percent 1.7 2.3 64.0 82.7 100.0

Newspaper Cumulative Frequency Valid Almost Always Never Rarely Sometimes Total 5 30 58 117 90 300 Percent 1.7 10.0 19.3 39.0 30.0 100.0 Valid Percent 1.7 10.0 19.3 39.0 30.0 100.0 Percent 1.7 11.7 31.0 70.0 100.0

35

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Billboards Cumulative Frequency Valid Almost Always Never Rarely Sometimes Total 7 55 54 84 100 300 Percent 2.3 18.3 18.0 28.0 33.3 100.0 Valid Percent 2.3 18.3 18.0 28.0 33.3 100.0 Percent 2.3 20.7 38.7 66.7 100.0

Internet Cumulative Frequency Valid Almost Always Never Rarely Sometimes Total 5 59 44 66 126 300 Percent 1.7 19.7 14.7 22.0 42.0 100.0 Valid Percent 1.7 19.7 14.7 22.0 42.0 100.0 Percent 1.7 21.3 36.0 58.0 100.0

36

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Promotional LL Cumulative Frequency Valid Almost Always Never Rarely Sometimes Total 8 13 66 73 140 300 Percent 2.7 4.3 22.0 24.3 46.7 100.0 Valid Percent 2.7 4.3 22.0 24.3 46.7 100.0 Percent 2.7 7.0 29.0 53.3 100.0

Own Choice Cumulative Frequency Valid Almost Always Never Rarely Sometimes Total 5 228 4 23 40 300 Percent 1.7 76.0 1.3 7.7 13.3 100.0 Valid Percent 1.7 76.0 1.3 7.7 13.3 100.0 Percent 1.7 77.7 79.0 86.7 100.0

37

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Shirt Range Cumulative Frequency Valid Above 200 to 300 Above 300 to 400 Above 400 to 500 Above 500 to 600 Above 600 Total 9 101 73 84 33 300 Percent 3.0 33.7 24.3 28.0 11.0 100.0 Valid Percent 3.0 33.7 24.3 28.0 11.0 100.0 Percent 3.0 36.7 61.0 89.0 100.0

Trouser Range Cumulative Frequency Valid Above 1000 Above 500 to 600 Above 600 to 700 Above 700 to 800 Above 800 to 1000 Total 13 62 104 47 74 300 Percent 4.3 20.7 34.7 15.7 24.7 100.0 Valid Percent 4.3 20.7 34.7 15.7 24.7 100.0 Percent 4.3 25.0 59.7 75.3 100.0

38

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Jeans Range Cumulative Frequency Valid 300 to 400 Above 400 to 500 Above 500 to 600 Above 600 to 700 Above 700 to 800 Above 800 to 900 Total 41 117 78 37 10 17 300 Percent 13.7 39.0 26.0 12.3 3.3 5.7 100.0 Valid Percent 13.7 39.0 26.0 12.3 3.3 5.7 100.0 Percent 13.7 52.7 78.7 91.0 94.3 100.0

Know Cumulative Frequency Valid No Yes Total 293 7 300 Percent 97.7 2.3 100.0 Valid Percent 97.7 2.3 100.0 Percent 97.7 100.0

39

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Preference Cumulative Frequency Valid No Yes Total 8 292 300 Percent 2.7 97.3 100.0 Valid Percent 2.7 97.3 100.0 Percent 2.7 100.0

Extra Cumulative Frequency Valid No Yes Total 16 284 300 Percent 5.3 94.7 100.0 Valid Percent 5.3 94.7 100.0 Percent 5.3 100.0

Confidence Cumulative Frequency Valid Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total 122 29 132 17 300 Percent 40.7 9.7 44.0 5.7 100.0 Valid Percent 40.7 9.7 44.0 5.7 100.0 Percent 40.7 50.3 94.3 100.0

40

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Superior Image Cumulative Frequency Valid Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total 1 115 72 98 14 300 Percent .3 38.3 24.0 32.7 4.7 100.0 Valid Percent .3 38.3 24.0 32.7 4.7 100.0 Percent .3 38.7 62.7 95.3 100.0

Exclusivity Cumulative Frequency Valid Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total 1 139 46 109 5 300 Percent .3 46.3 15.3 36.3 1.7 100.0 Valid Percent .3 46.3 15.3 36.3 1.7 100.0 Percent .3 46.7 62.0 98.3 100.0

41

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Snob Appeal Cumulative Frequency Valid Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total 2 114 99 62 23 300 Percent .7 38.0 33.0 20.7 7.7 100.0 Valid Percent .7 38.0 33.0 20.7 7.7 100.0 Percent .7 38.7 71.7 92.3 100.0

