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The Concept of Preformulation:Almost all drugs are marketed as tablets, capsules or both. Prior to the development of these major dosage forms, it is essential that pertain fundamental physical and chemical properties of the drug molecule and other divided properties of the drug powder are determined. This information decides many of the subsequent events and approaches in formation development. This first learning phase is known as preformulation.
Definition:Preformulation investigations are designed to deliver all necessary data (especially physicochemical, physicomechanical and biopharmaceutical properties of drug substances, excipients and packaging materials) which may Influence formulation design method of manufacture of API and drug product pharmacokinetic/biopharmaceutic properties of the resulting product packaging of the product (stability) 
It describes the process of optimizing the delivery of drug through determination of physical, chemical properties of new drug molecule that affect drug performance and development of an efficacious, stable and safe dosage form .
Before beginning the formal preformulation programs the preformulation scientist must consider the following factors :- The amount of drug available. - The physicochemical properties of the drug already known. - Therapeutic category and anticipated dose of compound. - The nature of information, a formulation should have or would like to have.
Preformulation drug characterization in a structured program:Test Fundamental 1) UV spectroscopy 2) Purity 3) Solubility a) Aqueous b) pKa c) Salt d)Solvents e) ko/ w f) Dissolution 4) Melting point 5) Assay development 6) Stability In Solution In solid state Derived 7) Microscopy 8) Bulk density 9) Flow properties Particle size and morphology Tablet and capsule formation Tablet and capsule formation Thermal, hydrolysis, pH Oxidation, proteolysis metal ion Simple assay TLC, HPLC, PC, GC & thermal Analysis Phase solubility/ purity Intrinsic & pH effect solubility control , salt formation Solubility, hygroscopicity & stability Vehicles & Extraction Lipophillicity, structure activity Biopharmacy DSC-polymorphism hydrate & solvent UV, HPLC, TLC Method/ function Characterization
UV Spectroscopy :The first requirement of any preformulation study is the development of a simple analytical method for quantitative estimation in subsequent steps. Most of drugs have aromatic rings and/or double bonds as part of their structure and absorb light in UV range, UV spectroscopy being a fairly accurate and simple method is a performed estimation technique at early preformulation stages. It passes a whole series of wavelengths of light through a solution of a substance (the sample cell) and also through an identical container (the reference cell) which only has solvent in it. For each wavelength of light passing through the spectrometer, the intensity of the light passing through the reference cell is measured. This is usually referred to as Io - that's I for Intensity. The intensity of the light passing through the sample cell is also measured for that wavelength given the symbol, I. If I is less than Io, then obviously the sample has absorbed some of the light. A simple bit of maths is then done in the computer to convert this into something called the absorbance of the sample - given the symbol, A. The relationship between A (the absorbance) and the two intensities is given by:
The Beer-Lambert Law:-
The equation for absorbance:-
The Greek letter epsilon in these equations is called the molar absorptivity - or sometimes the molar absorption coefficient. If a white light through a coloured substance, some of the light gets absorbed. Different substances absorb different wavelengths of light, and this can be used to help to identify the substance - the presence of particular metal ions, for example, or of particular functional groups in organic compounds. The amount of absorption is also dependent on the concentration of the substance if it is in solution. Measurement of the amount of absorption can be used to find concentrations of very dilute solutions.
A light source which gives the entire visible spectrum plus the near ultra-violet so that covering the range from about 200 nm to about 800 nm. The light coming from the diffraction grating and slit will hit the rotating disc and one of three things can happen.
1. If it hits the transparent section, it will go straight through and pass through the cell containing the sample. It is then bounced by a mirror onto a second rotating disc. This disc is rotating such that when the light arrives from the first disc, it meets the mirrored section of the second disc. That bounces it onto the detector.
2. If the original beam of light from the slit hits the mirrored section of the first rotating disc, it is bounced down along the green path. After the mirror, it passes through a reference cell (more about that later). Finally the light gets to the second disc which is rotating in such a way that it meets the transparent section. It goes straight through to the detector.
3. If the light meets the first disc at the black section, it is blocked - and for a very short while no light passes through the spectrometer. This just allows the computer to make allowance for any current generated by the detector in the absence of any light.
measuring the absorbance at the wavelength of strongest absorption .using the same container for each one. Then a graph is plotted of that absorbance against concentration.800 nm). This is a calibration curve.The sample and reference cells These are small rectangular glass or quartz containers. the greater the intensity of the light. The chart recorder Chart recorders usually plot absorbance against wavelength. 6 .usually very dilute. The solvent is chosen so that it doesn't absorb any significant amount of light in the wavelength range in (200 . The sample cell contains a solution of the substance. The higher the current. The detector and computer The detector converts the incoming light into a current. The output might look like this: Finding concentration by plotting a calibration curve For each solution. The reference cell just contains the pure solvent. They are often designed so that the light beam travels a distance of 1 cm through the contents.
Only very small samples of the analyte are needed much less than a milligram. and so a curve might get under these circumstances. The calibration curve will probably look something like- Purity Testing: Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Paper Chromatography (PC) Gas Chromatography (GC) Thermal Analysis Melting Point Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) 1. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC):Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is very useful to chemists as an analytical technique to separate and identify the compounds in a mixture. That is true as long as the solutions are dilute. and so a straight line is expected. absorbance is proportional to concentration. 7 . but the Law breaks down for solutions of higher concentration.According to the Beer-Lambert Law.
The more strongly a given component of a mixture is adsorbed onto the stationary phase. and inexpensive procedure that gives a quick answer as to how many components are in a mixture. the less time it will spend in the mobile phase and the more slowly it will migrate up the plate. determining their purity and following the progress of a reaction. it is often used to monitor the progress of organic reactions and to check the purity of products. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a chromatographic technique that is useful for separating organic compounds. Chromatography works on the principle that different compounds will have different solubilities and adsorption to the two phases between which they are to be partitioned. Principle The principle of TLC is the distribution of a compound between a solid fixed phase (the thinlayer) applied to a glass or plastic plate and a liquid mobile phase (eluting solvent) that is moving 8 . Because of the simplicity and rapidity of TLC.Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a very commonly used technique in synthetic chemistry for identifying compounds. TLC is also used to support the identity of a compound in a mixture when the Rf of a compound is compared with the Rf of a known compound (preferably both run on the same TLC plate). differential partitioning occurs between the components of the mixture dissolved in the solvent the stationary adsorbent phase. quick. As the solvent rises by capillary action up through the adsorbent. TLC is a simple.
