The Human Reproductive System

The ejaculatory ducts are paired structures in male anatomy, about 2 cm in length. Each ejaculatory duct is formed by the union of the vas deferens with the duct of the seminal vesicle. During ejaculation, semen passes through the ducts and exits the body via the penis.

The seminal vesicles are sac-like structures attached to the vas deferens at one side of the bladder. They produce a sticky, yellowish fluid that contains fructose. This fluid provides sperm cells energy and aids in their motility.

The Fallopian tubes or oviducts are two tubes leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus.

The ovaries are small, paired organs that are located near the lateral walls of the pelvic cavity. These organs are responsible for the production of the ova and the secretion of hormones. Ovaries are the place inside the anatomically female body where ova or eggs are produced. The process by which the ovum is released is called ovulation. The speed of ovulation is periodic and impacts directly to the length of a menstrual cycle. The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of humans. The uterus provides mechanical protection, nutritional support, and waste removal for the developing embryo and fetus . Its major function is to accept a fertilized ovum which becomes implanted into the endometrium, and derives nourishment from blood vessels which develop exclusively for this purpose. The fertilized ovum becomes an embryo, develops into a fetus and gestates until childbirth.

The prostate gland surrounds the ejaculatory ducts at the base of the urethra, just below the bladder. The prostate gland is responsible for the production of semen, a liquid mixture of sperm cells, prostate fluid and seminal fluid.

The bulbourethral glands, also called Cowper glands, are two small glands located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland. These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. It produces substances related to nourishment of spermatozoa. The urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the genitals for the removal of fluids out of the body. In males, the urethra travels through the penis, and carries semen as well as urine.

The vas deferens, also known as the sperm duct is a thin tube approximately 17 inches long that starts from the epididymis to the pelvic cavity. The epididymis is a whitish mass of tightly coiled tubes cupped against the testicles. It acts as a maturation and storage place for sperm before they pass into the vas deferens, tubes that carry sperm to the ampullary gland and prostatic ducts. The testes, also known as the testicles, are the anatomically male gonads, the organs that produce sperm cells. The testes are egg-shaped structures that grow to be about one inch long and rest inside the scrotum. The testes also produces hormones, including testosterone, which stimulates the production of sperm cells and facilitates male maturation. The cervix is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. It is cylindrical or conical in shape and protrudes through the upper anterior vaginal wall. Approximately half its length is visible, the remainder lies above the vagina beyond view. The vagina has a thick layer outside and it is the opening where baby comes out during delivery. The cervix is also called the neck of the uterus. The vagina is a fibro-muscular tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female mammals, or to the cloaca in female birds and some reptiles. Female insects and other invertebrates also have a vagina, which is the terminal part of the oviduct. The vagina is the place where semen from the anatomic male is deposited into the anatomically female person's body at the climax of sexual intercourse, commonly known as ejaculation. Around the vagina, pubic hair protects the vagina from infection and is a sign of puberty. The vagina is mainly used for sexual intercourse.

The urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the genitals for the removal of fluids out of the body. In females, the urethra is shorter and emerges above the vaginal opening. The labia minora, also known as the inner labia, or inner lips, are two flaps of skin on either side of the human vaginal opening, situated between the labia majora. The labia majora (are two prominent longitudinal cutaneous folds that extend downward and backward from the mons pubis to the perineum and form the lateral boundaries of the pudendal cleft.

The penis is the anatomically male copulatory organ. It has a long shaft and enlarged bulbous-shaped tip called the glans penis, which supports the foreskin. When the anatomically male person becomes sexually aroused, the penis becomes erect and ready for sexual activity. Erection occurs because sinuses within the erectile tissue of the penis become filled with blood. The arteries of the penis are dilated while the veins are passively compressed so that blood flows into the erectile cartilage under pressure.

The scrotum is a pouch-like structure that hangs behind the penis. It holds and protects the testes. It also contains numerous nerves and blood vessels. During times of lower temperatures, the muscle contracts and pulls the scrotum closer to the body, giving it a wrinkled appearance. The scrotum remains connected with the abdomen or pelvic cavity by the inguinal canal. (The spermatic cord, formed from spermatic artery, vein and nerve bound together with connective tissue passes into the testis through inguinal canal.)

The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present only in female mammals. In humans, the visible button-like portion is located near the anterior junction of the labia minora, above the opening of the urethra and vagina. Unlike the penis, which is homologous to the clitoris, the clitoris does not contain the distal portion of the urethra. In humans, the clitoris is the most sensitive erogenous zone of the female, the stimulation of which may produce sexual excitement and clitoral erection; its continuing stimulation may produce sexual pleasure and orgasm.

The Male Human Reproductive System

The human male reproductive system (or male genital system) consists of a number of sex organs that are a part of the human reproductive process. In this type of reproductive system, these sex organs are located outside the body, around the pelvic region.

The human female reproductive system (or female genital system) contains two main parts: the uterus, which hosts the developing fetus, produces vaginal and uterine secretions, and passes the anatomically male person's sperm through to the fallopian tubes; and the ovaries, which produce the anatomically female person's egg cells.

The Female Human Reproductive System

The main anatomically male sex organs are the penis and the testes which pro duce semen and sperm, which as part of sexual intercourse fertilize an ovum in an anatomically female person's body and the fertilized ovum, known as zygote, gradually develops into a fetus.
Submitted by Alison Ordonio | II – Hyacinth Submitted to Mrs. Gariola | Kalayaan National High School

If, in this transit, it meets with sperm, the sperm penetrate and merge with the egg, fertilizing it. The fertilization usually occurs in the oviducts, but can happen in the uterus itself. The zygote then implants itself in the wall of the uterus, where it begins the processes ofembryogenesis and morphogenesis. When developed enough to survive outside the womb, the cervix dilates and contractions of the uterus propel the fetus through the birth canal, which is the vagina.
References: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Female_reproductive_system_(human) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Male_reproductive_system_(human)

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