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/wiki/File:Indian-dancer-nataraja.png /wiki/File:Indian-dancer-nataraja.png /wiki/File:Indian-dancer-nataraja.png Bharatanatyam, one of eight designated classical dance forms of India India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food and customs differ from place to place within the country, but nevertheless possess a commonality. India is the only country in the world to have so many religions and beliefs. The culture of India is an amalgamation of these diverse sub-cultures spread all over the Indian subcontinent and traditions that are several millennia old.[1] Regarded by many historians as the "oldest living civilization of Earth", the Indian tradition dates back to 8000 BC[2] and has a continuous recorded history since the time of the Vedas, believed variously to be 3,000 to over 5,500 years ago.[3] Several elements of India's diverse culture — such as Indian religions, yoga and Indian cuisine — have had a profound impact across the world.

[11] Strict social taboos have governed these groups for thousands of years. Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third. and possibly as many as 2. Jainism and especially Buddhism are influential not only in India but across the world.5 or 2.and fourth-largest religions respectively. According to industry consultant Eugene M. Makar. Buddhism.[11] However. India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world. Dharmic religions. Islam is practiced by around 13% of all Indians.[4] Main articles: Religion in India and Indian religions India is the birth place of Hinduism.jpg /wiki/File:Maitreya_Buddha_the_next_Buddha. Christianity. particularly in cities.6 billion followers.Religions and spirituality /wiki/File:Maitreya_Buddha_the_next_Buddha. Zoroastrianism. are indigenous to India. India.jpg /wiki/File:Maitreya_Buddha_the_next_Buddha. traditional Indian culture is defined by a relatively strict social hierarchy.jpgClose-up of a statue depicting Maitreya at the Thikse Monastery in Ladakh. [10] Sikhism. a far more powerful division is the traditional Hindu bifurcation into non-polluting and polluting occupations. Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith are also influential but their numbers are smaller.[11] In recent years. The religion of 80% of the people is Hinduism. some of these lines . children are reminded of their roles and places in society.[5] Indian religions. atheism and agnostics also have visible influence along with a self-ascribed tolerance to other people. collectively known as Indian religions. such as Hinduism and Buddhism. with over 2 billion followers altogether.[11] Several differences such as religion divide the culture. Religion still plays a central and definitive role in the life of many of its people. He also mentions that from an early age. Despite the strong role of religion in Indian life.jpg /wiki/File:Maitreya_Buddha_the_next_Buddha. India is also the birthplace for the Lingayat and Ahmadiyya faiths.[11] This is reinforced by the fact that many believe gods and spirits have an integral and functional role in determining their life. Jainism and Sikhism. with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. Today. also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along with Abrahamic ones.

[11] Important family relations extend as far as gotra.1% compared with about 50% in the United States. In India. height.5%)[citation needed] . etc.[11] The patriarch often resolves family issues. It is a system under which extended members of a family – parents. their castes and the astrological compatibility of the couples' horoscopes.[11] In rural areas & sometimes in urban areas as well. Arranged matches are made after taking into account factors such as age. with the consent of the bride and groom. children. In most families the inheritance of family estates pass down the male line. Usually. Family plays a significant role in the Indian culture. [12] [edit] Arranged Marriage For centuries. the marriage is thought to be for life. social standing).[13] and the divorce rate is extremely low — 1. the mainly patrilinear lineage or clan assigned to a Hindu at birth.jpg /wiki/File:HinduBrideIndia. India has had a prevailing tradition of the joint family system. the eldest male member is the head in the joint Indian family system.Generally this is done to reduce culture shock for the bride and groom as most families are extended families.[citation needed] The divorce rates of marriage is increasing nowadays (3. Even today. and other family members abide by them. He makes all important decisions and rules. the backgrounds of their families (wealth. arranged marriages have been the tradition in Indian society though men and women have always had the choice of who they want to marry.jpgA bride during a traditional Hindu wedding ceremony in Punjab. it is common that three or four generations of the family live under the same roof.jpg /wiki/File:HinduBrideIndia.[14] The arranged marriages generally have a much lower divorce rate. personal values and tastes.jpg /wiki/File:HinduBrideIndia. – live together. the children’s spouses and their offspring. In most marriages the bride's family provide a dowry to the bride to safe guard herself and her children in the event of her husband passing prematurely. although divorce rates have risen significantly in recent years for love marriage. the vast majority of Indians have their marriages planned by their parents and other respected family-members. For generations.[11] Marriage Main articles: Arranged marriage in India and Women in India /wiki/File:HinduBrideIndia.have blurred and sometimes even disappeared.