The mobile phase will carry the most soluble compounds the furthest up the TLC plate. The solubility rule "like dissolves like" is followed. Therefore. Whether a compound moves up the plate or stays behind depends on the physical properties of that individual compound and thus depends on its molecular structure. The more similar the physical properties of the compound is to the mobile phase. The Rf is calculated by dividing the distance the compound traveled from the original position by the distance the solvent traveled from the original position (the solvent front). The compounds that are less soluble in the mobile phase and have a higher affinity to the particles on the TLC plate will stay behind. the longer it will stay dissolved in the mobile phase. the more a sample's components are like the eluting solvent the 9 . The plate is then placed in a developing chamber that has a shallow pool of solvent just below the level at which the sample was applied. the further it will be pulled up through the stationary particles on the TLC plate. especially functional groups. and as the solvent moves over the mixture each compound will either remain with the solid phase or dissolve in the solvent and move up the plate. The greater the similarity to the mobile phase. A small amount of a compound or mixture is applied to a starting point just above the bottom of the TLC plate.over the solid phase. The solvent is drawn up through the particles on the plate through capillary action. The Rf Values The behavior of an individual compound in TLC is characterized by a quantity known as Rf and is expressed as a decimal fraction. The distance a compound travels indicates that compound's physical characteristics.
Hence. Thickness of Layer: Standard plates approximately 250 µm is preferable thickness of layer. It should made freshly for each run if one of the solvents is very volatile or hygroscopic. sources of heat. Nature of Adsorbent: Different adsorbents will give different Rf valve for same solvent. direct sunlight. 4. 2. 3. The Mobile phase: The purity of solvents and quantity of solvent mixed should be strictly controlled. for example acetone. the tank should be kept away from draughts. solvents run faster. The layers may be of higher or lower thickness in individual compounds. Rf value is a constant for each component only under identical experimental condition. As the temperature is increased. Below 200 µm the Rf values vary considerably. Because of the difficulties associated with activation procedures it is far better to use plates stored at room temperature and not to activate them. Temperature: Although precise control of temperature is not necessary. 10 . Plates should be the stored over silica gel in a desiccator before use and the sample should be applied quickly so that the water vapor in the atmosphere is not adsorbed by the plate. known Rf values can be compared to those of unknown substances to aid in their identifications. etc.closer to a value of one the Rf will be for that component. Reproducibility is only possible for given adsorbent of constant particle size and binder. and Rf values generally decrease slightly. volatile solvents evaporate more quickly. It depends upon number of factors as: 1.
and by leaving the tank to equilibrate for at least 30 minutes before running the plates. The sample. The two situations are normally easy to distinguish by the intensity of the spot. When the solvent front reaches the other edge of the stationary phase. and an organic solvent. especially if it normally tails in the system. A well-fitting lid is essential. The different components in the mixture move up the plate at different rates due to differences in their partitioning behavior between the mobile liquid phase and the stationary phase. Developing Tank: It is important that saturated conditions are attained for running TLC plates. 7. if a plate is grossly overloaded. However. this too will give a tailing spot and will have the effect of apparently decreasing the Rf value. The bottom edge of the plate is placed in a solvent reservoir. is deposited as a spot on the stationary phase. This is best accomplished by using small tanks with filter paper liners and sufficient solvent. Mass of Sample: Increasing the mass of sample on the plate will often increase the Rf of a drug. either liquid or dissolved in a volatile solvent. The separated spots are visualized with ultraviolet light or by placing the plate in iodine vapor. 6. the Rf value changes for the same solvent system.e. descending. Chromatographic Technique: Depending upon the development technique used i. ascending. Method of Thin Layer Chromatography:Thin-layer chromatography consists of a stationary phase immobilized on a glass or plastic plate. and the solvent moves up the plate by capillary action. horizontal etc. 11 . The constituents of a sample can be identified by simultaneously running standards with the unknown. the plate is removed from the solvent reservoir.5.
12 . compliance with limit values (e. surfactants. Clinical Chemistry. Pharmaceuticals and Drugs: Identification. 4. constituents of perfumes.g. cystinuria and maple syrup disease in babies. salads and meat. process control in synthetic manufacturing processes. 2. Cosmetology: Dye raw materials and end products.g. Food Analysis: Determination of pesticides and fungicides in drinking water. residues in vegetables. vitamins in soft drinks and margarine. purity testing and determination of the concentration of active ingredients. preservatives. sandalwood extract in fish and meat products). banned additives in Germany (e. fatty acids. aflatoxins in milk and milk products). polycyclic compounds in drinking water. Forensic Chemistry and Biochemistry: Determination of active substances and their metabolites in biological matrices. diagnosis of metabolic disorders such as PKU (phenylketonuria). auxiliary substances and preservatives in drugs and drug preparations. 3.Applications and Importance of Thin Layer Chromatography:1.
It also allows to use a very much smaller particle size for the column packing material which gives a much greater surface area for interactions between the stationary phase and the molecules flowing past it. These methods are highly automated and extremely sensitive. That makes it much faster. Instead of a solvent being allowed to drip through a column under gravity. 13 . The column and the solvent Confusingly. it is forced through under high pressures of up to 400 atmospheres. Other Areas: Electrolytic technology (meta-nitrobenzoic acid in nickel plating baths) . it isn't the most commonly used form of HPLC. 2. Normal phase HPLC Although it is described as "normal". 7. Environmental Analysis: Groundwater analysis. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC):High performance liquid chromatography is basically a highly improved form of column chromatography. The other major improvement over column chromatography concerns the detection methods which can be used. 6. This allows a much better separation of the components of the mixture. decomposition products from azo dyes used in textiles. Analysis of Inorganic Substances: Determination of inorganic ions (metals).5. determination of pollutants from abandoned armaments in soils and surface waters. there are two variants in use in HPLC depending on the relative polarity of the solvent and the stationary phase.
and a length of 150 to 250 mm. Reversed phase HPLC is the most commonly used form of HPLC.for example. A typical column has an internal diameter of 4. a mixture of water and an alcohol such as methanol. for example. Polar compounds in the mixture being passed through the column will stick longer to the polar silica than non-polar compounds will.typically with either 8 or 18 carbon atoms in them. 14 .6 mm (and may be less than that). Polar molecules in the mixture will therefore spend most of their time moving with the solvent. That means that now it is the polar molecules that will travel through the column more quickly. The non-polar ones will therefore pass more quickly through the column. A polar solvent is used . there will be a strong attraction between the polar solvent and polar molecules in the mixture being passed through the column. but the silica is modified to make it non-polar by attaching long hydrocarbon chains to its surface . Reversed phase HPLC In this case.hexane. for example.The column is filled with tiny silica particles. and the solvent is non-polar . They will also be less soluble in the solvent because of the need to break hydrogen bonds as they squeeze in between the water or methanol molecules. In this case. the column size is the same. They therefore spend less time in solution in the solvent and this will slow them down on their way through the column. There won't be as much attraction between the hydrocarbon chains attached to the silica (the stationary phase) and the polar molecules in the solution. Non-polar compounds in the mixture will tend to form attractions with the hydrocarbon groups because of Van Der Waals dispersion forces.
