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Suggested Solutions Chapter Test V2 MaA: Mathematical Reasoning Ch1-3

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CHAPTER TEST: Mathematical Reasoning MATHEMATICS COURSE A FALL 2008: MaANVC08

Warning: There are more than one versions of the test.


Instructions Test period Tools Part I 90 minutes for Part I and Part II as a whole. We recommend that you use at the most 45 minutes to work with Part I. You must not use the calculator before you have handed in Part I. Use a separate sheet for part I. Formula sheet and ruler. For most items a single answer is not enough. It is also expected that you write down what you do that you explain/motivate your reasoning that you draw any necessary illustrations. After every item is given the maximum mark your solution can receive. (2/3) means that the item can give 2 g-points (Pass level) and 3 vg-points (Pass with distinction level). Items marked with (Problems 1f, 5, 9, 10 and 11) give you a possibility to show MVG-quality (Pass with special distinction quality) This means that you use generalised methods, models and reasoning, that you analyse your results and account for a clear line of thought in a correct mathematical language. Try all of the problems. It can be relatively easy, even towards the end of the test, to receive some points for partial solutions. A positive evaluation can be given even for unfinished solutions. Mark limits Maximum score: G: VG: MVG:
1a 1b 1b 1c 1c 1d 1e 1f 1 G 1f 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 G vg G vg vg vg vg mvg G 1 1 1 G vg G

TOTAL 52 out of which 25 vg-points, and 5 MVG points 17 points 35 points/ at least 8 VG points: 37 points/ at least 17 VG points; MVG-quality work
2a 2b 2 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 1 G 4 5 5 5 6 7 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 Sum 5 mvg 1 3 2 3 2 2 1 1 2 3 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 G vg vg vg G vg mvg G G G G vg mvg G vg mvg G vg mvg 52 g&vg 17 35 37 Summa varav 25 vg 8 17

Only the marked problems in the box below will be graded.


1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 2a 2b 3a 3b 3c 3e 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Name: ________________

Student number: _______ NVC08; Sjdalsgymnasiet 1

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Suggested Solutions Chapter Test V2 MaA: Mathematical Reasoning Ch1-3

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In each case, show how you arrived at your answer by clearly indicating all of the necessary steps, formula substitutions, diagrams, graphs, charts, etc.

Part I You are not allowed to use calculator in this part. Write your answer to the first part on a separate paper. Only after the submission of your solutions to the part one you may be allowed to use your calculator. You may start working with part II before submission of your solutions to part I.
1. Solve for x : a. 5( x 3) = 9 3 x Suggested Solution:
5( x 3) = 9 3 x 5 x 15 = 9 3 x 5 x + 3 x = 9 + 15 8 x = 24

(1/0)

x=

24 =3 8
(1/1)

8 x 3 = 125 b. Suggested Solution:


125 (125)3 x = 5 125 3 8 x = 125 x = x= x= 1 8 2 8 (8)3
3
3
1

Answer: x = 2.5

c. 5 x 8 19 4 x Suggested Solution:
5 x 8 19 4 x 5 x + 4 x 19 + 8 9 x 27 x

(1/1)

27 x3 9

Answer: x 3

d. (0/2) 0.12 x + 9 > 39 + 0.07 x Suggested Solution: 0.12 x + 9 > 39 + 0.07 x 0.12 x 0.07 x > 39 9 0.05 x > 30 5 x > 3000 3000 x> = 600 Answer: x > 600 5 e. (x 2) = 81 Suggested Solution:
4

(0/2)
1 4

(x 2)
f.

