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You are on page 1of 7

More Curves

and Surfaces

Thomas Funkhouser

Princeton University

COS 426, Spring 2004

Uniform Cubic B-Splines

• Properties:

V 0

Local control

C 2 continuity

Approximating

V 1

V 3

V 2

V 4

V 5

B-Spline Blending Functions

• How derive blending functions?

V 0

Cubic polynomials

Local control

C 2 continuity

V 1

V 3

V 2

1

b -1

b -2

b -0

V 4

b -3

0

u

V 0

V 1

V 2

V 3

V 4

V 5

V 5

Types of Spline Curves

• Splines covered in last lecture

Hermite

Bezier

Catmull-Rom

B-Spline

resulting in different properties

B-Spline Blending Functions

• Properties imply blending functions:

V 0

Cubic polynomials

Four control vertices affect each point

C 2 continuity

V 1

V

3

V 2

1

V

4

0

u

V 0

V 1

V 2

V 3

V 4

V 5

V

5

B-Spline Blending Functions

• Four cubic polynomials for four vertices

V 0

16 variables (degrees of freedom)

Variables are a i , b i , c i , d i for

four blending functions

V 1

V 3

V 2

3

b

(

u

) =

a u

b 0 u

2 +

c 0 u

1 +

d

0 +

0

0

3

b

(

u

) =

a u

b 1 u

2 +

c 1 u

1 +

d

1 +

1

1

V 4

b

2 a u

(

u

) =

3 +

b 2 u

2 +

c 2 u

1 +

d

2

2

b

3 a u

(

u

) =

3 +

b 3 u

2 +

c 3 u

1 +

d

3

3

V 5

1

B-Spline Blending Functions

• C2 continuity implies 15 constraints

V 0

Position of two curves same

Derivative of two curves same

Second derivatives same

V 1

V 3

V 2

V 4

V 5

B-Spline Blending Functions

• Solving the system of equations yields:

B-Spline Blending Functionss

In plot form:

V 0

m

B

( u

) =

j

a u

i

j

V 1

j = 0

b -0

b -1

1

1

V 3

V 2

0 0

0

1 0

1

b

b -2

-3

V 4

1

1

0 0

V 5

0

1 0

1

B-Spline Blending Functions

B-Spline Blending Functions

• In matrix form:

1

3

0

3 1 V

1

3

6

3

0

= (

)

V 1

3

2

Q ( u

)

u

u

u

1

6

3

0

3

0

V

2

1

4

1

0

V

3

B-Spline Blending Functions

• Blending functions imply properties:

V 0

Local control

Approximating

C 2 continuity

Convex hull

V 1

V

3

V 2

1

V

4

0

u

V 0

V 1

V 2

V 3

V 4

V 5

V 5

2

Curved Surfaces

• Motivation

Exact boundary representation for some objects

More concise representation than polygonal mesh

H&B Figure 10.46

Curved Surface Representations

• Polygonal meshes

• Subdivision surfaces

• Parametric surfaces

• Implicit surfaces

Parametric Surfaces

• Advantages:

Easy to enumerate points on surface

v

u

• Problem:

Need piecewise-parametrics surfaces to describe

complex shapes

FvDFH Figure 11.42

Curved Surfaces

• What makes a good surface representation?

Accurate

Concise

Intuitive specification

Local support

Affine invariant

Arbitrary topology

Guaranteed continuity

Natural parameterization

Efficient display

Efficient intersections

Parametric Surfaces

• Boundary defined by parametric functions:

x = f x (u,v)

y = f y (u,v)

z = f z (u,v)

• Example: ellipsoid

x r

=

cos

cos

x

y r

=

cos

sin

y

z

=

sin

r z

H&B Figure 10.10

Piecewise Parametric Surfaces

• Surface is partitioned into parametric patches:

Same ideas as parametric splines!

Watt Figure 6.25

3

Parametric Patches

• Each patch is defined by blending control points

Same ideas as parametric curves!

FvDFH Figure 11.44

Parametric Bicubic Patches

Point Q(u,v) on any patch is defined by combining

control points with polynomial blending functions:

P

P

P

P

1,1

1,2

1,3

1,4

P

P

P

P 2,1

2,2

2,3

2,4

T

T

Q u , v

(

) = UM

M

V

P

P

P

P 3,1

3,2

3,3

3,4

P

P

P

P

4,1

4,2

4,3

4,4

[

3

2

1]

[ v

3

2

1]

U = u

u

u

V =

v

v

Where M is a matrix describing the blending functions

for a parametric cubic curve (e.g., Bezier, B-spline, etc.)