it is not the same as in gas chromatography. This time is measured from the time at which the sample is injected to the point at which the display shows a maximum peak height for that compound. For a particular compound. Because of the pressures involved. Retention time The time taken for a particular compound to travel through the column to the detector is known as its retention time. but also particle size) the exact composition of the solvent the temperature of the column 15 . Different compounds have different retention times. the retention time will vary depending on: the pressure used (because that affects the flow rate of the solvent) the nature of the stationary phase (not only what material it is made of.Procedure: Injection of the sample Injection of the sample is entirely automated.
that had already measured for pure samples of the various compounds under those identical conditions. If a beam of UV light shining through the stream of liquid coming out of the column. If using a methanol-water mixture as the solvent. Interpreting the output from the detector The output will be recorded as a series of peaks . A common method which is easy to explain uses ultra-violet absorption. of course. and water below 190 nm. Methanol. the retention times can be used to help to identify the compounds present . The amount of light absorbed will depend on the amount of a particular compound that is passing through the beam at the time. As long as careful to control the conditions on the column. Different compounds absorb most strongly in different parts of the UV spectrum.each one representing a compound in the mixture passing through the detector and absorbing UV light. for example.provided. Many organic compounds absorb UV light of various wavelengths. The solvents used don't absorb UV light. absorbs at wavelengths below 205 nm. 16 . and a UV detector on the opposite side of the stream. therefore have to use a wavelength greater than 205 nm to avoid false readings from the solvent. a direct reading of how much of the light is absorbed will get.The detector There are several ways of detecting when a substance has passed through the column.
17 . Ensuring soft drink consistency and quality. also called two-dimensional chromatography. however it is still a powerful teaching tool. amino acids.Applications of HPLC Pharmaceutical / Biopharmaceutical Pharmaceutical quality control. Clinical Analysis of antibiotics and blood substances. Two-way paper chromatography. This method has been largely replaced by thin layer chromatography. 3. Complex molecules separation. Shelf-life determinations of pharmaceutical products. especially pigments. Water monitoring . involves using two solvents and rotating the paper 90° in between. Detection of endogenous neuropeptides in brain extracellular fluids. This is useful for separating complex mixtures of similar compounds. Paper Chromatography (PC):Paper chromatography is an analytical chemistry technique for separating and identifying mixtures that are or can be coloured. Environmental Biomonitoring of pollutents. Identification of counterfeit drug products. for example. Food and Flavor Sugar analysis in fruit juices.Phenol content and toxic componants checking. This can also be used in secondary or primary colours in ink experiments.
this occurs when two substances appear to have the same values in a particular solvent. Paper chromatography takes anywhere from several minutes to several hours. such as ethanol or water. two-way chromatography is used to separate the multiple-pigment spots. As the solvent rises through the paper it meets and dissolves the sample mixture. In some cases. and due to differences in their attraction to the fibres in the paper. which will then travel up the paper with the solvent solute sample. The more soluble the component the further it goes. The solvent moves up the paper by capillary action. which occurs as a result of the attraction of the solvent molecules to the paper. usually using a capillary tube for maximum precision. Different compounds in the sample mixture travel at different rates due to differences in solubility in the solvent. Any substance that reacts or bonds with the paper cannot be measured using this technique. taking care that the spot is above the surface of the solvent.also this can be explained as differential adsorption of the solute components into the solvent. 18 . paper chromatography does not separate pigments completely.Technique A small concentrated spot of solution that contains the sample of the solute is applied to a strip of chromatography paper about two centimetres away from the base of the plate. This sample is absorbed onto the paper and may form interactions with it. The paper is then dipped in to a suitable solvent. and placed in a sealed container. In these cases.
In this case. the chromatography is completed in a comparatively shorter time. the solvent is kept in a trough at the top of the chamber and is allowed to flow down the paper. It rises up the paper by capillary action against the force of gravity. The major limitation of gas chromatography is the requirement that the solute have a reasonable vapor pressure at a temperature where it is still stable. Gas Chromatography: Gas chromatography (GC) is a method of separation which employs a gas mobile phase and either a solid (GSC) or a liquid (GLC) adsorbed on a solid as a stationary phase. 4. Substances that cannot be separated by ascending method. The apparatus needed for this case is more sophisticated. can sometimes be separated by the above descending method.Ascending Chromatography In this method. Gas chromatography is capable of separating very complex mixtures and the selectivity can be adjusted to separate almost any given pair of solutes by judicious choice of the stationary phase. the solvent is in pool at the bottom of the vessel in which the paper is supported. the flow is more rapid as compared to the ascending method. Descending Chromatography In this method. The developing solvent is placed in a trough at the top which is usually made up of an inert material. The liquid moves down by capillary action as well as by the gravitational force. 19 . Because of this rapid speed. The paper is then suspended in the solvent.
20 . The syringe needle passes through a thick rubber disc (known as a septum) which reseals itself again when the syringe is pulled out. The injector is contained in an oven whose temperature can be controlled. the other is even thinner and has the stationary phase bonded to its inner surface.Injection of the sample Very small quantities of the sample that you are trying to analyse are injected into the machine using a small syringe. How the column works The packing material There are two main types of column in gas-liquid chromatography. One of these is a long thin tube packed with the stationary phase. It is coiled up so that it will fit into a thermostatically controlled oven. The column is typically made of stainless steel and is between 1 and 4 metres long with an internal diameter of up to 4 mm. It is hot enough so that all the sample boils and is carried into the column as a gas by the helium (or other carrier gas).
However.The column is packed with finely ground diatomaceous earth. 21 . the less soluble ones will spend more of their time in the gas. as you will see below. The chances are that it will then condense again a little further along the column. This is coated with a high boiling liquid . Similarly. some molecules may dissolve in the liquid stationary phase. It may dissolve in the liquid on the surface of the stationary phase. which is a very porous rock.even though the temperature is well below 100°C. A compound with a boiling point higher than the temperature of the column will obviously tend to condense at the start of the column.typically a waxy polymer. The more soluble ones will spend more of their time absorbed into the stationary phase. some of it will evaporate again in the same way that water evaporates on a warm day . so that some components of the mixture may condense at the beginning of the column. It may remain in the gas phase. The column temperature The temperature of the column can be varied from about 50°C to 250°C. How separation works on the column One of three things might happen to a particular molecule in the mixture injected into the column: It may condense on the stationary phase. In some cases. None of these things is necessarily permanent. the column starts off at a low temperature and then is made steadily hotter under computer control as the analysis proceeds. It is cooler than the injector oven. Some compounds will be more soluble in the liquid than others.