42

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Graphical Representation of Result

43

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

44

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

45

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

46

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

47

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

48

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

49

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

50

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

51

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

52

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

53

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

54

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

55

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

56

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

57

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

58

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

59

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

60

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

61

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

62

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

63

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

64

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

65

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

66

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

67

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

68

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

69

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

70

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

71

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

72

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

73

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

74

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Graphical Representation of Findings

Income, as per age

75

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Pocket Money, as per age

76

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Shirt / T-Shirt purchasing range, as per income

77

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Trouser purchasing range, as per income

78

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Jeans purchasing range, as per income

79

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Shirt / T-Shirt purchasing range, as per Pocket Money

80

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Trouser purchasing range, as per Pocket Money

81

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Jeans purchasing range, as per Pocket Money

82

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Shirt / T-Shirt purchasing range, as per Age

83

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Trouser purchasing range, as per Age

84

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Jeans purchasing range, as per Age

85

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Preference to Fabric, as per the age

86

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Preference to Design, as per the age

87

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Preference to Color, as per the age

88

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Preference to Manufacturer, as per the age

89

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Preference to Comfort, as per the age

90

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Preference to Fashion, as per the age

91

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Preference to Price, as per the age

92

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Percentage of Internet influencing on purchase of clothes, as per the age

93

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Percentage of Own Choice influencing on purchase of clothes, as per the age

94

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

LITERATURE REVIEW

Middle Class
The group of people in the middle of a social hierarchy. The middle class is the large group of people in a society who falls between lower class and upper class.
The behavior of that middle class differ extensively among different cultures. In urban India, e.g, that family is considered in a middle class if they live in rental property. In the United States, those families wherein the earner work in a blue collar sector in the service industry consider themselves a part of middle class. In the United Kingdom, the term middle class represents those people who usually are educated, even a big family house and working on a managerial or professional position. The people who got the positions of directors or the owners of the organizations these people are considered a part of upper middle class. (http://en.wikipedia.org, Middle Class) Mr. Phil Verghis defines the “middle class as. ”Most economists agree that there are actually two types of middle class. One consists of those who are in middle class by any mean. Their income is more or less between the average earning of Brazilian‟s and Italian‟s (that is., $12$50 per day). While this portion is rising quickly, they make up only a tenth of the third world. The second type consists of those who are middle-class by the standards of the third world but not the already established (rich) one. The earning of this groups is between $2-13 a day. (The researcher always wondered about the worth of $2 per day. It reveals that amount is considered under poverty line anywhere in the world. $13 is considered the poverty line in the USA.)

(Verghis, Booming global middle class – meeting their service needs, 2009)) The group of people in the middle of a social hierarchy. The middle class is the large group of people in a society who falls between lower class and upper class. (http://en.wikipedia.org, Middle Class)

95

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

However, in Pakistan the category of middle class represents those social class of society whose income are moderate means not higher nor lower. According to IRI survey of Pakistani public opinion in the year 2008, the breakdown of monthly incomes of middle class in Pakistan as follows:The people who earn Rs. 3,000 are 10%, who earn Rs. 3,001 – 10,000 are 57%, earner between Rs. 10,001 – 15,000 are 16%, those who earn between Rs. 15,001 – 25,000 are 9% and people earning more than Rs. 25,000 are 2% only (Butt, 2008)

Most possibly, the sample is some how a truthful representation of the population as a whole (i.e, after all, the point of census). The percentage of Pakistanis who earn more than Rs. 25,000 is only 2%. (Butt, 2008)

According to the article written by Ahsan Butt in the year 2008 published on www.asiancorrespondant.com and survey conducted by IRI under reference in the above said article, the moderate income falls between Rs 10000 to Rs. 30000 (above 25000). (Butt, 2008)

According to the Household Integrated Economic survey published on the website of Federal Bureau of Statistics, an average household in Pakistan spends 0.5 per cent of its income on recreation. The average income of a middle class family is to be around Rs. 50,000 per month, (Ishtiaq, 2010)

96

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Youth
The life between childhood and adulthood is called youth. An individual's real maturity may not match to their age mean age is not a guarantee of maturity, as immature individuals could exist at any age. In the whole world, the words "adolescents", "teenager", "youth", and "young person" are used as a replacement of each other, even though all mean the same thing, rarely differentiated. All these terms refers to a time of life i.e. neither childhood nor adulthood, but somewhere in between.

