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Thomas Heaton Spitters August 2011
Computer – facilitated product design and manufacturing became a “hot – button” item many years ago with the introduction of complex
computer systems and imaging, and the application of these and other technology tools to production processes everywhere. computer systems were centralized and have been Originally, developed to
emphasise networking and distributed systems and computing / data processing. Due to the difficulties and other issues proposed by
batch processing technologies, there has been an emphasis, again, on developing real – time systems of software and hardware to resolve specific business issues. In all events, with the recent emphasis on
quality programs, cost and system efficiencies including real – time computing, the overall production processes of many manufacturers have not improved very much above the days of batch processing and other, older techniques. The reader will find in this paper a brief
illustration of flexible manufacturing implementation and controls at least in part, and a word or two about SAP applications and these issues. This paper should serve again, at least in part, as a review
in view of the recent innovative trends on “additive” manufacturing technologies.
Computer integrated manufacturing is comprised itself of integrated processes and technologies, and other technologically suffused points of a company's product design and manufacturing processes.
Copyright THS, 2011
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and that are in the SAP Solution Map include Logistics (Information Systems. Production Planning.layered computer applications. industrial groups. multi – platform software capabilities including those to enhance and leverage the enterprise database. planning. implementing. from Copyright THS. maintaining. easy programming and understandable software code. built in and “bolted on” for many industries from banking to mining. These activities in SAP include ease – of – use applications and modules. Some of the applications in SAP that work particularly well with said industries. activities. and other varietal but related processes requiring considerable computer power and technology. processes. large business . and simple vocabulary for business end – users. Financial and Cost Accounting and others. operating.scalable solutions for blueprinting. Said implementations have considerable efficiencies developed. 2011 Page 3 of 22 . The applications available through SAP are a coherent and effective solution to issues of business interrelatedness. and requirements for a glue for far – flung business activities that need integration or an efficient computerized vehicle to enable proper the execution of proper business rules and regulations.) Sales and Distribution. controlling and reporting for these business activities in many industrial domains. The SAP enterprise DUET and HANA configurations and implementations have shown that more parts of a business are served better using these integrated solutions versus dependence upon legacy and departmental or divisional systems.
along the lines including of user's more or tailored consumer's perceptions. including those related to accounting and reporting through objects will respond rapidly and to more manufacturing computerization directives of business cost such accounting as bills of materials. 2011 Page 4 of 22 . more As computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) becomes even – based and even more real for end – users. see the SAP Developer Web site. any basic guide to enterprise software or enterprise resource planning. and more advanced product design and production. again. Copyright THS. for example an overall view on ERP. or. This has been the overall purpose of implementation of packaged composite applications for some time. For a basic review of this.” or. Many aspects of the enterprise information system. consumers and the like.entertainment to automobile manufacturing and on the implementation level from paper and workflow to machine and automation tools and controls. business computing will become less complex and more integrated. the “Journal of Information Systems. technology investors. see my book. with an emphasis upon manufacturing customization manufactured and products communications. information and data capture and processing including multi – processing. would be An illustration of the benefits of “autonomation” with SAP impossible without an understandable link between the manufacturing and information systems properties of modern companies.) Examples of systems that have benefited more recently from SAP implementations. MYSAP FI Fieldbook (2005.
and labour and asset. or fabrication. the Management financial of companies of the future and will other integrate reporting requirement compliance with internal accounting functionality and its application and view to financial and other performance indicators. and other management reporting further criteria. including SAP as This group - transaction driven. will make the corporation more forward – looking as more reliable forecasts will be available in more departments and divisions through enterprise management systems. of applications from any source. including through SAP Strategic Enterprise Management. and using optimized and efficient controls. and. billing and invoicing. again “autonomation. The real – time character of this functionality will reach more people within the enterprise as well from data input through the various technology areas to final controlling. and with views from the data – level to high – level summaries. purchase orders.routings. multiple business methods. and will allow re – planning and the generation of numbers for varying degrees of related sensitivities to give an accurate snapshot of business health and economic and financial climates. reporting. The relevant applications will be ideal in addressing future economic and political issues in view of regional and territorial economic and financial factors and changes. pricing policies and documentation. artificial intelligence.” Implementation of applications will be necessary as preceded by cost – benefit matrices analysis and tracking on facility and corporation Copyright THS. 2011 Page 5 of 22 .