The lower the temperature of the column. 22 . This time is measured from the time at which the sample is injected to the point at which the display shows a maximum peak height for that compound. So high boiling point means a long retention time.either because they evaporate more readily. using a high temperature. the retention time will vary depending on: The boiling point of the compound. High solubility in the liquid phase means a high retention time. The temperature of the column. and then gradually and very regularly increase the temperature. The more soluble a compound is in the liquid phase. Any molecule in the substance spends some of its time dissolved in the liquid and some of its time carried along with the gas. Retention time The time taken for a particular compound to travel through the column to the detector is known as its retention time. A higher temperature will tend to excite molecules into the gas phase . the better the separation . or because they are so energetic that the attractions of the liquid no longer hold them. the less time it will spend being carried along by the gas.but it could take a very long time to get the compounds through which are condensing at the beginning of the column! On the other hand. If everything passed through in a very short time. Different compounds have different retention times.The process where a substance divides itself between two immiscible solvents because it is more soluble in one than the other is known as partition. The answer is to start with the column relatively cool.but less well separated out. The solubility in the liquid phase. everything will pass through the column much more quickly . A compound which boils at a temperature higher than the column temperature is going to spend nearly all of its time condensed as a liquid at the beginning of the column. there isn't going to be much space between their peaks on the chromatogram. For a particular compound. A high column temperature shortens retention times for everything in the column.
During the process. compounds which spend most of their time in the gas phase will pass quickly through the column and be detected. 23 . The detector There are several different types of detector in use. The whole detector is enclosed in its own oven which is hotter than the column temperature. The flame ionisation detector described below is commonly used and is easier to describe and explain than the alternatives. A flame ionisation detector In terms of reaction mechanisms. Increasing the temperature still more will force the very "sticky" molecules off the stationary phase and through the column. That stops anything condensing in the detector.At the beginning. small amounts of ions and electrons are produced in the flame. the burning of an organic compound is very complicated. Increasing the temperature a bit will encourage the slightly "stickier" compounds through. The presence of these can be detected.
Thermal Analysis: Melting Point: The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. As long as careful to control the conditions on the column. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium.provided. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC): 24 . 5. could use the retention times to help to identify the compounds present . of course.each one representing a compound in the mixture passing through the detector. that had already measured them for pure samples of the various compounds under those identical conditions.Interpreting the output from the detector The output will be recorded as a series of peaks .
glass transitions. Generally. can be detected relative to the inert reference. or exothermic decompositions. The main application of DSC is in studying phase transitions. The area under a DTA peak is the enthalpy change and is not affected by the heat capacity of the sample. similar to differential scanning calorimetry. such as melting. while recording any temperature difference between sample and reference. Changes in the sample. Solubility Determination:- 25 . melting and sublimation.Differential scanning calorimetry or DSC is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference are measured as a function of temperature. such as glass transitions. The reference sample should have a well-defined heat capacity over the range of temperatures to be scanned. These transitions involve energy changes or heat capacity changes that can be detected by DSC with great sensitivity. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA): Differential thermal analysis (or DTA) is a thermoanalytic technique. the temperature program for a DSC analysis is designed such that the sample holder temperature increases linearly as a function of time. Thus. the material under study and an inert reference are made to undergo identical thermal cycles. a DTA curve provides data on the transformations that have occurred. or against temperature (DTA curve or thermogram). This differential temperature is then plotted against time. In DTA. either exothermic or endothermic. crystallization. Both the sample and reference are maintained at nearly the same temperature throughout the experiment.
which employs a saturated solution of the material. The solubility of material is usually determined by the equilibrium solubility method. Solubility dictates the ease with which formulation for oral gavages and intravenous injection studies in animals are obtained the pKa allives the informed of pH to maintain solubility and to choose salts required to achieve good bioavailability from the solid state and improve stability and powder properties. the therapeutic efficiency of the pharmaceutical product. 26 . Common solvents used for solubility determination are :·Water ·Polyethylene Glycols ·Propylene Glycol ·Glycerin ·Sorbitol ·Ethyl Alcohol ·Methanol ·Benzyl Alcohol ·Isopropyl Alcohol ·Buffer at various pHs Aqueous Solubility :The availability of a drag is always limited and the preformulation scientist may only have 50 mg. obtained by stirring an excess of material in the solvent for a prolonged until equilibrium achieved. This information is valuable is developing a formulation.The solubility of drug is an important physicochemical property because it effects the bioavailabilty of the drug. the rate of drug resale into dissolution medium and consequently. The solubility of the molecules in various solvents is determined as a first step. Solubility is usually determined in variety of commonly used solvents and some oils if the molecules is lipophillic.
P o/w = (C oil / C water) equilibrium. pKa Determination:Determination of the dissociation content for a drug capable of ionization within a ph rang of 1 to 10 is important since solubility and consequently absorption. An increase in acidic and alkaline solubility suggest either impotence or zuitter ion behaviour. The Henderson – Hasseslebach equation provides an estimate of the ionized and un ionized durg concentration at a particular pH. 2) 37°C to support biopharmaceutral evaluation. The solubility should ideally be measured at two temperature.Intensic Solubility (Co) :An increase in solubility in acid compared to aqueous solubility suggests a weak base and an increase in alkali. The minimum density of water occurs at 4°C. a weak acid. In this case there will be two pKa‟s. the fundamental solubility when completely unionized. one acidic & one basic . 1) 4°C to ensure physical stability and entered short term storage and chemical stability unit more definitive data are available.) i. For acidic compounds pH = pKa + log (un-ionized drug]) / [ionized drug]) Partition Coefficient :Partition Coefficient (oil/ water) is a measure of a drug‟s lipophilicity and an indication of its ability to cross cell membranes. 27 . This leads to a minimum aqueous solubility.e. cab be altered by orders of magnitude with changing pH. It is defined as the ratio of unionized drug distributed between the organic and aqueous phases at equilibrium. When the pavrity of the drug sample can be assured the solubility obtained in acid for a weak acid or albali for a weak base can be assured to be the instensic solubility (Co.