such as Sankranthi. Several harvest festivals. the Independence Day._c1788. Notable examples include Diwali. Taken literally. Certain festivals in India are celebrated by multiple religions. Main article: Festivals in India India.jpg /wiki/File:Radha_celebrating_Holi. Holi. celebrated by Buddhists and Hindus. Pongal. In addition. the Gandhi Jayanti. Durga puja. which is celebrated by Hindus. Diwali. in literal terms Namaste refers to 'That which is of God in me bows to that which is of God in you'. Nomoskar[(Assamese)]or Sat Sri Akaal (Punjabi) is a common spoken greeting or salutation in the Indian subcontinent. In Indian and Nepali culture. and Buddh Purnima. Ganesh Chaturthi. Festivals /wiki/File:Radha_celebrating_Holi. The four national holidays in India. such Eid ul-Fitr. It is commonly used in India and Nepal by Hindus. and respect._c1788."[15] Namaste Namaste. are celebrated by . many states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. known as the "festival of colors". celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. Also in orthodox families.jpg Radha and gopikas celebrating Holi. for some modernists. younger men and women are taught to seek the blessing of their elders by reverentially bowing to their elders.and 1st may are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India. it means "I bow to you". Popular religious festivals include the Hindu festivals of Navratri. the same hands folded gesture is made usually wordlessly upon departure."Opinion is divided over what the phenomenon means: for traditionalists the rising numbers portend the breakdown of society while. and (te): "to you". Buddhists and many continue to use this outside the Indian subcontinent. Sikhs and Jains.jpg /wiki/File:Radha_celebrating_Holi. Eid al-Adha and Ramadhan. Raja sankaranti swinging fesival. the word is spoken at the beginning of written or verbal communication."Nuakhai" are also fairly popular. they speak of a healthy new empowerment for women. obeisance. namaskar or Namaskara or Namaskaram. As explained by an Indian scholar. Rakshabandhan and Dussehra. Nomoshkaar (Bengali). the Republic Day. Vanakkam (Tamil). being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society._c1788. Islamic festivals. Jains. The word is derived from Sanskrit (namah): to bow. reverential salutation. However. Namaskar is considered a slightly more formal version than Namaste but both express deep respect. and Onam.

which is the easternmost state of India.Muslims across India. such as Guru Nanak Jayanti. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men. geography and climate. which vary from region to region. Baisakhi are celebrated with full fanfare by Sikhs and Hindu.jpgIllustration of different styles of Sari & clothing worn by women in India.Muslims won't celebrate any other fest except these two. in addition. Traditional clothing in India greatly varies across different parts of the country and is influenced immensely by local culture. stitched clothes such as churidar for women and kurta-pyjama and European-style trousers and shirts for men.jpg /wiki/File:Styles_of_Sari.jpg /wiki/File:Styles_of_Sari. a person's social status is perceived to be symbolized by his or her attire. Sikh Festivals. India's population speaks a wide variety of languages Clothing /wiki/File:Styles_of_Sari. Adding colors to the culture of India. Names and language Indian names are based on a variety of systems and naming conventions.jpg /wiki/File:Styles_of_Sari. are also popular. Names are also influenced by religion and caste and may come from the Indian epics. the Dree Festival is one of the tribal festivals of India celebrated by the Apatanis of the Ziro valley of Arunachal Pradesh. In India. Indian dress .

