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Fernandez

WHY People Cannot … A PARADOX in SOCIO-

PHYSICS and the DEBATE on GRAVITISM
B. Gal-Or with M. C. Fernandez

Fig. 1.1: The dark-cold expanding voids shown cause all radiated energy to be dissipated deep inside them as explained by Fig. 1.2.

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The Prigogine vs. Gal-Or Paradox and Debate
While Prigogine won the Noble Prize in chemistry for his formalism in converting symmetry Dynamics into Irreversible Thermodynamics [18], he did not really tell us how irreversible changes in living and non-living systems emerge from the reversible mathematical equations of physics. In turn, as we had debated during the historic Pittsburgh Conference on Classical and Relativistic Thermodynamics [18], Gravitism [12-17] is asserted to be superior for it draws the same formalism [17, Lecture VI] from two reliable and independent sources: (1) The THEORETICAL: Einstein’s Field Equations [EFE, or “Gravity Physics”] accept no static cosmological solutions, namely, time itself, the arrow of time and all irreversibilities in Nature, originate from Einstein’s General Relativity. Moreover, there is no need to resort to the fallacious and essentially anthropomorphic concept entropy, which is neither mass nor energy. Instead, the science of evolving dynamic systems and thermodynamics must only be based on the physically sound, directly measurable, dissipated energy that is derived from the EGR or from Newtonian Gravity [17]. (2) The EMPIRICAL: Measured dynamics of energy-dissipation in expanding voids between superclusters and clusters of galaxies [Figs. 1.1 and 1.2; References 1 to 11] give rise to the 2nd Law in non-living and living Systems Dynamics [17]. Instead, Prigogine introduces the concept “Symmetry Breaking”, which is actually breaking the law of symmetry conservation: If one starts his formalism with the time-symmetric (reversible) equations of all physics, he cannot end up with the time asymmetric equations of thermodynamics. In other words: It is not science to smuggle irreversibility into the reversible equations of physics without declaring the contraband.

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Fig. 1.2: The Paradox involved in the Crisis about the Origin of time, Arrows of Time, Entropy Growth and all Irreversibilities in Nature.

Astronomical-astrophysical scales are expressed in terms of Light Years [“ly”],
as demonstrated by Figs. 1.1 and 1.2. The “100 million ly” scale depicted in Fig. 1.1 is ten times larger than that in Fig. 1.2. (“Light Year” is the distance electromagnetic waves, including photons as light, travel during 100 million years at 300,000 km/sec.) Such actual scales translate into enormous delay times for light from distant worlds to reach us.

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Fig. 1.3: ‘Our Non-Expanding Neighborhood’ is home to thousands of galaxies. These are wrapped around by dark SPACE-3. Located in the Local Group of about 30 galaxies [picture center], we feel its coldness each night. But there is much more to say about this information. (Image Source: NASA/Wikipedia) FIRST, most of the shining galaxies shown are assumed to contain super massive black hole 6 at their center. Each Galactic Center therefore acts as a gigantic matter-energy sink in the ‘immediate neighborhood’ of the black hole. SECONDLY, black holes are neither universal nor the largest thermodynamic “sinks”. The gigantic amount of radiation energy poured out from all the shining galaxies is evenly dispersed in all space directions, and is always proceeding from Space-3 into Space-2 that wraps clusters of galaxies. Therefore, only a very small portion of this wide-spread universal radiation energy reaches and irreversibly dissipated in galactic centers. In fact, most of it
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proceeds outside the dark space that dominates Fig. 1.3, thereby being irreversibly dissipated in expanding Space-1. THIRDLY, and most important, without the observed Space-1 expansion, the density of radiation energy (Fig. 1.2) in Spaces 1, 2 and 3, would increase with time, eventually reaching the highest temperatures maintained by nuclear fusion4 in active stellar cores, causing not only our roasting on earth and disintegrations of the all structures, but eventual equilibrium throughout all space. So if we owe our life to the universal rules of physics and bio-physics, we specifically owe it to Space-1 expansion. The apparent paradox involved here is what causes what: Said dynamics give rise to the 2nd Law of thermodynamics, or vice versa. Gravitism is based on the first assertion. In other words, space-1 expansion is the prime cause of cosmic time, the Master Arrow of Time, the origin of ‘entropy growth’ and of all observed irreversibilities in Nature. Next we plunge into specific verifiable facts that illustrate and support the universal scales and dynamics of involved in the meaning of Gravitism. Our LOCAL GROUP contains some 30 galaxies of different size and shape. Each galaxy contains billions of active stars. Superclusters Virgo include over 2,500 galaxies and is about 50,000,000 light years away from us. It stretches about 20,000,000 light years in ‘diameter’. Only Fig. 1.1 -- on a 10 times bigger scale – shows our ‘nearby’ Coma Superclusters, which contain about 800 major galaxies. Also the ‘nearby’ superclusters Hydra are out of the picture. Further away are superclusters Hercules, which is about 50,000,000 light years across -- the home of about 5,000,000 galaxies. Our Milky-Way galaxy is less than a spot in the large-scale portrait of our visible universe. [Fig. 1.1]. While our galaxy harbors billions of sun-like stars, it is only 0.1 million light years across. The distance from us to our sun is about 8 light minutes.