Although it appears that the partition coefficient may be the best predictor of absorption rate. the lipophilic/ hydrophilic balance has been shown to be a contributing factor for the rate and extent of drug absorption. it does provide a means of characterizing the lipophilic/ hydrophilic nature of the drug. Intrinsic Dissolution Rate :When dissolution is controlled solely by diffusion the rate of diffusion is directly proportional to the saturated concentration of the drug in solution under these conditions the rate constant K1 is defined by K1 = 0. 7 no bioavailability or distinction related problems were to be expected.62 D2/3 v 1/6 w1/2 Where. The rate of drug transfer for passively absorbed drugs is directly related to the lipophilicity of the molecule. the partition coefficient can provide an empiric handle in screening for some biologic properties.For series of compounds. For drug delivery. Drugs having values if P much greater than 1 are classified as lipophilic. Since biological membranes are lipoidal in nature. independently of the drug and dosage forms position within the GI ireat. Dissolution :The dissolution rate of the drug is only important where it is the rate limiting step in the absorption process. Although partition coefficient data alone does not provide understanding of in vivo absorption. Below / mg/ ml such problems were quite possible and salt formation could improve absorption and solubility by controlling the pH of the microenvironment. whereas those with partition coefficient much less than 1 are indicative of a hydrophilic drug. V is the kinemative viscosity 28 . pKa and solubility on absorption must not be neglected. the effect id dissolution rate. Kaplan suggested that provided the solubility of a drug exceded to mg/ ml at pH. The partition coefficient is commonly determined using an oil phase of octanol or chloroform and water.
it is the physical property that has most often been used for the identification and characterization of solids. This makes the melting point of a solid. The „selling out‟ results from the removal of water molecules as solvent owing to the completing hydration of other ions. salivate which open the water structure. practically independent of any ordinary pressure change. the solubility of a slightly soluble electrolyte. benzoate. Melting Point :The normal melting point of a solid is defined as the temperature at which the solid and liquid are in equilibrium at a total pressure of 1 atmosphere. the change in volume that takes place upon the melting of a solid is very small. unlike the boiling point of a liquid. The reverse process „salting in‟ qries with large anions e.g. These hydro topics increase the solubility of properly water soluble compounds such as diazepam.W is the anguter velocity of a rotating disc of drug. Since the melting point of a solid can be easily and accurately determined with small amounts of material. The melting point of a drug can be measured using three techniques :1)Capillary Melting 2)Hot Stage Microcopy 3)Differential scanning calorinetry or thermal Anaylysis. In contrast to the volume change that accompanies the vaporization of a liquid. 29 . Common Ion Effect :A common ion significantly reduces.
and closed at one end. so the rate of heating must be slow as the melting point is approached (about 1 degree per minute). The solid should be tightly packed to a depth of 2-3 mm. Filling a Capillary Tube Usually. Then carry out a more accurate determination. turning the capillary open end up. and a thermometer are then suspended so they can be heated slowly and evenly. A few crystals of the compound are placed in a thinwalled capillary tube 10-15 cm long. open end up. either in an oil bath or a melting-point apparatus. The capillary. the temperature of the thermometer bulb and the temperature of the crystals in the capillary may not be the same. If the approximate temperature at which the sample will melt is not known. Otherwise. which contains the sample. Capillary melting points. drop the tube. down a length of glass tubing about 1 cm in diameter (or a long condenser) onto a hard surface such as a porcelain sink. The temperature range over which the sample is observed to melt is taken as the melting point. the melting point capillary can be filled by pressing the open end into a small heap of the crystals of the substance. and vibrating it by drawing a file across the side to rattle the crystals down into the bottom. stone desk top. are most often used for the determination of the melting point of a solid. with a low rate of heating near the melting point. The transfer of heat energy by conduction takes place rather slowly. determine a preliminary melting point determination by allowing the temperature of the sample to rise quickly. about 1 mm in inside diameter. The thermometer and sample must be at the same temperature while the sample melts. 30 . If filing does not work.Capillary Melting :Capillary melting gives information about the melting range but it is different to assign an accurate melting point. or the iron base of a ring stand.
31 . The heating rate is controllable and upto three transitions can be registered. Hot Stage Microcopy :This the issued observation of melting under a microscope equipped with a heated and lagged sample stage. When an oil bath is used. but almost impossible with a flame.A variety of oil baths can be used in a melting point determination. The simplest use a burner flame and depend upon convection for mixing. as well as in a boiling point determination. the capillary can be fastened to the thermometer by means of a small slice of rubber tubing used as a rubber band (see Figure below). the more elaborate and accurate use an electric immersion heater and are stirred. It is easy to heat at a low and steady rate with an electric heater.
32 . it measures the enthalpy of transition. hot stage melting points are inherently too high.e. exposed to the cooler atmosphere.A quick and easy method to determine the melting point of a solid is to heat a few crystals of the sample between a pair of microscope cover glasses on an electrically heated metal block while observing the crystals with the aid of a magnifying glass. the greater the difference. This method requires as little as a single crystal and it is very convenient. since the thermometer is inside the block and the sample is on the surface. and thermometer is not possible. Complete thermal equilibrium between the sample. However. For this reason. a melting point quickly determined on a block can serve as an approximate melting point for the determination of a capillary melting point. observed block melting points often appear to be higher than capillary melting points. block. the higher the melting point. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and thermal analysis :Differential thermal analysis (DTA) measures the temperature difference between the sample and a reference as a function of temperature or time when heating at a constant rate differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is similar to DTA except that the instrument measures the amount of energy required to keep the sample at the same temperature as the reference i. Unfortunately.
When the absorption of a drug is dissolution rate limited. This property is known as polymorphism. Some investigation of 33 . Selection of a polymorph that is chemically more stable is a solution in many cases. x-ray diffraction patterns and solubility even though they are chemically identical. Different polymorph also lead to different morphology. physical form of the drug influences degradation. a more soluble and faster-dissolving from may be utilized to improve the rate and extent of bioavailability. Polymorphs generally have diffrent melting points.Crystal Properties and Polymorphism :Many drug substances can exit in more than one crystalline from with different space lattice arrangements. Differences in the dissolution rates and solubilities of different polymorphic forms of a given drug are very commonly observed. For drugs pane to degradation in the solid state. tensile strength and density of power bed which all contribute of compression characteristics of materials.
Buffer 34 . Although a drug substance may exist in two or more polymorphic forms. Assay development : UV Spectroscopy Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Chemical stability profile: Preformulation stability studies are usually the first quantitative assessment of chemical stability of a new drug. Drugs having decreased stability at elevated temperatures cannot be sterilized by autoclaving but must be sterilized by another means. e. These include microscopy (including hot stage microcopy). The effect of pH on drug stability is important in the development of both oral administration must be protected from the highly acidic environment of the stomach. infrared spectrophotometry. storage. single-crystal x-ray and x-ray power diffraction.. and dilalometry. Various techniques are available for the investigation of the solid state. In general. The method of sterilization of potential product will be largely dependent on the temperature stability of the drug. the lowest solubility. pH and dosage form diluents. formulation. thermal analysis. filtration. and administration of a drug candidate as well as stability in presence of other recipients. Factor effecting chemical stability critical in rational dosage form design include temperature. The other forms would convert to the stable form with time. the stable polymorph exhibits the highest melting point .polymorphism and crystal habit of a drug substance as it relates to pharmaceutical processing is desirable during its Preformulation evaluation especially when the active ingredient is expected to constitute the bulk of the tablet mass. These studies include both solution and solid state experiments under condition typical for the handing.g. and the maximum chemical stability. only one form is theromdynamically stable at a given temperature and pressure.