(http://en.wikipedia.org, Youth)

"The world requires the persona of youth: not only the time of life with that a state of mind, a temper of the will, quality imagination, a leadership of nerve over coyness, of the craving for quest over the life of effortlessness." – (Robert Kennedy).

Youth is a substitute word of adolescent and the common terminology of teen / teenager. Another common name for youth is young person or young people. (http://en.wikipedia.org, Youth)

Affordability
In general affordability is, the extent to which something is affordable, as measured by its cost relative to the amount that the customer is able to pay.

(http://en.wiktionary.org)

Thus, the conclusion drawn from the analysis of the 'life cycle cost' of a proposed purchase, that the purchase is in concurrence with the resources and long term requirements of the customer. (http://www.businessdictionary.com)

97

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Preference
The term “preferences” is used in an array of related, but not equal, ways in the literature. This makes it mandatory to make clear, the sense in which the term is used in different social sciences. (http://en.wikipedia.org, Preferences). Mr. Lichtenstein & Slovic have said that, “In psychology, preferences is the approach of individual towards objects, naturally expose in a transparent process of decision making” (Lichtenstein & Slovic, 2006). On the other hand, the term “preference” can be used to get the evaluative result in the sense of liking or disliking an item (e.g., Scherer, 2005) which is the most typical definition is in use in psychology. However, it is not necessary that a perception will remain same for a long period of time.

Decision-making can be a processes of modifying preference, for example choices (Brehm, 1956; Sharot, De Martino, & Dolan, 2009),

Consumer
A person who uses goods or services. (wordnetweb.princeton.edu).

The broader term of Individual or household can be consumer that consume goods and utilize services produce within the economy. The belief of a term consumer may differ in different contexts, so that the usage and meaning of the term may be different.

(en.wikipedia.org/wiki)

An individual who acquire products or services for its own use not for production or resale is known as consumer. The exact meaning of the word „consumer‟ is the person who consumes. (www.scholar.google.com).

98

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

According to the legal definition of consumer, it is a person / individual who acquire, utilize, retain, and disposes off products and services. (www.answers.com). The Dictionary of Marketing describe „consumer‟ as a final user of a product or service. It is possible that the consumer may not always the buyer of a product. For example in the case of food for animals / pets, the pet is originally a consumer because it is going to consume the product, whereas, of course the advertising is aimed at the purchase (pet owner). (www.answers.com).

Consumer behavior
Consumer behavior is depicted as the behavioral example of decision-making of consumers (individual and families) that are purely involved in the buying and usage of products and services that satisfy a particular need (Van Der Walt, Strydom, Marx & Jooste, 1996:76). This includes the processes of decision making that lead these behavioral patterns.

Brand
According to (American Marketing Association (AMA), a brand is known as a “term, sign, name, design or symbol, or a amalgamation of all or some of them, wishfully proposed to recognize the goods and services of one vendor or a group of vendors and to distinguish their products from the competitor‟s products which are somehow same in satisfying the needs. (MegaEssays.com, 2004)

A brand is therefore more than a product, because a brand can have different dimensions that distinguish it in different ways from other products intended to satisfy the similar need. These dissimilarities may be rational and tangible – related to performance of the brand – or more emotional, symbolic, and intangible – related to what the brand stand for. (Keller, 2008)

99

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

In general, the term „brand‟ means; a different name which identify a product or a producer. The word „brand‟ refers to the term, symbol, name, design or sign utilized by a organization to distinguish its offerings from its competitors. Brands are one of the most standardized items in the product offering; and may allow further consistency of other elements of marketing like promotional stuff. (Czinkota & Ronkainen, 2004).

A brand may includes a logo, name, slogan, and / or design / scheme linked with a product or service. Recognition of Brand and other reactions are formed by the consumption / utilization of the product or service and through the power of advertising, design, and media. A brand; Symbolic personification of all the information linked to the product creates associations and expectations. (Jones, 1986).

Branding is used as an identifier, but technically a trademark. According to the UK Trademarks Act of 1994, a brand can be any symbol / sign which has a capability of being represented in a form of graphics or graphically, which should be capable of distinguishing goods or services of one from those of another (Robertson, 2000:18).

Branding is not limited to naming it is more than just a naming, or, the formation of an external awareness of a product / services that a product or service has received an organization‟s imprint or mark (Kapferer, 1995:15). Harris (1995:2)

The clothing industry
A subdivision of the larger fashion industry is the clothing industry within a context of business. In a broad context Fashion industry is used to describe all the processes of manufacturing involved in producing clothing, footwear, accessories, fashion apparel, active wear and bags (Marx, Van Rooyen, Bosch & Reynders, 1998:282).

