Il Futuro del Condition Monitoring: efficienza dei processi e riduzione dei costi di manutenzione

Lodovico Menozzi Business Development - Europe

Diagnostics and Prognostic Systems Steps

Data Acquisition

Analysis

Presentation, Prediction, Decisions

Modular Architecture
Enterprise Data Management

Information
Systems Management

Compare machine to machine Manage alarms and notifications Off-line analytics Configuration Communication In-line analysis and data reduction Fast sensor sampling (lots of data)

Embedded Analysis

Applications Software

Measurement Services

Embedded Computing

Data
Sensor I/O

Machines

Machine Condition Assessment Data Processing and Information Flow Basics
Sensor / Transducer / Manual Entry Data Acquisition (DA) Data Manipulation (DM) External Systems, Data Archives, Block Configuration State Detection (SD) Health Assessment (HA) Prognostics (PA) Advisory Generation (AG) Technical Displays and Information Presentation

ISO 13374 Standard

Typical Spectrum Showing Basic Faults
Velocity (ips) 0.001 0.01 unbalance misalignment

bearing frequencies 0.0001

gear mesh frequencies

100

1000 Frequency (Hz)
Courtesy of

10000

100000

Rugged or Not?
Item Operating temperature Storage temperature Standard Measure IEC 60068-2-1, IEC 60068- –40 to 70 °C 2-2 IEC 60068-2-1, IEC 60068- –40 to 85 °C 2-2 5 grms, 10 to 500 Hz 5 g, 10 to 500 Hz 30 g, 11 ms half sine, 50 g, 3 ms half sine, 18 shocks at 6 orientations IEC 60068-2-6 IEC 60068-2-27

Operating vibration random IEC 60068-2-64 Operating vibration sinusoidal Operating shock

Typical Sensing Data – A real machine
Gas Turbine
4 Accelerometer 4 Bearing RTD 1 Gas Generator Speed 1 Power Turbine Speed 1 Fuel Flow 1 Ambient Temperature 1 Compressor Discharge Pressure 1 Compressor Discharge Temperature 1 Exhaust Gas Temperature 1 Power Turbine Exhaust Temperature 1 Power Turbine Exhaust Pressure 1 Air Mass Flow 4 Lube Oil Level Temp, Pressure,Level

Compressor

Gearbox

4 Radial Vibration Proximeter Probe 2 Axial Positioner 4 RTD 1 Suction Pressure 1 Discharge Pressure 1 Flow 1 Inlet Temperature 1 Discharge Temperature

8 Radial Vibration Proximeter Probe 2 Axial Positioner 6 Bearing RTD 1 High Speed Keyphasor 1 Low Speed Keyphasor 1 Gearbox Accelerometer

Wind Turbine
Imbalance Fluid Related Alignment Bent Shaft EM Related

Bearings

Gears

Mechanical Resonances

C Series – A Next Generation Platform
Opportunities for other buses CompactRIO 2004

R Series Expansion Chassis 2004

USB-92xx/94xx (USB Sleeve) 2005

Wireless and Ethernet 2008 USB CompactDAQ 2006

Acceptance Test

Portable

On-line

60+ Measurement Modules
 Accelerometer  Strain Gauge  Load Cells  Proximeters Microphone  Thermocouples/RTDs  4 to 20mA  Isolation  Digital I/O - Tacho  GPS/GPRS

Machine Condition Monitoring On-Line
• • • • On-Line Monitoring/Analysis 4GB SSD data storage Ethernet/EtherCAT distributed GPS/IEEE-1588 Synchronization Ethernet/EtherCAT
Ethernet
Command Based Arch Shared Variable Order Analysis Frequency Analysis Customer Specific Analysis Serial Port Modbus

Permanent: CompactRIO

Real-Time

Reconfigurable RIO Chassis
LabVIEW FPGA
Speed Vibration RMS Vibration DC Temperature Process