Denser materials are more stable to ambient stress. The preformulation data of this nature are useful in determining if the material should be protected and stored in controlled low humidity environment or if non aqueous solvent be used during formulation. If a substantial change is seen.hydrolysis. Esters and lactase and to lesser extent. the stability prognosis is excellent . 50. . physical properties of drugs. Elevated temperature studies:The elevated temperatures commonly used are 40.Solid state stability . Instauration or electron rich centre in the structure make the molecule vulnerable for free radical mediated or photo-catalysed oxidation.Compatibility studies : stability in the Presence of excipients . The samples stored at highest temperature are observed weekly for physical and chemical changes and compared to an appropriate control . Stability under high humidity conditions :Solid drug samples can be exposed to different relative humidity conditions by keeping them in laboratory desiccators containing saturated solutions of various salts. Amorphous materials are less stable than their crystalline forms. oxidation.Typical stability protocol for anew Chemical Entity Solid state stability:Chemical instability normally results from either of the following reaction :. photolysis and pyrolysis. Chemical structure of the drug is the determination of drug to either of these attacks. samples stored at lower temperature are examined . If no changesisseen after 30 days at 60 degree centigrade. and 60 degree centigrade with ambient humidity.Solution phase stability . 35 . amides are to prone to solvolysis.selection for potential dosage forms will be largely based on the stability characteristic of the drug. The closed desiccators in turn are kept in oven to provide constant temperature.
Samples are kept in desiccators equipped with three-way stop cocks. A poor solution stability of drug may 36 . The pH based stability study. Exposure of drug 400 and 900 foot-candles of illumination for 4 and 2 week periods respectively is adequate to provide some idea of photosensitivity. which are alternatively evacuated and flooded with desired atmosphere. The described preformulation screening of drug excipients interaction requires only 5mg of drug in a 50% mixture with the excipients to maximize the likelihood of obscuring an interaction . A shallow layer of drug exposed to a sufficient headspace volume ensures that the system is not oxygen limited. Compatibility studies :The knowledge of drug excipients interaction is useful for the formulation to select appropriate excipients. over a temperature range. Solution phase stability: As compared with the dry form. it presentsanaesthetic problem. the degradation is much rapid in solution form. The process is repeated 3 or 4 times to ensure 100% desired atmosphere.Photolytic stability :Many drugs fade or dorpen on exposure light. Though the extent of degradations small and limited to the exposed surface area. Stability to Oxidation :Drug‟s sensitivity to oxidation can be examined by exposing it to atmosphere of high oxygen tension. using different stimulator GI condition can be designed. Results may be useful in predicting if an antioxidant is required in the formulation or if the final product should be packaged under inert atmospheric conditions. Resulting data may be useful in determining if an amber colored container is required or if color masking bye should be used in the formulation . Mixtures should be examined under nitrogen to ultimate oxidation and paralytic effect at a standard heating rate on DSC. which will encompass any thermal changes due to both the drug and appearance or disappearance one or more peaks in themogrames of drug excipient mixtures are considered of indication of interaction. Usually a 40% oxygen atmosphere allows for rapid evaluation. It is important ascertain that the drug doesn‟t degrade when exposed to GI fluid.
Hydrolytic decomposition can be avoided or slowed down by using an insoluble form of drugs. nitriles. many drugs are stable in a limit pH range. esters. Furthermore. thio-esters. Hydrolysis or Solvolysis Hydrolysis is one of the most frequently encountered type of chemical reaction responsible for drug decomposition processes. In addition. weak bases at two or more pH units below their pKas will be the most soluble. provided the bioavailability is not compromised Absorption behavior: It is essential to test the in vivo behavior of the new drug for successful formulation of a dosage from good bioavailability. imines. On the other hand. usually at different rates. thio-halides. so the buffer system are used to maintain a certain pH in some drug products. Precipitation of drug should be aware according to pH change. ureides. lactose. The following types of compounds undergo hydrolytic degradation. Weak acids will be the most soluble in solutions with a pH at least two units above their pKa (>99% ionized form). lactams. amides. pH pH of solution influences the percentage ionization of drug owing to its pKa. This can be partially explained by the fact that the redox potential for many reactions depends on pH. pH can also influence the rate of oxidation. Look at the following example 37 .urge the formulator to choose a less soluble salt form. stability of drug solution can be increased by the use of suitable buffers. Partial in vivo and in vitro test are designed to study pharmacokinetic profile of the drug. halides.
So the reduced form of the system is less readily oxidized when the pH is low. if a large caffeine molecule is attached to a benzocaine molecule by complexation. For example.through steric hindrance and thus reduces the rate of hydrolysis. Complexation Complex formation reduces the rate of hydrolysis and oxidation.06 calculated approximate constant. Another effect is there for the complexing agent. So we understand that pH is of extreme importance both in the case of hydrolysis and oxidation. it will reduce the movement rate as well as ease of movement. al have shown that caffeine complexes with local 38 . Since the drugs that are undergoing oxidative decomposition are usually in the reduced stage.Using the Nernst equation When Eo is the standard potential E is the actual potential 1 is the number of electrons. Lachman et. 0. So complexation reduces the ease of encounter of the ester with various catalytic species such as H+ and OH. (1) steric and (2) polar. Complex formation affects decomposition in two ways. Participating in change from oxidation form to reduction form. This equation helps us to understand that an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ion causes an increase in the value of E. Its electronic influence may alter the affinity of the ester carbonyl ion for the catalytic species – this alteration may increase or decrease the rate of hydrolysis. minimum decomposition or maximum stability is usually found in the pH range of 3 to 4.
such as benzocaine. These metals increase the rate of formation of free radicals and enhance oxidative decomposition. Presence of heavy metals Heavy metals. The buffered solutions containing chelating agent showed that the rate of degradation was independent of the concentration of the buffer. Chelating agents also complex with trace metals that enhance oxidative degradation and apply brakes to that process. procaine and tetracaime to cause a reduction in their rate of hydrolytic degradation. and surface-area controlled processes such as dissolution and Surface morphology of the drug particles. especially those possessing two or more valency states. hence hydrolysis rate is decreased. cationic and anionic surfactants when added to solutions containing drugs form micelle and the drug particles become trapped in the micelle. Particle Size.1% disodium salt of ethylenediamine tetracetic acid at different buffer concentrations. with a suitable oxidation – reduction potential between them such as copper. cobalt and nickel generally catalyze oxidative degradations. In general. formulation homogeneity. The hydrolytic groups such as OH cannot penetrate this micelle cover and reach the drug particles. Shape and Surface Area:Bulk flow. iron. each new drug candidate should be tested during Preformulation with the smallest particle size as is practical to facilitate preparation of homogeneous samples and maximize the drug‟ s surface area for interactions. Surfactants Nonionic. Scientists studied the oxidative decomposition with and without 0.anesthetics. They found that the solutions not containing any chelating agent decomposed more rapidly as the buffer concentration increased. 39 .
