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For the term used in the game of bridge, see Glossary of contract bridge terms # communication. Communication is the activity of conveying meaningful information. Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender.
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1 Human Communication 1.1 Nonverbal communication 1.2 Oral communication 2 Within Companies 2.1 Written communication and its historical development 2.2 Barriers to Effective Human Communication 3 Nonhuman Communication 3.1 Animal Communication 3.2 Plants and Fungi (phapondi) 3.3 Bacterial Communication (Quorum sensing) 4 Communication cycle 5 Communication noise 6 Communication as academic discipline 7 See also 8 References 9 External links
Human spoken and picture languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word "language" also refers to common properties of languages. Language learning normally occurs most intensively
There is no defined line between a language and a dialect. visual aids and non-verbal elements to support the conveyance of the meaning. Speech also contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage. Some of non verbal communication includes chronemics. Likewise. hairstyles. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. typically relies on both words. architecture. while primarily referring to spoken verbal communication. haptics. and tone of voice as well as through an aggregate of the above. emotion and speaking style as well as prosodic features such as rhythm. and media such as pictures. graphics. spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotional expressions in pictorial form. large print. and accessible information and communication technology. although many of these include exceptions. proxemics. Non-verbal communication is also called silent language and plays a key role in human day to day life from industrial relations to intimate relationships. chronemics. interpersonal communication and many
. eye contact. intonation and stress. haptic communication. speeches. object communication such asclothing. sound. and writing. (June
Nonverbal communication describes the process of conveying meaning in the form of non-word messages. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities also defines the communication to include the display of text. Non-verbal communication can be used both consciously or unconsciously to convey meaning and to communicate the identity of the individual. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. paralanguage. A variety of verbal and non-verbal means of communicating exists such as body language. presentations. Constructed languages such as Esperanto. gesture. These include voice lesson quality. Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns of sound orgesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them.
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Oral communication. written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style. human reader. Languages seem to share certain properties. sign language.during human childhood. body language or posture. Oral communication includes discussion. symbols infographics. programming languages. Research by psychologist Albert Mehrabian shows that the majority of our communication is non verbal. accessible multimedia. Braille. as well as written and plain language. and various mathematical formalisms are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages. tactile communication. facial expression and eye contact.
gender. bores and irritates the audience. Advances include communications psychology and media psychology. papyrus. using exactly the same words. clay.poor media choices.)'
== Barriers to Communication == Age.personality.
. and words disagree. etc. then body language and tone of voice will be believed more than words. A great presenter must capture the attention of the audience and connect with them.social status. an emerging field of study. For example. == Between Companies Customers== Poor selling techniques. hunched over. A leap in technology occurred when the Gutenberg printing-press was invented in the 15th century. 7% content of words". and looking away will be interpreted as insincere.information not stored for future use or poor retrieval system
communication and its historical development
Over time the forms of and ideas about communication have evolved through progression of technology. wax.culture.[clarification needed] For example. The pictograms were made in stone. a person saying "I'm delighted to meet you" while mumbling.other varieties. tone of voice. the socalled "7%-38%-55% rule". if body language. Within
Poor downward flow. when conveying emotion.failure to find correct contact persons.poor machinery. This is not however what the cited research shows – rather. During the 2nd stage writing began to appear on paper. out of two persons telling the same joke one may greatly amuse the audience due to his body language and tone of voice while the second person. During the 1st stage written communication first emerged through the use of pictographs. Visual aid can help to facilitate effective communication and is almost always used in presentation for an audience.(Further discussion at Albert Mehrabian: Three elements of communication.poor upward flow.unfocused advertising. 38% tone of voice. hence written communication was not yet mobile. Common alphabets were introduced and allowed for the uniformity of language across large distances. A widely cited and widely misinterpreted figure used to emphasize the importance of delivery states that "communication comprise 55% body language. Researchers divides the progression of written communication into three revolutionary stages called "Information Communication Revolutions" (Source needed). In face to face communication the body language and voice tonality plays a significant role and may have a greater impact on the listener than the intended content of the spoken words.