majority of Indians wear sandals.[30] Stitched clothing in India was developed before 10th century AD and was further popularized in 15th century by Muslim empires in India.jpg /wiki/File:Rigveda_MS2097. Greek historian Herodotus describes the richness of the quality of Indian cotton clothes.[23] Most Indian clothes are made from cotton which is ideal for the region's hot weather. The 11th century BC Rig-veda mentions dyed and embroidered garments (known as paridhan and pesas respectively) and thus highlights the development of sophisticated garment manufacturing techniques during the Vedic age.[24] Since India's weather is mostly hot and rainy.[33 Languages and literature [edit] History /wiki/File:Rigveda_MS2097. muslins manufactured in southern India were imported by the Roman Empire and silk cloth was one of the major exports of ancient India along with Indian spices.jpg . Indian independence movement leader Mahatma Gandhi successfully advocated for what he termed as khadi clothing — light colored hand-woven clothes — so as to decrease reliance of the Indian people on British industrial goods.[30] Draped clothing styles remained popular with India's Hindu population while the Muslims increasingly adopted tailored garments.etiquette discourages exposure of skin and wearing transparent or tight clothes.[25] Worn by women on their forehead. India's large clothing and handicrafts industry was left paralyzed so as to make place for British industrial cloth.[28] In 5th century BC. increasing involvement of women in the fashion industry and changing Indian attitudes towards multiculturalism. These developments played a pivotal role in the fusion of Indian and Western clothing styles. but now it has become a part of women's fashion.[26] Traditionally. the bindi is considered to be a highly auspicious mark in Hindu religion. Some Indian traditions consider the bindi to be representative of the third eye.[27] India's clothing styles have continuously evolved over the course of the country's history.[31] During the British Raj. Ancient Vedic texts mention clothes made from barks and leaves (known as phataka). Consequently.[32] The 1980s was marked by a widespread modification to Indian clothing fashions which was characterized by a large-scale growth of fashion schools in India.[29] By 2nd century AD. the red bindi (or sindoor) was worn only by the married Hindu women.

India's most spoken language. one of India's major classical languages. Aum(3) . Munda languages and Dravidian languages. measuring the dates of Vedas came in later days. Tamil. Hindi.1. four in Malayalam. Time is always referred as Kaala Chakra in India.[36] Words originating in Sanskrit are estimated to constitute roughly fifty percent of the vocabulary of modern Indo-Aryan languages. In Ancient India the time was divided in Four yugas.. the family which includes English and most European languages. the first line has the opening words of RV. have borrowed many words either directly from Sanskrit (tatsama words).1. all modern Indo-Aryan languages. early 19th century. ṛtvijaṃ).jpg Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari. With its oldest core dating back to as early as 1500 BC.[36] Part of the Eastern IndoAryan languages.[37] and the literary forms of (Dravidian) Telugu. and one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family.[47] In contemporary Indian literature. the Satavahana and Kadamba periods and hence has a history of over 2000 years. Kannada is attested epigraphically from the mid-1st millennium AD.. Pre-old Kannada (or Purava HaleGannada) was the language of Banavasi in the early Common Era. Hindi is the most spoken language in India. five in Bengali. Malayalam and Kannada. devaṃ . iḷe . there are two major literary awards. Telugu. Marathi and Tamil. In addition. Gujarati.[46] According to 2001 India census. . six in Hindi. The Vedic accent is marked by underscores and vertical overscores in red..[41] Another major Dravidian language. For other uses. The Ashoka rock edict found at Brahmagiri (dated to 230 BC) has been suggested to contain a word in identifiable Kannada. [48] Standard Hindi From Wikipedia. the Bengali language arose from the eastern Middle Indic languages and its roots are traced to the 5th century BC Ardhamagadhi language./wiki/File:Rigveda_MS2097. these are the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship and the Jnanpith Award. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Hindi) l "Hindi" redirects here. There by. Tamil literature has existed for over two thousand years[40] and the earliest epigraphic records found date from around the third century BC. is a "Sanskritized register" of the Khariboli dialect. Urdu and Oriya and two each in Telugu and Tamil. After a scribal benediction ("śrīgaṇéśāyanamaḥ .[35] Sanskrit has had a profound impact on the languages and literature of India.1 (agniṃ . descends from Proto-Dravidian languages which was spoken around the third millennium BC in peninsular India. Seven Jnanpith awards each have been awarded in Kannada. followed by Bengali. The calendar which most Indians follows goes in accordance to this."). and literary Old Kannada flourished in the 9th to 10th century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. yajñasya . puraḥ-hitaṃ . or indirectly via middle Indo-Aryan languages (tadbhava words). see Hindi (disambiguation).[34] the Rigvedic Sanskrit is one of the oldest attestations of any Indo-Iranian language. three each in Marathi.