5 and 100µm. This method can generally be applied to particles in the size range between 0. In case of tablets. size and shape influence the flow and the mixing efficiency of powders and granules. The effect is not only on the physical properties of solid drugs but also. Microscopy 2. shape. on their biopharmaceutical behavior. It is generally recognized that poorly soluble drugs showing a dissolution. Size can also be a factor in stability: fine materials are relatively more open to attack from atmospheric oxygen. and interacting axcipients than are coarse materials. in some instances. Apparatus: 40 .rate limiting step in the absorption process will be more readily bio available when administered in a finely subdivided state rather than as a coarse material. Sieving or screening 3. in order to measure the particle size. Classical methods for measuring particle size: 1. Sedimentation Optical microscopy: The optical microscopy is used to observe the morphological appearance and shape of individual particle either directly with the naked eye or by using a microscopic photograph.Various chemical and physical properties of drug substances are affected by their particle size distribution and shapes. size and its distribution of powdered pharmaceutical drugs and excipients to examine their micromeritic properties.Determination of particle size -Determination of surface area Particle size Determination:Powder particle size determination is a method to determine directly or indirectly morphological appearance. the humidity. .
Preparation of test specimen: After the preprocessing.An optical microscope consists of a lens barrel that houses the optical system consisting of the objective and the ocular. and microscope base to support all these sections. and this is used as the test specimen. reflecting mirror. Procedure: When the particle size is measured. a mirror stand and column to support the illumination system. Dry methodThe sample material is sprinkled on to the slide glass. Then. The lens barrel is moved up and down in the column with handles for course and fine adjustments so that the focus can be adjusted. the distance between the scales of the two micrometers is determined. The ocular is attached to the lens barrel and adjusted to the focus point of the stage micrometer scale. b. In addition. Wet methodThe sample material is suspended in an appropriate liquid which does not dissolve the sample. diaphragm and condenser) making the path for the enlarged image of the sample through the objective and ocular. or used after drying. an ocular micrometer is inserted at the position of the ocular diaphragm. a stage for holding the test specimen. One drop of the suspension is placed on a slide glass and used as the test specimen directly. and the sample size equivalent to 1 division of the ocular scale is calculated using the following formula: The particle size equivalent to 1 division on the ocular scale (µm) = length on the stage micrometer (µm) Number of scale divisions on the ocular micrometer 41 . little by little. the test specimen is prepared with the following methodsa. there is usually a built in optical system ( light source. and a calibrated stage micrometer is placed at the center of the microscope stage and fixed in place.
The stage micrometer is removed and the test specimen is placed on the microscope stage. the particle sizes are determined from the number of scale divisions read through the ocular. Sieve 2. After adjusting the focus. this method is to evaluate the twodimensional size of the samples. Apparatus: 1. Balance 3. which is usually applicable to powdered materials having a particle size of more than about 75 µm. Essentially. Electromagnet-type sieve shaker 42 . Sieving method : The analytical sieving method is a method to estimate the particle size distribution of powdered pharmaceutical drugs by sieving.
take it off by the brush gently.depending on the properties of the sample: 1. 3. Sieving the agglomerated sample through a coarse mesh sieve previously to deagglomerate it. replace the lid. The difference between the mass of the sample taken and the total mass of the sample on each sieve and in the collecting pan.If there is some fine powder on the down surface of each sieve.Agitate the nest of sieves for the time period previously obtained by the end point determination and then remove each sieve from the nest.Place the sieves one upon another on a collecting pan in order from small to large opening.place the sample on the top sieve.select sieves which cover the entire particle size range of the sample to be tasted.Pretreatment of sample: The following traetments may be performed.taking into consideration of the physicochemical characteristics such as hygroscopicityor static electricity. Drying agglomerated samples owing to their hygroscopicity under a condition which does not change the essential qualities of the sample. the total loss. must not exceed 2% of the mass of the original test specimen.then weigh each sieve and the collecting pan. Unless otherwise specified. 2. Amount of the material on each sieve (%) = Wi ×100 WT 43 . Procedure: Usually this method is proceeded under the controlled temperature and humidity conditions. Determine the mass of material on each sieve and in the collecting pan by the following equation to obtain the particle size distribution. Addition of adequate additives to adhesive or agglomerated samples due to their electrostatic charge in an amount which does not affect the results to avoid the generation of electrostatic charge. and fix the nest of sieves on a mechanical shaker.and combine it with the sieve fraction retained on each next down sieve.
The adsorption takes place by virtue of vander wall‟s forces. then measures the optical density of successive layers using visible light or x-rays. Knowing the monolayer capacity of adsorbent and the area of absorbale molecule.Wi: Mass of the material on each sieve (g) WT: Total mass of the material on each sieve and in the collecting pan (g). Surface Area Determination:Surface area is most commonly determined based on brunaver emette teller (BET) theory of adsorption. Most substances adsorb a mono molecular layer of gas under certain conditions of partial pressure of gas and temperature. The isotherms that display the behavior of N2 upon these compounds are represented as are the pertinent results that can calculated from them. but sub-micrometer particles cannot be reliably measured due to the effects of Brownian motion. From the BET theory of adsorption. Adsorption method: The process of adsorption and desorption is studied on the compounds of alumina and silica during this experiment. the surface area can be calculated the adsorption process is carried out with nitrogen at-195 degree Celsius at a partial pressure attainable when nitrogen is in a 30% temperature with an inert gas (helium). so this technique is useful for sizes below 10 μm. Sedimentation method: These are based upon study of the terminal velocity acquired by particles suspended in a viscous liquid. Typical apparatus diperses the sample in liquid. it was possible to calculate the surface area of the adsorbent. 44 . Sedimentation time is longest for the finest particles.