business area. related identification and analyses including productivity analysis. political. economic. with Definition of stakeholders and Structure cost – benefits analyses manufacturing function. human and societal. intangibles they can and be etc. including Perform thorough implementation analyses of manufacturing facilities (as is) in view of implementation. g. for the blueprinting and implementation process include: financial / costs baselines. Evaluate technological For or alternatives for improving facilities and industrial groups. risks.. and executive criteria.) and the role of corporate and regional and territorial economics and risks. determine a future “projected” cost – benefit matrix or pattern for each facility and the entire business and same for alternatives. facility and corporate consolidated “what – ifs. Remember that inflation differs in different countries and different Copyright THS. again on a facility and corporate – wide basis.” e.. b. matrices for cost – benefit / opportunity costs. Develop performance Develop benchmarks for facilities based on results in “c. their social. h. and priorities of implementation and improvements. modernisation. to Analyse financial. each capital and corporate improvement. f. 2011 Page 6 of 22 .” c. d. analyses of items such as productivity improvements.– wide bases concerning proposed improvements and programs. and the entire company. improvement potentialities (and SWOT. Some simple guidelines a. including factors the degree quantified for each business facility.
investment returns. indicators.benefit matrix / analysis of future improvements and efficiencies needs to show this. & A implementation in development and Q & A computing environment for testing. Product assessment and feasibility study. c. Any cost – benefit analysis or study should roughly include the following for review: a. and efficiencies. to and development.) Information provided and by the cost should cost – – benefit be studies.regions. success factors and other indicators should conform with all internal and external reporting rules (this means U. Copyright THS. Cost – benefit analysis should capture actual costs and performance indicators that have been identified as CSF's by management. 2011 Page 7 of 22 . customization. GAAP and management accounting standards. for example. and reporting to standardized. Cost – benefit measures.S. matrices. and that a time – based cost . Transition including and from Q & A implementation communication full awareness implementation of new increasing commerical / business corporate computing and manufacturing landscape. b. d. valid to and determinations verifiable. tracking subject benefit invite sufficient time and energy to determine the feasibility of future savings. analysis Q of investment development or license study and product launch.
MANUFACTURING PROCESS CONTROL. and so on. manufacturing. operation level. product flow through a distribution system. again. an The product state or such might product. itself is the process of transforming raw materials into finished goods using a development or implementation process. interaction interactions computing or power. from the very simple to the very complex. to a number of or partial processes or changes that are implemented using sophisticated technological equipment. 2011 Page 8 of 22 . A process is an activity or function performed on material resources or materials that changes them into a finished product. Process control is a unique part of industry that deals with the control of variables that influence materials and equipment during the development and fabrication of a product. on and / or off operations. control has to do with those by parameters that maintain a desired system functioning and output altering energy flow from the energy source to the load medium or device. control might or be any implemented combination end – using of human – interaction. human of technological be a tools. Control ranges from a full control environment. Processes are manufacturing functions performed on products that Copyright THS. With respect to this. Manufacturing. workflow. In manufacturing. primary functions of a manufacturing These processes vary Control is one of the especially flexible system.
or capital assets or products overall. pressure. and levels All of processes areas operations and analysis that consider temperature. and quality control. This concept. economy. among others. reporting. are coating. material flow. machinery control.” “response time. milling. quality. numerical control. be they for consumers. Quality and quantity of products produced are also dependent upon production processes. resources changes. cooling. manufacturing baking.eventually change source and raw materials into finished products. that include “control There are different registers of control time.” “control effectiveness. and related materials and resources are controlled only when the final product or outcome of a process must be changed. Manufacturing processes are continuously changing during the fabrication and finishing of products. fits into areas such as inventory control. distilling. grouped into and so forth. and other Copyright THS. “Control” itself in the manufacturing sector. 2011 Page 9 of 22 . in its implementation has the primary functioning to determine the final outcome of a manufacturing process.” as determined themselves by the needs of the system and its different criteria – cost. Manufacturing processes depend highly on the nature of raw materials being used and the nature of end – products as well. programmable control. and process control is an integral part of the monitoring. of which some of the more ordinary are heating. and analytics and other reporting functions. and operations of the manufacturing of any goods.