Bezier Patches

P

P

P

P

1,1

1,2

1,3

1,4

P

P

P

P

2,1

2,2

2,3

2,4

T

Q u v

(

,

) = UM

M

V

Bezier

P

P

P

P

Bezier

3,1

3,2

3,3

3,4

P

P

P

P

4,1

4,2

4,3

4,4

1

3

3

1

3

6

3

0

M

=

Bezier

3

3

0

1

0

0

0

0

FvDFH Figure 11.42

Parametric Patches

• Point Q(u,v) on the patch is the tensor product of

parametric curves defined by the control points

Q(u,v)

Q(0,1)

Q(1,1)

Q(0,0)

Q(1,0)

Watt Figure 6.21

B-Spline Patches

P

P

P

P 1,1

1,2

1,3

1,4

P

P

P

P 2,1

2,2

2,3

2,4

Q u v

(

,

) = UM

M

T V

B Spline

P

P

P

B Spline

P 3,1

3,2

3,3

3,4

P

P

P

P 4,1

4,2

4,3

4,4

1

1

1

1

6

2

2

6

1

1 1

0

2

2

=

M B Spline

1

1 0

0

2

2

1 2

1

0

6

3

6

Watt Figure 6.28

Bezier Patches

• Properties:

Interpolates four corner points

Convex hull

Local control

Watt Figure 6.22

4

Bezier Surfaces

• Continuity constraints are similar to the ones for

Bezier splines

FvDFH Figure 11.43

Bezier Surfaces

• C 1 continuity requires aligning boundary curves

and derivatives

Watt Figure 6.26b

Drawing Bezier Surfaces

•

Better approach is to use adaptive subdivision:

{

}

Uniform subdivision

}

Adaptive subdivision

}

Watt Figure 6.32

Bezier Surfaces

• C 0 continuity requires aligning boundary curves

Watt Figure 6.26a

Drawing Bezier Surfaces

• Simple approach is to loop through

uniformly spaced increments of u and v

{

}

}

}

Watt Figure 6.32

Drawing Bezier Surfaces

• One problem with adaptive subdivision is avoiding

cracks at boundaries between patches at different

subdivision levels

Crack

Avoid these cracks by adding extra vertices and triangulating

quadrilaterals whose neighbors are subdivided to a finer level

Watt Figure 6.33

5

Parametric Surfaces

• Advantages:

Easy to enumerate points on surface

Possible to describe complex shapes

• Disadvantages:

Control mesh must be quadrilaterals

Continuity constraints difficult to maintain

Hard to find intersections

Implicit Surfaces

• Boundary defined by implicit function:

f (x, y, z) = 0

• Example: linear (plane)

ax + by +cz + d = 0

N = (a,b,c)

(x,y,z)

Implicit surface examples

MaxMan Blobby Object

Skin [Markosian99]

Curved Surface Representations

• Polygonal meshes

• Subdivision surfaces

• Parametric surfaces

• Implicit surfaces

Implicit Surfaces

• Example: quadric

f(x,y,z)=ax 2 +by 2 +cz 2 +2dxy+2eyz+2fxz+2gx+2hy+2jz+k

• Common quadric surfaces:

Sphere

2

2

x

Ellipsoid

2

y

+

1

=

0

+ z

Torus

r x

r y

r z

Paraboloid

Hyperboloid

H&B Figure 10.10

Implicit Surfaces

• Advantages:

Easy to test if point is on surface

Easy to intersect two surfaces

Easy to compute z given x and y

• Disadvantages:

Hard to describe specific complex shapes

Hard to enumerate points on surface

6

Summary

Feature

Accurate

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Concise

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Intuitive specification

No

No

Yes

No

Local support

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Affine invariant

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Arbitrary topology

Yes

No

No

Yes

Guaranteed continuity

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Natural parameterization

No

No

Yes

No

Efficient display

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Efficient intersections

No

Yes

No

No

Polygonal

Mesh

Implicit

Surface

Parametric

Surface

Subdivision

Surface

7

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