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Fig. 1.4: The Fundamentals of Gravitism vs. the Earliest Dark Voids (dark blue) that had started our endless world differentiation and aggregations and have thus given rise to the history of our cold night sky and the cold-hot world at large. (Fig. 1.3). (Image Source: Wikipedia) The first-ever dark voids shown are the earliest differentiated components of expanding SPACE-1 that wraps around the yellow-green-red hot sources and irreversibly absorbs all the radiation poured into the voids from the gravitationally-condensing, and, therefore, heated material emitters. (Fig. 1.2). The universal differentiation-aggregation is isotropic and homogeneous.

The First Tools of Gravitism
Assertion 1: To study the expansion of a single Space-1 “cell” (adiabatic envelope 7) that wraps around a typical emitter, is equivalent to the study of the expansion of the entire universe. Assertion 2: Dynamics and thermodynamic in such a single “cell” represent those of the entire universe. Assertions 1 and 2 are based on the observed isotropic and homogeneous distribution of the cosmic dark voids in both Figs. 1.1 and 1.4 and the science of fusion. (Footnote 4).

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With the additional definition of supernovae (Footnote 5), it also means that the same max temperatures characterize all cosmic material emitters -- qualities that have been approximately preserved as the universe has further expanded into what is shown in Fig. 1.1. Assertion 3: SPACE-I expansion comprises the earliest and most universal clock. We therefore define this unidirectional time as the 1st Cosmological Arrow of Time (Fig. 1.2) or THE MASTER TIME ASYMMETRY of all processes in the universe, including those of the living systems. Assertion 4: Socio dynamics on earth are subject to the same laws of physics and chemistry as in the large-scale foundations of Gravitism. Said down-scaled dynamics are demonstrated and explained in Lectures 1 and 2.

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Lecture 1 Synopsis
Starting from this Lecture, we search for the earliest and most remote origins of
time, arrows of time, irreversibilities, entropy growth, life and social dynamics. Socio-dynamics deals with the origin of the most private and collective traits of humanity and civilization. Example: Why people dynamics cannot be ruled under the objective dynamics that control the entire physical universe? Is there a verifiable, large-scale, physico-chemical cause-and-effect that has given rise to some destructive forces of humanity? What should be the science that deals with this fundamental phenomenon during all historical times? The methodology employed is to detect interconnecting facts that support the optional world outlook provided by Gravitism, using minimal pre-suppositions and imposed axioms. Though some fragments of these facts are scattered throughout the literature on specific problems, there is yet no dedicated professional framework to deal with the subject matter. The subject matter has never before been presented as a unified field of study, partially because it covers a relatively new field of integrated studies, and partially because specialized fragments are scattered throughout the literature on specific problems. As a result, different socio-proponents have approached this subject from widely varying and sometimes misleading viewpoints, employing disjointed concepts to what should be a unified methodology. Consequently, these Lectures depart from traditional, isolated texts, in emphasizing the interconnectedness of updated facts in different and apparently unrelated disciplines. Thus, in trying to develop a new INTEGRATED METHODOLOGY, we refrain from repeating well-known but isolated analyses, and, instead, stress the integrated consequences from the point of view of largescale physics and bio-chemistry that, combined, are termed Gravitism.
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For the sake of unification and simplicity, the physico-chemical supporting facts are first introduced in as simple a manner as possible, using illustrated graphs, pictures and drawings that can lead to testable consequences. Verified evidence cannot yet be admitted to a number of topics presented here. Therefore, if scientists are counted as “moderate skeptics”, as no doubt they should, they must adopt the practice of “suspend judgment”. By this we do not mean radical empiricism, or the denial of any rational addition to sociology. Thus, we refrain from leaving the study of Gravitism in the various domains of sociodynamics to the sole care of disciplinary sociologists.

Gravitism: From Large to Small-Scale Systems Dynamics

Differences

begin on the largest and earliest scales of the visible universe, as demonstrated in Figs. 1.1 and 1.4. We first focus on the shining emitters vis-à-vis the dark-cold cosmological Voids that absorb all the outpouring radiation, as marked in Figs. 1.1 and 1.2. It is an undisputed evidence that the dark voids not only expand, but their expansion is accelerated [1-5, 7, 9, 10, 20-52, 55]. This expansion, we assert and discuss below, not only causes the 2nd Law of thermodynamics of living systems [12-16], but via the Einsteinian-Gravity-Based evolution of galaxies, stars, planets and biophysics, has generated all life and its diversity. [17 and below].

SUPPORTING FACTS: 1) The core pillar of modern astronomy and astrophysics is the empirical HUBBLE LAW. It is based on verified observations since first discovered by Hubble in the 1920’s. [1-4, 7, 9, 11, 52, 53, 55]1,2. Hubble Law is marked in Fig. 1.2 as Uo=Hor, where r is the distance from earth to “CLUSTER I”. “r” represents superclusters or a cluster of galaxies shown in Fig. 1.1. Here Ho is the Hubble Constant and Uo the recession velocity, namely, how fast the observed
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astronomical object is receding away from us, or how fast R(t) is increasing with time, or how fast SPACE-1 is increasing with time. 2) SPACE -1 wraps all superclusters of galaxies.3 It contains all expanding dark voids shown in both Figs. 1.1 and 1.4. It does not, however, includes the non expanding superclusters. 3) SPACE 2 wraps around but does not include the non-expanding clusters of galaxies, galaxies, stars, planets, moons, etc. 4) SPACE-3 wraps around but does not include the non-expanding moon, earth, solar system, and galaxies. [Cf. Figs. 1.2 and 1.3].