comparison. The first part of the process represents the beginning processes of input variables (time. among other things. pressure. and automatic systems are dependent on self – regulating processes and equipment that replace human control operations. Automatic control functioning can often achieve better The measures of production results than a human – control process. Manual control systems demand more human interaction for their proper functioning.factors. correction and other key indicators of quality and performance. transmission controller and a final element. “Open – loop” and “forward – feed” controls are two frequently used methods in industrial processes. displacement. In open – loop control. gas or liquid flow. All manufacturing measurements are estimates or appraisal of activities or processes subject to certain criteria. and the controller serves as a monitor and indicator. by a process The open – loop system is often path. speed. acceleration. called an actuator or final control element. computation. and force. Copyright THS. 2011 Human Page 10 of 22 . torque. changes to a manufacturing process are based upon and made at any time by human interaction. characterised energy source. to govern the functioning of the actuator. system control often include measurement. etc. temperature.) The transmission path is responsible for transforming the input variables using an energy source throughout the remainder of the system. and “automatic control” is equally compelling but has to do with what the process achieves during manufacturing without human interaction.
or the path of a cutting element on a milling machine. The actuator implements the response of the controller to the final process element and finished product. chemical viscosity.” or self – regulating systems have output that is measured and compared with pre – determined settings.interaction here is determined through the attachment of a manual setpoint adjustment to the controller to change the operating range of the controller process. An easy example of an open – loop system is a steam heat system with a temperature measurement unit and a manual steam valve as a setpoint adjustment. or component is submitted to the controller that regulates output according to desired values. 2011 “Feedback” refers to the direction in which the Page 11 of 22 . Copyright THS. and so on. equipment. Feedback is generated by the output sensing device. The advantages of such systems are their simplicity and low cost. processes subject Examples of controlled processes are water temperature and pH of an aqueous solution. similar system would be that of a heated A more complex but water main where any detected change in water temperature is compared to desired measures by an operator who opens or closes a heated – water valve. need for manual control for feedback in the manual control and other sub – systems. The final process element can be any piece of equipment for altering the passage of the energy result through of these the system. “Closed – loop. temperature of molten elements or alloys. and as the output to is the considered controller.
and a correction signal is generated by the controller and relayed to the actuator or final control element. including: Copyright THS. the system indicates a balanced state and remains unmodified. and in a way the output signal to the controller acts as a signal source for the feedback control element – a classic example of a feedback loop. and the feedback circuit is the distinguishing feature of this system. The closed – loop system is similar to the open – loop system. If the sensor output is different from the setpoint value. signals are applied to the controller to indicate the system is out . and this part of the process results in a self – correcting feature to the system. correction signal contains directions of the controller to The the actuator to change the system state.output sensing values are returned to the controller. The output signal to the controller is a summing circuit that compares the setpoint input and output feedback signals and the input or process energy source is responsible for establishing the setpoint value of the system process(es. 2011 transient response. A number of elements are and a number used to describe closed – loop of them are used to evaluate system system operations. steady – state error. Page 12 of 22 . loop and closed – loop systems perform essentially The open – the same functions. and when and where the feedback value is the same as the setpoint value.of – balance.) The setpoint operator is changed or adjusted according to the feedback comparison process as determined by a sensor. performance.
stability. or represents a steady – state condition of the system without waves or oscillations of output. sensitivity.damping or under . Stability is an indicator of the system's ability to re – attain a steady state after a change has taken place. In other words. or after a shock. Each condition occurs before the system reaches a steady state and are represented by different paths through the system process. for example.” and “under .” The “critically damped response” is a state in which the system has reached a steady state after over – or – under damping. 2011 Page 13 of 22 . It is an important measure in the operation of the controller and always shows an offset between the performance value and standard system value. These terms are used to illustrate the response of closed – loop systems to feedback. The sensitivity term refers to a comparison between system output performance as measured to standard output amounts. including “over - damping. such as a change in input and the resulting output. and some are severely affected as well by the time it takes for feedback to the controller to remediate transient response(s) and this should be taken into account in any system.damping. Some manufacturing processes are severely affected by feedback oscillations and other “damping” waves. Copyright THS. the critically damped response is. Steady – state error has to do with how the feedback and controller processes have re – attained a steady state after an oscillation. The error is computed by comparing the actual system output to the standard system output after the transient response takes place. an over .damping.