Measurements

DMA

Speed and Vibration

Buffered Output

Accelerometer

9203 4-20ma Process

9211 / 9217 Temperature

9221 Tachometer

Empty

Accelerometer

Laser Tach

Axial Prox Probe

Empty

9234

Radial Prox Probes

9264 Buffered Output

9229 Proximity Probe

Keyphaso Thermocoupl e r

Portable: CompactDAQ
PC-based, Portable DAQ Systems
• Easy to setup and use • Multiple chassis options
– USB: 1, 4, and 8-slot chassis – Ethernet: 1 and 8-slot chassis – WiFi: 1-slot chassis

• C Series I/O Modules
– – – – Over 60 C Series I/O modules Integrated signal conditioning High-Precision strain, vibration, audio, etc. Analog I/O up to ~250kS/s (D/A to 100 kS/S)

Condition Monitoring Application Pattern

Systems Architecture

Data Production Line
Embedded Device Data Recording
Machine Information Data Flow

Down Stream Data Enhancements
Diagnostic Information

Step 1: Time Waveforms + Analysis (Max / Min, Frequency, Crest Factor)

Step 2: Spectral + Advanced Analysis

Database and Off-line
DATA FILES DATA FINDER ANALYSIS

Resistance

A Highly Productive Graphical Development Environment for Engineers and Scientists

Hardware APIs

Built-in Libraries

Custom User Interfaces

Deployment Targets

Technology Abstractions

Programming Approaches

Fault Engine I/O & Comm

Measurement and Control

Graphic Signal Characteristic Analysis Methods
Narrow frequency band lasting for a long time Narrow frequency band with harmonics lasting for a long time Time varying frequency band Wide frequency band signal lasting for a short time Narrow frequency band signal lasting for a short time Frequency Analysis Fourier Transform Power Spectrum Quefrency Cepstrum

Machine Example
Unbalance in a single speed machine Damaged bearing in a machine with roller element bearings Unbalance in a variable speed pump Low speed machine with compressor valve impacts Electrical motor driven machine with rub and knock noise.

Time-frequency analysis Order analysis Wavelet analysis AR Modeling

Wavelet Analysis

Signal Analysis for Vibration

Orbit Plot
“Normal” Orbit
Just misalignemnt

“Locked up” Coupling

Misalignemnt with the “lock up”

Severe Shaft Misalignment

Unbalance

The IMS Consortium

IMS Instrumentation Approach
CRITICAL ASSET DATA ACQUISITION / SIGNAL PROCESSING
9 8 7
Feature 2

FEATURE EXTRACTION & SELECTION
Baseline Current Data

6 5 4 3 2

3

4

5

6 Feature 1

7

8

9

HEALTH VISUALIZATION

PERFORMANCE PREDICTION

HEALTH ASSESSMENT

Watchdog Agent® Infotronics Toolbox

Signal Processing & Feature Extraction
Time Domain Analysis Frequency Domain Analysis Time-frequency Analysis Wavelet/wavelet Packet Analysis Principle Component Analysis (PCA)

Health Assessment
Logistic Regression Statistical Pattern Recognition Feature Map Pattern Matching (Self-organizing Maps) Neural Network Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)

Performance Prediction
Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) Elman Recurrent Neural Network Fuzzy Logic Match Matrix

Health Diagnosis
Support Vector Machine (SVM) Feature Map Pattern Matching (Self-organizing Maps) Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) Hidden Markov Model (HMM)

Example: Wind Farm Prognostics
Meaningful Data from each Operating Condition n PM for Operating Condition n

Signal Processing & Feature Extraction Feature Selection/Reduction

Health Assessment

Fault Diagnosis

Performance Prediction

for performance degradation assessment (CV ~ 0-1)

Confidence Value

Health Radar Chart
for multiple components degradation monitoring

for potential issues and pattern classification

Health Map

for proactive maintenance

Trend Prediction

1. Signal Processing & Feature Extraction
Signal Processing & Feature Extraction
Time Domain Analysis Frequency Domain Analysis Time-Frequency Analysis Wavelet/Wavelet Packet Analysis