At this point one may wonder

How such remote dynamics can affect us here-now?
To start with, we resort to a few additional assertions that relate to this common but legitimate question: Assertion 5: To deny today the central role of astronomy and astrophysics in physics, is to deny the very methodology of science, and to a priori reject a large portion of its verified empirical evidence. Assertion 6: We are linked here-now to what is going on far out there by resorting to a thought experiment: SPACE-I stops expanding ‘now’, thereby the stellar radiation energy density marked in Fig. 1.2 gradually rises all over spaces 3, 2 and 1, eventually causing the entire universe to reach equilibrium [uniform temperature/energy-density], whereby all processes in the universe stop, including life on earth. Assertion-Factual Evidence 7: The Cosmic Blackbody Microwave Background Radiation of the Early Expanding Universe (discovered in 1964; Cf. Fig. 1.4), is the remnant left-over radiation that has been expanded and cooled by SPACE-1-Expansion during the 13.72 (less about 500,000) billion years since creation -- the so-called “Big Bang”. This radiation has been cooled down from about 4,000-3,000 K, and it
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engulfs us ‘here-now’, as a reliable reminder that it constitutes a most direct proof that SPACE-1 has indeed been expanding and is isotropic [the same in all directions] and homogeneous. Upscaling 1: Since Space-1 is expanding -- and its expansion rate has been observationally proved as being accelerated -- the universe is unidirectionally cooling down forever. The corollary is that eventually all energy density gradients depicted in Fig, 1.2 – and in the solar system8 -- would flat, and all processes here and there would stop in what is called the final cold death. Downscaling 1: Said expansion generates the observed large-scale energy-density gradients [Fig. 1.2], which, in turn, generate small-scale stellar and planetary temperature gradients – the ones that allow life to emerge and be sustained. [17]. Downscaling 2: Einsteinian gravity [general relativistic physics] is wellapproximated by Newtonian Physics as one goes down the scales of size-mass. Accordingly, above a certain size-mass, all is structured by specific gravity, the heaviest components down in the core; the lightest up at the ‘top’. We term this phenomenon gravitationally-induced selectivity or gravitationally-induced survival of the fittest. [Lecture 2]. Downscaling 3: Adiabatic envelopes7 in the observed homogeneous and isotropic universe are always located between any pair of superclusters or clusters of galaxies. [Fig. 1.2]. Collecting all said spots forms Space-1 “cells” (adiabatic surfaces-envelopes around superclusters or clusters7), each of which evolves as representative of the entire universe that we cannot observe due to the event horizon/Space-1-expansion discussed next.

Is the Maximum Speed of Light Violated?
The universal maximum speed of light is not violated when sectors of the universe recede away from us [the Hubble expansion] at speeds higher than the speed of light. The expansion of the universe generates a large-scale event horizon – an observational limit for us to see the entire universe; namely, the light from such far away receding emitters is gradually being redshifted until the most remote sources totally disappear from our sights, for ever. Consequently, there is no option but to study cells of the universe, like that shown in Fig. 1.1, or by the
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adiabatic cells discussed above. However, the portion of the universe shown in Fig. 1.1 is shrinking in time, not so our ‘nearby’ selected adiabatic cell. Why? Much of what we now observe in Fig. 1.1 would be unobservable in the future, and forever lost to our sciences.

The relevance of Einstein’s General Relativity in Gravitism
Einstein’s General Relativity (“EGR”) is expressed by his field equations [17]. Without the so-called cosmological constant [20-51] EGR accepts no plausible static cosmological solutions. Thus, according to Einstein, the 1916 EGR had predicted the expansion of the universe before Hubble detected it in the mid 1920’s. From this point of view our new astrophysical school of systems dynamics and thermodynamics it is the agreement with EGR and said Einsteinian outlook, that this outlook is deeply rooted in EGR. Concluding Remarks; A. If one retains the cosmological constant in EGR, which Einstein had rejected due to the Hubble discovery in the mid 1920’s, it well-explains the role of the speculated dark energy and dark matter that are claimed, without strict observational evidence, to fill the universe and explain its observed accelerated expansion to a cold death. [20-51]. B. These matters bring this Lecture to a close.

C. String theories, black holes, gravity-based linguistics, Limitations of Theories, dark matter and dark energy are treated in the next online Lectures.

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FOOTNOTES
1.

Einstein General Relativity (EGR) may also be referred to as

Einstein’s Gravity Physics. Fundamental physics should the same for all observers, accelerating linearly, rotating, standing on a small astronomical body, like earth, or on a massive star. This need provides the basis for using coordinate translators that we call tensors.

EGR is expressed in terms of Einstein local metric tensor and its curved spacetime mathematical derivatives [Volume I, Ref. 17]. Distances deduced theoretically can thus be determined locally between two infinitesimally close points in curved space-time. It is, therefore, an unresolved issue to determine within the framework of each model, how to evaluate large distances between two distant points. The issue should not be confused with the fact that SPACE-1 [the Master Black Sink] size increases with time. Yet, in debating the validity of each proposed model, one must specify the space-time-curvature -- the curve-path-of-light that connects two such cosmic-apart points. Unfortunately, for the theoretician who wishes to gain support for his own specific model, that determination depends on HIS OWN selected cosmological model. In the Commoving Distance Model, for instance, commoving distances cannot be fixed. In practice, the distance of distant objects are best measured by their luminosity -- which is reduced by the square power of the distance to the radiation source [17] and by the redshifts of their incoming electromagnetic radiation.