Minutes spent talking now will save time later having to clear up misunderstandings later on.Likewise. These may be brought about. for example. a lack of supervision or training. System design: System Design faults refer to problems with the structures or systems in place in an organization. by such factors as poor management. Physical barriers: Physical Barriers are often due to the nature of the environment.Staff shortages are another factor which frequently causes communication difficulties for an organization. the natural barrier which exists. personality conflicts which can result in people delaying or refusing to
. for example.Thus. gestures. questioning. particularly the failure of management to introduce new technology. Written communication can be clear by planning follow-up talk on critical written communication as part of the normal way of doing business. analyzing. When it comes to effective communication. and evaluating enables collaboration and cooperation. some of these barriers are mentioned below. Barriers to successful communication include message overload (when a person receives too many messages at the same time). may also cause problems. observing. Then. there are certain barriers that every organization faces. paraphrasing. poor or outdated equipment. listening. which requires a vast repertoire of skills in interpersonalprocessing. questions and answers. and ask them if that’s what they meant. People often feel that communication is as easy and simple as it sounds. Examples might include an organizational structure which is unclear and therefore makes it confusing to know who to communicate with. but what makes it complex. and a lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities which can lead to staff being uncertain about what is expected of them. Other examples could be inefficient or inappropriate information systems. if staff are located in different buildings or on different sites.
to Effective Human Communication
Communication is the key factor in the success of any organization. and stories of strategic talk. Attitudinal barriers: Attitudinal Barriers come about as a result of problems with staff in an organisation. which in turn interfere with effective communication. and message complexity. Communication is thus a process by which meaning is assigned and conveyed in an attempt to create shared understanding. No doubt. Whilst distractions like background noise. speaking. take what was heard and reiterate in your own words. examples. This process. difficult and frustrating are the barriers that come in its way. lack of consultation with employees.The 3rd stage is characterised by the transfer of information through controlled waves and electronic signals. poor lighting or an environment which is too hot or cold can all affect people's morale and concentration. Misunderstandings can be anticipated and solved through formulations.
sociobiology. brought about by insufficient training to enable them to carry out particular tasks. Ambiguity of Words/Phrases: Words sounding same but having different meaning can convey a different meaning altogether. Animal communication. by ill health. and indeed the understanding of the animal world in general. Physiological barriers: may result from individuals' personal discomfort.
See also: Biocommunication (science) and Interspecies communication Every information exchange between living organisms — i. The use of difficult or inappropriate words in communication can prevent people from understanding the message. Simply put. Nonhuman communication also include cell signaling.
The broad field of animal communication encompasses most of the issues in ethology.Poorly explained or misunderstood messages can also result in confusion. is also important.e. for example. poor eye sight or hearing difficulties. and even primitive creatures such as corals are competent to communicate.factory work. the personal attitudes of individual employees which may be due to lack of motivation or dissatisfaction at work. or just resistance to change due to entrenched attitudes and ideas. called zoosemiotics' (distinguishable from anthroposemiotics.In face-to-face communication which is carried by air vibration.the air may be disturbed by noise such as traffic. is a rapidly growing field. It would be better if such words can be avoided by using alternatives. transmission of signals that involve a living sender and receiver can be considered a form of communication. Animal communication can be defined as any behavior of one animal that affects the current or future behavior of another animal. or people talking. and chemical transmissions between primitive organisms like bacteriaand within the plant and fungal kingdoms. Individual linguistic ability. the study of human communication) has played an important part in the development of ethology. caused. and the study of animal cognition. Awanishbvi (talk) 16:24. and even in the 21st
. We can all think of situations where we have listened to something explained which we just could not grasp. Presentation of information: is also important to aid understanding. Hence the communicator must ensure that the receiver receives the same meaning.communicate. cellular communication. 13 October 2011 (UTC)Noise in the Environment:</ref> is any disturbance which occurs in the transmission process. the communicator must consider the audience before making the presentation itself and in cases where it is not possible the presenter can at least try to simplify his/her vocabulary so that majority can understand. The study of animal communication.