= 81 ( x 2 ) = 81 x 2 = 3 x = 3 + 2 x = 5

Answer: x = 5 (0/2/)

48 x = 0 x 0 . x 2 36 Suggested Solution: 48 x 48 x = 0 x 0 2 = x x 2 = 36 48 x 3 = 6 2 6 8 2 36 x x 36 3 3 3 x = 6 2 x = 6 2 x = 12

Answer: x = 12 2

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Suggested Solutions Chapter Test V2 MaA: Mathematical Reasoning Ch1-3

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2. Simplify the following expressions to their simplest possible form: 63x 23 a. (1/0) 7 x17 Suggested Solution: 63x 23 7 9 2317 63x 23 / = x = 9x6 = 9x6 Answer: 7 x17 7 7 x17 /

b. (n + 5) n 2 25 Suggested Solution: (n + 5)2 n 2 25 = n 2 + 10n + 25 n 2 25 = 10n


2

(1/1) Answer: (n + 5) n 2 25 = 10n


2

3. Calculate the value of each expression below: 3 10 40 4 1050 a. Suggested Solution: 3 10 40 4 10 50 = 12 10 40+50 = 12 10 90

)(

(1/0) Answer: 3 10 40 4 1050 = 1.2 1091 (1/0)

)(

)(

6.3 10 23 7 10 27 Suggested Solution: 6.3 10 23 63 10 22 = = 9 10 2227 = 9 10 5 27 27 7 10 7 10 b.

Answer:

6.3 10 23 = 9 10 5 27 7 10

2 10 7 c. Suggested Solution:

(1/0)

(2 10 )

7 3

= 2 3 10 7(3) =

10 21 1000 = 1018 = 125 1018 = 1.25 10 20 3 2 8


Answer: 2 10 7

= 1.25 10 20

32 300 64300 d. Suggested Solution:


32 300 64300 = 25

(0/3)

( )

300

26

( )

300

= 25(300 ) 2 6(300 ) = 2 1500 21800 = 2 1500+1800 = 2300 Answer: 32300 64300 = 2300
(0/2) Answer: 3100 396 = 80 396

3100 396 e. Suggested Solution: 3100 396 = 396 34 1 = 396 (81 1) = 80 396

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Suggested Solutions Chapter Test V2 MaA: Mathematical Reasoning Ch1-3

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4. What is the sum of

3b 1 5b + 1 , and ? 5a 7a

(0/3) Suggested Solution:

3b 1 5b + 1 3b 1 7 5b + 1 5 7(3b 1) + 5(5b + 1) 21b 7 + 25b + 5 46b 2 = + = + = = 5a 7a 5a 7 7a 5 35a 35a 35a 3b 1 5b + 1 46b 2 + = Answer: 5a 7a 35a

At the aspect assessment of your work with problems 5 the teacher will consider what mathematical knowledge you have demonstrated and how well you have carried through the task how well you have explained your work and motivated your conclusions how well you have written your solutions.

5. An architect wants to design a rectangular room so that its width is 5 m less than its length, and its perimeter is greater than 53 m . If each dimension of the room must be a whole number of meters, what are the smallest possible dimensions, in meters, of the room? [2/2/] Suggested solution: L m : Length of the room. W m : Width of the room. W = L5 m. 2 L + 2W > 53 m Substitute the value of the width of the room from W = L 5 m into 2 L + 2W > 53 m : 2 L + 2(L 5) > 53 m 2 L + 2 L 10 > 53 m 4 L 10 > 53 m 4 L > 53 + 10 m 63 m 4 L > 63 m L > 4 Lsmallest = 16 m Wsmallest = Lsmallest 5 m = 16 5 m = 11 m Wsmallest = 11 m Answer: Lsmallest = 16 m and Wsmallest = 11 m

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Suggested Solutions Chapter Test V2 MaA: Mathematical Reasoning Ch1-3

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Part II
You may use your calculator in this part. Note that you should submit your solutions to the part I before having access to your calculator. 6. What is the value of 5 x 2 y 3 if x = 2 and y = 3 ? Suggested solutions: 2 3 5 x 2 y 3 = 5( 2 ) ( 3) = 5 (4 ) ( 27 ) = 540 7. Illustrate graphically the solutions set of 1 x < 2 ? Suggested solutions: Graphical solutions set of 1 < x 2 : (1/0) Answer: 5 x 2 y 3 = 540 (2/0)