2. The Expanding Universe and Hubble law.
Hubble’s astronomical observations prove that all clusters and super-clusters of galaxies [Fig. 1.1] are moving away from each other with speeds that are proportional to their distance from each other and , therefore, also from earth.
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Observations, including the 1964 discovery of the microwave black body radiation, prove that the expansion of SPACE-1 is the same in all directions (isotropic and homogeneous). Isotropic distribution across the sky of distant gamma-ray bursts and of supernovae also support this general conclusion. Our Net Motion in Space is about 400 km/sec. But this motion is not easy to comprehend. The direction of the earth’s net motion lies in the same plane as its orbit around the sun and at angle of 61 degrees tilted upward [northward] from the plane of the disk-like Milky Way. We travel around the sun at about 30 km/sec. These speeds should not be confused with the recession speed of clusters and super-clusters of galaxies away from each other. [R(t) Fig. 1.2]. This is the Hubble expansion. Our galaxy is deviating from this uniform expansion motion by about 600 km/sec.

3. Superclusters of galaxies, galaxies and our Milky Way
The shapes of superclusters vary considerably; from that of Virgo, Coma and Hercules to long ‘filaments’. [Figs. 1.1 and 1.3]. 9,11 Our Milky-Way Galaxy 8 contains billions of gravity-compacted stars and other entities. Most stars are formed in the dilute regions of the rotating interstellar SPACE-3. Our galaxy is almost 100,000 lightyears in diameter at its disk-like longest spiral arms. It is in the form of an almost flat spiral disk with an average thickness of about 1,000 lightyears away from it center Fig. 1.5: The “Fog” visible around this galaxy is composed of millions of stars like our sun – a reminder of the scales we discuss [12-18].

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All Superclusters are receding away ‘from us’ -- and from each other -- at great speeds -- the further away they are, the greater is the observed speed. This fact is termed the ‘EXPANDING UNIVERSE’. The receding superclusters follow the observationally-based Hubble Law [R(t) in Fig. 1.2]. Spaces 3, 2 and 1 contain the cosmic black-body remnant radiation, stellar photons, neutrinos, antineutrinos, gas, dust, etc. Intra-galactic gas may emit Xrays and other types of radiation. Andromeda (M31) is a member of our Local Group of galaxies. It is characterized by a spiral structure similar to ours, and is located about 2,200,000 light-years away. Andromeda and our galaxy are the largest in our Local Group, which is about 10,000,000 light-years in its largest spatial ‘diameter’, namely, the ‘size’ of our local group is about 100 times the size of our galaxy. Our local group includes M31 (Andromeda), M49, M58, M59, M60, M61, M84, M86, M87 and M89. Radiation pressure on any test-surface facing the lowest radiation-energy density value in the universe [adiabatic envelopes in mid cold Voids of SPACE-1, are less than that exerted by radiation impinging on that test surface from the other side, namely, from the one facing the source of radiation. (This is the familiar phenomenon behind “SOLAR SAILS” in space research.) The result is the universal driving force for energy transport from all hot radiation sources to cold SPACE-1, whereby the energy-density gradients inside adiabatic envelopes constitute the driving force of all irreversible processes in K for all the energy outpouring into it from all shining sources. SPACE-1 expansion is the prime mover of all irreversible processes in nature. Nature, and of the 2nd law of thermodynamics. Conclusion: With or without localized black holes, only expanding, cold, SPACE-1 [the Master Black Sink] provides us, with the universal, UNSATURABLE SINK, the cause of the 2nd Law.

4. Nuclear Fusion is caused by the force-pressure of gravity in the core of
active stars. It transforms (fuses) hydrogen plasma into ‘heavier elements’, like carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, phosphor, iron. Fusion is the most important process in the universe. All active stars generate in their interiors all the basic chemical elements beyond hydrogen and helium; namely, all the heavier basic elements of matter that we
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observe on earth and in our body and brain. According to both Einsteinian and Newtonian physics, the bigger the mass of a star, the higher are its core pressures and temperatures and faster are the nuclear fusion processes in its interior [17]. How do we know that? On both fusion and fission scientists know much. Fusion is also the driver of hydrogen-bomb explosions, (not fission as in atomic reactors and in ‘regular’ atomic weapons). When a certain amount of iron is formed in the interiors of active stars, endothermic reaction replaces the exothermic one. (The exothermic reaction generates energy in the stars, while the endothermic one consumes it.) All active stars produce energy through such nuclear fusion.

5. Supernovae, Maximum Temperatures, Redshifts & Measuring Astronomical Distances.
All active (shining) stars generate the heavier chemical elements at the high temperatures-pressures that gravity induces in their interiors. But the massive stars arrive to that ‘End-of-life Stage’ earlier than smaller stars do. That ‘Endof-life Stage’ may, however, be the ‘Beginning-of-life-Process’ in case the supernova debris (‘ashes’) gradually form orbiting planets around stars, as is the case that we assert was the beginning of our solar system. Supernovae are gravity-induced phenomena that astronomers observe in galaxies when a massive star ends its life by internal collapse-implosion. The collapse begins when the fusion process that produces energy, ends. Supernovae are not only the originators of all chemistry beyond hydrogen and helium [by nuclear fusion.], but serve in astronomy as reliable ‘distance yardsticks’ [“candles”] on which much of astronomy rests. The reason for this selection is explained below. A supernova explosion throws into Space 3 its interiors in the form of glowing debris and gases that, initially, are much brighter than any other star in its home galaxy. Hence, certain types of supernovae serve in astronomy as the max-cosmic temperature standard for calibrating distances to far-away galaxies via the absolute luminosity (brightness) method discussed in CPP Volume I [17].