In stress situations plants can overwrite the genetic code they inherited from their parents and revert to that of their grand. with fungi and with insects in the soil. Fungi communicate with same and related species as well as with nonfungal organisms in a great variety of symbiotic interactions. related. and even filter out "noise".e. in marine microorganisms like V. similar molecules without biotic content. especially with bacteria. Fungi communicate to coordinate and organize their growth and development such as the formation of mycelia and fruiting bodies. plants and insects through semiochemicals of biotic origin. have been revolutionized. abiotic indicator.or great-grandparents. pragmatic and semantic rules. Behavioral coordination and production of signalling substances is achieved through interpretation processes that enables the organism to differ between self or non-self. and even sexual conduct. Through quorum sensing. Plant roots communicate in parallel with rhizome bacteria. Plants also communicate via volatiles when exposed to herbivory attack behavior to warn neighboring plants. many prior understandings related to diverse fields such as personal symbolic name use. mating. plants and animals. while if the same chemical molecules are not part of biotic messages. i. and pathogenicity.fischeri.
. growth. and between plants and non-plant organisms.e. These parallel sign-mediated interactions are governed by syntactic. but it is also used by microorganisms like bacteria. The semiochemicals trigger the fungal organism to react in a specific manner. The original meaning of the word "neuron" in Greek is "vegetable fiber" and recent research has shown that most of the intraorganismic plant communication processes are neuronal-like. unicellular eukaryotes.
and Fungi (phapondi)
Communication is observed within the plant organism.harveyi and V. they do not trigger the fungal organism to react. This implies that fungal organisms can differ between molecules taking part in biotic messages and similar molecules being irrelevant in the situation. and regulate gene expression accordingly. i. This can be seen in both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. biotic message from similar. So far five different primary signalling molecules are known to coordinate different behavioral patterns such as filamentation. long thought to be well erstood. especially in the root zone.
Communication (Quorum sensing)
Communication is not a tool used only by humans. In parallel they produce other volatiles to attract parasites which attack these herbivores.century so far. bacteria are able to sense the density of cells. This was first observed by Fuqua et al. within plant cells and between plant cells. animal emotions. animal culture and learning. The process is called quorum sensing. or non-related species. and are possible because of the decentralized "nervous system" of plants. between plants of the same or related species.
Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication
Communication major dimensions scheme
Communication code scheme
Their initial model consisted of three primary parts: sender. and the receiver was the part of the phone where one could hear the other person. Shannon and Weaver also
. channel.Linear Communication Model
Interactional Model of Communication
Berlo's Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver Model of Communication
Transactional Model of Communication
The first major model for communication came in 1949 by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver for Bell Laboratories The original model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone technologies. The sender was the part of a telephone a person spoke into. and receiver. the channel was the telephone itself.
which encodes the message into signals A channel. The strengths of this model are simplicity. 5. No allowance for unequal power relations. information or content (e. which produces a message. a message in natural language) is sent in some form (as spoken language) from an emisor/ sender/ encoder to a destination/ receiver/ decoder. This common conception of communication simply views communication as a means of sending and receiving information. A transmitter. David Berlo expanded on Shannon and Weaver’s (1949) linear model of communication and created the SMCR Model of Communication. 4. The technical problem: how accurately can the message be transmitted? The semantic problem: how precisely is the meaning 'conveyed'? The effectiveness problem: how effectively does the received meaning affect behavior? Daniel Chandler critiques the transmission model by stating: It assumes communicators are isolated individuals. No allowance for situational contexts. which they deemed noise.recognized that often there is static that interferes with one listening to a telephone conversation.
.g. No allowance for differing purposes. which 'decodes' (reconstructs) the message from the signal. where the message arrives. Communication is usually described along a few major dimensions: Message (what type of things are communicated). to which signals are adapted for transmission A receiver. 3.The Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver Model of communication separated the model into clear parts and has been expanded upon by other scholars. In a simple model. 2. often referred to as the transmission model or standard view of communication. Social scientists Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver structured this model based on the following elements: 1. and quantifiability.
Shannon and Weaver argued that there were three levels of problems for communication within this theory. generality. A destination. In 1960. No allowance for differing interpretations. An information source.