Stationary
Raw Vibrations

Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

Non-Stationary
Raw Vibrations

Timesynchronous Average

CWT of time synchronous signal for gearbox with broken tooth (File 105) 61 57 53 49 45 41 37 33 29 25 21 17 13 9 5 1 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Time (for 1 revolution) 6000 7000 8000

FFT + Envelope

Wavelets

scales a

2. Health Assessment

Health Assessment
Logistic Regression Statistical Pattern Recognition Feature Map Pattern Matching (Self-organizing Map) Neural Network Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)

Normal Behavior in Operating Condition 1 Raw Vibration in each Operating Condition
Normal Behavior Most Recent Behavior

Recent Behavior in Operating Condition 1

Feature Space

Confidence Value (CV)

3a. Health Diagnosis – Option 1
Health Diagnosis
Support Vector Machine (SVM) Feature Map Pattern Matching (SOM) Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) Hidden Markov Model (HMM) Evidence-based Holo-Coefficients Normal Behavior in Operating Condition 1 Recent Behavior in Operating Condition 1

Features

Gearbox Health Map
C1 C3 C2

Normal Gearbox

C1

C3

C2

C1

C1

C3

One Health Map trained for EACH operating condition!
Recent Behavior Gear 1 Broken Tooth

C4

C4

C4

C4

3b. Health Diagnosis – Option 2

Health Diagnosis

Support Vector Machine (SVM) Feature Map Pattern Matching (SOM) Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) Hidden Markov Model (HMM) Evidence-based Holo-Coefficients Normal Behavior in Operating Condition 1 Recent Behavior in Operating Condition 1

Raw Vibration

β16 β15 β14 β13 β12 β11

β17

β18

α1

α2

α3 α4 α5 α6 α7 α8 α9 α10

e.g.: Chipped-tooth problem in first gear. Higher risk in high speed regimes.

β10 β9 β8 β7 β6 β5 β4 β3 α17 α16 0.8 1.0 α15 α14 0.2 0.4 0.6

α11 α12 α13

Specialized Multi-regime Diagnostic Tool: Evidence-based Holo-Coefficient Diagnostics

β2

β1

α18

PHM Analytics for Wind Turbines (1)
WIND FARM INFO: CURRENT CONDITIONS:
N

Equipment Health

Equipment Risk

PHM Analytics for Wind Turbines (2)
WIND TURBINE INFO: CURRENT CONDITIONS:
N

Component Health

1

Wind Turbine Efficiency

Wind Turbine Efficiency

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

2

4

6

8

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

Wind Turbine CV History

10 Time

12

14

16

18

20

Component Risk

Health CV History

2

4

6

8

10 Time

12

14

16

18

20

PHM Analytics for Wind Turbines (3)
GEARBOX INFO:
Gearbox CV Prognostics

Holo-Coefficient Diagnosis
β14 β13 β12 β11 β10 β9 β8 β7 β6

β16 β15

β17

β18

α1

α2

α3 α4 α5 α6 α7 α8 α9 α10

Multi-regime Health Assessment, Diagnostics And Prognostics

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 β5 β4 β3 α17 α16 1.0 α15 α14

α11 α12 α13

β2

β1

α18

USING COMPACTRIO AND LABVIEW TO VERIFY THE DESIGN AND TEST THE DURABILITY OF A WIND TURBINE DRIVE TRAIN

Industry: Energy/Power Products: NI CompactRIO, LabVIEW The Challenge: Ensuring the long-term quality and reliability of various types of wind turbine drive train components. The Solution: Adopting the NI LabVIEW software and CompactRIO hardware platform to create a generic, flexible, high-channel-count measurement system for design verification and reliability tests to be completed in a test center and in the field.

http://sine.ni.com/cs/app/doc/p/id/cs-13836

Steam & Gas Turbine Monitoring System
Industry: Energy/Power Products: CompactRIO, LabVIEW, Real-Time Module, FPGA Module The Challenge: The growing demand for electricity has resulted in an increased demand for efficiency and availability, achievable with continuous monitoring of parameters related to machines installed, through remote and real-time data acquisition systems allowing predictive maintenance and fast recovery in case of failure. The Solution: Rapidly development of a remote machine monitoring systems able to acquire and log all the relevant gas/steam turbine parameters.