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Supernova’s extremely bright glow has been studied since 1054, starting from the Crab Nebula. At its center there is a neutron star spewing energy and ‘elementary particles’ into Space 3, from which they proceed to Space 2 and, eventually, to Space 1. That end is reached when a threshold amount of iron is formed in the interior of a massive star. [CPP, Vol. I]. At that stage all net energy generation inside the star stops and the process reverses into an endothermic one during which energy is consumed. THE COLLAPSE: At this stage the core pressure falls and the doomed star cannot support the gravity-induced ‘weight’ of its upper layers. This leads to a gigantic collapse-implosion of the entire star structure. A few general-relativistic ‘deterministic options’ then emerge, depending on the mass and details of the doomed massive star: (i) if the mass of the star is about 1.4 times that of the sun, the star slowly decays into a white dwarf, (ii) if its mass is larger, the formation of an extremely packed neutron star or a black hole is the end result (in which no atomic nuclei structure survives), (iii) a gigantic supernova explosion follows the collapse-implosion by bouncing back from a central dense body [neutron star]. Type Ia supernovae harbor consistent brightness (absolute luminosity) because their progenitor is accreting mass from a nearby star, always imploding into the central neutron star at exactly the same mass -- the Chandrasekhar Mass Limit. [CPP, Volume I]. The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Supernova Program is designed to measure several hundred high-redshifted supernovae. Massive stars: Due to their high, gravity-induced, inner-core pressurestemperatures, massive stars are much faster than smaller stars, like the sun, to exhaust their ‘hydrogen-helium fuel’ by nuclear fusion. The resulting higher pressures-temperatures in massive stars cause faster releases of fusion energy in the interiors of these stars. From there the energy reaches the outer layers of the star and eventually leaves the star and spreads out in Spaces 3, 2 and, eventually, 1. 6. Black holes are postulated astronomical local objects that are spread throughout galaxies and superclusters of galaxies that are wrapped around by non-expanding SPACE-3, or may exist within Spaces 2 and 1.
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Black holes come into being by gravity and the expansion of unsaturable SPACE-1 [the Master Black Sink]. They act as additional unsaturable sinks to that caused by the expansion of SPACE-1. Like stars and galaxies, black holes cannot be formed without SPACE-1-expansion. Astrophysicists expect to detect black holes ranging between roughly the mass of a few suns to ten billion times greater. Such super-massive ones are postulated to be in the center of some extremely bright galaxies, including the ‘Milky Way’ and quasars. Black holes are LOCAL, general relativistic cosmological sinks for all matterenergy arriving and falling into them. They are postulated to be highly concentrated, local gravity-sinks where the gravity field is so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape from them. General relativistic cosmology predicts them as one-way sinks in space-time. Some are assumed to be in the center of some galaxies. They may be associated with what is observed and termed quasars. Within a black hole all atomic and sub-atomic structures had already been crushed to become only geometrically-curved space-time. This is due to the extremely strong gravitational field within the black hole. The cause of that total ‘break down’ of all structures is only gravity. Quasars and black holes. Quasars are assumed to be super massive forms of black holes. Hundreds have been detected by NASA's Spitzer space telescope, which measures infrared light, and by Chandra, which measures X-ray emissions. These quasars are in young (far-away) galaxies that are surrounded by relatively high-density gas that emits X-rays as it is being sucked into and accelerated towards a one-way sink of a massive black hole.

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7. Adiabatic Envelopes and the Origin of Time-Asymmetries and Irreversibilities in Nature.
An adiabatic “wall”, or “surface”, is a physical wall or an imaginary surface through which no NET energy flow takes place. In Fig. 1.2 we mark only three points on such imaginary surfaces, namely, where there is ‘No net energy flow’ across them. These surfaces wrap around superclusters of galaxies in 3 dimensions. No net energy flow means that radiation [and matter particles] somewhat similar to the ones detected within our solar wind – do not cross such adiabatic surfaces. The maximum temperature attainable in each galaxy is about the same. It is roughly the same as that generated initially by supernovae and is attributed to: (i) the maximum temperature in stellar cores during fusion in all active stars, (ii) The maximum temperature during supernovae explosions. (iii) The maximum detectable temperatures attainable by at the external surfaces of quasars or galactic centers that harbor gigantic black holes.

8. The Solar System is composed of our sun, the orbiting planets, moons,
asteroids, comets, rocks, gases and dust, all bounded together by the COMBINED attractive gravitational field of the sun, ‘our’ galaxy, ‘our’ local group of galaxies, ‘our’ superclusters of galaxies [Fig. 1.3] and the gravitational field of all the masses in the rest of the universe. The sun, like all active stars, is a self-gravitating massive sphere of sub-atomic particles in a state of hot plasma that is pressed-heated by the attractive force of gravity. It accounts for about 99% of the solar system total mass. Its diameter is about 1.392 million km and is slightly larger than of an average star in ‘our’ Milky Way galaxy. About 74% of the sun’s mass is hydrogen, with about 25% helium. Gravity-captured debris from previous generations of earlier gas or stars/supernovae, had started to condense and fall into or orbit the sun, gradually structuring the currently observed solar planets.