US.svg /wiki/File:W ord_Hindi_i n_Devanag ari.Standard Hindi मानक िहनदी Mānak Hindī / wiki/File:W ord_Hindi_i n_Devanag ari.svg The word "Hindi" in Devanagari script India Signi fican t com muni ties in Sout h Afric a. Cana da. Nepa l 180 milli on in 1991 Spoken in Native speakers .

[1] IndoEuro pean •Indo Ir a n ia n • Language family • • • • • • Writing system Official status Official language in Regulated by In dia Centr al Hind i Direc torat e Deva nagar i .

also known as Manak Hindi (Devanagari: मानक िहनदी). or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi. g Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and /wiki/F a lack of conjuncts. Nagari Hindi. High Hindi.r enderi mplex .sv g Standard Hindi.text.(Indi a)[2] Language codes ISO 639-1 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-3 Linguist List Linguaspher e hi hin hin hinhin 59AAFqf / wiki/Fi le:Exa mple. ile:Ex ample .text.. of. It is the official language of the Republic of India. and Literary Hindi. speakers of both Hindi and Urdu frequently assert that they are distinct languages. Colloquial Hindi is mutually intelligible with another register of Hindustani called Urdu.. despite the fact that native speakers generally cannot tell .co mplex . Mutual intelligibility decreases in literary and specialized contexts which rely on educated vocabulary. More. Due to religious nationalism and communal tensions.of.r enderi This page contains Indic text. is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi.

the number of native speakers of Standard Hindi is unclear. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.the colloquial languages apart[citation needed]. this includes large numbers of speakers of Hindi dialects besides Standard Hindi. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. The combined population of Hindi-Urdu speakers is the fourth largest in the world. According to the 2001 Indian census. Hindi is also enumerated as one of the twenty-two languages of the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India.pngIndo-Aryan languages. Hindi is among the languages of the central zone: Central zone Northern zone Northwestern zone Eastern zone Southern zone Insular (Southern) The Constitution of India. which entitles it to representation on the Official Language Commission. as of 2009.[1] Official status This article needs additional citations for verification. However. adopted in 1950. grouping according to SIL Ethnologue.[3] However.[5] The Constitution of India has stipulated the usage of Hindi and English to be the . (July 2007) /wiki/File:Indoarische_Sprachen_Gruppen.[4] 258 million people in India reported their native language to be "Hindi".png /wiki/File:Indoarische_Sprachen_Gruppen. declares Hindi in the Devanagari script as the official language of India. the best figure Ethnologue could find for Khariboli Hindi was a 1991 citation of 180 million.png /wiki/File:Indoarische_Sprachen_Gruppen.png /wiki/File:Indoarische_Sprachen_Gruppen.

Uttarakhand. English is still used in official documents. Delhi & Maharashtra . widespread resistance movements to the imposition of Hindi on non-native speakers. Hindi is accorded the status of co-official language in several states. Madhya Pradesh. for all official purposes. in Uttar Pradesh for instance. depending on the political formation in power. However. using the Devanagari script.[7] They include words inherited from Sanskrit via Prakrit which have survived without modification (e. sometimes this language is Urdu. instituting the following conventions:[original research?] •standardization of grammar: In 1954. Hindi. of especially the people living in south India (such as the Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu) led to the passage of the Official Languages Act (1963). . Uttar Pradesh. The committee's report was released in 1958 as "A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi" •standardization of the orthography. This dialect acquired linguistic prestige in the Mughal Empire (17th century) and became known as Urdu. It was envisioned that Hindi would become the sole working language of the central government by 1965 (per directives in Article 344 (2) and Article 351). At the state level. and introducing diacritics to express sounds from other languages. and the official state language. to improve the shape of some Devanagari characters. the Government of India set about standardising Hindi as a separate language from Urdu. Hindi is the official language of the following states in India:Bihar.[6] with state governments being free to function in languages of their own choice. •standardization of vocabulary. which provided for the continued use of English. Therefore. Jharkhand. Similarly. Rajasthan. Himachal Pradesh. However. Haryana. the Government of India set up a committee to prepare a grammar of Hindi. indefinitely. "the language of the court. (See next. History Further information: History of Hindustani The dialect upon which Standard Hindi is based is khariboli. in courts. etc. by the Central Hindi Directorate of the Ministry of Education and Culture to bring about uniformity in writing. Each of these states may also designate a "co-official language". the constitutional directive to the central government to champion the spread of Hindi was retained and has strongly influenced the policies of the Union government.two languages of communication for the Central Government. the vernacular of Delhi and the surrounding western Uttar Pradesh and southern Uttarakhand region. replacing most of the more learned Persian loan words with new coinages from Sanskrit.) Alphabet and vocabulary There are five principal categories of words in Standard Hindi: •Tatsam (ततसम / same as that) words: These are words which are spelled the same in Hindi as in Sanskrit (except for the absence of final case inflections).g. Chhattisgarh. Most of government documentation is prepared in three languages of English." After independence.

