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# Stage 2 Lab Report:

Transmission Lines

Philip Boardman: 071802912 02/05/2011 Synopsis: The aim of the experiment is to look in transmission lines and see what effects
signals when sent through a transmission line and to look into standing waves, reflection coefficients and attenuation of signals.

## Philip Boardman- 071802912

1 Introduction
Objectives To determine the parameters of transmission lines. Look in to standing waves, reflection coefficient and attenuation.

2 Results
Line Characteristics Using a transmission line box connected to the output of a 50 pulse generator with a BNC TEE adaptor with the other connection connected to an oscilloscope with a matched load at the end of the transmission line the signal can be observed. With a matched load of 50 the signal can be seen clearly as a pulse

Original signal

No reflected signals

However if the matched load is replaced with an open circuit a reflection can be seen further on in the pulse signal

Original signal

Reflected signals

Philip Boardman- 071802912 This reflected signal would be equal to the original signal but due to resistance in the cable some of the signal is lost. If a short circuit is used instead of an open circuit you can see from the oscilloscope reading below it has a reflection that is inverted.

Original signal

## Inverted reflected signals

The reflected signal is this time is negative, this is because at the short circuit the voltage has to be zero so the sum of the forward wave and reflected wave must be zero so the only way this can be true is if the reflected wave is negative. However in this case it still doesnt equal zero due to resistance in the cable the reflected signal isnt exactly -1 but this is as close as you can get with this equipment. Using the oscilloscope reading from the short circuit the propagation delay between the input and reflected pulse can be found;

Wave Velocity

Phase Constant

## Short Circuit Input: 4.375-668*10-3=5.043v Reflection = 2.094 (-668*10-3) =-1.426v =

Theoretical

Open Circuit Input: 8.75*10-3 (-4.219) = 5.094v Reflection = (-2.781) (4.219) =1.438v

Theoretical

=1

Theoretical

= -0.29

## Philip Boardman- 071802912 50 Load

Theoretical

=0

100 Load Input: 2.15 (-2.906) = 5.062v Reflection = -4.281 (-2.906) = 0.5v

Theoretical

= 1/3

Attenuation and Phase Shift The attenuation coefficient can be calculated using;

and

Length (m) 2 5 7 10 12 15 17 20 22 25 27 30

Amplitude of Output (v) 1.55 1.45 1.39 1.34 1.27 1.25 1.17 1.16 1.08 1.08 0.98 0.98

Phase () 103 216 -68 44 117 228 -56 53 126 237 -52 58
5

## Philip Boardman- 071802912

10m:

VIN=2V 1.34/2=0.67

VOUT=1.34V Phase = 44

20m:

VIN=2V 1.16/2=0.58

VOUT=1.16V Phase = 53

Standing Waves By connecting a probe at a fixed position and sending the signal generator directly in to the transmission line and connecting a different load at the end you can plot the wave amplitudes for different frequencies. Short Circuit

## Wave Amplitude (V)

1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Open Circuit

## Wave Amplitude (V)

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

100

## Wave Amplitude (V)

1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

## Wave Amplitude (V)

1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

3 Conclusion
Through looking at the transmission lines with different loads it is clear to see how this affects the reflection, by adding a load equal to the initial load from the pulse generator the reflection can be removed, by using an open circuit there is a reflection which would be equal to the original signal however due to the resistance in the cable the reflected signal is reduced. A similar case happens with the short circuit due to the resistance its not quite -1, the short circuit is a negative reflection due to needing to cancel out the voltage so overall it equals 0. With the screen shots from the oscilloscope, the pulse isnt perfect due to the equipment having a capacitance and an inductance opposing the charge therefore the pulse instead of being square has a more gradual increase and decrease. When looking at the attenuation and phase shift, keeping the frequency constant and changing the length, as the length increases the amplitude decreases this shows how as the signal goes down the transmission line the amplitude decreases due to the attenuation. As more signals are reflecting within the transmission line and the frequency is increasing the reflected signals can interfere with the other signals by adding with each other which cause the amplitude to increase and this varies depending on where the measurements are taken from on the transmission line.

4 References
 EEE2005 Fields Materials and Devices II Lecture Notes  Stage 2 EECE Lab handbook and worksheets