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During more than half of its present age, the universe did not harbor our solar system. The Solar System extends far beyond the farthest planets, asteroids, comets, rocks and dust in ‘our’ community. It is located inside non-expanding Space 3 that wraps our entire galaxy and is spatially interconnected with Spaces 2 and 1. The Solar System’s outer boundary is where the solar wind clashes with other ‘stars-winds’ emerging from ‘nearby’ stars. It may form there a gigantic shock wave called heliosphere. Our atmosphere comprises the following gravity-induced layers: Homosphere from sea level to 80km (Troposphere up to about 13km; Ozone layer about 1343km; Stratosphere 13-50km; Mesosphere 50-80km); Thermosphere 80-175 km (dilute Nitrogen 80-15km, Oxygen 105-128km, Helium 128-150km, Hydrogen 150-175km)]. On ATTRIBUTING CURRENT CLIMATE CHANGE to acts of humanity: The monotonic increase in (automatically) measured global temperatures does not show the 11-YEARS SOLAR CYCLE during which the sun luminosity changes. These changes are the results of complicated sun-interior convection currents, granulation, magnetic field lines between changing sunspot pairs, huge solar flares, etc.
1.

Such ‘short-time’ cycles may correspond to the unexplained ‘Little Ice Age” that chilled Northern Europe during the late 17th century, suggesting a causal link between solar total luminosity activity and climate change on earth.
2.

There have been 17 or 19 ‘ice ages’: From about 3,000,000 years ago until the last one, which gradually ended from about 12,000 to 8000 years ago. These ages have strongly affected ecological systems on earth, and each lasted about 50,000 to 100,000 years and each had lowered the surface of the oceans, resulting in climate-induced changes in life and all ecological systems.
3.

No Net Sun’s Energy Remains in Earth: This is the verified result of complicated thermal cycles in our atmosphere and on earth’s surface. The incoming sun energy [Cf, Solar Wind] is partially reflected [and scattered] from the upper layers of our atmosphere [about 30%] back to non-expanding Space-3, and, eventually, to expanding SPACE-1. Most incoming short-wave energy [about 64%] is reflected back to Spaces 3, 2 and eventually absorbed in the ever expanding VOIDS/SPACE-1 as long-wave
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radiation that results from the sun’s energy undergoing complex processes in the earth’s atmosphere and on the earth surface. Thus, all incoming sun’s energy (plus about 6% of heat from the earth’s interior], is proceeding further into the depths of Spaces 3, 2 and 1. RECAP: On its way to SPACE-1, the ‘solar wind’ engulfs earth and the other solar planets. No equivalent amount of this incoming radiation energy remains with earth and the other planets, as many wrongly assume. Part of it is reflected immediately by our upper atmosphere to outer, cold-dark spaces 3, 2 and, eventually, to Space-1. The rest of the ‘solar wind’ enters our atmosphere, and following complicated thermal-ecological-hydrological cycles it dissipates irreversibly in outer colddark Space 1. The outgoing energy includes additional, small amount of energy from the earth’s interior. Together with similar ‘solar winds’ generated by billions of stars in our galaxy, this radiation reaches SPACE 1 -- the unsaturable, limitless, universal sink of all radiation energies pouring into it from all stellar and galactic sources [12-18].

9. Galactic Centers. The center of our galaxy is called Sagittarius A. It is a source of radio waves that originate from matter heated to millions of degrees K as they “fall” into a super-massive black hole. Galactic centers of other galaxies may also harbor super massive black holes. These are postulated to be in the range of hundreds of thousands to tens of billions of the mass of the entire solar system. 10. Symmetry-Asymmetry & Super symmetries. These subjects are treated in other Lectures. At this point we only refer to a false primitive symmetry claim that states: If the universe is eternal into the future ‘it must be’ eternal into the past’, or ‘prior to creation’ [the “big-bang”], there must have been a ‘symmetric’ contraction into an ‘all-containing’ black hole.. As the density “had” increased during that ‘pre-creation’ contraction, gigantic black holes are claimed to be formed, and, at the instant of maximum contraction, they had switched to expansion, and only one of them has turned into “our expanding universe”.
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Upcoming tests at CERN or by the Planck Satellite or by the ground-based LIGO and VIRGO observatories, may reveal slight variations in gravitational radiation that are claimed to be associated with such postulated effects, say, on the polarization of the cosmic black body radiation.

11.

Merging-Colliding Galaxies

The ‘fog’ shown in these colliding galaxies is composed of millions of stars. Our galaxy is predicted by some models to collide with the Andromeda galaxy in about 5 billion years. The rate of galactic collisions was much higher in the past, mainly because the galaxies were closer to each other. Andromeda’s system consists of Cassiopeia Dwarf, Pegasus dSph, M32, M110, NGC 147, NGC195, AND I-V, etc. The Triangulum Galaxy, the 3rd largest galaxy in ‘our’ local group, also includes the Pisces Dwarf as a satellite. ‘Our’ satellite galaxies consist of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, Ursa Minor Dwarf, Darco Dwarf, Sculptor Dwarf, Canis Major Dwarf, Fornax Dwarf, Carina Dwarf, Sextans Dwarf, Tucana Dwarf, Leo I, Leo II, Leo A, Sag DEG, etc.

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Lecture 2
Socio-Gravitism
Many aspects of animals’ social organization and evolution can be predicted on the basis of gravity-induced environmental variables. Since biogeochemical evolution causes key natural resources to be distributed non-uniformly in the spatial and temporal coordinates of the biosphere, resource monopolization develops in all levels of socio-biological systems.