BET theory is a rule for the physical adsorption of gas molecules on a solid surface and serves as the basis for an important analysis technique for the measurement of the specific surface area of a material. and (c) the Langmuir theory can be applied to each layer. 45 . which is expressed by (2): E1 is the heat of adsorption for the first layer. and vm is the monolayer adsorbed gas quantity. and Edward Teller published an article about the BET theory in a journal for the first time. In 1938. to multilayer adsorption with the following hypotheses: (a) gas molecules physically adsorb on a solid in layers infinitely. v is the adsorbed gas quantity (for example. The concept of the theory is an extension of the Langmuir theory. Stephen Brunauer. The resulting BET equation is expressed by (1): P and P0 are the equilibrium and the saturation pressure of adsorbates at the temperature of adsorption. c is the BET constant. (b) there is no interaction between each adsorption layer. and EL is that for the second and higher layers and is equal to the heat of liquefaction. which is a theory for monolayer molecular adsorption. “BET” consists of the first initials of their family names. in volume units). Paul Hugh Emmett.
35. A total surface area Stotal and a specific surface area S are evaluated by the following equations: 46 . The value of the slope A and the y-intercept I of the line are used to calculate the monolayer adsorbed gas quantity vm and the BET constant c. This plot is called a BET plot. The linear relationship of this equation is maintained only in the range of 0.BET plot Equation (1) is an adsorption isotherm and can be plotted as a straight line with 1 / v[(P0 / P) − 1] on the y-axis and φ = P / P0 on the x-axis according to experimental results.05 < P / P0 < 0. The following equations can be used: The BET method is widely used in surface science for the calculation of surface areas of solids by physical adsorption of gas molecules.
argon and krypton are used in special cases. The measurement of adsorption is usually carried out at a constant temperature (77K for this experiment). The path of the desorption isotherm may be different from that of the adsorption isotherm. The reason for their adsorbing characteristics are their enormous surface area per unit weight. V: molar volume of adsorbent gas a: molar weight of adsorbed species The purpose of this laboratory experiment is to study the process of adsorption. This may be due to hystersis effects. a decrease in adsorbence will be observed. Some of the best known and classic adsorbents are silica. Method: The measurements were taken from combinations of the ideal gas laws and by variations in calculated values. This process of binding is generally weak and reversible (as seen in immediate desorption). Different values corresponding to this are probably due to the effects previously mentioned. The sample must be saturated with the gas before an accurate desorption isotherm can be constructed. adsorption could occur beyond the initial monolayer of adsorbate according to BET theory. molecules of the adsorbate are binded to the surface whereas in absorption. The opposite process is called desorption. Although. alumina.N: Avogadro's number. This is due to the limited number of surface sites available for chemisorption. Two of these compounds are used in the experiment. the their just filling the spaces of the pores in the solid. When the surface of the adsorbent is saturated by the adsorbate. The area of the adsorbent can be calculated from the isotherms. The gas generally used for this is Nitrogen. s: adsorption cross section. The process of adsorption should be set apart from the process of absorption. In adsorption. This 47 . An instrument known as the Omnisorb 360 was used for the experiment. However. and activated charcoal.
The gas He was used during volume determinations because it is not adsorbed at this temperature. the gas from the sample container was expanded into the manifold. As before. Air permeability method: 48 . desorption runs could take place. Some of the gas was adsorbed by the sample. The variations upon the gas expansions were due to either adsorption or desorption which ever was relevant. Gas expansions throughout the "plumbing" and sample containers as well as a known flask gave the needed volumes of each necessary component. The manifold of the Omnisorb was filled with a certain pressure of N2 and expanded into the sample container.instrument consists of vacuum pumps and "plumbing" along with the sample containers. In the desorption runs. the difference from expected values were due to the gas being desorbed. After the sample was saturated with the gas.
m3·s-1 49 . The resulting flow-rate of air through the bed yields the specific surface by the Kozeny–Carman equation: where: S is specific surface. the specific surface is directly related to its rate of reaction. Pa·s Q is the flowrate.The air permeability specific surface of a powder material is a single-parameter measurement of the fineness of the powder.e. The SI units are m2·kg-1 ("mass specific surface") or m2·m-3 ("volume specific surface"). Significance When a powder reacts chemically with a liquid or gas at the surface of its particles. m ρ is the sample particle density. A pressure drop is set up along the length of the bed cylinder. volume of air-space between particles divided by total bed volume). Pa l is the cylinder length. The specific surface is derived from the resistance to flow of air (or some other gas) through a porous bed of the powder. It is universally used in the cement industry as a gauge of product fineness which is directly related to such properties as speed of setting and rate of strength development. The measurement is therefore important in the manufacture of many processed materials. Methods Measurement consists of packing the powder into a cylindrical "bed" having a known porosity (i. m2·kg-1 d is the cylinder diameter. kg·m-3 ε is the volume porosity of the bed (dimensionless) δP is the pressure drop across the bed. m η is the air dynamic viscosity.
and shape are generally very important an increase in crystal size or a more uniform shape will lead to a small angle or repose and a smaller Carr‟s index. and measure the flowrate Allow both to vary. and measure the pressure drop Maintain a constant pressure drop. Various standard methods have been proposed: Maintain a constant flowrate. Bulk Density :Knowledge of absolute and bulk density of the drug substance is Very useful in Having some idea as to the size of final dosage form the density of solids also of affects their flow Properties Carr‟s compressibility index can be used to predict the flow properties based on density measurement.It can be seen that the specific surface is proportional to the square root of the ratio of pressure to flow. Carr‟s index (%) = Tapped density – Pored density *100 Tapped density A similar index has been defined by Hausner : Hausner ratio = Tapped density Pored density 50 . Powder Flow Properties:When limited amounts of drugs are available Power flow properties can be evaluated by measurements of bulk density and angle of repose. Changes in particles size. deriving the ratio from the characteristics of the apparatus.
In parallel solid-state stability by DSC. The need for adequate drug solubility can not be overemphasized.Angle of repose:The maximum angle which is formed b/w the surface of a pile of powder and horizontal surface is called the angle of repose. By comparing the physicochemical properties of each drug candidate with in a therapeutic group. 51 . The most appropriate salt for development. angle of repose. TLC and HPLC in the presence of tablet and capsule excipient will indicate the most acceptable vehicles for solid dosage form. provide the biologist with suitable vehicles to elicit pharmacological response and advise the bulk chemist about the selection and production of the best salt with appropriate particle size and morphology for subsequent processing. Stability studies in solution will indicate the feasibility of parental or other liquid dosage form and can identify methods of stabilization. Carr’s index fee power flow Flow Excellent Good Fair to passable Poor Very Poor Extremely Poor <25 25-30 30-40 > 40 Angle of repose 5-15 Carr’s index ( % ) 12-16 18-21 23-35 33-38 >40 Conclusion: Preformulation studies have a significant part to play in anticipating formulation problems and identifying logical path in both liquid and solid dosage form technology. the preformulation scientist can assist the synthetic chemist to identify the optimum molecule. Relationship between flow.
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