The person who brought realism in the Hindi prose literature was Munshi Premchand. Hindustani Suraj/Sanskrit Surya. It is named after Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi. Sanskrit karma. but later also in Khariboli.. Hindi literature saw a romantic upsurge. the tatsam word could be the Sanskrit uninflected word-stem.. In the 20th century.[7] •Deshaj (देशज) words: These are words that were not borrowings but do not derive from attested Indo-Aryan words either. and eventually Hindi kām. The most frequent sources of borrowing in this category have been Persian. Literature Main article: Hindi literature Hindi literature.g. Hindustani with heavily Sanskritized vocabulary or Sahityik Hindi (Literary Hindi) was popularized by the writings of Swami Dayananda Saraswati. Belonging to this category are onomatopoetic words. Bihari). This is known as Chhayavaad (shadowism) and the literary figures belonging to this school are known as Chhayavaadi. Among nouns. is considered the first authentic work of prose in modern Hindi..[8] as well as forms borrowed directly from Sanskrit in more modern times (e. Veer-Gatha (extolling brave warriors).[9] Pronunciation. and Adhunik (modern). During the British Raj. Medieval Hindi literature is marked by the influence of Bhakti movement and the composition of long. "deed" becomes Pali kamma.. "prayer"). conforms to Hindi norms and may differ from that of classical Sanskrit. who played a major role in establishing the Modern Hindi language in poetry and broadening the acceptable subjects of Hindi poetry from the traditional ones of religion and romantic love. Arabic. •Ardhatatsam (अधरततसम) words: These are words that were borrowed from Sanskrit in the middle Indo-Aryan or early New Indo-Aryan stages. is broadly divided into four prominent forms or styles. •Tadbhav (तदव / born of that) words: These are words which are spelled differently from Sanskrit but are derivable from a Sanskrit prototype by phonological rules (e.. however. "work"). "name". Hindustani became the prestige dialect. Portuguese and English. or it could be the nominative singular form in the Sanskrit nominal declension. The rising numbers of newspapers and magazines made Hindustani popular among the educated people. Shringar (beauty – Keshav. It was not written in the current dialect but in other Hindi languages. epic poems.[citation needed] Such words typically have undergone sound changes subsequent to being borrowed. Bhartendu Harishchandra and others. who is considered as the most revered figure in the world of Hindi fiction and progressive movement. prārthanā. . "sun"). Raskhan). Chandrakanta. particularly in Avadhi and Braj Bhasha. •Videshī (िवदेशी) words: these include all words borrowed from sources other than IndoAryan. The Dwivedi Yug ("Age of Dwivedi") in Hindi literature lasted from 1900 to 1918.g. being Bhakti (devotional – Kabir. written by Devaki Nandan Khatri.Hindustani nām/Sanskrit nāma.