Gravity Selection as a key Component of Natural Selection
The first local "aggregates" of matter in the solar system have already contained atoms and simple molecules, and it was gravity that stratified these compounds in ‘horizontal’ layers according to their “specific gravity”.

The atmosphere and

geological strata are ordered-selected by the specific gravity of their chemical components. It was gravity that put the early components of living systems at one and the same strata.

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“Gravity Selection” is therefore a key component of “Natural selection”. Gravity is also the universal builder of structures, including all chemistry in the cores of gravitationally pressed-heated stars [See fusion in Lecture I], geological strata, earth morphology the entire evolution of life, village/city structures, transportation systems, linguistic hierarchy, recorded symbols, letters, grammar vs. time, structure of sentences, pages, books, shelves, houses.

1. Gravity-Induced Orientation, Order, Linguistics
Using gravity pointers up, down, left, right, we generate signs and record numbers and letters for a later use and for other to read.

Assertion 1 The origin of temporal behavior in animals can be traced back in time and out to external physical influences. Even “innate patterns" are frequently associated with simple orientation movement in the field of gravitation, i.e., as "up-warddownward" balancing of the biological body vis-à-vis the gravity pointer. Gravity periodicities around the sun emerge as prime sources of order via time and the arrow of time.

Animals are no exception. Each is
'conscious' of the commonly-shared "up-down" surroundings, and about "weight" and acceleration. Plants also harbor innate sensors that guide them in which direction to grow even on a mountain slope.

Additional

examples range from gyroscope inertial changes and gravity-induced changes involving the fluid in the vertebrate inner ear to a crystallizing suspension of organic spheres in water.

3. Gravity-Induced Plant Growth and Animal Behavior

The sensing devices which plants and animals use for "gravity perception"
("gravity receptors", "g-perception", "bio-accelerometers", "gravity-induced biological clocks", etc.) are not yet well understood, even though a voluminous
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literature has been published on this subject. But what we already know justifies the central role we claim gravity plays in living systems and society.

If

a growing higher plant is displaced with respect to the "upright" position, some tens of minutes later it will adapt its growth in such a way as to restore its original orientation in coincidence with the gravity vector. (If it is displaced only briefly and then restored to its original orientation well before the growth response can set in, it still responds to that displacement.)

Assertion 2 Plants ‘know’ to grow vertically upward when they start growing in total darkness as seeds inserted deep into the ground; -- even when they grow on a steep mountain slope. As most high-growing trees they align their growth under the control of the gravity vector.

Gravity-induced orientation-adaptation of an organism may occur when an organism orients itself by a gravity-induced gradient of density differences or hydrostatic pressure. Small organisms (including all bacteria) may have no means for sensing gravity, but they are affected by it.

Animals low on the evolutionary scale characteristically exhibit innate patterns
that depend little on learning, and have a lesser adaptability to changes in the environment. Consequently, their dependence on heredity-geophysical-gravitational origins is ‘high’ in proportion to animals that are ‘high’ on the evolutionary scale. While the latter show some signs of innate patterns, they harbor a greater capacity to produce a much more flexible mechanism to respond to a variety of other external changes that stimulate them. The evolutionary origin of the so-called "innate ideas" may, therefore, be external rather than internal.

4.

Assertion 3 Gravity-Induced Property, Domains, Wars

When a limited terrestrial space is divided into lots in a community, it carries economic and social standing, or "lebensraums" involving "well-defined territories" and "Gravity-induced Natural Selection"; from animals' mating systems to animals' monopolies on water resources; from natural food 25 administration to the control of key strategic ridges; from controlling fossil fuel resources to disputes over territories.

All Rights Reserved to Benjamin Gal-Or and M.C. Fernandez

Gravity-induced changes develop territoriality in a given spatial region or in a
given assembly of individuals, especially when key resources are not sufficiently abundant and stable through long periods of historical times. Inequality in human society begins with land demarcation and property, private and tribal, stated owned or company run. Envy then drives competition, company ads, TV and academic rating, political candidates, religious rivalry and key human traits, sometimes stronger than as death.

One species, or one sex, may control a larger quantity of resources, say, scarce
water ponds, than the other, until a small percentage of the population monopolizes key resources. We observe this phenomenon in both the animal and human domains of sociobiology. In humans these gravity-induced territoriality is often developed into nationality, strategy and wars.

5. Gravity-Induced Law, Seconds, Minutes, Days, Year

Assertion 4 Even the computer page is ordered by up, bottom, left, right margins and footnotes. And it takes time to read them and to comprehend them; the time that always advances from past to future; the time that we term Linguistic Arrow of Time. Similarly, gravity-induced ordering of 26 shelves, files, documents and books in a library introduces order into our life.

Whole
and

cultures, civilizations religions have been

All Rights Reserved to Benjamin Gal-Or and M.C. Fernandez

constructed on gravity-induced human orientability, concepts, spirituality, art, music, home structure, village structure, wells, canals, boats, trade, agriculture, and even law enforcement by hanging [17].

History testifies that such gravity-induced cultural phenomena may proceed
beyond grammar and social order far into the spiritual and hierarchical domains: High priest, low deck, high commissioner, and highness, heaven, lofty, go to the bottom of the subject, etc.