self – balancing setpoint. integral. and when resistance and capacity are combined. for its process to correct the system state. using the setpoint as what is called a reference variable. Capacity of a system is its ability to store energy or a Resistance opposes the transfer of quantity or measure of something. derivative. process changing to and the A setpoint follow – up system is a feedback in which are the setpoint as is constantly as possible controller controlled variables kept close despite their change values. this results in a time lag. Such systems are said to have a Responses of a controller. purely and simply described here as modes of control. proportional. to the setpoint.' or the time the system takes to regain a steady state after a change of input from one value to another. and there are Copyright THS. engineers refer to 'dead time. 2011 Page 14 of 22 . are among the following: Pure operational control – on or off scenarios. This is referred to as a process time lag and is affected by system inertia (the ability of a process to continue despite that a change has occurred. Any system that is highly consistent with respect to production levels despite numerous load changes is referred to as a setpoint regulator system where the setpoint of such a system is established and then rarely changed.When a transient response happens. the system takes time.) System inertia must be addressed successfully before process control can be effective. Sometimes. energy in the production process. usually.
The On – off control scenario has to do with. and / or proportional plus integral plus derivative control. These control modes are proposed often by looking at control procedures.more sophisticated feedback schemes such as a composite mode. Integral control is a controller – regulated system where the controller output whose signal is proportional to some computed system error serves as feedback to the controller. home heating systems as controlled by a solenoid gas valve and a setpoint that regulate a thermostat that turns an air – conditioning unit on or off. the controller does not simply determine the on – or – off status of a switch or valve. airflow and the like. In proportional control. like proportional plus integral. In this scenario. 2011 This type of control scenario is a good Page 15 of 22 . Such controls can be designed to react to temperature. but the final control element in the system can be adjusted between fully open and fully closed. The error signal itself is the difference between the system setpoint and the actual system process values. proportional plus derivative. for example. the value of which is determined by a ratio of the setpoint input and the actual value of the process. the controller will continue to correct it and integral control as a process is continuous and rapid. Copyright THS. water flow. if there is an error in the system. Proportional plus integral control includes control instrumentation that combines the feedback principles between the integral and proportional control types.
The nature of this situation is the error will not cause an immediate difference with the setpoint in the system. but can not reduce the system error to zero. the system then will have a tendency to overcompensate which might result in oscillations. slowly as it is. as in a water system where it takes time for the water to increase in temperature when subject to heat. for example. but it can reduce system error to zero. When the error is registered. These two principles combined result in The action of a PI (proportional plus integral) – defined system. Integral control responds less rapidly over time.response to long – term system errors and is primarily used with proportional control – proportional control responds rapidly. a corrective action is available that allows the system to respond to very minute errors. the system takes at least the same time to respond with corrective action. which is the problem with the offset in proportional control. and does not respond to rapid changes. One scenario that cures this is whence a response to an error is large and dampens over time – this solution is typically named a derivative controller. Many controllers have an inertia problem. Derivative controllers have a circuit that works in proportion to the rate of change of its input as determined by circuit resistance and capacitance and its relationship to a time element and the rate of Copyright THS. but if the error continues and remains large. the proportional plus integral control scenario is easily computed using ordinary mathematical procedures. To overcome this type of slack. 2011 Page 16 of 22 .
a system can use a proportional plus derivative control to reduce the tendency for oscillations. Derivative controllers do not respond to steady – state errors. You need to remember the derivative controller only responds to changes due to variations in applied error signals to the setpoint. Such a control depends upon a proportion that involves the change in output as a percentage of the error signal. and such controllers are subject to difficulties with noise and transient elements that cause the output to accumulate or approach its highest level. Proportional plus integral plus derivative controllers also combine the principles of those three separate controllers in a single Copyright THS. In order to allow oscillations to have a higher gain setting. the output will seek its own level.change of the input to the input itself. or servo . and other Such systems are found in electric and electronic measuring devices. 2011 Page 17 of 22 . but if there is a tendency for the system to oscillate.driven systems and in systems characterised by small and quick elemental changes. and differentiates error – signal changes and will maintain a system level insofar as the system is subject to constant changes only. electronic differentiators. Derivative controllers are used most always in conjunction with other controls. they are also often used in motor – driven systems. The controllers in a PD system (proportional plus derivative system) are additionally useful in their capability to anticipate elemental system changes.