100

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Perceptions
Noesjirwan and Crawford (1982:155) are of the view that clothing is likely to develop an essential part in the performing of social meetings and it is also observed as a very significant way of non verbal communication.

Therefore, Clothing is used as a sign, which creates the messages and allow messages to be created and understand in a way it should be. (Auty & Elliott, 1998:109).

Factors considered by consumers while buying brands
According to the study done by Michael Mills, N. Torkar, Tina k. * A. Dye “Understanding the path to purchase”, psychographics / personality are the drivers of purchase, in social context of a consumer, his relationships with the current functionality of product and product attributes (Michael Mills, N. Torkar, Tina k. & A. Dye). One more research conducted which states that “criteria for choosing clothes are defined as the inherent to the product (intrinsic) and product related (extrinsic, but not part of the tangible product) attributes of product that are associated with desired outcomes or costs involved as consumers make purchase decision among different substitutes. The product‟s attributes which are intrinsic cannot be changed without changing the product‟s physical characteristics, for example, design, color, style, safety, appearance, comfort etc. On contrary, extrinsic ones are those which are exploited by company or seller and they do not develop the components of the product. e.g, brand, price, warranty, company of origin etc. (Davis, Hatch & Roberts in 1985).

101

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Current fashion trends
The things which are occurring in the fashion world and the current fashion trends what are they, is one of the major factors which is considered by the consumer while purchasing products and it results in a form of change in their tastes. Brands is known as a way to convey a particular fashion image or social status, better than non-branded products. The social recognition entail the sense of belonging to certain groups or class (Ashforth and Mael, 1989, Aaker, J, 1999, Kim, Han and Park, 2001).

A study has conducted on consumer behavior which states that the brand conscious and the perfection conscious behavior is directly related to fashion conscious behavior of consumers. According to this study the combination of these create a new behavior namely “brand and fashion consciousness”. Consumers with this behavior are more expected to buy high-priced International brands (Kwan C.Y, Yeung K.W. & Au K.F).

Price
Kotler and Armstrong define the price, “it is the cash charged in an exchange of products or utilizing the services or the sum of values that is traded by consumers for enjoying the outcomes of that product or service. (Kotler.P & Armstrong.G, 2001)

Price, it always play a key role in choosing a brand, consumers usually do the price comparisons among different products / brands. Even though many consumers categorize their products in terms of the price bands of distinctive products (Keller, Strategic Brand Management, 1998) According to one study “The Dual Role of Price in Consumer’s Value Judgments” conducted by (Thomas, Morwitz, & Lodish, 2004), firstly, price as an attribute of a product, price influence the supposed match of the target product to the prototype of a higher quality or lower quality products in the mind. However, to make

102

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

similarity based quality judgments price is not the only attribute for that. Many other related and existing products attribute middling the effect of price on assessing a quality of a product. Secondly, price function as the point of reference for determining the utility gains which a consumer obtains from using high product quality. However, this is dynamic measurement process, because the comparative importance of product quality and the money never remain same it changes across consumption occasions.

Western Clothing
Western wear falls in both men & women clothing, the 19 th century American West Style. Western wear reflect the historical production of mountain man, Civil Wars, Cowboys and Vaquero clothing to the garments which are stylized and are popularized by singing cowboys. Western wear have two categories, one very informal like t-shirts, blue jeans and one formal garment. Western wear generally consist of cowboy hat, a leather belt, and cowboy boots. (Wikipedia, 2010)

Quality
The way acquirer thinks / feel about the product or service prior to buying, after delivery and after the use. (http://www.bexcellence.org)

According to (http://www.bexcellence.org) the quality for products is defined as:Reliability Performance Serviceability Ease of Use Maintainability Durability Safe Available Aesthetics Simplicity of Design Reasonable Price Ease of Disposal

103

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

The quality for Services is defined as:Credibility Availability Competence Safe Accuracy Responsiveness Security Understanding the Customer Communication Timeliness Completeness Reliability

Drivers of quality:

According to (http://www.bexcellence.org) there are some drivers of quality which are appended below:Customers. In a customer-oriented organization, quality is the main source of satisfying the requirement / expectation, needs, and preferences of customers. Products / services: A trend of product and service-driven quality was famous in the initial phase of improving quality or quality improvement. According to the concept of zero defect in manufacturing a product or providing services that meets the customer‟s requirements. It differ from one situation to another, it happens sometimes that product or service requirements begin from the requirements of customer, so this is really mandatory to make a common connection to customer-driven quality, but the main focus of the trend / culture pertains to the quality of the product / service. If the customer requirements are correctly declared / designed and put into the manufacturing / service delivery process, then the product / service should match the customer‟s requirements and it should make customer satisfied. The afore mentioned method is commonly in support of the ISO 9001 based quality management system.