In light of these weaknesses. and ask questions. give advice and commands. These acts may take many forms. The target can be oneself. including intrapersonal communication via diaries or self-talk. and Receiver. channel (through which medium). The basic premise of the transactional model of communication is that individuals are simultaneously engaging in the sending and receiving of messages. Communication can be seen as processes of information transmission governed by three levels of semiotic rules:
1. communication content and form make messages that are sent towards a destination. both secondary phenomena that followed the primary acquisition of communicative competences within social interactions.
. destination / receiver / target / decoder (to whom). another entity (such as a corporation or group of beings). communication is social interaction where at least two interacting agents share a common set of signs and a common set of semioticrules. communication includes acts that confer knowledge and experiences. This commonly held rules in some sense ignores autocommunication.
Syntactic (formal properties of signs and symbols). in one of the various manners of communication.source / emisor / sender /encoder (by whom). Together. Pragmatic (concerned with the relations between
signs/expressions and their users) and Semantic (study of relationships between signs
and symbols and what they represent). The form depends on the abilities of the group communicating. another person or being. Between parties. Therefore. Barnlund (2008) proposed a transactional model of communication. 2. 3. form (in which form). Wilbur Schram (1954) also indicated that we should also examine the impact that a message has (both desired and undesired) on the target of the message.
they are nowhere represented in the model. similar if not identical. empires and enables the waging of distant military campaigns and colonial administration. which creates many conceptual difficulties. McKenzie 1997). at the very least. This second attitude of communication. Although something like code books is implied by the model. His famous example of this is using ancient Egypt and looking at the ways they built themselves out of media with very different properties stone and papyrus. The sender's personal filters and the receiver's personal filters may vary depending upon different regional traditions. Papyrus is what he called 'Space Binding'. Communication is viewed as a conduit. and thus the speech act may not achieve the desired effect. rather than a discrete exchange of information. Canadian media scholar Harold Innis had the theory that people use different types of media to communicate and which one they choose to use will offer different possibilities for the shape and durability of society (Wark. and that these two code books are.In a slightly more complex form a sender and a receiver are linked reciprocally. reception and decoding of content may be faulty. which may alter the intended meaning of message contents. A particular instance of communication is called a speech act. in this case). In the presence of "communication noise" on the transmission channel (air. Theories of coregulation describe communication as a creative and dynamic continuous process. or gender. cultures. One problem with this encode-transmit-receive-decode model is that the processes of encoding and decoding imply that the sender and receiver each possess something that functions as a codebook. focuses on how an individual communicates as the determining factor of the way the message will be interpreted. it made possible the transmission of written orders across space. The other is stone and 'Time Binding'. a passage in which information travels from one individual to another and this information becomes separate from the communication itself. referred to as the constitutive model or constructionist view. through the construction of temples and the
1970. McKenzie 1997). There are many examples of noise: Environmental Noise: Noise that physically disrupts communication. such as actual deafness or blindness preventing messages from being received as they were intended. such as standing next to loud speakers at a party. Physiological-Impairment Noise: Physical maladies that prevent effective communication. through this media they can change and shape communication in their society (Wark. noise is interference with the decoding of messages sent over a channel by an encoder. Bernard Luskin. In 1998.pyramids can sustain their authority generation to generation. the American Association of Psychology. Organizational Noise: Poorly structured communication can prevent the receiver from accurate interpretation. For example. Semantic Noise: Different interpretations of the meanings of certain words. UCLA. Media Psychology Division 46 Task Force report on psychology and new technologies combined media and communication as pictures. For example. or as a euphemism for marijuana. Syntactical Noise: Mistakes in grammar can disrupt communication. advanced computer assisted instruction and began to connect media and psychology into what is now the field of media psychology. such as abrupt changes in verb tense during a sentence. graphics and sound increasingly dominate modern communication.
In any communication model. the word "weed" can be interpreted as an undesirable plant in your yard. unclear and badly stated directions can make the receiver even more lost. or the noise from a construction site next to a classroom making it difficult to hear the professor.
.Cultural Noise: Stereotypical assumptions can cause misunderstandings. such as unintentionally offending a nonChristian person by wishing them a "Merry Christmas". great anger or sadness may cause someone to lose focus on the present moment. Disorders such as Autism may also severely hamper effective communication. For instance. Psychological Noise: Certain attitudes can also make communication difficult.