6. Gravity-Induced Social Standards and “Meaning”

We train our brain-mind to appreciate gravity-induced, configuration-orderorientation and reject chaos and disorder. In short, we reject what does not well align with gravity-induced posture, standing and sitting modes. Our brain-mind searches for what is 'right' via gravitationally induced symmetries and asymmetry ‘standards’. Each picture we observe, and each letter-symbol, word and sentence that we read, or hear, forms in our brain-mind a specific aggregated, configuration-boundary, -- a gravity-oriented asymmetry. Each letter-symbol, each word and each sentence generates such an aggregated, configuration-boundary-asymmetry in our brain-mind, where it had been irreversibly recorded and compared with what had been forced on our brain-mind by previous forces of our education; -- the STANDARDS at home, school, social group, tribe, nation, religion or a specific branch of civilization. Time reversal of musical notes destroys our pleasure. One cannot enjoy it if it is played in reverse. The structure and modulation of voice and the sentences a human mind seeks to identify with are similarly affected.

Even a minor deviation from one's pre-trained language, intonation, accent,
symmetry and asymmetry -- in face, body and walking way -- destroys our gravity-induced concepts about what is 'right', young, healthy, and what is not.

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In observing a person our mind generates a gravitationally induced structural
asymmetry that is compared with the stored standard Any picture is gravitationally oriented in our brain-mind: ‘up/down’ or ‘horizontal/left/right’. Thus, inversion of a picture, or reversing the direction of symbols, words and a meaningful text, destroys the meaning. We maintain that this process generates gravity-induced form-orientationconfiguration of 'heading', ‘beginning’ and 'end'.

7. Biological Clocks and Gravitation

The origin of temporal behavior in animals can be traced back in time and out
to external physical influences. Gravity and geophysical periodicities emerge as prime sources of order and information in all non-living and living systems. Animals low on the evolutionary scale depend little on learning, and have a lesser adaptability to changes in the environment. Consequently, their dependence on heredity-geophysical-gravitational origins is high in proportion to animals high on the evolutionary scale.

8. Vertigo, Loss of Coordination-Balancing & Gravity

Vertigo is a loss of coordination, balancing and orientation vis-à-vis space and
the gravity-induced horizon.

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Biological structures in the inner ear include semicircular canals and a fluid
that moves, by gravity force, with respect to the gravity vector and activates a system that transmits linear and rotational motions vis-à-vis the gravity vector to the vestibular nerve, which carries these signals through the brainstem to our brain cerebellum, which, in turn, uses them to control our balancing, orientation, coordination and movement. The vestibular system in our ears comprises two semi-circular ‘canals’, which are used to indicate our rotational movements, and otoliths, which indicate linear translations.

The vestibular system sends signals primarily to the neural structures that
control our eye movements, and to the Cerebellum-muscles system that keeps us upright and helps maintain clear vision-orientation vs. the gravity vector.

9. Biological Cells, Reproduction, Immunity System & Gravity

Gravity

causes changes in cell division, metabolism and the immunity system. Reproduction is also impaired and the immune cells cannot differentiate into mature cells in low or zero gravity conditions attainable in space crafts. The size of a biological cell depends on the local gravity vector – its size increases in larger local gravitational field-force values. Bone cells must attach themselves to something and will die if they cannot. Without the gravity force-field they float around and perish. When animals evolve on land, outside the oceans, they develop stronger skeletons to cope with larger gravity forces vis-à-vis the reduced one due to buoyancy in the waters. Earlier lifeforms in the oceans were smaller and had a jellyfish-like configuration. Thus, without strong skeletons, land animals cannot evolve

10. Animals and Gravity-Induced Effects

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Gravimorphism, gravitropism and tropism are directional movements of a
plant with respect to a directional stimulus. One such tropism is gravimorphism -the growth or movement of a plant with respect to gravity. Plant roots grow in the direction of gravity while shoots and stems grow against it.

RECAP:
Gravity generates structures and controls all geological layers and global phenomena ranging from mountain crests, gravity-induced tectonic folds, valleys, beaches, oceans and lagoons, to springs, wells, swamps, glaciers and rivers, and the bio-systems connected with them. Without gravity-induced orientation-order and grammar we are lost in any given written language. Gravity-induced grammar prevents us from vertical reversals. Similarly, horizontal reversals prevent us, say, from reversals of W to M. There are more complicated gravity-induced grammar rules. They range from preventing reversal of past into future, and vice versa, to use gravity-induced structures as reference: A mountain crest, valley, beach line, river bed, sky, earth, ocean, etc. Gravity-sensing cells function as detectors of the direction of gravity. The fluidparticles systems inside cells initiate inner convective currents that cease under zero gravity. Thus, the absence of gravity affects the contacts of cells via their membrane potential and their cytoskeletons.

11. Gravity-Induced Village and City Structures

G

ravity generates structures and

controls all geological layers and global phenomena ranging from mountain crests, tectonic folds, geological uplifts, valleys, village and city structures, transportation systems, oceans and
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lagoons, to springs, wells, swamps, glaciers and rivers, as well as the ecologicalsystems connected with them.

12. Gravity and Global Warming
Gravity affects global warming and all ecological systems. [Cf. Solar System in Lecture I].

13. Gravity and Health
The evolution and everyday functioning of our bones, legs, hips, joints, cartilages, ligaments, femurs, tibia, pelvis and muscles, has been "in response" to the force and direction of gravity. Gravity plays a key factor in heart failure associated with swollen legs, in flooded lungs, walking, sleeping needs etc. Nevertheless, the cardinal role gravity plays in the treatment of gravity-induced disorders in biological systems, human perception, health and longevity, has been largely overlooked by health providers and researchers, partly because the key role of gravity as the universal generator of all socio-gravity-dynamics, has not yet been well understood and investigated.

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