Industrial manufacturing. specifications testing. 2011 Page 18 of 22 . elements of manufacturing including quality control. Each element of this controller develops its own output. again as it is known overall. and other process analytics. Some of these analytics include electric / electronic / magnetic field instrumentation such as equipment dealing with electric and Copyright THS. is the process used in describing turning raw materials into other materials that are more valuable. again. determine the functioning of complex This controller is used to and complicated industrial systems and can be expensive to implement. in the modern age. more rapid means of testing through the implementation of new technologies that monitor and analyse everything from raw materials and their related processes to the contribution of the production processes to local environments and process and final production testing as well. Some of the more recent breakthroughs in manufacturing in these areas include. This always involves. and the three indicators are summed and added through an amplifier.instrument: Each separate controller receives the same error signal. and the output measures are combined typically into a single expression that determines regulation of the system. inspections. ANALYTICS AND INDUSTRIAL MANUFACTURING. or processing them into their final form.
chromatographs. memory. chemical – energy instrumentation. costs. analysers. and equipment and instrumentation electromagnetic instruments. MPU. including mass spectrometers. 2011 Page 19 of 22 . Memory. analysers measuring electrical conductivity including those with and without nodes and electrodes. thermal / mechanical – energy instruments and analysers.magnetic – field reactions. or are comprised themselves of computer capabilities including the basic computing elements found in all computers: and data busses. CONCLUSION. All instruments. ultarviolet and infrared analysers. these colorimetry and other when instrumentation. gas analysers and gas – leak detectors. The emphasis of CIM and its corresponding controls through SAP and related solutions mapped on different business levels and Copyright THS. do include systems. and address This writing has included an introduction into the various types of manufacturing controls as monitored in ERP systems such as SAP and their related functionality with respect to quality and quantity. customization and other performance indicators. pH analysers. specific nuclear gravity. combustion photometric analysers. radiation detectors. interface adapter. viscosity rating equipment measuring – radiation and density analysers viscometers. including and radiation detectors ionization scintillation counters and X – Ray radiation instruments. computerised.
environments. All this in order to accede to the advanced stages of the flexible manufacturing world and into the parallel world of “additive” production and industry. A necessary and important part of the computing landscape for these activities will be the wireless network and its related functionality. and on and on. between colleagues. between peers. and end – users. Factories will be able to take advantage of processes in making more things than just the end – products of manufacturing methods and practices. is upon information and communications. efficient and competitive. including the confidentiality. both horizontally and vertically. centralized or distributed. many systems transmit useless and unusable summary information and data. and mindful knowledge. and monitoring between business and consumer. board directors and product developers. availability and integrity of integrated computing power and systems. in the corporate hierarchy. including economic environments. where controllers and end – users alike will necessarily have access to databases and core application data in order that the business remain effective. and between businesses. Much of the data as processed by SAP can be distilled into interpretive and analysable. neighbors and managers. At present. Packaged composite applications will have a role in new “additive” manufacturing processes and techniques. 2011 This is the Page 20 of 22 . that is otherwise redundant or does not contribute to system performance or quality improvement. Copyright THS. programmers and manufacturers.
or to focus better on a market niche. paybacks and hurdle rates: with This represents a kind of eschewing or avoidance syndrome to manufacturing and technology – related factors. and can nonetheless reduce product – unit variable costs to help a competitor gain market share. production capacity. if not to survive commercially prevalent in amid the the world business economy chaos today.user and customer / vendor driven with an emphasis on the corporate end – user. investment including insistence on lower market prices. respect Copyright THS. resulting technologies are end . especially those involving SAP are a compelling reason behind the efforts of the enterprise to become more economically competitive. and heuristic rules to data processing in developing SAP as intended to reduce the redundancy and uselessness of some forms of data. and the including corporate The databases and equipment. business machine traits knowledgebase. 2011 Page 21 of 22 . tools.result of the application of some cognitive. and distraction that is do SAP implementations increase fixed costs. and to preserve the integrity underlying of applications and other and other technologies. Enterprise Resource Planning implementations. and economies of scale which are desirable for many businesses and business areas and activities. additional Beware of company management fears of taking on an and insistence upon unreasonable returns. Implementation of SAP is also customizable according to the diverse needs of the networked and integrated industrial manufacturers and other entities. attributes.
2011 Page 22 of 22 .successful or not. the projected price behaviour for various products and impact of pricing policies on the market. including cost reductions and break even. Copyright THS. verify and highlight the increase in fixed costs and resulting economies of scale. ROI and TCO projections and forecasts along with results tracking. References available upon request. cost – benefit and other analyses should include lots of numerical illustrations through charts and foils that actually validate. as far as their Disinvestment patterns are difficult to determine actually redeeming criteria and results are Any concerned and can result in a vicious spiral for the business.
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