Ghumura Dance. The Rāmāyaṇa and the Mahābhārata are the oldest preserved and well-known epics of India. Epics /wiki/File:Kurukshetra. as well as unrelated epics include the Tamil Ramavataram.jpg /wiki/File:Kurukshetra. Kunjvasi Nach and Naradi Nach.[51] Other regional variations of these. Shiva. Hindi Cinema.[50] The earliest parts of the Mahabharata text date to 400 BC[50] and is estimated to have reached its final form by the early Gupta period (ca.Jaishankar Prasad. 4th c. Uttar Adhunik is the post-modernist period of Hindi literature.jpg /wiki/File:Kurukshetra. Hindi Ramacharitamanasa. Bihu.jpgManuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra.[49] and tells the story of Rama (an incarnation or Avatar of the Hindu preservergod Vishnu). There are hundreds of Indian folk dances such as Bhangra. whose wife Sita is abducted by the demon king of Lanka. The presentation of Indian dance styles in film. Bhagata Nach. Kirtaniya Nach. Ravana. Three best-known Hindu deities. there are five major epics in the classical Tamil language — Silappatikaram. from the ancient classical or temple dance to folk and modern styles.000 verses in seven books (kāṇḍas) and 500 cantos (sargas). This epic played a pivotal role in establishing the role of dhárma as a principal ideal guiding force for Hindu way of life. The Ramayana consists of 24. Minimum use is made of musical instruments and dancer performs the dances without humming the tune . are the four major Chhayavaadi poets. has exposed the range of dance in India to a global audience. In addition to these two great Indian epics. AD). Malaysia and Indonesia.jpg /wiki/File:Kurukshetra. Kali and Krishna. Mahadevi Varma and Sumitranandan Pant. are typically represented dancing.The gods and goddesses are invoked through the religious folk dance forms from good old times. Sambalpuri. and Malayalam Adhyathmaramayanam. Chhau and Garba and special dances observed in regional festivals. and by a return to simple language and natural themes. Versions have been adopted as the epics of Southeast Asian countries like Thailand. India offers a number of classical Indian dance forms. Vidapat Nach and Puja Art Nach in this category. Civaka-cintamaniand Valayapathi Dance in India covers a wide range of dance and dance theatre forms. Manimekalai. Kannada Pampa Bharata. Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala'. Mention may be made of Ram-lila Nach. marked by a questioning of early trends that copied the West as well as the excessive ornamentation of the Chhayavaadi movement. each of which can be traced to different parts of the country.

jpgThe Taj Mahal—a UNESCO World Heritage Site—in Agra. The architecture of India is rooted in its history.jpg /wiki/File:Konark_Sub_Temple_Front_view.jpg /wiki/File:Taj_Mahal_in_March_2004.[1] Islamic influence and Mughal Era (1526 CE-1857 CE) .jpg /wiki/File:Taj_Mahal_in_March_2004.[1] Though old.[1] Indian architecture progressed with time and assimilated the many influences that came as a result of India's global discourse with other regions of the world throughout its millennia-old past. the free encyclopedia l /wiki/File:Taj_Mahal_in_March_2004.[1] The architectural methods practiced in India are a result of examination and implementation of its established building traditions and outside cultural interactions.jpg /wiki/File:Taj_Mahal_in_March_2004.Architecture of India From Wikipedia.jpg Konark Sun Temple. one of the most well renowned temples in India and is a World Heritage Site.[1] The economic reforms of 1991 further bolstered the urban architecture of India as the country became more integrated with the world's economy.jpg /wiki/File:Konark_Sub_Temple_Front_view. this Eastern tradition has also incorporated modern values as India became a modern nation state. /wiki/File:Konark_Sub_Temple_Front_view. culture and religion.[1] Traditional Vastu Shastra remains influential in India's architecture during the contemporary era.

the recessed archway.In the August of 1604 CE the construction of the Harmandir Sahib—the holiest shrine of the Sikh religion—was completed. white marble and parks while stressing on symmetry and detail was visible during the reign of Shah Jahan. Mughal tombs of sandstone and marble show Persian influence.[1] However.[26] Employing the double dome.[28] Little literary evidence exists to confirm the Indian influence but some scholars have nonetheless suggested a possible relation based on proximity of architectural styles. 1521) resulted in exchange of architectural influences. built as a tomb for Queen Mumtaz Mahal by Shah Jahan (1628– 58).[27] Quranic verses were described on the walls of the buildings. Further information: Mughal architecture and Indo-Islamic architecture Qutub Minar a prominent example of Islamic architecture in India. the depiction of any living being—an essential part of the pre-Islamic tradition of India—was forbidden under Islam. 1495—December 13.[1] Some scholars hold that cultural contact with Europe under Manuel I of Portugal (reign: October 25.[26] The Red Fort at Agra (1565– 74) and the walled city of Fatehpur Sikri (1569–74) are among the architectural achievements of this time—as is the Taj Mahal.[28] .

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