8. The length of each side of a rectangular cube is multiplied by four. What is the ratio of the volume of the larger cube to the volume of the smaller cube? (3/0) Suggested solution The volume of a rectangular cube: V = l w h V1 = l 1 w1 h1 V V2 = l 2 w2 h2 = (4l 1 ) (4 w1 ) (4h1 ) = 64l 1 w1 h1 = 64V1 Answer: 2 = 64 V1

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Suggested Solutions Chapter Test V2 MaA: Mathematical Reasoning Ch1-3

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At the aspect assessment of your work with problems 9-11 the teacher will consider what mathematical knowledge you have demonstrated and how well you have carried through the task how well you have explained your work and motivated your conclusions how well you have written your solutions. This means that you use generalised methods, models and reasoning, that you analyse your results and account for a clear line of thought in a correct mathematical language.

9. The market supply and demand of a certain type of computer memory chip are related to the price of the chip according to these equations: Supply: P = 3 x + 124 Demand: P + 5 x = 156 where P is the price in thousand dollars, and x is the number of chips in thousands. Use an algebraic (analytical) method to find the value of x and P for which the supply price equals the demand price. Confirm your results by an independent method for example by creating either a graph or a table. [2/2/]
Computer Chips Supply and Demand 160 155 P [in Thousands $] 150 145 140 135 130 125 120 0 1 2 3 x [in thousands] 4 5 6

P = 156 5 x

P = 3x + 124

Suggested solutions: Supply: P = 3 x + 124 P = 156 5 x Demand: P + 5 x = 156 P = 156 5 x 3 x + 124 = 156 5 x 5 x + 3 x = 156 124 8 x = 32 32 x= =4 Answer: x = 4 thousands 8 Answer: P = $136 000 P = 3 x + 124 P = 3 4 + 124 = 12 + 124 = 136 Answer: For x = 4000 chips the supply price is equal to the demand price: P = $136 000 .
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Suggested Solutions Chapter Test V2 MaA: Mathematical Reasoning Ch1-3

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10. If 7 392 is multiplied out, what is the units (ones) digit of the product? Suggested solutions:

[2/2/]

n 7n
Units Digit: UD

0 70 = 1

1 71 = 7
k =1 UD : 7

2 7 2 = 49
k =2 UD : 9

3 7 3 = 343

4 7 4 = 2401
k =0 UD : 1

.. 5 6 5 6 7 = ..7 7 = ..9 ..
k =1 D:7 k =2 UD : 9

392

7 392
k =0 UD : 1

k =0 UD : 1

k =3 UD : 3

..

It may be recognized that the pattern is repeated every four steps. As shown above, we may n k = m , i.e. k decides what the divide the exponent with 4, the remainder of the division 4 4 units digit of the exponent is. As it is clear from the pattern in the table above: if k = 0 , the units digit is 1. if k = 1 , the units digit is 7, if k = 2 , the units digit is 9, if k = 3 , the units digit is 3, 392 = 98 k = 0 UD = 1 4 Answer: If 7 392 is multiplied out, the units (ones) digit of the product is 1.

11. At a high school, 278 students are enrolled in physics, 186 are enrolled in music of which 64 are enrolled in both music and physics. How many percent of students who are enrolled in either physics or music, are enrolled in both? [2/2/] Physics and Suggested solutions: Music We may draw a Venn graph using N = 64 Music N = 186 Circle P : Physics: N P = 278 are enrolled in Physics. Circle M : Music: N m = 186 are enrolled in Physics Music. N PI M = 64 : Enrolled in both music and physics N = 278 Total number of students enrolled in either Physics or Music are: N PU M = N P + N M N PI M = 278 + 186 64 = 400 Percents of students who are enrolled in either physics or music who are enrolled in both: N 64 = 0.16 = 16% N PI M % = PI M = N PUM 400 Answer: 16% of students who are enrolled in either Physics or Music are enrolled in both.
PI M
m

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