http://sine.ni.com/cs/app/doc/p/id/cs-10231

DIAGEN, remote diagnostics system for large electric power generators
Industry: Energy/Power Products: CompactRIO, Real-Time Module, FPGA Module, LabVIEW The Challenge With this application you want to make an integrated hardware and diagnostic software for remote monitoring of electric generators of high power (20-750 MVA) constructed by Ansaldo Energia SpA (Genoa). The Solution: The solution adopted was to create a real-time monitoring system based on NI CompactRIO platform can therefore safely perform in a real-time data acquisition and a post-processing of the same effectively.

http://sine.ni.com/cs/app/doc/p/id/cs-10972

Oil Well Fracture Pump Monitoring and Analysis using LabVIEW and NI RIO Technology
Industry: Oil and Gas Products: FPGA Module, LabVIEW, Single-Board RIO, LabVIEW Real-Time Module, CompactRIO The Challenge: Building an advanced monitoring system that can survive being mounted directly to an oil well servicing pump in a rugged environment while performing advanced analysis on sensor data.
http://sine.ni.com/cs/app/doc/p/id/cs-11315 The Solution: Using NI CompactRIO and NI Single-Board RIO hardware along with NI LabVIEW software to design a pump monitoring system that monitors the operating parameters of a reciprocating pump used in well servicing applications.

Online Monitoring of Nuclear Reactors Using NI CompactRIO
Industry: Machines/Mechanics Products: Real-Time Module, CompactRIO, FPGA Module, NI 9234, LabVIEW The Challenge: Developing an online monitoring (OLM) solution for boiling water reactors, which contain machinery in hazardous and difficultto-access areas. The Solution: Using an integrated, embedded NI CompactRIO system to develop the EWV-1 and OLM-32 hardware to provide live, wireless monitoring of plant assets in conjunction with AMS’ monitoring software. http://sine.ni.com/cs/app/doc/p/id/cs-13207

Remote Recorder (R.A.Re) for land consolidation motor pumps
Industry: Jet-Grouting, Grouting & Drilling Equipment Products: CompactRIO, LabVIEW, Real-Time Module, FPGA Module The Challenge: Equip the machines of cement pumping used in construction with a remote recorder that permits both to monitor in real time the work carried out and to operate as predictive Diagnostic Tool The Solution: The motor pumps parameters are registered to high frequency, processed in real-time and saved locally on a weekly base. The data are transmitted via GSM network to a Web server which then allows the redistribution to customer and/or technical office in real time.

http://sine.ni.com/cs/app/doc/p/id/cs-11827

Facility Online Machine Condition Monitoring System

Industry: Process Industry Products: PXI-8108, PXI-1042Q, PXI-4472B, CSC-3059 (a customized version of 4472B) Application: China Steel standardized their machine condition monitoring (MCM) system based on PXI and PXI-4472B. Each of China Steel’s production lines has a total of 300 to 500 accelerometers installed and they needed a reliable distributed software architecture for data acquisition, analysis, alarm & reporting. All system software is designed in LabVIEW and is to be duplicated for a total of 23 production lines. Software design consulting was a critical piece to winning the related hardware opportunities and has helped us close sales for 32 PXIs to date (over $510K hardware sales made so far).

http://sine.ni.com/cs/app/doc/p/id/cs-12120

NI Platform: Integrating Elements

System Design to Deployment
Dataflow C / HDL Code Textual Math Simulation Statechart

LabVIEW

LabVIEW ``

LabVIEW

LabVIEW

Desktop

Real-Time

FPGA

MPU/MCU

Personal Computers

PXI Systems

CompactRIO

Single-Board RIO

Custom Design

See Also:
• National Instruments Exhibit • www.ni.com/mcm • www.imscenter.net • www.ni.com/watchdogagent

Questions?
lodovico.menozzi@ni.com