104

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Employee Satisfaction: It is necessary to satisfy employees in order to make them should only care about the customers of the organization to give customers the best company can provide them by maintaining better / best quality. Satisfaction of employees is a principal measure of achievement for the above mentioned type of organization. Organizational focus : Various organizations usually emphasis on organizational total quality, whilst other organization are pretty much successful in using a fragmented attempt for implementation of quality. (http://www.bexcellence.org)

105

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

REFERENCES
Anderissa, V. E., Grobler, P. A., & Herbst, P. F. (2004). Perceptions of branding in the clothing industry: a survey. Communicare 23(1) . Azevedo, S., Pereira, M., Ferreira, J., & Pedroso, V. (2008). Consumer Buying behaviour in Fashion Retailing, Empirical Evidences. MPRA Paper No. 11908, posted 03. December 2008 / 13:35 . Butt, A. (2008, 07 23). Who Counts As Middle Class In Pakistan, Whether Or Not Pakistan Is On The Verge Of Collapse, And (Yet) Another Conspiracy Theory. Retrieved October 26, 2010, from Asian Correspondant: http://asiancorrespondent.com/35868/who-counts-as-middle-class-in-pakistanwhether-or-not-pakistan-is-on-the-verge-of-collapse-and-yet-another-conspiracy-theory/ Czinkota, & Ronkainen. (2004). International Business. South-Western College Pub. Douglas, J. T., Lawrence, J. R., & Charles, W. K. (1976). FASHION INVOLVEMENT AND BUYING BEHAVIOR: A METHODOLOGICAL STUDY. dvances in Consumer Research Volume 3, 1976 Pages 46-52 . en.wikipedia.org/wiki. (n.d.). Consumer. Retrieved 11 11, 2010, from en.wikipedia.org: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consumer http://en.wikipedia.org. (n.d.). Middle Class. Retrieved 11 10, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_class http://en.wikipedia.org. (n.d.). Preferences. Retrieved 11 10, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preferences http://en.wikipedia.org. (n.d.). Youth. Retrieved 11 10, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Youth http://en.wiktionary.org. (n.d.). Affordability. Retrieved 11 10, 2010, from http://en.wiktionary.org: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/affordability http://www.bexcellence.org. (n.d.). What is Quality. Retrieved 12 20, 2010, from Be Excellence: http://www.bexcellence.org/What-Is-Quality.html http://www.businessdictionary.com. (n.d.). Affordability. Retrieved 11 10, 2010, from http://www.businessdictionary.com: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/affordability.html Ishtiaq, H. (2010, April 19). Widening income disparity. Retrieved October 28, 2010, from Archives of Dawn.com: http://archives.dawn.com/archives/24923 Jones, J. P. (1986). What's in a Name: Advertising and the Concept of Brands. Kanwal, A. (n.d.). Consumer preference of International brands over local brands. www.AMCY5.com .

106

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

Keller, K. L. (1998). Strategic Brand Management. Prentice Hall. Keller, K. L. (2008). Strategic Brand Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Kotler.P, & Armstrong.G. (2001). Principles of Marketing (9th Edition). Pretice Hall. MegaEssays.com. (2004). Branding. Retrieved 10 13, 2010, from Mega Essays: http://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/21911.html Thomas, M., Morwitz, V. G., & Lodish, L. M. (2004). The Dual Role of Price in Consumers’ Value Judgments. 45. Verghis, P. (2009). Booming global middle class – meeting their service needs. Enterprise Support, IT support, Managing Support, SaaS - Software as a Service, Technical Support, Voice of the Customer, article, customer service, savvy support model . Verghis, P. (2009, 3 4). Booming global middle class – meeting their service needs. Retrieved 10 11, 2010, from www.verghisgroup.com: http://www.verghisgroup.com/2009/03/04/booming-global-middle-classmeeting-their-service-needs/ Wikipedia. (2010, 10 23). Western Wear. Retrieved 10 11, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_wear wordnetweb.princeton.edu. (n.d.). Consumer. Retrieved 11 10, 2010, from wordnetweb.princeton.edu: wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

107

Jun. 20

Buying Preference Of Middle Class Youth (Consumer) Between Local Affordable Branded Western Clothing and Non Branded Western Clothing In Karachi

108

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful