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(3)
A
collection of data
which are often needed in aero
nautical calculations. December
1916.
A.
:
new
illustrations
. F.
THAT a
months
third edition of this
book
is
called for within eight
is
of the publication of the second
alike. which indicate that
the book
is
proving of service.
whilst to increase the value of the
book three Appendices are given.
365007
.
(1)
A
A
graphical
method
of calculating the aerodynamical
performance of an aeroplane. together with
viz.
(2)
table of the results of
friction
some experiments on the skin
on various
surfaces.
gratifying to both
Author and Publisher
several
alterations to the text are
Even in this brief time a few deemed necessary.PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION.
Moreover. and. have only been considered The author is greatly indebted to Mr L.
who kindly
assisted in
A.
has been written
to
meet the requirements
of
who
are desirous of an introduction to the study of The fundamental principles of mechanics are
many interpretations and practical The applications of such laws are the fruit of scientific labour. although the
understanding of the dynamics of the air. the National Physical Laboratory for his helpful criticism and
encouragement.
TEDDINGTON. sketches and descriptions of aeroplane construction. rather tend to confuse a new reader. the laborious task of reading the proofs. who have had
aeronautical
opportunity to traverse the paths . Landells.
THIS book
engineers aeronautics. F.
. which has necessitated a fuller
unalterable.
the
preparation
of
book. must now be regarded engineering.of research.
of
The
been
reports
the
in
several aeronautical
laboratories
this
have
drawn
as
pos
upon
sible. new science of aeronautics. often advanced by wellintentioned
little
many unsound theories people. which are of minor importance compared with a full understanding of the underlying principles of aeronautics.
as far
no controversial matter has been discussed. and to Mr A.PREFACE. although each step forward into the realm of aeronautical research seems but to reveal an everas a branch of
The increasing unexplored region. Bairstow of briefly.
AEROPLANE WINGS.
Equilibrium Conditions Influence of Altitude PerComparisons of Similar Machines Inclined Flight Gliding Flight Climbing Starting Alighting Turning Motion of a Hj'droAeroplane on Water Behaviour of Aeroplane in a Regular Wind
formance Curves
. Hydro Aeroplane Avro Biplane Avro Hydro Aeroplane Bleriot Monoplane Nieuport Monoplane Vickers Biplane Wight Hydro Aeroplane Farman Biplane GrahameWhite Biplane
3857
CHAPTER
Horizontal
Flight
V.
StreamLine Bodies Energy Considerations The Nature of StreamLine Flow Imperfect StreamLine Bodies in a Viscid Fluid Comparison of Body Forms Distributions of Pressure around a Cylinder and a StreamLine"
Body
Struts
818
CHAPTER
Definition of Lift
:
III.
Atmospheric Winds
Pitot
Wind
Bodies
and Suction Tube A Comparison of Forces acting upon Similar Pressure upon Square Plates Air Resistance of Smooth Wires
.
The Aeroplane Flaps Warping the Wings Aeroplane Undercarriage or Hiassis The Hydro.
PAGES
I.
5877
.Aeroplane Bristol 80 H. Section I.CONTENTS.
THE EQUILIBRIUM OF AN AEROPLANE.
AN AERODYNAMIC GONSIDERAand Drag.
CONSTRUCTION OF AN AEROPLANE. Nature of the Air Flow around a Wing TION OF AEROPLANE WINGS Pressure Distribution around the Principle of the Dipping Front Edge WingTips The Lift.
CHAPTER
WINDS. THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A WING Front or Main Spar Aeroplane Fabric
: : :
.
STREAMLINE BODIES AND STRUTS. Tractor Biplane The Sopwith BatBoat Sopwith 100 H.P.
1937
CHAPTER
IV. and Centre of Pressure Curves of a Modern Wing Dependence of the Performance of a Machine on the Characteristics of the Wing Relative Importance and Interdependence of the Two Surfaces of a Wing Camber of the Wing Position of the Maximum Ordinate Aspect Ratio Leading and Trailing Edges Dihedral Angle Biplane Wings Aerodynamic Behaviour of a Wing which has a Reflex Curvature towards the Trailing Edge Section II.P. Drag.
Velocity
Pitot
and
Static
Pressure
Tube
17
CHAPTER
II.
and Density of the Air in Regions of High and Low Pressure.P.
The TwoStroke Cycle Magnetos Caror FourStroke Cycle burettors Compression Ratio HorsePower Volumetric Efficiency Heating Value of a Fuel Considerations of t\ Mechanical Efficiency Eng me Wei g ht Piston Speed Engine Engine Cooling The Ratio
Weight
H.
170174
(d)
(e)
Table showing some Properties of Metals and Alloys.P. THE AERIAL PROPELLER.
CHAPTER
The Otto
VIII.
SKIN FRICTION ON FLAT SURFACES IN A UNIFORM CURRENT
166169
APPENDIX
(a)
(6)
(c)
III.viii
THE AEROPLANE..P.
A
COLLECTION OF USEFUL DATA
. 109133 Calculation of Stresses due to Air Pressure upon the Blade . Green 135 H.. Table showing the Strength and Weight of Common Woods. General Remarks Classification of Aeronautical Engines A Consideration of some Modern Aeroplane Engines 120 H.
175176
. Table showing the Average Values of the Pressure.
Description of a Propeller Propeller Terms Performance of a Propeller A Propeller Theory Flow of Air around a Propeller The Position of a Gyroscopic Action of a Rotary Propeller Balance of a Propeller Engine and its Propeller Design of an Aerial Propeller Data necessary Calculation of Stresses in the Propeller for the Design of a Propeller .
PAGES
Definition of Stability Automatic Stability Stability of an Aeroplane Theoretical Consideration of the Values of the Several Resistance Derivatives Longitudinal Stability Lateral Stability of the
Motion of an Aeroplane in Horizontal Flight Gyroscopic Action of Airscrew and Engine Lateral Stability at Low Speeds A Gust Problem Longitudinal Instability Spiral Instability Big Yawing and Rolling
Oscillations
Gusts
78108
CHAPTER VII.
STABILITY OF AN AEROPLANE. Argyll 120 H. Monsoupape Type 100 H. Gnome. Some Miscellaneous Data. Beardmore AustroDaimler 200 H.P. Table giving British Units of Measurement and their Equivalents.
CHAPTER
Introduction
VI. .
. Salmson Engine 100 H.P.
AERONAUTICAL ENGINES.P.
Sunbeam
134158
APPENDIX
I.
INDEX
.P. Temperature.P. Green 300 H. A GRAPHICAL METHOD OF CALCULATING THE DYNAMICAL PERFORMANCE OF AN AEROPLANE
AERO159165
APPENDIX
OF AIR
II.
Atmospheric Winds. a revolving roller of air with a horizontal axis may be encountered at the horizontal edge of a high vertical cliff.THE AEROPLANE. The range of speed variation of a " steady " atmospheric wind is roughly proportional to the mean speed of the wind. so that a steady wind of a mean speed hour will probably have a speed range of 13 A steady wind also has miles per hour to 27 miles per hour. of the mean speed. are to
of 20 miles per
1
.
A
and
regular wind is one which has a condirection of course). and positive and negative speed fluctuations of 25 per cent. " " due to surface winds are usually of a nature. although no definite connection appears Low to exist between the speed and the direction fluctuations. the wind " is said to be squally. of the mean wind speed.
stant velocity (speed
I. chiefly gusty the eddy motion created by obstacles. if the general wind impinges directly upon the face of the cliff. If the fluctuations of the wind velocity are much greater than the range of the normal gust excursions of a steady wind. A horizontal eddy that is. fluctuations of direction. whilst a welldefined vertical edge of such a cliff will favour the formation of a vertical eddy.
CHAPTER
WINDS." The most dangerous winds encountered in England are
cent.. and such an ideal
spheric winds. The fluctuations of the speed of the wind in the wind
wind
is
channel at the National Physical Laboratory are easily maintained within onehalf per cent.
a convenient standard for the comparison of atmoThe artificial wind of a research wind channel be regarded as the nearest approximation to a regular may wind. with occasional speed excursions of 35 per
be expected.
and the limiting velocity is reached. conversely. a rise of pressure. A cumulus cloud is generally the cap of an ascending air current. traverse the surface of the country at a great speed. the highpressure core of an anticyclone indicates the presence of a
accompanied by descending
descending air current. and. There is
evidence to show that the gustiness of surface winds is due to the effect of the ground. and they are usually accompanied by a sudden fall of temperature. increase with the height above the earth's surface.t termed Line Squalls. and it is convenient to assume that
gustiness disappears. a veer of the general wind direction. These squalls. are probably formed by the spreading of the upper cold air layers before a rising warm
istic
. the velocity of these ascending currents is sufficiently great to support large hailstones. rain.2
"THE AEROPLANE. ground winds are of entirely different character from the winds of the upper atmo
On
The speed and steadiness of a surface wind spheric regions. The
upper layers probably have a regular periodic motion. moist air currents into the colder upper regions.
an
account of surface irregularities. depends upon the rising of warm clouds. on account of the
retarding influences of surface friction and obstacles.
air current. Rising currents. The experience of balloonists and pilots has proved the
existence of vertical atmospheric currents. although the
absence of clouds does not necessarily imply the absence of ascending air currents.
k
. which would have a disastrous action upon aircraft.
There are no wellpronounced atmospheric signs to indicate
. The formation of as is well known. The lowpressure centre of a cyclonic disturbance is also partial evidence of the existence of an ascending current. and a squall of hail. in the air strata which are removed from ground influences. A surface wind blowing in from the sea has its velocity continuously diminished as it passes inland. and a cumulus sky may be regarded as a dangersignal indicating the prevalence of ascending and descending air currents. so called because they advance with the character
line front of a tidal wave. are always
air currents. until the wind velocity reaches a more or less limiting value. Occasionally. chiefly formed by the local heating of the earth's surface by the sun's rays. Line squalls. or snow.
are of less frequent occurrence than vertical
eddies. of the wind may be determined very accurately by a velocity Pitot and Static Pressure tube. Cyclonic and anticyclonic motions have no resemblance to those perfect columns of rotating air. the tube A is connected to one end of a sensitive tilting water gauge and the annular space B to the other end of the gauge. To measure the velocity of the wind. Adopting consistent
in
1.WINDS. which are certainly dependent upon peculiarities of the earth's surface. sketch of such a tube is given
Wind
A
A faces the wind. although the bright fine weather which occasionally follows a rainy period is probably due to descending currents.
Wind Direction
Fia. as the low pressure of the core can only be maintained in most exceptional circumstances.
The inner tube
or Pitot tube
units. most eddies are of short duration.
3
the presence of descending air currents. the product of the imagination. The annular space C between the two concentric tubes is connected to the outside air by a series of small holes D. The Velocity.
Pitot and Static Pressure Tube. and is fig. Moreover.
Pitot tube. surrounded by a concentric tube B.
1. and the pressure difference is balanced by a head of water. Horizontal eddies. let
.
Hence.
Also
and
We see. when the pressures have been balanced by the head we have
and
Pitot
*
^p
v2= h.
Now.
pressure of the
air.
of the Pitot
experimentally that the pressure and the pressure reading
pv
z
tube equals (p f
\
of water. adoptthe same notation as
formerly. then. that the difference between the static pressure and the pressure in the cone at the point E is proportional to v 2
.
It has
been experimentally
established that the differ
ence of the pressure readings of the two tubes
proportional to
~
>
F and B
is
and hence. of the air.
where
K is the constant for the instrument.
2
is
and Suction Tube.
Fig.
v= velocity p= density
of the wind.
it
has been proved
reading of the annular space equals p.
a sketch of a Pitot
and Suction tube commonly employed upon an aeroIf Pi be the presplane.
.THE AEEOPLANE.
p = static or barometric &=head of water.
>
2. then. sure at the mouth E of the
ing
suction tube F.
and B the coefficient of kinematic viscosity
Then
i/
of the second fluid.
foot. and V represent the velocity Also let p L = density.
Moreover. say. compressialthough very small. Assume p B to be the density.
. may have to be considered. Pressure upon Square Plates.
for the body B let I represent a similar dimension.
I
if
we
may
This statement ignore the compressibility of the fluids.
similar to the flow
Application of the Preceding Discussion to the Case of Air. be deduced from a mathematical discussion of dimensional
equations.
the
* if
VL = vl
.
and
V
is
in feet per second. and the photographs of the flows.
AT
Now. also ignore compressibility. and j/A =vB =v t say. also v the velocity of the body relatively to the fluid.
For the same
fluid
make vZ=VL.WINDS. Let two similar bodies A and B be similarly situated in two For the body A let L represent a linear different fluids. F represent a force. yA = coefficient of kinematic viscosity of the fluid surrounding body A. dimension. and of the body relatively to the fluid.
above 125 miles an hour.
is
The accurate determination
machines
of air forces acting
upon
fullsized
be deduced from the results of experiments upon models. when taken upon plates of the same size. The coefficient of kinematic viscosity is equal to the ordinary coefficient of viscosity divided by the density of
the
fluid.
5
A Comparison of Forces acting upon Similar Bodies. and
=/o B =/9. then
/o A
and
if
we
When
the wind speed
bility effects. The pressure upon a square 2 where P is in Ibs. and / the force corresponding to the force F of the body A. per square plate may be written at
may
P=KV
. will be exactly the same. the flow around the body A will be exactly around the body B. if the product of the linear dimension and the velocity for the machine is the same as that of the model.
wind channel
4 gives the values
.e. the value of K would then be 00153. and also of the density of the air. and the pressure in this case would be 00153 x 2500 = 382 Ibs.
F= force per unit length of the wire. The resistances at several wind speeds of a large number
of
at the National Physical Laboratory.
The dependence of the value shown in fig. i. the product of the diameter of the wire and the wind velocity. V= velocity of the wind. per square foot.
smooth wires have been determined and
in the
fig. 3. The values of K given by the graph would need to be modified under abnormal temperature and pressure
conditions. so that
of
if
K
upon the value
of vl is
clearly
upon a square plate of side 8 velocity was 50 feet per second.6
THE AEKOPLANE.
we required the feet. but a function of (DV).
k is not a constant. The resistance of a wire or rope can be conveniently expressed by the equation
where
D= diameter of the wire. when the wind
pressure
The Air Resistance of Smooth Wires.
that k is not a constant but a function of DV.
i.
=
001304
^. The is not appreciably influenced by a small
the curve. the errors in these values
of
K
are
00/4
00/3
$0012
\oon
Value of
DV\
~
Loec.
considered to be within 10 per cent.e.
and. the values of k for the portion 14 to of the curve ranging from 40 were difficult
DV =
DV =
to determine. From a practical point of view the most useful portion of the curve is that between DV = 5 to DV=25. V = 815 miles DV = 1.
per foot.
Owing to instability of air flow.
D= feet..WINDS.
00/5
However. 4.X(120)
= 1565 Ibs.
From
and
when
DV = 1
the value of k
2
is
001304.
the curve
per hour
= 120
feet per second.
. pressure.
resistance of a wire
lateral vibration.
of k.
FIG.
The
Now. We see. and 760 mms. temp.
=
plotted against the corresponding values of
DV.1inch diameter tie wire if the machine has a speed of 815 miles per hour.
following example illustrates the use of that it is desirable to know the resistance Suppose per foot run of a 0.
These experimental results have been reduced to 156 C. of the correct values. then.
and it may be of interest to
Bodies. in view of the general static pressure of the fluid. In the immediate neighbourhood of the extremities of the body where the streamlines widen out. it follows
that the pressure of the fluid within the region
of c
is
low. and the pressures at these sections are also equal. as the pressure of the inviscid fluid at
a
any
.
ABODE. From fig.
upon the walls of this tube due to the centrifugal component of the curvilinear path of the flow. If the area of the cross section of the tube at A is equal to the area at B. there will be no momentum communicated to the inviscid fluid during its flow through the tube. and each tube is accompanied by an increase of the velocity of flow. 5 we see that the tubes are
crowded together
in
the vicinity of c. Naturally.
to
number of imaginary tubes. around such a streamline body. Then the be isolated from its fellows. imagine any one of these tubes. i. the pressure existing in the stream before the introduction of the body. it is convenient to body as one which has a gradual change curvature along any section.CHAPTER
II. no tensile stress can exist between the adjacent
walls of neighbouring tubes.
StreamLine
of
define a streamline
At the outset.
5.
STREAMLINE BODIES AND STRUTS.e.
Also.
examine briefly the nature of the flow of an inviscid fluid.e. will be as represented by the arrows. reaction
fig. the motion of the
the contraction in the sectional area of
than the general velocity of the stream. graphically Now. We may assume the fluid in the vicinity of the body to be
divided into a large
represented in
say. one possessing no viscosity. i. Since the increase of velocity across a section of any tube is only achieved at the expense of the pressure energy of the
fluid is actually slower
fluid.
The pressure at any point of the surface of the portion L body is greater than the static pressure. 5.
N
is receding relatively to the body. and so takes energy from the body.
point within a streamline tube
is
9
not affected by its boundary conditions. Lastly. Briefly.
whilst the
two remaining portions
M
and
P
con
. the two portions of the body L and N continuously give energy to
also under suction.STREAMLINE BODIES AND STRUTS. because the pressure over this area The surface of is less than the static pressure of the fluid. Energy Considerations. It is immaterial whether
we
consider the
body
to
move through
the fluid or the fluid to
flow past a stationary body.
5.
FIG. By the aid of fig. anticipate. we will en
we may
deavour to examine the mutual transference of energy between the streamline body and the fluid. but the
fluid is
now
the
fluid. and therefore the nose of the body does work upon the fluid in contact with The fluid which flows over the advancing surface of M it. upon the basis of the foregoing remarks. that the pressure distribution over the streamline body of fig. and hence the fluid does work upon the body.
of the
gives energy to the body. the pressure on the surface of P is greater than the static pressure. 5 is as is indicated by the arrows.
5 are an expression of the perfect harmony which exists between the molecules of the fluid. Eddying and impact which are opposed to a continuity of flow. is only a function of the
position of the point relatively to the body. Fig. by virtue of the viscous drag exerted by the stream.
.
tinuously receive the energy back again. which in a viscid fluid will be accom" panied by the formation of a "deadwater region. each distant molecule
appearing to be perfectly cognisant of the nature of its future path around the body. It is thus apparent that sudden " " curvature in the should be avoided changes of body lines if discontinuity of flow.contour's of the body. Most of the energy which has been taken from an imperfect streamline body to form eddies is of a rotational nature." upon the mass of dead water there is a diminished pressure in the neighbourhood of the tail " " of the body. secondly. is to be discouraged. a form which is not favourable to any subsequent return of the energy to the
The high resistance of bodies of imperfect form may be attributed to two disadvantageous conditions firstly. Further. it should be noted that the direction and magnitude of the motion at any point in an in viscid fluid. an excess of pressure upon the surface of presentation of the body .
and
is
entirely
Imperfect StreamLine Bodies in a Viscid Fluid. a streamline body may be conveniently defined as one which. By the surface of discontinuity we mean the region separating the mass of dead water from the sur" surface rounding noneddying fluid. in its motion through
a
fluid.
body.
The
welldefined stream
lines of fig. a balance of the energy account indicating a perfect streamline motion.
The Nature
of StreamLine Flow.10
THE AEROPLANE. and the approaching streamlines are gently coaxed to assume shapes which are more or less characteristic of the smooth . The " " expression surface of discontinuity is but a convenient name " " surface the is rather a stratum.
: :
On the basis of the foregoing remarks. independent of time. A streamline body acts sympathetically on the fluid. which in all probability is a region of turbulent motion. " at the surface of discontinuity.
does not give rise to a surface of discontinuity. flowing around a perfect streamline body. exist in a streamline motion. 6 shows clearly a " of discontinuity at the tail of a badly designed strut. cannot motions.
defined clearly in fig. 7. A contrast between a good and a bad type of flow is afforded by fig.
can only be
satisfied
the wake current.
11
Practical experience is. which flow in opposite The wake current of the deadwater region has a directions.
Hence the counter wake current which always surrounds the wake current. Both bodies are models of struts of which the sections B and C are shown in fig.
general translational motion of the same direction as the body.
magnitude of which
fluid
is
determined by the frictional drag at the
It is evident that equilibrium of the by a flow in the opposite direction to
surface of discontinuity.
6. the
FIG. the motion around an ordinary body may be regarded as composed of two currents.STREAMLINE BODIES AND STRUTS. The eddying motion in the region of the tail of strut B. 6.
Generally. however. 6. and superposed on the wake current is a rotational motion. Comparison of Body Forms. entirely opposed to the existence of such a body. is
. The study of the flow of fluid around bodies has been greatly facilitated by the aid of photography.
upon a body which
has some approximation to a streamline form.
. we mean the difference between the actual pressure at the point when the air is flowing around the body." The economical advantages of the designed employment.
and the
results of these investigations
are given below. without introducing great disadvantages.
accompanied by a great increase in the resistance of the strut The flow around the low resistance strut C. although a blunt nose may be used. motion. 6. It is probable that once eddying motion has commenced.
7. distributions of pressure around the surfaces of a cylinder and
a body
of a streamline body.
not diminished by an imperfectly shaped nose or a badly " middle region. and the static pressure which would exist at that point if the body were removed but the general velocity of the air remained The author has determined. the shape of that portion of the body within the disturbed region has but a small Care should influence upon the total resistance of the body. of bodies approximating to the streamline form are well demonstrated in the following section. By the pressure at a point of a body.12
THE AEEOPLANE. where possible.
be taken that the advantages of a good streamline
tail
are
Fio. Blunt tails should be avoided if the elimination of eddying motion is desired.
Distributions of Pressure around a Cylinder and Streamline further insight into the nature of the air flow around Body. the unaltered.
A
may be obtained if we know the distribution of pressure around the surface of the body. of (see Table IB). is characterised by an almost complete absence of eddying fig.
Sections of struts. experimentally.
C/0
P=K U
per square foot
2
may
be calculated from
U= velocity of the air in feet per second.
distribution around a cross section of a cylinder and diameter 2 inches is graphically repre
The values
of the pressure coefficients at
intervals of 10
around the circumference of the section are
given in Table
I.
=

00237 at ground
level. of the cylinder directly facing the the pressure changes from positive to
that the
.
The pressure
13
of infinite length sented in fig.
Pressure distribution around a cylinder section 2 inches in diameter. and negative pressures measured radially inwards.
p
and
. ?A.
From fig. 7 A.
160
170'
FIG. the circumference. Wind Positive pressures measured radially outwards from velocity 30 feet per second. and also that
maximum positive pressure.
The pressure in the expression
where
Ibs. 7 A.STREAMLINE BODIES AND STRUTS. it is seen 2 5pU occurs at a point
wind.
As a contrast to the preceding.14
THE AEROPLANE. at the back is due to the want of sympathy between the shape
of the cylinder
and the surrounding current
of air.
A
pressure distribution around
sketch of the body and a graphical representation of the its surface are given in fig. whilst the greater part of the front and the whole of the back of the cylinder is
=
under negative pressure.
.
351. The maximum negative pressure of 2 numerically greater than the maximum positive 0GOyoU pressure occurs at a point which makes an angle of 70 with the direction of the wind.
and has the average value
SO^U
2
.
e defines the position of
I. it is not surprising that a large part of the front of the
The high negative pressure cylinder is under negative pressure. 6 is measured from the direction
When we
consider the
"
heaping up
"
of air at the front of
the cylinder with the resulting outward flow of air from this region. a point on the surface. 7B.
TABLE
Wind speed
of the wind. At the back of the cylinder
(from $ = 90 to
0=270)
the negative pressure
of
is
fairly uniform. although the frictional
forces are negligible.
A
cylinder has a high resistance. we shall now consider the pressure distribution around the surface of a streamline body.
at which experiments were made was 30 feet per second. Only a small portion of the front of negative when the cylinder is under a positive pressure.
of the
total resistance.
. is in feet per second.STREAMLINE BODIES AND STRUTS. whilst the maximum (i/oTJ ) 2 negative pressure of 1 IpU occurs at a point not greatly distant from the nose.
The data Table IA. U. The resistance of this body in a wind of 60 feet per second. so that the frictional resistance of the body in a wind of 60 feet $er second is about 84 per cent. but only a small portion of the nose
we
01
FlQ. is about six times greater than the resistance computed from the integration of the pressures around the surface. p (at ground level) must have
To
the value of 00237. From the figure
at the nose
is
see that the positive pressure gradient very great. The region of positive pressure at the tail is
under a positive pressure.
of
15
given
in
the
pressure
experiments
are
calculate the pressure in Ibs. as measured on a balance.
2
a characteristic of a good streamline body. when the velocity. 7B.
is
The maximum positive pressure occurs at the tip of the nose. per square foot.
fig.
in the resistance greatly increases the lifting capacity " theoretical machine.
assuming the gliding
. assume a
struts.
of pressure
body was along the direction of the wind.
In a comparison of the relative merits of struts of
different sectional shapes. has been calculated
4 [05 (inch) ].
Adopting
this standard of comparison. to have a gliding angle of 1 in 6.
Struts. Maximum diameter of the body=317
IA. the ratio of the lift to the drag in steady flight is 6.
Speed of the wind throughout the experiments was 40 feet per second. of the least moment of It is of great importance to realise that
any saving
of a machine.). it is reasonable to consider that equal lengths of different struts should be just capable of supporting
the same end load. the
relative linear scales of different strut sections
The maximum thickness
from a constant value.
inertia of the section. Introducing struts of total weight w and resistance r will increase the resistance of the
machine by ^[w + 6r]
(see
Chapter
V.
inches. so that the distribution around any transverse section is uniform. 7.
may be found." without Thus.e.
TABLE
Length of the body=18 inches.16
THE AEEOPLANE. The pressure at a point on the surface =K&pU 2
The
axis of the
.
of each strut. i.
because small deviations from are usually accompanied by wide divergences from
in the crosswind
symmetry symmetry
and drag forces (see fig. in the resistance of the struts increases the carrying capacity by 90 Ibs. Table IB has been constructed from data taken from the Report of the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
17
The total increase of resistance is angle to remain unaltered.
section.STREAMLINE BODIES AND STRUTS. when studied in conjunction with fig. The sections of the struts are shown in fig.e. should enable the student to understand more fully the dependence of the usefulness of & strut upon the shape of its
(w Qr) strut. the nature of which is further " " of the strut. The weight of the wood is taken as 43 Ibs. 191112. a minimum. 8). the smaller the
2
.
and the axis
of the section of the strut. i. and hence the quantity least when (w + 6r) is
may be regarded as a criterion of the total worth of a In such a machine. When the wind
fine
blows directly upon the nose of the strut.
the value of
at which a critical
flow occurs. The crosswind force occasionally acts in the opposite direction to that anticipated from the angle between the wind
direction
to
fig. 6.
8.
+
TABLE
IB. increases with the fineness
Again referring breakdown of air ratio. a saving of 15 Ibs. 7. It may be noted that the total length of the struts employed in a biplane approximates to 100 feet. per cubic foot. The table.
Manufacturers should endeavour to make struts of symmetrical cross section. The direction of the crosswind force acting upon a strut occasionally depends upon a critical type of flow. upon fineness ratio dependent upon the
the ratio of the length of the cross section to the maximum thickness.
2 J 5. that a strut of fineness ratio less than 2 has nothing to
will
strong. ratio less than 2J is very
The
resistance of a strut of fineness
recommend it.
ness ratio the larger the resistance of the strut. The struts
of the future will
probably be constructed of
steel. if due regard be taken of any alteration in the sectional area of the strut. 5 are acted upon by a cross wind. The fin action of such struts may vanish in
high. and the fin effect. Positive values of
in
6 and the positive direction of the crosswind force are shown When struts which have a fineness ratio greater than fig. when a strut of low fineness ratio is inclined at small angles to the wind direction. that is. they may be regarded as the
equivalent of positive vertical fins
that
is. have uncertain fin action in cross winds. 8.18
THE AEROPLANE.
8. gusty side winds. anticipated from the direction of the wind. The chief woods employed in the manufacture of struts are spruce and ash. that is.
the crosswind forces
Crosswind
Force Direction
Drag ^ Direction
n?r
FIG. Struts of small fineness ratio. then. are also in common use. have an action opposite to that which may be probably It appears. surrounded with wood of good streamline form. 6 is small. if present. Hollow steel tubes.
Further.
.
act in positive directions for positive values of 0. the crosswind force usually acts in a negative direction.
CHAPTER
III.
FIG."
gained from the results of laborious experiments
made upon
Aspect
Angle oF IncidenceJL. as is most fitting. and more especially from the Annual jRe^por^ of the Aeronautical The second section. may be resolved into two components (a) a force acting at right angles to the general wind direction and to the plane of
:
in this chapter.
in
THIS branch of aeronautics may be studied most conveniently two sections (a) an aerodynamic consideration of wings. the greater proportion matter of the first section of this chapter has been compiled from the reports of the big aeronautical laboratories.
19
.
Hence. Definition of Lift and Drag.
AEROPLANE WINGS. should be of interest to the designer and workman. which deals with wing stresses and wing construction. 9 will be of service in explaining some of the terms
small models. We are greatly in(6) a mechanical consideration of wings for its contributions to the debted to experimental research science of aeronautics. when the machine is flying normally.
9. Section of the National Physical Laboratory.
of the
employed
The total air force acting upon the wings of an aeroplane. Fig. Certainly most of our present knowledge of the aerodynamic properties of aeroplane wings has been
:
.
the air flow at the end by of the wing is of an entirely different nature from that which
by
virtue of the larger
"
middle portion of the wing. and we will now discuss. Drag
Lift
"
"
SECTION
I." The nature of the flow around the middle portion of the wing. which
is
THE AEROPLANE. and (6) a force acting along the general wind direction. Fig.
when an
aero
plane travels at 60 miles per hour. considerably diminish as we travel towards the trailing edge. ap briefly as possible. the numerical values of both these pressures ing edge.
exists at the
FIG.
called the
component. By pressure we shall mean the
difference
between the pressure at the point on the wing and the pressure of the undisturbed air of the same locality that is.
number
of
" flow paths afforded the configuration of the wingtips. 10 is a sketch of a section of a wing of a modern Aeroplane. has been experimentally
investigated. We can conceive the Air Flow around a Wing. and a negative pressure upon its upper surface.e. which is called " " the component. The deviation of the behaviour of a wing which has this threedimensional type of flow at its ends from that of a similarly constructed wing in which the twodimensional flow at the middle is assumed to " extend to the wingtips is said to be due to end effects.20
the wing.
Nature of
that
AN AERODYNAMIC CONSIDERATION OF AEROPLANE WINGS. and both these
pressures have a
When
"
"
maximum
value in the vicinity of the lead
Also.
Thus. the pressure normal to the
.
i. we will
consider the distribution of pressure around the upper and " " lower surfaces of such a wing.
the twodimensional flow region. the pressure that would be indicated by a barometer. Firstly. the salient features of this research.
normal flight the wing has an ordinary or angle of incidence there is a positive pressure upon its lower surface. 10. and some idea of the nature of this pressure gradient will be
realised
from the following
illustration.
whilst the area around
B
is
sheltered from the wind. in ignorance. The lower surface does not
It materially affect the numerical value of the upwind force. that the direction of the resultant force upon an efficient wing is between the normal to the chord and the normal to the wind direction. so that although the surface of A faces the general wind direction. Furthermore. is well forward of the middle
of the chord. would appear.
naturally expect a positive at B. in the region of the leading edge. conveniently called the centre of pressure of the section. Photographs which illustrate the flow of air around
:
and we. we see that the region
We
in the
neighbourhood of
A faces the wind. since the negative pressure on the upper surface. however. obviously.
will now discuss Principle of the Dipping Front Edge. whilst that at B is positive. The efficient results of a welldesigned wing depend " " suction over the top surface. per square foot. We have just read. then.AEROPLANE WINGS.
21
chord at the leading edge of the wing is of the order of 35 Ibs." Referring to fig. that such is not the case the pressure at A is most decidedly negative. chiefly upon the
the greater the suction the greater the lifting force in a direction
normal to the chord. whilst the pressure at the trailing edge may be only 2 Ibs. " a phenomenon commonly known as the Principle of the Dipping Front Edge. so that the force normal to the chord approximates closely to the lift on the wing. per square foot. and the smallness of the angle between the direction of the resultant force and a normal to the wind direction may be regarded as a criterion of the
. It is this upward deflection
of the air which is responsible for the formation of a general lowpressure region above and a highpressure region below the wing. With such a distribution of pressure the point of intersection of the line of the resultant force with the chord of the section. the resultant force along the chord due to the pressures on the upper surface of the wing acts in an upwind direction. 10. Usually the angle of incidence is small. is much greater than that at the trailing edge. would pressure at A and a negative pressure
model wings show thab the wind
is
deflected
upwards as
it
approaches the leading edge of the wing. and. Under these circumstances we should expect the average normal pressure upon the wing to be about 10 Ibs. per square foot. this surface is screened from the general wind.
usually about
40 per cent. which were situated at several distances along the wing. 60 per cent. were found. The nature of the air flow in the neighbourhood of the wingtip. as the force component parallel to the chord. which has an upwind direction for a middle section. The
10
iO
30 40 50 60 Distance from Win g
70
80
. has a downwind direction at the tip section. about efficiency of the wing.
Roughly speaking.
FIG.22
aerodynamic
THE AEKOPLANE. The portion of the wing in the immediate neighbourhood of the tip is almost completely under suction. of the whig area.
90
Tip
Percentage. and therefore the flow over the
lower surface reduces by a small amount the value of the lift developed by the flow over the upper surface. of the wing area may be considered to be subjected to the twodimensional flow which has been described above. The undesirable increase of drag which is introduced by such a distribution of pressure should be quite clear. It is of interest
. The distributions of pressure upon the upper and lower surfaces of sections. has also been investigated at the National Physical Laboratory. until at the tip section we have the greatest suction in the
neighbourhood of the trailing edge. 11.
distribution of negative pressure upon the upper surface of a section alters progressively as we approach the tip of the wing.
Pressure Distribution around the WingTips.
compiled from
any movement
suction
data taken from a paper dealing with this subject. the density in Ibs. 11. In connection with Table II.
where
value.
K and k are constants.
. so long as the units themselves are dynamically consistent.
is in square feet. The of the air at the ground level is 00763 Ib. if we use the footlb. it should be stated that the 2 and kpAU 2 where lift and drag forces on the wing are KpAU and k are absolute coefficients.. the area should be in square feet. second system. and centre of pressure of the comThe values of Table II. and the Care should be taken to use the value of p corresponding with the height of the aeroplane.
on the wing=KpAU 2 . The value of an absolute coefficient is independent of the system of units employed. and the force is then in poundals. per cubic density
K
foot. then the
force will be in Ibs.AEROPLANE WINGS. = P AU 2 Drag
. drag. when velocity in feet per second.
y the area
TABLE
Lift
II.
000237. plete wing. have been plotted in fig.
If
we put p equal
to
that
is. and the velocity is in feet per second. Thus.
to note that
23
of the position of the maximum the upper surface towards the trailing edge will upon also be accompanied by a similar backward movement of the centre of pressure of the wing section.
when the
angle of incidence of the wing has a constant
Angle of incidence of wing =4. per cubic feet.. may illustrate more clearly the relative contributions of the various sections of the wing towards the lift. Table II..
The speed of the wind throughout the experiments was 40 feet per second. =00210. and Centre of Pressure Curves of a Modern Wing.
and
15. Drag.
Direct force measurements
made upon
the complete wing
gave the following results
:
Lift coefficient for the complete
Drag
Lift
wing = 03 14. r
The Lift.
By
the
"
To
find the corresponding values of
K
and k
for a fullscale
.
Drag
Distance of the centre of pressure behind the leading edge was 359 per cent. wing tips
TABLE HA.
Length
" centre of pressure we mean the point of intersection of the line of the resultant force with the chord of the section. 10. of the chord length. The data of Table HA.24
THE AEROPLANE.
Aspect ratio of the aerofoil = 6. The model had square is given in fig. of the chord = 3 inches. are the results of some experiments made at the National Physical Laboratory on a model A sketch of the section of this of a wing of an aeroplane. particular wing and a section of constant shape throughout its length.
12) coefficient
we observe a and a marked
.
K and k. The aerodynamic performance of the above biplane could be improved by (a) staggering the top wing forward of the
lower wing.
on the
wing=K AU 2 =kpAU. of the wings of the biplane. in square feet.
and p has the value of 000237 at ground level.
(c)
fitting
rounded
At an angle of 15 (see point big fallingoff in the value of the
C
lift
of
fig..
(6)
increasing the aspect ratio.AEROPLANE WINGS. the results of the experiments on the model
need to be corrected for differences of scale and of wind speed.
K and k have the values given in the table.
area. and also the interference between the two wings of a biplane.
Aspect ratio of the biplane wing =6. the same aspect ratio. and square wingtips.
A=total
U= speed of the machine in feet per second.
wingtips.
/5
. in The drag
where
Ibs. The data of Table HB have been deduced from the preceding
table.
The lift.
by applying the appropriate
corrections to the values of
TABLE HB.
25
biplane wing of similar section.
in flow takes place is appropriately called the breakdown " critical At angles of incidence greater than the angle.for the wings
is
a
maximum when
the angle of incidence is equal to 4.
ordinate. Neglecting any lift on the other parts of the machine. 12.
The value
of =. so that now the negative pressure upon the surface contributes but a small upwind component
The increase of drag may be thus partially explained.
tends to become uniform."
value
of
the
are the result of a
critical
angle. the best angle of incidence is
. Both these breakdown in the character of phenomena the air flow. which results in a sudden alteration of the pressure The angle at which the distribution over the upper surface. The value of the critical angle and the change of force occurring at it are a function of the position of the maximum
in the direction of the chord. the negative pressure
upon the upper surface
FIG.
the
drag coefficient.26
increase
in
THE AEROPLANE.
that which makes the ratio
that the curve of
Lift of wings a of machine
27
Drag
maximum. this particular wing the value of Hence max> is 055.
given by
U L /(_ \ V VK
/
In
13B the values of
D
are
.
so
body
resistance
must be estimated before
the best angle of incidence of normal flight can be assigned. Fig. it is seen from the expression
W=/oKAU 2
of incidence
that the best alighting speed is given at the angle which makes the value of a maximum. During alighting the whole of the machine must be taken on the wings. Dependence of the Performance of a Machine on the CharA convenient method of representing acteristics of the Wing.
as possible the speed of the machine. Lift
which shows
ratio
and the
lift
Drag
Leading Edge of Wing
1*30
60
02468/0/2/4
FIG. whilst at the same time the shocks of landing must be kept within safe
coefficient
of the
weight of the
limits
If
U
by reducing
as
much
L
be the alighting speed.
the performance of a wing
directly the relationship
is
given in
fig.
16
18
20
Z2
24
Angles oF Incidence (Degrees)
wing. at any other angle of
fig. has
K
K
a
maximum
for
and
value at the critical angle of incidence of the wing.
K
The speed
incidence
is
of horizontal flying.
between the
13A. 13 has been plotted from data taken from Table !!A. 13.AEROPLANE WINGS.
U.
28
THE AEROPLANE.
The maximum
of plotted against the corresponding values
taken at 45 landing speed consistent with safety may be miles per hour. if the angle of incidence of the wings be appreciably
of the
body has been added
smaller than the angle of incidence which
makes
^
is
for
the
wing a maximum. to the drag of the wings.
From
the foregoing
it
follows that
if
a machine
to
have
. a machine can only fly horizontally at a moderately then.
for the wings will be only 100 miles per hour. the ^
85. say. that high speed. 13A.^
of the
machine can only be computed when the drag
It appears. so that when the wings are working at the maximum aerodynamic efficiency the speed of horizontal flight
will
be
_=
68
66 miles per hour.
The
.
If
we
desire
our machine
flight of
to be a fast scout of
maximum
speed of horizontal
FIG.
(c)
The wing should have a
large value of the
maximum
6
7
9
10
Value of
FIG. the lift coAt a small angle of incidence
A
efficient
may
be small but the corresponding value of
^
must
be large. high value of the lift coefficient of the wings. numerically. and hence the greater part
.
Usually. The negative pressures upon the top surface
wing are much greater.
which makes
^a
L
maximum. a wing which has a high
also a
maximum
value of
=j
has
low
lift
coefficient at the angle of incidence.
and the
ratio of the
maximum
be
lift
coefficient to the lift
coefficient at
maximum ^ must
large.
faces of a
of a
Relative Importance and Interdependence of the Two SurWing. the wings must possess the following characteristics
(a)
(6)
:
at the critical angle.
29
a large range of flying speed. than the positive pressures upon the lower surface.
JL
U
. 13s.AEROPLANE WINGS.
normal to the chord is contributed by the pressures upon the upper surface. to the length of the chord. Further. If the maximum
is placed too close to the leading edge of the wing. the pressure distribution over the upper surface is practically unaffected by changes made in the camber of the lower
wing supplies. becomes greater. which can be drawn from a point of the section upon the chord. as the camber of the upper surface decreases. the structural advantages of a wing with a flat or slightly concave camber would probably outweigh the small aerodynamic advantages which would be
derived
by cambering still further the lower surface. by
is
virtue of
greater camber. at no lift and at maximum lift. and also the rate of decrease of the lift coefficient with "the
angle of incidence. Generally. but the forces contributed by the lower surface are small. and hence a considerable percentage
change in these forces does not greatly affect the resultant wing forces.
if
the lower surface
is
curvature. The importance upper surface. low values of the critical angle and the lift coefficient at the critical angle are encouraged. which has the greater projected area. and also a high value of the lift coefficient. the angle of incidence of the chord
of the wing. at
surface
that
is. Generally speaking. however
:
distribution over the lower surface
is
affected
by
alterations in
the camber of the upper surface. is much less marked. The average camber of the upper surface
of the
wing of a modern aeroplane is of the order of 08. The camber of a section is measured
by the ratio of the length of the maximum ordinate. We have already seen that it is advan
ordinate
tageous to have a high value of the critical angle. over. The force in the direction of the chord depends not only upon the pressures upon a surface. Camber of the Wing. is still further increased. but also upon the projected area of the surface upon a
plane which
of the
normal to a chord of the wing. at this angle. The Position of the Maximum Ordinate. The maximum ordinate may be shifted forward from the middle of the chord to within a distance of 02 of the chord from the nose without greatly influencing the behaviour of the wing at small angles
. threequarters of the total lift. we may say that the upper surface of an efficient
its
Moreleast.30
of the resultant force
THE AEROPLANE. in the region beyond the critical angle.
The converse
is not given a convex the pressure not true.
AEROPLANE WINGS.
of incidence, say
31
from to 8. It has been the practice of to place the maximum ordinate at a distance wing designers of onethird of the chord from the leading edge, although it is probable that the more stable type of flow which would
result
by the placing
of the
maximum
ordinate at a distance
of threeeighths of the than compensate for
chord from the leading edge, would more any slight decrease in the maximum
value of
of the
~v
.
It
is
of theoretical interest to
know that the
values
lift
and
drift coefficients at angles of incidence greater
than the
of the
critical
angle are greatly dependent upon the position
ordinate.
maximum
Aspect Ratio.
A
consideration
of
lift
the
influence
of
the
aspect ratio upon the values of the of a wing (see fig. 9).
of parallel planes
and drag
coefficients
Imagine a wing of constant section to be cut by a series which are perpendicular to the length of the and suppose the flow at each of these sections to be photowing,
the photographs are exactly similar, the flow around the surface of the wing is twodimensional. Obviously, if the flow over the surface of the wing were strictly
graphed.
Then
if
twodimensional, both the lift and drag coefficients would be independent of the aspect ratio. It is only by preventing an inherent feature of the modern wing that is, the lateral escape
of the air at the wingtips
that we may hope to approximate to a uniform twodimensional type of flow. The maximum value
of
^
decreases considerably with a decrease of
the aspect
ratio of a wing.
Recent researches at the National Physical
Laboratory indicate that a fall of 35 per cent, in the
value of
maximum
is
p
is
quite probable
when the
fall
aspect ratio
diminvalue
ished from 80 to 30.
of
is
This great
in the
maximum
^
is
largely due to the increase in the drag coefficient, which
accompanied by only a slight decrease in the lift coefficient. The limit to the maximum practical value of the aspect ratio must be assigned by a consideration of the weight and the strength of the wing. Obviously, the weight of a wing must be some function of its aspect ratio.
32
The Leading and
THE AEROPLANE.
Trailing Edges.
aerodynamic advantages may edge has not been substantiated by research. It is even probable that the aerodynamic efficiency of the wing, as measured
The popular notion that accrue from a thick leading
by the maximum value
of the
is
of
^
may
decrease
as
the
nose
wing becomes thickened.
When
the nose. of the wing
decidedly thick the lift coefficient, although not greatly affected at the normal flight angles of incidence, has a tendency to remain constant at large inclinations of the wing. The
thick leading edge certainly has structural advantages, and is not accompanied by any great aerodynamic disadvantages. Moreover, a slight thickening in the neighbourhood of the trailing edge, if reasonably performed, will not greatly interfere with the aerodynamic properties of the wing.
The Dihedral Angle. The wings of many aeroplanes are not in the same plane, but are slightly inclined upward from the shoulder to the tip, or, to use the technical expression,
the wings have a dihedral angle. The dihedral angle is measured by the angle between the lateral axis of the wing and the plane of (see fig. 36, Chapter VI.). Usually the dihedral angle
XOY
is
and such a small angle difference does not have any appreciable effect upon the lift and drag forces of the wing. The dihedral angle between the wings has a great influence on
small,
the lateral stability of the machine.
Biplane Wings. We now wish to consider the interaction which takes place between the two superposed wings of a The wings may be arranged in a " normal " position, biplane. so that the chords of each wing are parallel and the longitudinal axis OX of the machine is normal to the plane passing through the leading edges, or the wings may be staggered, in a positive direction, by a forward displacement in the direction of the
chord, of the top wing relatively to the lower wing, the wings
still
remaining
parallel.
The
lifting
is
also to a lesser extent the drag of a neighbouring wing.
capacity of a wing and diminished by the presence
A popular spacing of biplane wings is to make the gap between With such a spacing, and at the the wings equal to the chord. usual angles of incidence, the lift coefficient of each wing is approximately 80 per cent, of the value of the lift coefficient of
AEROPLANE WINGS.
the single wing, and
coefficient of either
33
we may roughly assume
is
wing now, the top wing is the chord length forward of the lower wing, an improvement of about 5 per cent, in the value of the lift coefficient may be introother.
If,
unaffected
that the drag the presence of the by staggered a distance of 04 of
duced.
A
similar
improvement
is
also
found in the ratio of
^.
Aerodynamic Behaviour of a Whig which has a Reflex Curvature towards the Trailing Edge. The navigation of an aeroplane would be greatly facilitated if the position of the
centre of pressure of the wings was not influenced by the angle of incidence. This desirable condition may be obtained by
giving to that portion of the wing in the neighbourhood of the " " turned up curvature of the trailing edge a reversed or
correct amount.
stationary position of the centre of pressure can, however, be obtained at the expense of the other desirable properties only
of the wing.
A
Thus the maximum value
of the ratio
=r
may
be
reduced more than 10 per cent., whilst a diminution of about 25 per cent, in the value of the maximum possible lift may result. Also, since an increase in the curvature at the trailing edge of the wing will increase the angle of incidence necessary to produce a given lift, such a wing could not be employed upon a variablespeed machine.
SECTION
II.
THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A WING.
we were
entirely concerned with a
;
In the previous section
theoretical discussion of the
we
will
aerodynamic properties of a wing now study an aeroplane wing from a more practical
standpoint.
The framework, or skeleton of a wing, is commonly built of two main spars, i.e. the front and rear spars, which are connected together by equally spaced transverse ribs. The curvatures of the upper and lower surfaces of any rib decide
up
the shape of the section of the wing in that neighbourhood. The front ends of the ribs are connected to a " nose " or leading edge spar. The fabric, sufficiently stretched to give an even
3
34
THE AEROPLANE.
upper and lower surfaces of the
of the front or
ribs
is
surface, is fastened to the
and
spars.
The shoulder end
main spar
firmly connected to the body of the machine, but occasionally, to enable warping duties to be performed, the shoulder end of the rear spar has a swivelling connection to the body. Wire bracing is extensively employed to stiffen the wing, and tie wires connect several points in the lower surfaces of the spars The wings of a biplane are to the lower portion of the body. We will now further stiffened by a system of strut bracing. consider in greater detail the several parts of a wing, and the contributions of each part towards the efficient construction of the wing. Front or Main Spar. Designers endeavour to arrange that the whole of the drag of the wings shall be taken by the forward pull of the lift wires. Usually the tie wires are connected to in the front spar, which are an appreciable distance, say points 2 inches, below the neutral axis of the spar a factor which should not be omitted in stress calculations. The weight of the machine, minus the weight of the wings, is chiefly carried by the lift wires but although the bending moment at the connection between the front spar and the body may consequently be small, the spar with the shoulder connection is under a great compressive force. The calculation of the stresses in any part of an aeroplane should be made for the particular manoeuvre which imposes a maximum stress upon that part. Thus the stress calculations for the front should be made when the centre of pressure of the wing is spar nearest the leading edge, and the wing forces are also a maximum. Warping a wing increases the loading upon it, and the wing loading during a vol pique, although difficult to estimate, is
;
probably very great. Further, side gusts may introduce stresses much greater than the calculated stresses, although such contingencies may be adequately provided for by the choice of a, reasonable factor of safety. The spar stresses due to bending are greater than those due to direct compression. Great attention should be given to the initial straining of the wires
timing," to use the technical term, as any interference with the previous alignment of the points of attachment of the wires to the spar, consequent upon the application of the load, may introduce great stresses in the spar.
or
"
Aeroplane Fabric. Honduras mahogany. and should have a factor of safety of
at least 12. and occasionally of cotton wood. so that the weft threads take the greater strain that is. per inch in the weft direction. the warp threads are in the direction of the ribs. employed as a covering for the upper and lower surfaces of aeroplane wings. It is most essential that an aeroplane fabric should possess strength. but a linen which is at the same time airtight and unaffected by moisture has yet to be manufactured. lightness. The weight of aeroplane fabric is about 4 ounces per square yard." Almost all the dopes now on the market contain cellulose acetate in solution. and crossing at right angles these long threads are the shorter weft The fabric is attached to the structure of the wing threads. should be efficiently connected at their ends.
making
will
The ribs are commonly made of French poplar. and its strength varies from about 80 Ibs. spruce. The ribs may be rigidly connected to the spars. The rear spar. to 110 Ibs. wood be superseded by metal. usually made from pianowire. although a good deal of the foregoing discussion on the front spar is equally true for the rear spar.
The
first
coat of dope penetrates
. and also a taut surface given to the wing. it is extremely likely that in the future. which may take only a small percentage of the total load of the wing. per inch in the warp direction.AEROPLANE WINGS. The ties. and this the end wire. a light wood which does not readily split. is usually smaller in section than the front spar. Linen. Although at the present time ash is the material chiefly employed hi the
of spars.
is
methyl alcohol. a
spar should be allowed a very large factor of safety.
The breaking
of
35
especially applies to great difficulty of calculating the
any tie wire endangers the wing. As may be expected from the
maximum
stresses possible. but some makers affirm that a loose fit between the ribs and spars prevents any excessive fatigue of the material of the wing structure during an excessive warp. and acetone. " by coating the linen with a chemical preparation termed Dope. The warp threads of a fabric are those stretched lengthwise in the loom. the chief solvents being tetrachlorethane. closelywoven texture. of a fine. No great difficulty is experienced in the production of a strong and light linen. and durability. Airtightness and watertightness are obtained.
and. imposes a maximum stress of 100 Ibs. of the strength of the
undamaged
fabric. when the speed of the machine is probably of the order of 100 miles per hour and the angle of incidence of the wings about 12. per square foot upon the fabric. by a bullet.
surface.
which are transverse to the
Ordinarily. such as are introduced during the construction of the wing. Needless to say. the whole of the pressure upon the fabric is longitudinal
. in this hypothetical case.
assuming the remainder of the fabric to be
maximum
machine
The value airtight. It is
assumed then. per square foot. of the weight of the undoped linen. It would follow.
As a
rule.
the leading edge of the wing.
fills
the threads of the linen and
the interstices between the
threads. It is
desirable that the coating of dope should remain airtight and watertight after long periods of weathering. a cut of length f inch causing a reduction of strength of at least 50 per
any load which the wings may have
cent. and should not in any way weaken the fabric.
Also any small initial tensions in the longitudinal threads of the fabric.
We have read on a previous page that the maximum positive
upon the lower pressure upon the upper
pressure
and the maximum negative occur on areas very close to surface.
surface of the linen. when the pressure has a normal flying speed of 70 miles per hour. The fabric now used in aeroplane construction is sufficiently strong to support
If the fabric is to bear. does
not greatly differ from 20 Ibs. as the drying proceeds. the doped fabric
should be noninflammable.
that. then. that the greatest possible pressure which the fabric may have to bear would occur at a point of maximum suction upon the upper fabric when there is a leak
at a point of
of the
maximum
positive pressure in the lower fabric.
doping increases the
strength of the fabric by about 20 per cent. the gelatinous substance remaining contracts and brings the threads more closely toUsually four or five coats of dope are applied to the gether. say. in the absence of initial tensions in the threads. punctured. are greatly reduced by subsequent weathering. the initial tensions of those threads of the fabric line of flight have negligible values. assuming the existence of such a leak. Moreover. its strength is diminished. the sudden flattening out of the machine after a steep dive. the increase of weight due to the dope being about 40 per cent.36
THE AEROPLANE.
the abnormal pressure of 100
is
is about 30 per cent. The transverse spacing between the ribs is only a small fraction of the chord length (about ^th). Should such a wing be tested to destruction. The fabric of the upper wing of a biplane is more severely stressed than the lower. which are in the neighbourhood of the ribs. it is highly probable that the main spar would fracture before there would be any failure of the attachment of the fabric to
the ribs. In view of the great air load on the fabric. the upper wing usually carrying a
assumption that the transverse
fibres
It pressure upon the fabric.
37
transmitted to the framework of the wing at the areas of attachment of the fabric to the ribs. so that during flight the greater proportion of the strain in the
bulging fabric is taken by the transverse threads. and connecting the portions of the upper and lower fabrics. by knotted sewing. per square foot. greater than the load upon the lower wing. The fabric may be fixed to the ribs with small
load which
and washers. an efficient connection of the fabric to the ribs is of the greatest importance. although a more efficient method is upon the outside of the fabric strips of cane or wood. At the expense of a small sacrifice of accuracy.
.AEROPLANE WINGS. A great improvement is effected by sticking the fabric to the ribs before tacking. with Ibs. the value of the maximum stress in the fabric is much less than the limiting stress which would cause the rupture of an unwounded fabric. and covering the exposed portions of the
brass tacks
to tack
sewing with tape. the calculation of the stresses in the fabric is facilitated by the reasonable
support the whole of the comforting to know that.
Prominence has been
given.
Nearly all the British machines are biplanes.
The planes at the tail of an aeroplane may be divided into two groups such planes are (1) those fixed in the machine
(2) those capable of partial rotations. and the additional
much
larger carrying capacity. a single pair of wings or main planes.
CONSTRUCTION OF AN AEROPLANE. has two superposed pairs of wings. partially controls the yawing or turning of the machine.
. when possible. but a broad outline of the construction and function of the several aeroplane parts should be of some interest to the reader. the lift depending upon the configuration and the speed of the wings relatively to
the
air. since the biplane. and a prolonged sustentation in the air of such a machine is only possible by virtue of the lift on the wings. to the of machine.
The author does not
desire to consider the
general details of the presentday machines. a plane turning of the machine. whilst a biplane.
The Aeroplane. Multiplaned
classification of
The
machines have been constructed. (2) biplanes. The aeroplane is a heavier than air machine.
The
the pitching
elevator.
about a lateral axis. although the successful development of these machines probably belongs to the future. regulates The terms "horizontal" and
38
. a vertical plane capable of rotation about a vertical axis. with its elaborate system of wing bracing.
good points
of
any particular type
:
modern aeroplanes favours two groups A monoplane is a machine with (1) monoplanes. is usually more
strongly constructed than wing area is in favour of a
:
the monoplane. essentially stabilisers The rudder. as its name implies.CHAPTER
IV.
By warping. auxiliarly horizontal surfaces which are capable of partial rotation.
Flaps. 20 gives a general idea of the position and the size of a wing
flap. On the other hand. of a wing is very sensitive to changes of the negative angle of the flap (region about 3) and also to a variation of a large
positive angle of incidence of the flap (say 60). The position and the size of the rudder have Chapter VI. The maximum lift coefficient of a wing may be increased by rotating both wing flaps downward. ground.
strictly
Similarly.
The employment of flaps or ailerons. the leading plane which is fitted to some biplanes
has both a directive and stabilising action upon the machine. which are greatly dependent upon the differences of the drags and lifts of the two wings
of one flap
respectively.
the
yawing moment may be
modified by rudder action. and hence at the same horsepower the distance traversed on the " getting off. and before fitting flaps to a machine experiments should be made to determine the positions of the flaps. fig. just before an ascent. the elevator should be regarded as a longitudinal stabiUsually. relative to the wing and the wind direction.
Warping
is
. the angle of incidence of
one wing
may
be increased relatively to the other.
The
flaps are crossconnected so that a
is
downward
rotation
accompanied by an upward rotation of the other.
(2)
warping the wings. before For some positions of the flaps the air flow around the wings is of an uncertain character.
when running on the ground.
machine
may
be increased or the
Also. Fig. The yawing and rolling moments.CONSTRUCTION OF AN AEROPLANE. At present the two methods of controlling transverse equili
brium are
(1) flaps
. Warping the Wings. when the machine is accelerating on the
ground. the speed of the machine.
Lateral
liser. an important bearing on the lateral stability of the machine. are affected
by the
flap action.
"
"
in
this
connection
are
not
and " longitudinal " are correct (see diagram.
of landing the weight of the area of the wings diminished. at a constant speed
. and so the speed of landing of the machine may be diminished hence.). the resistance of the wings may be diminished by placing the flaps at a small negative angle. may be effectively braked if the plane of the flaps make a large angle with the direction of motion." may be diminished. at which The position of the centre of pressure instability of flow occurs.
" "
vertical
39
accurate. that is. 36.
If necessary.
(2) Suitable devices to absorb landing and rolling shocks must be fitted. propeller. (6) Great attention must be given to the adjustment of
(a)
The selfwarping
warping wings.
may
be easily dismantled and again
The wings.
:
. During a long flight.
and
stabilising fins are fixed
in their correct relative positions
by
body or fuselage. At the present time the reliability of an aeroplane engine is a factor of uncertain amount. so that the pilot may not always be able to choose a convenient and safe landingplace. of the disadvantages of the wing warp is given
A
below.
(c)
Warping may introduce
Certainly. control levers. engine.
carriage. There is a growing tendency
nowadays
brief
to
substitute
summary
wing flaps for the wing warp. rudder.
performed by a slight rotation of the rear spar about its attachment to the body.
warping cannot be recommended from a
mechanical standpoint. and the various wing sections have small rotations about the main spar. the flicking constant attention to the warping lever imposes a great strain on the pilot.
Finally. The under
which should not be of cumbrous proportions.
stresses in the material of the
wings. must be sufficiently strong to withstand the abnormal stresses of a sudden and.40
THE AEROPLANE. The following points dealing with the construction of an undercarriage should be considered by the designer (1) The machine has to attain its flying speed rapidly.
is
elevator. A consideration
of aeroplane wings from a mechanical standpoint has already been given in Chapter III. the aeroplane
known
as the
wood which The body also contains the and seating accommodation.
of the wings imparts a continuous motion of the warping lever. The Aeroplane Undercarriage or Chassis.
a framework of
is completed by the chassis or underwhich supports the fuselage when the machine is on carriage
the ground. " " (d) Flapped wings
set up. violent landing. so that the ground resistance when the machine is running along the ground should be small. maybe.
Also steering should not be dependent upon the A pivoted rear skid. Shock absorbers are largely manufactured from rubber cable. which are a function of the velocity of the machine. if the main chassis wheels
axis of the
main wheels. and the increased lift causes the machine to ascend again. A broad wheel base is necessary to ensure that the machine when running on the ground may have sufficient stability. and also minimises weight and head
may
resistance. readily keeps the machine under control when running on the ground. allows ground steering to be performed efficiently. Moreover.
(3)
41
The machine must be efficiently steered when on the ground. When alighting. When the machine rests upon the ground.G. so that the rear skid or wheel bears only a comparatively small load. when operated from propeller slip stream. and also the alighting speed must be braked. It has been found that a rim. the wheel or footbar which works the rudder. or a band brake.
also
store the energy of landing
energy
is
and rolling shocks. Ordinary steel springs and rubbers both dissipate and
side strains.G. The working of a land steering gear should not be dependent on air pressures. the loading upon the rear skid will be small. Such a disaster be prevented by fitting a leading wheel or skid. so that no undue strengthening of
the framework. a material which has good lasting qualities and a high ultimate stress. wheels with dished steel sides are preferable to ordinary spoked wheels. A simple construction of undercarriage facilitates the repair of accidental breakages.
. or a tyre. (4) The stability of the machine at high ground speeds demands attention. The stored afterwards imparted to the machine as minor shocks. and probably from strength considerations. is necessary. which acts directly upon the main wheels.CONSTRUCTION OF AN AEROPLANE. the main wheels support most of the weight. The hubs of the wheels should be sufficiently strong to resist
For reasons of decreased resistance. An uncomfort" " able landing is the result of placing the C. the machine should have
no tendency to pitch forward on to
its nose. entailing additional weight. rebounding of gravity) of the machine some distance behind the (centre
The pitching moment called into play by the reaction of the ground upon the wheels increases the angle of incidence of the wings.
are placed nearly under the C. of the machine.
real ness.) strength. should be well forward of the position of the C. Such a machine must be made sufficiently strong to resist the severe
buffeting of a rough sea. otherwise the lifting of one float out of the water due to excessive rolling causes the machine to suddenly and. for instance. of the machine. when the two floats are close together. moreover. The
Some absorbers do not
shock absorber a dashpot. (vi. when the machine alights. The doublefloat machine is probably the more seaworthy class of hydro aero
The floats should plane.) cheapness. although by increasing the subsequently given time of impact the magnitude of the blow is diminished. and almost complete indifference to weather conditions. and only a small fraction of the original energy of the blow would exert a disturbing influence upon the machine. The water resistance of the floats appears to be practically independent of To prevent the float driving into the water their distance apart. The
. A hydroaeroplane has been defined as an airborne craft capable of floating on water. when the longitudinal axis of the machine is horizontal. (v.
.) lightcarriage of an aeroplane. Nevertheless.G.
The HydroAeroplane. hand.) hardness. the unbalanced forces called into swing round action by the reduction of the resistance of the rising float. the behaviour approximates to that of a singlefloat machine.) facility with
which a damaged portion may be replaced. Rubber cable dissipates energy quite rapidly. are greatly On the other assisted by the leverage between the two floats. the great advantages of metals of which strength. therefore. has. it is desirable that the centre of buoyancy of the float.) a capacity to withstand bending and torsional stresses. and is fairly efficient in rough water. (iii. (iv. may be mentioned encourage us to anticipate that the undercarriage of the future will be constructed
exclusively of metal. and the increase of the resistance of the falling float. a dashpot Ash is largely employed in the construction of an underThe advantages of ash are (i.42
THE AEROPLANE.
greatly diminish the energy which is to the machine. the use of strong welded joints and connections. although
its flying capacity is affected adversely by any undue weight and head resistance. and also to keep the nose of the float well out of the water when the machine is at rest on the water. and " " action. not be too far apart. would dissipate most of the energy. (ii.
15. by a partial utilisation of the energy of
the
bow waves.
. A low position of the
C. The bow of a float. may be minimised by a low Floats must be position of the line of the propeller thrust. sufficiently strong to resist the severe wave blows experienced during an enforced alighting on a rough sea.
43
total buoyancy of the floats should be almost equal to twice the weight of the fully loaded machine. of the machine
is in favour of good floating stability. 15. Seaworthiness may be " " increased with a sacrifice of getting off efficiency by transverse rounding of the bottom of the float. Long and narrow floats with flared sides at the To enable the float step are very serviceable upon a rough sea. Any
tendency to dip the nose of the float under water. has to traverse a long distance on the water before the planing
otherwise
when
"
"
speed is reached. Whilst the float is rising from the water the free access of air to the bottom of the
step should not be hindered. should not be too narrow.
Float
FIQ.
may have
is
shown
in fig.
Plan
off the water alighting the required pick up If bows of the floats are too bluff. to obtain a greater lift. where great buoyancy is required. the machine is not attained. A low position of the wings enhances the A sketch of a good float possibility of damage by a rough sea. but a disturbing influence upon the behaviour of the machine in flight.
istic of
most
floats
The tendency to hop a characterwhen running along the surface of the water
at high speeds and small buoyancy is due to the inherent instability of a machine partly supported on a small area.G. when the machine is travelling at high speeds. The mudguards also favour the admittance of air to the bottom of the step.CONSTRUCTION OF AN AEROPLANE. concave mudguards
are fitted from the
bow
to
the bottom of the step.
The
a
minimum
fuselage is of a special design adapted to resistance at the flying speed of the machine.
to 56 kms.
light and strong. Engine.P.sided
are connected
by
steel joints
and strongly braced with
steel
piano.
Dimensions
:
Length over Span Chord
Total area
Fuselage.
square metres = 362 square
feet.
Range
Speed
Useful
of flight
=5
hours. so that the head resistance is thereby greatly diminished. and is built up of longitudinal members of ash with cross members and struts of spruce.
The wings are exceptionally
ribs are
Special compression
of the wings. per hour per hour. An 80 H.
It is thought that descriptions of one or two of the modern machines may be of some interest to the reader.
in section in order to provide the vertical surface necessary for directional stability.
offer
all
= 89
=39
metres = 292
feet. Gnome engine (Monosoupape type) is mounted in front of the fuselage. light
=440
kilos
= 970
Ibs. so that the descriptions are necessarily of a brief character. The propeller boss is so designed that it is the forward continuation of the lines of the aluminium shield. twelve struts
provided
section.
TRACTOR BIPLANE (TWOSEATER)
(see fig.
=115 metres = 378 feet.
THE BRISTOL
80 H.
=120
= 75
to 35 miles
315 kilos = 695
weight carried. =185 metres = 61 feet. Technical
details of construction are omitted. for the internal bracing
The upper and lower wings
of
are separated
by
streamline
braced
together
with
stranded steel cable.P. the engine is entirely enclosed in an aluminium shield. including pilot and passenger (160 kilos).
Wings. To prevent any oil being thrown back on the pilot.
. 16). with petrol and oil (155 kilos) Total
=
Ibs.wire.
Weight.44
THE AEROPLANE. which
It
is flat.
CONSTRUCTION OF AN AEROPLANE.
45
.
of a hand. and all the control wires are duplicated. in which the skids are connected to the fuselage by streamlike struts of very ample dimensions. The longitudinal movement controls the tail plane. skids by rubber cord.wheel
moving parts of the control are of brass or other nonmagnetic material. taut surface. tail. in diameter. The fuselage is covered with fabric which is laced on.
engine tachometer. 66 cms. and communicator between pilot and passenger. The empennage. of the bestquality steel. and which can be easily removed. with pin joints to give the whole structure more flexibility.G. altimeter.
The main control of the machine consists mounted on a vertical lever. therefore.46
THE AEROPLANE. the
passenger. ensures the longitudinal lifting plane The plane is arranged at a negative stability of the machine. inclinometer. which arrangement enables the machine to be flown either with or without a passenger. as a directive organ. They form. a resilient member
any tendency of the machine to tip forward.P. The machine runs upon a pair of wheels. " " 80 H. being situated directly over the C. The top of the fuselage is covered in by a
curved sheet of threeply wood.
petrol gauge. are
Landing Chassis. designed to deflect the air upwards from the passenger's face. Wind Shield. 17 is an illustration of a
. which have wide hubs and stout gauge spokes. The wheels are
to counteract
journalled upon a stout tubular axle which is sprung from the The tail is protected by a tail skid. and a rotation of the wheel actuates the warping of the wings by means of wires passing round suitably arranged pulleys. angle and placed midway between the upper and lower surfaces
The levers for the elevator of the fuselage. The rudder is operated by footControl Gear. Upon the instrument board are usually fitted an airspeed indicalevers. The chassis is of the combined skid and wheel type. rudder. which has a nonTail and Empennage. The suspension of
the seat allows the height and the angle to be adjustable.
and rudder. and fuselage are treated with dope. and also to effectively protect the propeller on uneven ground. " Scout. sprung with rubber cord.
All the
tor. the skids carry two small wheels journalled on one axle." Bristol Fig. in front. which gives them a smooth. watch. At the forward end.
The
seats for the pilot
and passenger are
in
tandem. The coverings of the wings. trip watch. of the machine.
CONSTRUCTION OF AN AEROPLANE.
47
.
Span of upper wing of the lower wing = 44. The fuselage is made chiefly of mahogany. a photograph of which is shown in fig.
miles per hour. The machine is driven by a 200 H. light Useful load
=2200
Ibs. forced from this tank to a smaller service tank between
.P. a particular type of hydroaeroplane. 18 (1914).
The main wing spars are made of spruce. Span =675 feet. 18.5 feet. = 70 miles per
=40
hour. CantonUnne engine. Chord of the wings
feet. the pilot and passenger
sitting in the boat.
is
This machine.48
THE AEROPLANE.
Petrol
is
and is situated in the boat behind the occupants. The main petrol tank has a capacity sufficient for four and a
half hours' flight.
FIG. The pilot's and passenger's seats are arranged side by side in the roomy cockpit of the boat.
Dimensions
:
Total area of the wings = 600 square
=54 feet.
THE SOPWITH BATBOAT.
Weight.
Maximum
Minimum
speed speed
= 1000lbs.
It
is
of the singlestepped type.
Sopwith 100 H. wheel mounted on a single tube controls the aileron and
A
is actuated by a pivoted complete set of instruments is mounted on the instrument board in front of the pilot. The lower wings have a
The
four tail
is
wellpronounced dihedral angle which allows the machine to roll considerably on the water. so that the engine may be started by the pilot without the necessity of swinging the propeller. has five watertight compartments. whence
49
it is fed by gravity to the cempressedair selfstarters are carried under the engine.P.P. whilst the rudder
footlever. The boat is built up of two skins of mahogany over ash stringers. TRACTOR HYDROAEROPLANE
(see fig. each fitted with a neat
. and.
and
air is
admitted to the bottom
of the step by sheetbrass channels screwed to the sides of the boat.
FIG. tractor hydroaeroplane (1914).
A
SOPWITH 100 H. seats. the elevator is divided. and a wireless set driven by a motorcycle engine is mounted in front of the passenger's seat. Floats at the wingtips are also fitted.
The
float
The floats of this machine are of the singlestep type.
the engine and the radiator.
Two
rudder
booms and their struts are made of spruce. 19). 19.
elevator movements.CONSTRUCTION OF AN AEROPLANE. The of the balanced type. to allow sufficient rudder movement.
P. time strong. and thus protects the propeller and minimises the
possibility of the
machine turning over during alighting. 20). The fuselage is made narrow The engine is carried on foreandaft for the same reason.50
inspection
THE AEROPLANE. rough ploughed ground in an easy manner. Gnome Monosoupape engine is mounted.
Avro
illustrated
in
21.
hydroaeroplane
is
A
fig. thus ensuring a watertight joint. when carrying a three hours' fuel supply and a passenger. The centre skid is placed well forward.
THE
"
"
AVRO
"
"
HYDROAEROPLANE. which gives the machine an exceptionally clean
FIG. but at the same appearance.P.
.P. seatings A 100 H. and the machine starts from. Anzani engine is mounted on this machine. The doors are screwed down on rubber with butterfly nuts.
The main planes are staggered.
100 H.
80 H. bearings. When an 80 H.
door.
Avro biplane (1914
type). the maximum speed may be about 90 miles an hour.P. 20. but at the same time a wellrounded streamline nose is obtained. giving the pilot an extremely good view forward and downward.
AVRO BIPLANE
(see fig. or lands on.
The chassis is extremely light. A machine of this
type has climbed at the rate of 550 feet per minute.
52
THE AEROPLANE.
Thegood characteristics of the "Avro" hydroaeroplane are: (a) The floats are mounted well forward, so that the tendency The machine of the machine to overturn on alighting is reduced.
is easily manageable on the water in a wind, as the tail float rests on the water and a water rudder is provided.
amount of " give," both laterally and longitudinally. (c) The engine is fitted up with a crank starting gear, enabling it to be started by the observer. (d) The passenger and pilot are well protected from the weather, and they have an exceptionally easy means of egress and access. The engine is very neatly mounted, and shielded
to offer the
(e)
sprung internally by rubber cord a very large range of action and a certain suspension, giving
(6)
The main
floats are
minimum
of
head
resistance.
The bottom wings are made shorter than the top wings in order to give an uninterrupted air space and a greater water clearance laterally. The ailerons on the top plane are very
large, giving a powerful lateral control. (/) The floats are very durable, and are
rendered absolutely a covering of stout rubberproofed cloth. watertight by
THE BLERIOT SINGLESEATER MONOPLANE.
Span of the wings =293 feet. Area of the wings =194 square
Weight, light
Useful load
feet.
=618
Ibs.
=309
Ibs.
The main spars are made of ash. The fuselage is con structed of ash and spruce, and the landing gear of ash and steel. Lateral control is obtained by warping the wings. An 80 H.P.,
seven cylinder,
integral type,
is
Gnome
engine
mounted
is carried. The propeller, of the in front of the machine.
NIEUPORT SINGLESEATER MONOPLANE
(see figs.
22 and 23).
Span of the wings =29 feet. Chord of the wings = 6 feet. Area of the wings =1555 square
feet.
Maximum
speed
Weight, light
Useful load
=84 miles =595 Ibs. =352 Ibs.
per hour.
CONSTRUCTION OF AN AEROPLANE.
The main
spars are
53
made
of steel.
structed of ash and spruce, and
fuselage is conthe landing gear of steel.
The
A
Flo. 22.
Nieuport singleseater monoplane (1914).
FIG. 23.
Nieuport (191 4).
60 H.P. Le
propeller
is
Rhone engine is mounted of the Regy type.
in front of the pilot.
The
54
THE AEROPLANE.
VICKERS TWOSEATER BIPLANE. Span of the upper wing = 38 feet. Span of the lower wing =38 feet. Area of wings =400 square
feet.
Maximum
Minimum
speed speed
Weight, light Useful load
=70 miles =40 miles =850 Ibs. =850 Ibs.
per hour. per hour.
of steel. The fuselage and landLateral control is by ing gear are also constructed of steel. 100 H.P. Gnome engine, with nine the aileron system.
The main spars are made
A
cylinders,
is
mounted
"
at the rear of the pilot.
THE
WIGHT
"
HYDROAEROPLANE.
by Samuel White
of
A
twoseater machine built
Cowes,
Isle of
Wight.
Span of the upper wing = 63 feet. Span of the lower wing = 59 feet. Chord =65 feet. =56 feet. Gap Area of the wings =735 square
Weight, light Useful load
feet.
=2600 Ibs. =900 Ibs.
Maximum
Minimum
speed speed
=72 =35
miles per hour. miles per hour.
The main spars are made of spruce. The fuselage and landing gear are also constructed of spruce. Lateral control by the aileron system. The machine is driven by a 200 H.P.
CantonUnne engine mounted at the rear of the pilot. A doubled cambered wing section is an interesting feature of this machine. The two main floats are unusually long and are
provided with three steps. These floats are built up of threeEach float is ply wood on a strong framework of elm. divided into six watertight compartments, and the whole is strengthened by a longitudinal partition extending throughout
the length.
CONSTRUCTION OF AN AEROPLANE.
55
.
.56
THE AEEOPLANE.
Lateral control by the aileron system.
35 feet. light
= 1320 Ibs. a 70 H.
feet.
is
The main wing spars are made of spruce.
=560 square
feet. Gnome engine is mounted at the rear of the pilot.
Weight
of the machine. hickory.
Useful load
=550
Maximum
speed
=80 miles per
=
42.
the pilot occupying the rear seat.
=660
Ibs. A 100
H. The landing gear of steel. light = 1000
=183 square =175 square
Ibs. feet.CONSTRUCTION OF AN AEROPLANE.P.
Span of the upper wing Span of the lower wing Chord
Gap
Area Area
of the
of the lower
= = = =
37 feet. and the fuselage constructed of ash.
feet. sufficient for a flight of about five hours'
duration.
5 feet.
.
=508 =328
feet. miles
hour. just in front of the passenger's seat. and spruce.
THE FARMAN TWOSEATER BIPLANE
upper wing Span Span of the lower wing Area of wings
of the
(fig.
Useful load
The main wing spars and the fuselage are made of spruce.
57
24). and the landing gear is constructed of ash and steel. by An automatic machinegun may be mounted at the forward end of the nacelle that is.
upper wing wing Weight of the machine. The tanks have a capacity of 45 gallons of petrol and 9 gallons of lubricating oil that is. 6 feet.
THE GBAHAMEWHITE TWOSEATER BIPLANE. The The machine is driven lateral control is by the aileron system.
Minimum speed
is
per hour. Renault engine mounted at the rear of the pilot.P.
Ibs.
drag coefficient of the machine. An aeroplane in ordinary linear flight that is symmetrical is.
To enable a machine
elevator
to
adopt several flying positions. =lift of the machine that is.
of the
a lift
H = propeller thrust. If the
planes of a machine are fixed relatively to each other. The following nomenclature is adopted throughout
chapter
:
this
W
A
a
= weight
=area
of the machine. or a climbing flight about a vertical plane passing through the longitudinal axis. or the tractor pull.
direction.
Horizontal Flight. and (b) to damp out longitudinal (a) It is assumed that in normal flight the tail does oscillations.
ka
when
the
= absolute
wings have an angle
of incidence a. flight is only possible at one particular angle of incidence of the wings. angle of incidence of the wings.
wings have an angle
. machine that is. that the position of the centre of gravity of a machine is unaffected
The main functions of the tail are position.
by the elevator
not contribute to the total lift of the machine.CHAPTER
V. the air force acting on the machine in a direction normal to the wind
=
D
and to the plane of the wing. when the
of incidence a.
L
of the wings. and quite rightly. K = absolute coefficient of the machine. an
a movable plane capable of rotation about an axis perpendicular to the plane of symmetry is fitted. so that we need only consider its longitudinal equilibrium. a horizontal.
THE EQUILIBRIUM OF AN AEROPLANE. a gliding. to control the attitude. In the following discussion we shall assume. the air force acting on =drag the machine in the direction of the wind.
AU 2 /0 The algebraic sum of the moments of W. of a machine. if the angle of . H.
D
Considering equation (a). W. the speed of the machine in
K
A
W
horizontal flight will be constant for a particular value of a. Briefly.
Equilibrium Conditions of a Machine in Horizontal Flight. and about the C. L. the
thrust.
59
longi
U = speed
R = total
of the
machine in the direction of the
tudinal axis.AU
a
2
.
upon
the
To alter the horizontal flight position of the elevator.
.G.
From
the relationship
W=K .
. which we
ance.
take
R to be exclusive of the propeller Hence R is the resultant of L and D.
on the machine. in
any one machine. H=D=fc a .
flight.
(c)
Drag of the machine.
the
propeller
The drag
or total resistance of a machine
may
be regarded
conveniently as
(a)
(6)
composed
of
The resistance of the wings. of the machine is zero.
. Hence. The speed of a machine in horizontal flight only depends.
of the remaining portions shall call the body resist
Influence of Altitude. The sum of the resistances of the machine. the condition (1) may be
(1)
rewritten as
:
(a) Lift of
the wings. consequently.p. H.
and
(6)
L= weight of the machine. then a will also be constant. and D are in equilibrium. the enginepower.THE EQUILIBRIUM OF AN AEROPLANE. if the propeller thrust acts in the direction of flight..incidence a be and constant. are dependent wholly upon the angle of incidence of the wings. although we shall
thrust.
W. H. and since are constants of the machine.
thrust
of course. The propeller an air force. L.
of the wings.
upon the angle
of incidence of the wings
that
is.
then.
. and . an alteration of the propeller thrust speed must be accompanied by a change in the angle of incidence
speed of horizontal and.AU
2
.
air force acting
is. D=propeller thrust. WLK^..
Weight
Curve
I. U.
is
Throughout the calculations of this chapter. the machine assumed to be at ground level. The density of the air at an altitude of 6000 feet is about 80 per cent. the speed of a machine in horizontal flight at this altitude is 1*12
times the speed at ground level. 26.
at
20 per
almost proportional to the an altitude of 6000 feet cent. due to the change of
density.)
FIG. and the rotational speed.. AvailableSpeed
GJf'fJr'ng
Angle
Rate of Dropping During a Glide
50
60
70
Speed (M PH.P Required Speed
HP.
of
Machine 1650 /bs Wing Surface 372 Wing Resistance. so that p = 00237.60
it
THE AEROPLANE. of the airscrew has a constant value. The torque of the engine
air. the thrust and
If
torque
of
the airscrew are
each
is
proportional to
z
p\j
(see
Chapter VII. and hence if the thrust of the airscrew and the angle of incidence of the wings remain unaltered.
if
the angle of incidence of the wings remain constant. density the torque diminishes
of
the
that
is. It should be
. of the pilots usually fly at this altitude
follows
density at the ground.
the ratio of the translational speed. n.Angle oF Incidence
Body Re sis tan ce~ Spee d Totai Resistance Speed H. that the speed of a machine in horizontal flight increases with the altitude.).Speed.
W= K
a
.
materially diminished by the adoption. of streamline forms. that is.
when the speed
A (\ =372 x (88)' x 00237 =0
^
Q7
'
141
(a=4 Approximately).
of
the resistance of the wings
is
a minimum
at the angle
incidence
which makes
(77)
a
6
maximum.
by the
lift
Also. where possible. Now. and also by the elimination of unnecessary
wires. angle of incidence.weight machine.THE EQUILIBRIUM OF AN AEROPLANE.
practically
From curve
2
we
see that the
body
resistance
R
is
proportional to the square of the speed. Curve 1 of fig. The body resistance may be 2
. and consequently. however. that most flying
several thousand feet..
. and the speed in horizontal The weight of this flight of a constant.
Most
of the curves of
Aeronautics (191213).
borne in mind. if we assume
the bodyresistance law to be R 6 =cU 2 the value of the constant 137 c is equal to ~. 0038. 26 were obtained experimentally at the Royal Aircraft Factory.
.
From
seen that
of the machine is 60 miles per hour.
particular machine surface 372 square
is
1650
Ibs. etc.
and the area
the curve
it
of
is
its
wing
feet. and an angle of incidence wings of slightly less than 4.
. the drag ~D W of the wings may be written in the form = ( A) p AU 2 and therefore !>. and they have been taken from the Report of the Advisory Committee for
"Performance " Curves.
.
AU
2
.
if
the machine be supported entirely
on the
wings. 26 gives the relation between the wing resistance.
and therefore
Since
D^^i^JW. The body resistance at 60 miles per hour is 137 Ibs. the have a resistance of 97 Ibs.
is
61
of
done at an altitude
fig.
..
The stresses
in similar wings due to equal loading at similar points are proportional to the reciprocal of the square of the linear
dimension.
A few remarks on the stresses in similar machines may not be out of place.
The
first
method
is
to be preferred.
Then. at a similar horizontal flying attitude is double Speed of speed of B. Thrust of B is equal to the thrust of A.
that
is. Stresses in like parts of similar machines vary as the linear dimensions when such stresses are entirely dependent on" the deadweight of the machine. etc. and from this point of view the smaller machine is the stronger.
stronger. with the exception of the propeller machine.
The speed of a machine by decreasing the whig
may
be increased
thrust. of engine A is eight times
the
power
of
engine B. the smaller machine
in horizontal flight
is
the
such as the area.
Then.
A=2
linear
Weight
of
A = weight
of B.
Linear
scale
of
A = linear
scale
Case
II.
and nearly wing areas.
The following comparisons of two similar machines that is. Power of engine B is double the power of engine A.
Thrust of
Power
A A is four times thrust of B.62
THE AEROPLANE.
.
Generally speaking.
all
the modern highspeed monoplanes have small
fig. remaining constant. weight remaining constant (6) by increasing the weight of the the other factors.
Assumption
of B. the angle of incidence of the wings. built to the same drawing but to different linear scales
:
machines
are instructive
Case
I. the other factors (a) of the machine.
Assumption
Linear scale of machine scale of machine B. at similar horizontal flying attitude Speed of B is double the speed of A.
26
.
Weight
of
A =4
weight of B.
From
the data of curve 3 of
resistance
we may calculate the
"
the curve of total " horsepower required curve.
the
time taken to perform the journey
is


hours.000
The high speed
of horizontal flight. From curve 4 we see that the smallest horsepower is required at a speed of 445 miles per hour. fig. Also. fuelconsumptionspeed curve has been constructed for a distance of 200 miles. in which the fuel consumption per horsepower hour has the constant value of 54 Ibs.
27.X 376 x 54 = 675 oU
Ibs.
which occurs at a small
angle of incidence of the wings of a constantweight machine.. because the weight of the machine
exceptionally not constant
during a flight horsepower hour horsepower. What may be occasionally required is the most economical speed for a journey of a certain distance. fig.THE EQUILIBRIUM OF AN AEROPLANE. 27 has been constructed. and then the angle of incidence is 10. a small angle of incidence is not to be encouraged..
In this
way
the
curve of fig. Let us assume that the machine is carrying a Chenu engine. 27.
26. is only attained if the engine run at a high power. the relative wind may strike the wings upon the
fig.
and. so that the horsepower required will be
235x88x60
33. is a minimum when the aeroplane has a speed of 50
miles per hour approximately. The following curve. over any distance. see fig.
cannot
be
is
accurate. The distance taken does not affect the
shape of the curve.
is
further. the fuel consumption per not a constant but a function of the
. 26.
Moreover. see curve 4.
. and that the machine carries such a large supply of fuel that the consumption of a portion of this fuel The will not appreciably affect the weight of the machine. from which it follows that with this engine the total fuel consumption. From curve 4. it is seen that when the machine travels at 60 miles per hour the horsepower required is 376.
Thus the
is
63
total resistance of the
machine at 60 miles per hour
235 Ibs. so that the fuel
consumption
is
200 ~^.
upper surface. as should such a machine be struck by a downward vertical gust.
and efficiency. 27. however. To facilitate starting and climbing. the curve. horizontal flight may be maintained at two different angles of incidence and the two different corresponding transTheoretically. the
its
and
:
lational speeds. the propeller runs at a rotational speed greater than that corresponding to its maximum " " Curve 4. Usually. cut at horsepower available two points A and B so that when the engine is running all out.
If
an aviator desire horizontal
flight at full
. so that in horizontal flight the engine is eased down. the curve.64
THE AEROPLANE.
is
Generally speaking.
maximum efficiency of the proshould be given at the normal speed peller gearing of the engine.
approximate to the value designated by the engine designer as
the best. 26). a high velocity consistent with safety is and the greatest speed attainable in horizontal flight the speed beyond which a diminution in the angle of incidence
becomes dangerous. It is desirable that the normal speed of the engine should
FIG.
desirable. the horsepower of an engine is greater than the power necessary to maintain the normal speeds of horizontal flight. horsepower required " " curve 5 (fig.
climbing
at
any angle
of
incidence
of
the
wings. the angle of incidence of the wings in an equilibrium position of the machine depends only upon the
position of the elevator.
to be inclined
The steady flight of an aeroplane is said when the direction of its forward motion is not
horizontal. D. and occasionally a good reserve of power is necessary to
facilitate
Nevertheless.THE EQUILIBRIUM OF AN AEROPLANE.
Inclined Flight.Gf of the machine. and is independent of the magnitude of the propeller thrust. If the machine is flying horizontally with the engine at full
power. A welldesigned machine enables climbing to be performed by the operation of the elevator alone/ the
power of the engine remaining unaltered.
When the direction of the propeller thrust passes through the C. climbing may be performed by a simple manipulation of the elevator to increase the angle of incidence of the wings.
5
. the angle of incidence of a wing is measured by the angle between a chord of the whig and the direction of the
relative wind. 26). As before. a horizontal flight entails a burden of enginepower during excess engine weight. L. so that the speed is 72 miles per hour (see point A of curve 4. a storage of excess rapid climbing. the condition of equilibrium is that the forces acting upon the machine. If the horizontal flight speed be less than 72 miles per hour.
This particular machine will climb most rapidly when the angle of incidence of the wings is equal to 6J approximately. the engine has a reserve of power. must be in equilibrium. if the angle of incidence corresponding to the upper speed is well within the safety limit.
65
enginepower. fig. and the slope of the flight path is measured by the tangent of the angle between the direction of forward motion and the horizontal. A " " vertical distance between the curve horsepower available " " and the curve gives the horsepower horsepower required
available
for
may
be obtained by a throttling of the engine. Also when an aeroplane is in steady in
clined flight. W. he would prefer the upper speed limit A that is. H. or greater than 42 miles per hour. From curve 4 we see that horizontal flight at the various speeds ranging from 72 to 42
miles per hour
and the necessary adjustment of the elevator position.
through the machine. the resultant of the air forces
L and D must
also pass
through the centre of
An gravity (fig.. for equilibrium. when the thrust propeller
passes
C. H.
through
the
and secondly.
propeller
thrust
does not introduce any moment about the C. so that. both taken relatively to the machine. so that the machine has no tendency to turn about a lateral axis. W.
The new value
of incidence of the wings has of the propeller thrust
.
are constants.G.66
and
the
this
THE AEROPLANE. say In the following two sections the equilibrium
of a
machine during an
inclined flight has been
considered.
and thus the angle
also a constant value. firstly. must be zero.
pass through the centre of gravity of the
machine. about any point. D. the C. R.
moments
statement includes the fact that the algebraic sum of of these four forces L. 28.G. increase of the value of
the
FIG. When
the
the
direction of the propeller thrust passes through
the centre of gravity of
the
machine. 28).G..G.
elevator
Assume
to
the
be
locked
in
Now H and
W always
position. and hence in an equilibrium position the direction and the point of application of the resultant of the lift and drag forces. when the propeller
thrust does
not
pass
of
C. of the machine. Case I.
In this
thrust does
any alteration the propeller thrust must be accase.
is
elevator
if
posi
equilibrium
to
be
main
tained. 29 represent an equilibrium position.
Case II.
the
When
of
the
direction
propeller not pass through the centre of gravity of the machine..
Let the fig.
W.h
.
H!
introduces a
67
new
air force
R
1}
so that Hj.
magnitude and direction by the
sides of a triangle
taken in order
fig.
r . but no alteration of the
angle of incidence of the wings.
E
1?
and
W are
re
presented in
28).
and
. and
be represented in direction and magnitude by the sides of a triangle taken in order.= t r
.
of
companied
slight
by
a
of
alteration
the
tion.THE EQUILIBRIUM OF AN AEROPLANE.
H
may
(b)
'Rh 1 ='B. then
(a)
K.
'
variations
in
the magnitude of the propeller thrust will
produce
flight
alterations
in the slope of
the
dif
path. that if the elevator position be
fixed.
then.
(see It follows. and
ferent speeds of the
machine along the flight path.
it
follows from
TT
. and the angle of the flight path has been increased by
Now
H
. direction of the minimum propeller thrust necessary to sustain a machine during a horizontal
easily obtained if (a) the point of of the propeller thrust be at the centre application of gravity.
have a constant direction relatively to the aeroplane passing through the centre of gravity. Obviously the direction and magnitude of the minimum thrust is represented by the
line
It is usually angle being a right angle.
It of a
is
machine
hardly necessary to add that the flight path is not necessarily in the same direc
The magnitude and tion as the propeller axis.
R
1
x
is
the
new value
Also.
30
AB
represents the weight of the machine. (b) the angle of incidence of the wings be constant.
9. so that. condition
(b)
now
gives
H
1
. if the machine is to remain in equiliinitial
constant
brium. according to the condition of the air force.
and BC the constant direction of R.h
= ~R xh
1
. and any alteration of propeller thrust must be accompanied by a slight alteration of the elevator position.
29 that
Tr>W XX xv
therefore Ty.
fig. thrust shall be arranged that the direction of the propeller horizontal when the machine is flying horizontally at its normal
DA. the
ADB
speed.cannot equal ==
Hence the
the wings remains
assumption that the angle of incidence of is proved to be incorrect. since
T>
H
TT
1
T?
>H.
and therefore
that
R
is
Also. will Under these circumstances
flight
may be
R
FIG. In
fig.
and in
this attitude of
the machine the direction of
.
(a). 30.68
THE AEROPLANE. and the proAssume for the new equilibrium x peller thrust increased to position that the angle of incidence of the wings remains constant.
imagine the elevator locked in position.
which now operates as a helicopter. the machine will commence to glide.1
If the engine of an aeroplane suddenly stop/ Gliding Flight. H=D. so that the thrust employed. If the angle DAB be equal to zero.
69
does not greatly deviate from the vertical. the forward speed of the machine will be zero. and . supports the weight of the machine.*. For a
fall
6
is
negative. and ... AE.
R
FIG. 31 that
(a)
(6)
(c)
For a climb is positive. 31.
.
\
(d)
For a
glide
H=
and
fl^tan. the angle of incidence The of horizontal flight.
H<D. so that equilibrium is only possible when the propeller. Horizontal flight 0=0. it is seen easily from fig. in
minimum drag
other words.
and
.
.THE EQUILIBRIUM OF AN AEROPLANE. and the slope of the glide
path
will
be
(yj. is not much greater than the minimum thrust AD..
or.
Assuming the propeller thrust to act parallel to the longitudinal axis of the machine.
Hence the
gliding angle has its
minimum
y
value at the angle of incidence which makes the ratio
for the
machine a minimum
corresponding to the
. H>D.
70
THE AEROPLANE. At any angle of incidence. a p
W
W
K =K
. 26).
. and the angle of incidence of the gliding.
.
statement that.
1
in 77.
. the machine having the corresponding speeds.
and
also a small angle of incidence.
. U G = 99U H UG = 99 x 52=515 miles
. According to the curve 3 (fig.
26) gives the relation between the angle of (fig.
UH A Uu
2
.
. the two speeds of the machine corresponding to This statement is a corollary of a previous these angles.
a. the gliding angle is the ratio of the total resistance of the machine in horizontal flight to the weight of the machine. This machine would therefore
have a gliding angle
of
loot)
. when the angle of incidence of the wings is equal to 6.
equal to tan
~l
When
And
so that
the gliding angle
(\
U H =52 miles per hour.
(2)
And
. if the propeller thrust be constant.
a =lift coefficient at the angle of incidence
=L= a p A In horizontal flight In gliding flight cos 0=L i. the angle of incidence of the
of incidence of the wings.
same gliding path may be followed at two different angles of incidence.
(
1
)
2
. A highspeed machine in which
the wings have a small area.
machine
is
wings remaining unaltered. the total resistance of the machine in horizontal flight is 215 Ibs..
Thus
Let
TJ H
UG =speed of the machine in gliding
= speed
of the
machine in horizontal
flight.
. the speed of gliding.
per hour.
K
= angle
flight. wings.
is
=().
(1)
and
(2)
Co. at the
same angle
As the gliding angle of a modern the gliding speed is not greatly different from small.
of glide.
that
is. the speed of horizontal flight. and it is seen that a small diminution in the value of
Curve 6
a small angle of incidence is sufficient to cause the flight path to approach the vertical rapidly. horizontal flight may be maintained at two definite angles of incidence.
from equations
.
a weight at its centre of gravity.
And
and
.D. so that the distance fallen in one minute is 596 The fall per minute is a minimum when the angle of feet.
is
When
so
a machine climbs with uniform velocity.
71
has a strong tendency to dive with a diminution of the angle If the propeller axis of such a highspeed machine be below the centre of gravity.
W are in equilibrium..
the machine
Work done by the engine in unit time=HU footlbs.
Climbing.
B
be
now more
a greater speed than A.
unit time
=U D footlbs. the lift L does no work. The distance fallen in one second depends upon the angle of gliding and the speed of gliding.THE EQUILIBRIUM OF AN AEROPLANE. the unfavourable condition for a rapid
steep dive.
H=Wsin0+D
..
. then the gliding by placing slopes of both machines are still the same. and the speed of gliding is 4590 feet per minute.. D.
of incidence. 31).
(2)
.
may
be readily seen from work consideralet
Adopting the usual notation (see fig. L. falling. because the velocity of the machine in the direction of L is zero.
. when the angle of incidence of the wings is equal to 6 the gliding angle is 1 in 77.sin0. have a uniform velocity of U feet per second. and That this
tions.
.W+U. a sudden stoppage of tfye engine
is
accompanied by an automatic decrease of the angle of incidence of the wings. Thus.U=U. W cos = L
. but the machine B
will glide at
all respects.
incidence
is
equal to 10
approximately.
H. and the corresponding
speed
is
445 miles per hour. Work done against gravity in unit time =Usin# W footlbs. The lift L merely
supports
and
W cos 6 the component of the weight. and thus the* angle of incidence which gives the minimum gliding angle may not give the minimum rate of Curve 7 (fig.
H. Hence. 26) may easily be constructed. Work done against wind resistance in
.
(1)
Furthermore.
Consider
are equal in
A
and
B
to be
two exactly
If
similar machines
which
heavily loaded.
and the
. and with the disappearance of the ground friction. so as to flatten out the flight path. When the engine is running.
Starting. the machine will climb if the angle of incidence by be increased. and also small head resistance. Firstly. the descent is easily regulated by a combined use of the elevator and throttle.
Initially
the
elevator
is
placed in
a position
which corresponds to a small angle of incidence of the wings.72
THE AEROPLANE. c is not greatly different from to the
same
U =U
U
glance at curves 4 and 5 of fig. the pilot adjusts his elevator may have a large angle of incidence. the rate of falling of the machine must be reduced to a minimum. so that an increase of an angle of incidence which has a greater value than 6J will cause the machine to climb more slowly. the machine continues to ascend. The machine climbs most rapidly when the angle of incidence
machine
equal to 6J.
. and perpendicular to the direction of the wind. The machine now rises.
UH
A
aviator
is in horizontal flight at the angle of incidence given the point A. 26 shows that the may alter the angle of the climbing path by operating the elevator. Obviously. When the machine is approaching the ground the aviator adjusts either the elevator or the engine. The maximum limit of the angle of incidence should be that corresponding to the maximum
of the
wings
is
rate of climbing. Thus if the engine is running all out. according to his particular fancy. or both. and H be the horizontal speed corresponding
U
U
H A/COS 0. Alighting. the angle of incidence of the wings should give the gliding angle which
sufficiently great
so that the wings
corresponds to the minimum rate of falling. the elevator is adjusted to give the correct angle of incidence for horizontal flight. starting and also alighting are most efficiently performed in a head wind. If c be the uniform speed of climbing a slope of inclination 0. and setting of the elevator. usually an operation of skill. then as the value of 6 is fairly small. When a sufficient altitude has been reached. coupled with the fact that the wings have a large angle of incidence and that the engine is working at full power. When the engine is out of action. When the machine has a
ground speed. although the engine power remains constant.
Equations
(1)
and
(2)
are the equilibrium equations
when
the forces are resolved along.
which tends to damp out the original motion.
the portions of the machine which are capable of offering Thus. To the first order of angle
all
approximation a turn of the rudder of an aeroplane which has
Relative Wind Direction
9
FIG. When the rotation of the machine about its normal axis is com
.THE EQUILIBRIUM OF AN AEROPLANE.
the ground
friction
Turning.
rudder action
on such a machine would be primarily a turning action. and may be further checked by an increase of the angle of incidence of the wings.
The ground speed
of the
of
73
machine is gradually diminished by the wheels and skids. The term " keelplate " includes
resistance to lateral motion. and A deflection of the rudder of an secondarily. the
centre of gravity of the machine. 32. We shall now consider how the keelplate of an uptodate machine
facilitates
turning. It is of the greatest importance to realise that the action of the rudder is only effective when the machine has an adequate keelplate.
Fig. so rudder action has had sufficient time to rotate the
machine through a small angle about a normal axis. a sideslip.
aeroplane introduces a force at the centre of gravity of the machine. with no appreciable alteration in the direction of motion of the
Briefly. wings which have a dihedral assist the keelplate action.
32 represents the forces acting on
the machine
that
the
when the turning action has just commenced.
in
no keelplate an imaginary aeroplane of course would result an equal deflection of the longitudinal axis of the machine.
Generally.
and
with a force (Ft+Fa) acting at the centre of This force curves the trajectory of the centre of gravity. Also when
force
the rudder
is
deflected for a turn the longitudinal
component
. the outside wing. is not wholly Moreover. and such an antagonistic tendency can only be balanced by a suitable manipulation of the If the machine has an appreciable bank.74
pleted the algebraic
THE AEEOPLANE. the increased drift of the outside wing has a tendency to turn the machine in the opposite direction.
its
moment
The above
discussion. Ordinarily. which acts in the direction of component the longitudinal axis. which moves at a greater speed than the inside one.
machines which have small keelplate areas are not entirely dependent upon the action of the rudder to enable them
to turn. apparent that any tendency to drop is minimised by the use of a high keelplate: the component of (F!+F 2 ) along the longitudinal axis is then above the centre of gravity and increases the angle of incidence of the wings. of the air force acting on the wings has now a component
lateral
component which must be added to the centripetal due to the keelplate action. the vertical rudder. the area of the
are
left
we
keelplate is large. and its centre of pressure is fairly close to the centre of gravity of the machine. component of the lift will be less than the weight. whilst a rudder of small
area is placed a long distance from the centre of gravity. when a machine turns. and the machine heels over or banks. the smaller is the radius of the turn. rises relatively
The lift to the latter. gravity until the centrifugal force thus introduced just balances the centripetal force.
sum
of
the
moments
of the
two
forces
F! and F 2 about the centre
of gravity is equal to zero. Obviously the greater (Fj+Fg). a good many applicable to modern machines. Furthermore. then at the commencement of
the turn the angle between the relative wind direction and the longitudinal axis of the machine will be theoretically equal The to the angle through which the rudder has been turned. If the centre of pressure of the keelplate area coincide with the centre of gravity of the machine. of the force (Fi+Fa). increases the head resistance. and hence the machine will drop unless the angle of incidence of the It is \\dngs is increased by the operation of the elevator. although interesting and instructive.
Thus. Turning at a small
elevation. <t>= Y
2
rg
this theoretical angle of
bank within reasonable
desirable that the turning speed of the machine limits. a righthanded turn of this increase the angle of incidence of the wings.
of
75
disastrous
(Fj+Fg) increases the drag.
unless
skilfully per
a dangerous operaAt the commencement of tion. we have. then the gyroscopic action of the propeller during a lefthanded turn will cause the machine
to dive.
if
rg
Y be
U
small.
is
theoretical interest to consider
the banking angle of a machine which has no keelplate.
J
The gyroscopic action
of the propeller has also to
be considered
during turning operations. and it is now of
formed.
L L
And
To keep
it
is
cos
sin
(h
=
(1)
2
<j>
= WU
(2)
tan
(f>
'
=U
2
. to the conditions which. the elevator
and engine are adjusted. imagine an aeroplane to be driven by a lefthanded tractor. this article we ignored the rolling action due to the difference between the relative wind speeds of the wings. Owing to the keelplate action of a well
constructed machine the angle of bank
is
much
less
than
/U 2 \
(
. under ordinary circumstances. would favour climbing.
reduced
lift
To counteract the
consequences of the
and increased drag.
if
turning
U
FIG
33. 33).
Similarly. bank.
adopt the bold that the machine assumption turns without dropping.THE EQUILIBEIUM OF AN AEROPLANE. a constant.
machine
will
At any time
. shall not be too great. Then.
and
if
r
be the radius of the turn
(see fig. Motion of a HydroAeroplane on the Water. prior to a turning manoeuvre. 0.
shall
We
the
be speed the angle of uniform.
We shall
The curves
assume that for any and any arbitrarily
aeroplane
is
in
air. the bodies in and the air of the compartment are not acted upon by any force due to the
. The Behaviour of an Aeroplane in a Regular Wind. 191213. and the square of the speed through the water.
where
H= propeller thrust. has attained a uniform velocity.
shown
in
during the motion of the machine on the surface.
An illustration may further enlighten the is (U+w). as formerly.
D=drag
of the
floats). clearly accounts for the welldefined shape of curve 3. relatively to the air.
F= water resistance of the floats. 34. imagine the dead calm
of the
the position of the controls and the value of the propeller thrust have remained unaltered. so that the new velocity of the machine relatively to
the ground
reader. if
still
Now.
weight of the machine. after some time.76
THE AEROPLANE.
L=lift on the wings.
arbitrarily fixed position of the controls.
34. 35 are taken from The Report of the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
machine (including
air resistance of
the
B=buoyancy
of the floats. Then. the aeroplane. an stable flight and moving with a velocity
U
atmothrough to be instantaneously converted into a regular wind sphere of velocity u (U and u are not necessarily horizontal). will
be in the same flying configuration.
Fia. fixed value of the propeller thrust. the forces
acting are
W=
fig. Imagine a portion of the atmosphere to be enclosed in
an exceedingly large railway
Then once the carriage carriage. The dependence of the water resistance F of the float upon the area of the wetted surface.
of fig.
of
uniform velocity. Hence to an observer on the earth. Curve (/) BodyResistance WingResistance FloatResistance ThrustH. so that a
77
man
in the
compartment
regards the air of the compartment as stationary. its velocity relatively to the earth) will be different from the apparent velocity to
the
man
of the
in the compartment or.P. the velocity machine relatively to the air in the compartment by
the velocity of the train. and. man.
40
Speed
FIG.
.P.P)
10
20
30
M. 35. An aeroplane flying in the compartment would appear to the man A spectator outside to be manoeuvring in a deadcalm air. in other words. P)
"
(I30H.H. and the
aeroplane have the additional velocity of the train.THE EQUILIBRIUM OF AN AEROPLANE.
movement
of the carriage. the compartment knows that the compartment. Required Total Resistance on Water
Thrus tH. he regards the air of the compartment as a wind
Resistance and
Power Curves of
a
HydroAeroplane on Water. furthermore. The velocity of the aeroplane to the spectator standing by the track (that is.P A vailable (100 H. the gliding angle of a machine in a horizontal following wind will appear to be less than the gliding angle of the same machine in a horizontal
head wind.
"
the pilot's use of controls. has written many admirable papers upon the mathematics of stability. has done a great deal of useful stability work.
of
VI. Ferber. no matter in 'what adverse circum may be placed.
Definition of Stability. one of the pioneers of aeronautical research. Lanchester. which necessitates a limited number
is
rapid progress in the future
not to be expected. much excellent work has been done by
and the general apathy
Bryan. Bairstow.
the stability difficulty of the
of of investigators. must be the equipment of one who wishes to further develop
the present knowledge of aeroplane stability. and others. W.
definition of a stable
Bairstow has proposed the following
:
air
machine " A stable machine is one which from any position in the into which it may have got. Later.
At present but little is known an aeroplane. F.
Mathe
matical ability.
AN AEROPLANE. with free or fixed controls. coupled with a sound engineering experience. and in view of the extreme subject. Crocco. who has had the advantage of aeronautical research work at the National Physical Laboratory. although he was
undoubtedly handicapped by the lack of experimental evidence of the scientific world towards the study of aeronautics. either as a result of gusts or
and speed when the
the stability. according to the character of
The
definition
to enable the
presumes a sufficient height above the ground machine to perform the necessary righting man78
. Bairstow. shall recover its correct flying position pilot leaves the machine to choose its own
course.CHAPTER
STABILITY OF
Introduction. The successful designer of the future will be able to predict the probable
stances the machine
behaviour of his machine.
to operate the controls. The relative " " desirable characteristics will be greatly importance of these
influenced
by the weather conditions. and the various comof aeroplane manoeuvres. irrespective a stable aeroplane be moving in a uniform manner relatively to
the
and. The ideal machine enables plications " all safety manoeuvres to be airsuccessfully performed in an " of the vagaries of the weather. to adopt an altered attitude relatively to the earth with each new direction of the relative wind. is said to be neutral. In such a case the pilot would need is not all that is desirable. the continual application of correcting manoeuvres entailing a great strain upon the
pilot. to its original condition. If worthy manner. then the forces and reactions
air. A machine which is overstable
is
insensitive to control.
acting
upon the machine will tend to restore the original motion. which can only right itself by virtue of a great fall. it would appear that a slightly stable machine. more
or less.STABILITY OF AN AEROPLANE. It is the general
In view
machine
is
impression that the pilot's final corrective manoeuvres may be occasionally necessary even if the machine be itself inherently
stable. as a result of a small external temporary disturbance say. and is difficult to manage in gusty weather in consequence of the tendency of the machine to lie in the direction of the relative wind that is. although a sufficient height of the machine above the ground is required.
An inherent characteristic of a stable machine is the maintenance of speed.
79
of the possible action of gusts when the near the ground. upon the presence of the desirable aerodynamic qualities which are conducive to the safety of the machine.
ceuvres.
The degree
of stability of a
machine
is
dependent. or depart from its slightly displaced new condition. A machine which possesses small instability continually tends to depart from its normal flying condition. In an unstable machine the new external forces would introduce other forces which encourage a further departure from the initial A machine which has no tendency to return flying conditions. so that a combination of the skill of the pilot and the stability characteristics of the machine would secure safety in quite a limited range of action.
. a gust the machine is made to adopt a new configuration relatively to the air. Hence a stable machine turns into the relative and such good " weachercock " stability is only obtained wind.
placed from
its
normal
. the
motion of an aeroplane
may
be considered to be one main
translational velocity upon which is superposed small translational and angular velocities. and there is a lag " " between the cause and the corrective action. Generally. If the periodic disturbances due to wind gusts synchronise with the periods of the machine. when the longitudinal axis of the machine faces down the wind. each portion of the machine will have a new velocity relatively to the air. Although automatic stability may be a great aid to the pilot. the big initial disturbances
imposing great discomfort upon the pilot. it should not be regarded as a substitute for inherent stability. whereas statical stability is only concerned with the forces acting upon a stationary body. and fins of a stable machine
Great inherent stability is readily damp out any oscillations. It would " " automatic controllability would be a more appear that " term than automatic stability. so that the pilot can effect a ready recovery after the action of
a gust. inherent stability is attained without the aid of any moving parts. and hence. with good damping and small restoring couple. oscillates. The automatic devices are only called into play after the oscillations have started. Automatic Stability. if the general direction of the wind remain unaltered. A serviceable machine for gusty weather should have a small
stability factor. rudder. when slightly dis
A
flying position.
longitudinal position of the centre of gravity
is
when the
well
forward of the longitudinal position of the centre of pressure of the machine. A machine which possesses good inherent stability does not
encourage the development of large oscillations." Automatic appropriate devices should be capable of being rapidly thrown out of action to enable the pilot to perform easily extreme manoeuvres. tail. oscillations
may
be set up. weathercock or directive stability should not be too pronounced. and depends upon the correct size and position of the several fins and surfaces. To prevent discomfort to the pilot. machine. big. so that hunting of the machine may be a disastrous consequence.80
THE AEROPLANE. and maybe
dangerous. The resistances offered by the wings. not desirable in gusty weather.
Dynamic stability is dependent upon all the forces acting upon a moving body. as the damping forces become more effective with large and rapid oscillations. keelplate. Moreover.
it
veris
tical.
statically be dynamiThus.
Nevertheless.
The
an
Aeroplane. at right angles to each the centre of gravity of the machine. a pendu
lum
is
always statically
Stability of
stable. the plane
of
symmetry being
Firstly. pass through are fixed in the machine.
necessary to define the various oscillations
FlG 36
common
plane. of an aeroplane.
The
81
forces acting on the machine at any instant are thus a function of the motion of the machine. These axes.
We
shall
nowproceed to examine the stability of an aeroplane.
when the path
of
the centre of gravity is rectilinear.
to
an
aero
Fig. and other. cally unstable.STABILITY OF AN AEROPLANE. 36 gives a sketch of the three principal axes OX. OZ
The
following nomenclature has been adopted at the National
:
Physical Laboratory
6
. and in the
plane of symmetry of the machine.
OY. the wellknown experiis
which
stable to
ment
of
producing
unstable oscillations in a pendulum by the
action of a succession
small impulses of the same period as the natural period of the pendulum is a case of
of
dynamical
instability. It is possible for a body
we mean dynamical
stability. so that when speaking
of the stability of an aeroplane.
one equation dealing with symmetrical or longitudinal oscillation. (a) The equations of motion are referred to rectangular
fixed in the body of the aeroplane. and the angular velocities p.
and the
\fs.
Z. Bairstow has investigated the stability of the motion of a
machine
modern machine.
and
of the linear
and angular
velocities
For convenience of reference we state now the conventions adopted throughout the investigation. v. It has been assumed that the forces and couples acting on the machine are functions only of the position of the machine
relative to the vertical.82
THE AEROPLANE. are referred to the body axes. of the machine. and the second equation with asymmetrical
motion give
If
order. are
functions of p. r. (6) The linear velocities u. q. and as first applied by Bryan. and the following treatment of the subject has been based upon his work. the equation may be split into two fourthorder linear differential equations.
u. OZ
OX
.
The
The
air forces
X.
air
moments
L.
rigid mathematical discussion of the stability of the motion of an aeroplane is of some difficulty. w. w. v.
or lateral oscillation. 0. Y. r.
axes
axis
OX.
q. N. as the general equations of motion for oscillations about a state of steady
rise to a linear differential equation of the eighth the steady motion does not involve rotation. OY.
TABLE
III. 0.
M.
The standard methods
of a
for the
examination of the motions
for small oscillations as given by Routh. The passes through the centre of gravity of the machine parallel to the thrust of the airscrew. are used in the following investigation.
OX. Oz
about
. secondly. OY.
vertical relative to the
body
is
axes.]
it is
Since in actual flight. OY. the positions of the body axes are then given
by OX. OZ. the sign of convenient to write iUo
U
is
U
always negative. The gravitational forces and the air forces are unaffected by a change of the value of
. B. it be assumed that the body axes of the machine coincide with the gravitational
axes OXj. The mathematical conventions as to the
signs of the linear
and angular velocities are indicated in fig. firstly. OY. (g) The gravitational forces are defined by the position of the vertical relative to the body axes. not necessarily horizontal the positions of the body axes are given by OZ OY . The new position of the aeroplane relative to the vertical can readily be specified by
Euler's angular coordinates. Now imagine the machine to have a slight (See fig.
83
is
(c) The angular velocity of steady motion about the vertical denoted by \fs. since V merely changes the orientation of the machine. OZ.
OY. by a rotation of the machine final positions of the body
* There is no need in this investigation to introduce the Eulerian coordinate is. E. *5f are the angular coordinates of Euler.
.
through an angle 0. and show (e) 0.
C
are the
moments
of inertia
about the axes OX. the axes being OX.) disturbance. (h) The air forces are dependent entirely on the linear and angular velocities of the machine relative to the air.
axes take the positions OZ.
(1)
F
are the products of inertia about the axes
[D=F=0.STABILITY OF AN AEROPLANE. 36 A. how the position of the aeroplane in space can be reached by a
direction of the vertical
definite succession of rotational
(/)
movements.
is
position of the aeroplane relative to the vertical of the 1} 2 3 completely defined by the direction cosines
(d)
The
N N N
.
%
. a rotation about the V3rtical.
of steady flight. $.
To be
consistent. OZ.*
that
OX
and. 36.
. If. OYj. by a rotation of the machine about OY 15 through an angle (0+0). OX. " " denotes an (i) A capital letter with a suffix equilibrium
value of a variable. OY 15 OZ 15 then the final position of the body is obtained. so that after any small interval of time the body
flight. the
upward
taken as positive.
(j)
A. initially.
At any instant
OX
. (k) D.
.
and the axes OX 15 OY 1? OZ 1? are given in Table IIlA.
Axes
of
OZ
In steady motion ^=0.
OX.
=M =N =0
on machine) moment on machine)
.
OK
OZ.
TABLE
IIlA. Body OZ. so that the directional cosines are X with respect to the axes OX.
The direction cosines between the body axes OX. OZ
sin 0. 36A.
. cos 0. OY. 0.
(1) (2)
(3)
(4)
. OY. 0=0.84
THE AEROPLANE.
.
FIG. OZ. Vertical.
The conditions
of equilibrium are
X +0sin8=0
Y =0
L
(no lateral force
(110
Z 0cos9 =
.
.
and Y. <j> has a small order of magniThe machine after such a disturbance performs small tude. Z. w. p.. OZj.+ti.
So that
p
<f>
\fsSUiQ
.
.
From
the above relationships
we
have.
The machine in a disturbed along the body axes of U +w.
. N. q.
for the other forces
and moments. v. There quantity proportional to the rate of change of are thirtysix resistance derivatives. v. Y.
q.
The angular
are 0.nQ
are functions of the velocity components we may as a first approximation write.
and
it is
assumed.
(9)
Since the air forces X. Z. M. r. r.
(6)
(7)
.. etc. w..
.
85
W
position has linear velocities
}w.
p.
v. 0.STABILITY OF AN AEROPLANE.
(8)
0=\0=q
</>=\<f>=p+rta.
velocities of the
machine about OX. Z. v.
W
X=X +wX
And
so
.
. X.
.
Xu Y
Zu
.
.
(5)
gr=^cos04^sin^cos9 r=\jscos <cos9 0sin
.
w
are each proportional to e xi
'
Hence
at
r =\u. do Thus. +w. L. but from the symmetry of an aeroplane it follows that eighteen derivatives vanish. v. r. q.
N
do not occur
Consideration of the Values of the Several Resistance Derivatives. that p.
are
known
Hence the resistance derivative say. +w. since each of the six quantities X.
u.
as Resistance Derivatives. therefore.
\fr.
.X. r. and the air
U
moments L.. q.
.
. may be defined as a with u.X w
+l>Xjr fgrX J +rX r
. Y. L. It is now proposed to discuss the nature of the dependence of the resistance derivatives on the
several parts of a machine.
. p. w. The values of the resistance derivatives substituted in the
A
Theoretical
. r.
M
not occur with suffixes with suffixes u.
if
be small.
.
X
X
N
tion of u.
. each of the quantities u. OYj
9 respectively. may be expressed as a linear functt . M.
and angular
velocities
Since the disturbance is assumed to be quite small. and to calculate numerical values.
q.
about these axes of p.
oscillations.
u +t.
(10)
on
u.
..
r. q. v. p.
and The Rate
4.
Zw
that
is
by
.
is
The variation of the At the normal angle
lift. the higher value corresponding with a lowspeed machine.
== velocity of the wind relative to the machine Also we may write with good accuracy
The
Uo^iUo.a
=mg cos 0. As the direction of the wind undergoes no change.
X
M
M
The Variation of the Normal Force due to a Normal A small upward Velocity of the Machine relative to the Wind.
.
A = area
and
K
is
. a constant.
\JQ/
And
.
mZ
where
=K A
1
.
of incidence the ratio of
~..
^o
the same as the ratio of drag to
and
varies
from J to
J.=T
2g ~~^
2g cos
9
iUo has a value ranging from 60 feet per second to 150 feet per second. velocity w reduces the angle of incidence of the wings by
.
.
20 and and u may be between ^0 &U 05.
(
U
2
)
. the pitching will remain zero.li U
m
U
\
n
U
2
I
.
of
Change of
is
X
with u. moment
We
have then
X =X ^ r^.
lift
(mZ
approximately equal to the
of
on the machine.
calculated
stability equations were from experiments tions
made
with one or two excepon a model aeroplane in a wind
channel.86
THE AEKOPLANE. the
l
'
new value
Change of Z with of Z becomes
u.
ra=mass
of the machine. the corresponding values of Zu in horizontal flight
being
10
X
M..
x is
of the wings. M.
Z.)
be increased
ZM
The Rate
to UQ+'M. Variation of Pitching Moment with Forward Velocity.
thrust of the airscrew
v
not considered.
an=
:
=(l+jj)gcosQ.
Highspeed machines. which probably have a small angle of incidence of the wings.
1^0
A
the area of the
tail is
^
.
The new value
of rnZ
is
87
w\
i
/
1
w
i
T T)=wi0cos0( u /
o
==
\
).iUo"
. have very large tails to counterbalance any pitching moment due to pitching introduced by the displacement of the centre of pressure of the wings. and with such an aeroplane the pitching moment due to the wings is small compared with that due to the tail.
corresponding with a highspeed machine. the lower value
45.
probably be between
Variation of Pitching
and
04.
aoilV
"
_
_0rcos9 iU a
.
planes.
M^.
the increase of the upward nor.
Moment with Normal
The pitching moment
M chiefly depends on the elevator and tail
moment due to the movement wings and fin action of the body has also to be considered.
Xw
Variation of the
the machine. of the lift and drag forces on
.STABILITY OF AN AEROPLANE.
of the tail
due to an
upward normal velocity w=
If
f
TT
=
=FT
^0
.e.
. Usually the area of the tail is about onetenth the area of the wings. components along the axis of X. . although the pitching of the centre of pressure of the
As before.
.
g
.
If
the machine be flying at the angle of
is
minimum
.
Z OTT1
U
.
i.
mal force on the tail=
K ^ iU
x
10
. the
change of force
05 to 02. The value of Z v varies from 15 to
Longitudinal Force due to Normal The longitudinal force is the algebraic sum of the Velocity.
~K W will
For actual machines
Velocity.
The value
of a
varies
from J to
^ radian. .
Xw =

1
U
=^
1
U
and
varies from
X w depends also on the body resistance.ao.
cos
9 w
~10.
^
. mZ =K 1 a A !U 2 The increase of the angle of incidence
.
drag.
If
the
movement
of the centre of pressure of the
'
wing be
large. tail and fin area of the body.
fins.88
THE AEROPLANE.
rudder. and depends upon the action of the wings.
IS
^
Mw usually varies from
20 to 80.
depends mainly on the upanddown movement of the
If the distance of
the centre of pressure of the tail from the centre of gravity of the machine be 15 feet. and
tail.
The Variation
coefficient is of small
This of Normal Force with Pitching.
tail
Moreover. and even a small variation in such a small angle would appreciably affect the position of the centre of pressure of the
wings..
Variation of the Lateral Force due to a Side Slip or a Side The value of Y. the increase of the normal force on the tail due to a small pitching velocity q is
10
.
During a volpique the angle of incidence of the wings is small.
wings.
M
of small importance.
The value
of
M
g
due to the
tail
action
is
easily seen to be
. so that a slight modification of the above discussion
may
be necessary.
The Variation
of Longitudinal Force due to Pitching. if the distance of the centre of pressure of the from the centre of gravity of the machine be 15 feet. a
79
_10
iUo
. vertical
and
also
The
total area affected
upon the dihedral angle of the by a side slip is about 70 square
.
varies
from
Wind.
C S
9
]
. cos 9
iUo a
. The Variation of the Pitching
Moment due
to Pitching.
.
jUo.
Zq
.
X
This
q
. depends upon the area of the body.
This derivative has a large value.225 g.
a
7
. etc. the value of
M
8
M
may be sf^ffi i^o
100 to
300.
is
g
.
feet. importance in the stability equation.
o
u
Increase of
lift
on the wing towards which
side slipping
is
g cos
96
.
.. = Angle of incidence of the wings.
Hence the new angle
of incidence
ED = angle EGC=.~DC
J
I
=a
".
FIG.
Angle
BGC = ^T u
i
.
Variation
of
Referring to
a
fig.
37. a side wind increasing the lift on one wing.
f
B
wing
is
Similarly. the angle of incidence of the second v
equal
to a

i
iffp.STABILITY OF AN AEROPLANE.
and
.
/ v \
(
The relative wind now veer 3 through an angle
^rHIV
). and diminishing the lift on the other. depends mainly on the dihedral angle. 37. L.
v
. let
/3=half the dihedral angle.
o
Angle AGB=a Angle EAD=/3.
Rolling Moment due to Side Slip.
89
Y
L
r
.
varies
from
01 to
04.
This the position of the centre of pressure depends upon of the rudder with respect to the centre of gravity of the machine. .
approximately.
. where 2 a
.
Variation
of
Lateral
longitudinal axis..
since
A.
2
^
.fl
Y due to the rolling of the wings
W _jg
.d Jybdy=^. .
jUo
.
of small importance Variation of Rolling
is.
d=length
of
one wing..
Increased
lift
on the
falling
element due to a rolling velocity p
10
And
.v.
Proceeding as in
. A roll increases the angle of incidence of the falling wing and decreases the angle of incidence of the rising wing.
Hence..
L v varies from 04 to 20 when /5=2.
. and is rather difficult to determine.
. of area (6 A?/).
and
varies from
1
to
3.
.
A
Lp
theoretical value of Y. at a distance y from the
Yp
.
.
therefore.
ft
.
Yp is
.
.
lift
on the other wing =^5 Z
TT
.
v.
due to Rolling. rolling
qcosQ.= ^approximately. N Variation of Yawing Moment
coefficient
Force due to Rolling.
a
.
And
T !
with Side Slip.y=^r
A
.d moment =.
. Now consider an element of the whig.
iU
TT
.ft.90
Decrease of
TT
THE AEROPLANE. Assume that 6=breadth of the wings. CI
j
U
.
the increase of lateral force due to this element
do
A
1^0
so that increase of lateral force
.
p = Z 8 d p = g cos 9 d *~a TT~^ JTT & a & I^Q iU
.
.A
Therefore.
Hence
L =
of
3
1
U
400.
d2
.bdy
TT
A
P=
r
Z
.
The rudder
will also influence the value of
Y.
Stability
conditions are not greatly affected force due to yawing.r !UfT.
.
a
f
.
X
. portional of the body and rudder has a small effect on the yawing moment.
..d*.
the case of
a rolling
91
Yp
.2yr.r
so that
3
.
Variation of the Lateral Force due to Yawing.
N
The
limits of
Np are
+40 and
0. moment L due to the wings
2.
it is
obvious that a rolling velocity
p
introduces
moment
6
since
.STABILITY OF AN AEKOPLANE.
L.
And
.Z.
Np
200 to an actual machine varies from Variation of Yawing Moment due to Rolling..2yr.
by
the value of the lateral
In
Variation of the Rolling
crease of the rolling
Moment due to Yawing.
2
2/
.
i
TT u
o
Y
r
varies from
1
to
4. we find the increase of lift upon
of the element b
dy of the wings due to a yawing velocity
r to
be
Z . Working Y.
approximately.
approximately.
The Lp
is prop The rolling to the slope of the longitudinal force curve. the increase of
Y
due to a small yawing velocity
r
Z .
X
U
)
3
.
o
J
dy
=^<*o
'
A
./3.d.bdy iU . the same lines as previously.
X M varies from
and the angle
of
A
side wind. r Other derivatives may be calculated similarly. 6r.
If
Y=
N
y.
introduces fluctuations in the values of the torque and the lateral
with no appreciable change of thrust.. be a lefthanded tractor.
.
(14)
(15)
(16)
where
h
=pA qF
(17)
* These equations of motion are to be found Dynamics.
If
the airscrew be 6 feet ahead of the centre of gravity
of the machine.
where
H= thrust
of the airscrew. incidence of the bottom blade diminished. v for an airscrew 8 feet diameter. part N r for the whole machine varies from 20 to 60.
jUo in
. If the airscrew. 01 the speed of the aeroplane be 80 feet /second..
The sideway
N=
yawing
We
shall
now commence a mathematical
analysis of the
stability of the
motion of an aeroplane.
force.
==
velocity of the airscrew due to so that 04.. then.. Resistance Derivatives due to the Airscrew. and giving a thrust of 250 Ibs.
..
(12)
(13)
m[w+vp(U+u)q]=mZ
Ji 1
rh 2 }qh 3
=mL
rE
. rotating at 1150 R.. An approxiof
r
N
TT
mate value
of
X M is
j*
. taken as 250 Ibs..92
THE AEROPLANE. Y . then. The general equations of motion * of the aeroplane are
(11)
m[v + (U+u)r(w+W)p]=mY
. Xw . A side wind introduces a lateral force on the airscrew.P. as viewed from the pilot's seat.M..
H be
of the aeroplane. the angle
of incidence of the top blade is increased.
Variation of
modern machines varies from +50 to +100.
.
L
r
for
N. Yawing Moment due to Yawing. when the machine has a positive sideslip. whilst the due to the body and rudder is very variable. The part
5 to due to the wings may vary from 20.
and ra=mass
If
012 to 04.= 6YV = 06.
.
N.
in
any standard textbook on Rigid
.
N.
(HA)
.
93
of the second order of magnitude and Neglecting quantities
writing
F=D=0.. we
have
X
w~Uq=Z pAfE=raL
.M w f qMq
tt
.
.
.
cos
(12e)
Equation (13A) "becomes
\w
Uq=Z g cos (0+0) +uZ u \wZ w +qZq
.
.

(
15B )
Equation (16A) becomes
Ar
.
.*=
.. Equation (!!A) becomes be
(Us)
Equation (12A) becomes
Wp = g
.
(13s)
Equation (14A) becomes
\p
.
r
+vN.
.
(16s)
.
A.
.
(14B)
Equation (15A) becomes
2 \q & B
. c
2
Xp k..STABILITY OF AN AEROPLANE.
=M
fwM +w.
(16A)
Making use
osculations
of the
may now
for small preceding data. the equations written down.
k<? Arfc B
a
=L
+t.
unaffected and the
(17).
X Z w
.
..
E
1?
and Routh's Discriminant
(BAD^A^D^B^EJ
are
each positive.
p.
Hence the
solution of the equations of the longitudinal
oscillation is obtained
from the determinant
...M
..
Longitudinal Stability.
in
Collecting the equations of motion and writing them convenient order we have
a
Z uu
+(\Z w )w
Mu
(AY> +
M
Xk*M
=0
f
_Y.
r. These conditions are fulfilled if l5 B l5 C 1?
A
D!. w..
=
. which contain only the variables u.
X
A.94
THE AEROPLANE. The solution of the determinantal may be written as
equation (19)
A^+B^+C^+D^+E^O
The motion
will
. whilst the lateral oscillarepresent tions are given by the equations (18).
2v w
Z
tt
. ..
(21)
of the
be stable if the real roots and the real parts roots of this algebraic equation of the fourth complex order are negative.
And.. q..
M w
ZjX g sin
=
. the solution of the equations of the lateral oscillation may be deduced from the determinant
XY
t
_
. similarly.
(20)
N.
. which contain the variables
Equations
v.+W
+u +rineY
is
o
The
solution
generality of the above equations is simplified if we write W=0. the longitudinal oscillations.
XU
M
M
.
(19)
.
the equation
of the longitudinal
motion
3
A
4
+ ll4X
f336A +572\H272=0
.
. Ibs.
tt
.
.
and
since Routh's discri
minant has a positive machine is stable. .
sign.
1300 9
=40.
Dl=
M
Xu Xw
.
The values
of the longitudinal resistance derivatives are
X
also
tt
=014
Z u =080
M
u
=0
X =05
&
a 2
=250
and
Z ? =90 6=0.
is
2
= 2100
Substituting the above values in equation (22).
sin
MU.
The values
machine
of the resistance derivatives are calculated
from
experiments on a model of the machine.
is
The mass
of the
taken as
ft.poundals.
(23)
All the coefficients are positive.
the longitudinal motion of this
.
M.
u
. Area of wings about 300 square feet.
9 9
(22)
M M
tt
.Z W
. which is in horizontal flight (9=0).
Flying speed 80 feet per second =55 miles per hour.
We now proceed to work out the longitudinal stability of the motion of a modern machine.
cos
9 9
cos
sin
Z M .
...
is
and the
moments
in
And
thus there
no necessity to convert
into poundals
and
ft. The following data have been taken
:
Weight
of
machine = 1300
Ibs.
The
forces are in Ibs.STABILITY OF AN AEROPLANE.
The values
"I = ^B
95
of the coefficients of the biquadratic for longitudinal oscillations are easily seen to be
C1 =
Z B Uo+Z.M.
M.
and the influence of each resistance derivative on the stability of the motion of the aeroplane is more
Moreover.
.
approximately.
1
1
A1X4 f^1X8 +C X 2 +D \+E 1 =0 may
Such approximations reduce the biquadratic equation to a much simpler form. stability of any desired amount readily understood.
. so that equation
heavily
damped
(27) represents oscillation of a period of 14 seconds.
tives
have been decided upon. the approximate solutions
may be
discarded.
that
is. be given to the machine by a suitable alteration of the may When the values of the resistance derivaprincipal derivatives.
comes X 2
+ZX + K
B
z
^
ZJVI S
U .
a very
.
(27)
The
roots of this equation are
ir/M
2
V d&
//M.
(25)
B^Ci
AiE^^Cj
.M=0
Z"
.
(24)
that some of the resistance coefficients have quite a small influence on the values of the coefficients A l5 B 1? C 1? DU and E x Considering only the important parts
The reader
will notice
. 0 sin 6)
x
E 1 =~^M
Further.
(562045i).
may
be written
.96
Equation
(23)
THE AEROPLANE.
approximate values of the
coefficients are
A =k
2
D = M^XJZ.
AiD 1 <oQB 1 C 1
the biquadratic equation be written approximately as
approximately. and a
rigid solution of the biquadratic obtained. XJZJ+lUUoX. and C 15 the the approximate values of 1} B ls Substituting
A
T>
r\
first
factor
X 2 + T^X+*^=0 A 1 A!
\/
of the
biquadratic equation be.
if
tt
(ZM
coseX a sine)
2
.
of each coefficient.
must be
and
4U M.
This.
fore
is
improbable. 2 jr
As previously
stated. .
M
.
q
and Z w are
each negative.
The second
factor of the biquadratic equation. which makes (j\
Z^ <L\+zS
it is
Under these circumstances
real parts of the roots of the equation will
highly improbable that the be positive.STABILITY OF AN AEROPLANE. so that
the resulting longitudinal motion must be stable.
becomes
for this
machine
(X
2
+ 1495\ 40855=0).
With good accuracy we may
write the value of ^r as ^i
and
since
ZM =
U
=1
U
EI
I
Z becomes equal to T i u oivf
.
The
resistance derivatives
ffj \K B
97
M
g
and Z w are always negative. and also
that the terms involved correspond with a motion which produces a change in the attitude of the machine relative to the wind. namely.
. The motion is almost independent of variations of the flight
speed.
positive.
X + 007470283*'=0
It is seen that this
(28)
motion
is
a slightly
damped
p
oscillation
of period 22 seconds. because
negative. .
the term under the radical sign be positive and numerically
greater than
(ri+ z \/C B
is
A
there
will
be a positive root.
there
however. The reader will notice that g does not enter into the above roots.
M.
that
is.
and hence
If
nas a negative sign.
^
*7 3
.
Hence
that
is.
.
so
is. about the lateral axis of the machine. the more
The importance of the righting moment due to the tail is shown by the presence of M2 The motion given by the second
.
To favour
however.
~M_ W 2
(Mg
Jc B
is
quite important.
assumed w
'
M
.
is
In addition to this slowperiod oscillation second longitudinal oscillation.
Z u Zw
. usually heavily damped.
factor of the biquadratic equation is a function of the variations of both the forward and normal speeds. in his
THE AEROPLANE.
" "
phugoid
analysis.
. otherwise at high speeds the machine is rather difficult to control. It is not a difficult matter to design a machine which shall be longitudinally stable. the trajectory of its centre gravity is a damped oscillatory curve of a slow period. so that the
greater the aerodynamic unstable will it become.
.
i~U
2
.
that in this case the period of oscillation
11 seconds.
is.
must not be too large. the aeroplane rising
above and
falling
below
its
mean
alterations of the speed. Comparatively slow oscillations may be anticipated by the pilot.
is
that
V2g
is
A
that
good approximate condition
for stability
D
1
C 1 >B 1 E 1
.
jUn
>
Zu
Zw
. but the tail of a machine
with the slight of these oscillations is period
flight path.
there
a
. and the correct
say. Longitudinal stability can always be obtained by using a sufficiently large tail.
2
.
4# >
^
^T>
^
^ ^u
is
approximately the ratio of
efficiency
lift
to drag.
of
a machine.
g
=0.
assume M^=0..98
Lanchester. and we have seen that if such a stable
of a high speed range
machine
of
suffer a slight disturbance. The about 22 seconds. 20 seconds.)
discussion.
X M >gr
Kjf
2
.
jriF
7/*
*7
and
.
. Nevertheless. that is. important increases with the speed of the machine. to realise that longitudinal stability Also. and a normal angle of incidence. are
Y= 025
Y =30
r
Lp = 2000 L =650
r
Np =+280 N =370
r
N. *A
2
>
"'E
]f
2
)
*
2 Tf
>
^C
2 If
N.
fc c
+jf sin
9
E =
2
3 cos
+^ sin 9
. which Flight [9=0]. unless the machine has been especially designed for speed. a high
machine
is
more
is
stable
when
it
not conducive to comfort.STABILITY OF AN AEROPLANE.
99
manoeuvre performed. and a modern
gliding than when climbing.
A
where
2
X 4 +B 2 \ 3 +C 2 X 2
+D A+E =0
2
. the wings should have small area. influence the lateral stability of a machine. Longitudinal stability also depends on the inclination of the flight path to the horizontal.
solution of the determinant (20)
The
may
2
be written
.=
054
also
=0.
(30)
TJ
M
v
>
].
speed
is
Lateral Stability of the Motion of an Aeroplane in Horizontal
The values of the resistance derivatives.
of the
equation for lateral stability.
r
N.
of the lateral stability
is
The equation
0161=0
Although Routh's
sign of the coefficient
(31)
discriminant
2
is
positive. and so the stability
Considering the signs of the various depends upon the sign of E 2 numeriit follows that for stability L r r should be derivatives.Do
2
C 2 2 then an approximate
.100
THE AEROPLANE...
L.=
N.
That
is
.
E
2
be
less
th of either
B2
or
D
2.N
V
f
D =Y
2
N.
Ea =
If
gcos
+gr sin
N.
be positive.
\
L' 2 /
E.
(x+yo.
arid (B 2
D C
2
2 2
)
be less than <^th of
(30) is
.
+gr cos
9
.N
Q
than
+tJ..
E
shows that the motion
Good approximate values
"2
A
2
of the coefficients are
"'A
*
]
2
"'O
B =
9
C.N.
N
cally greater than
L^..
.N.
solution to equation
JjLo^^o
AB
The
TS
2
TS~ )AT
(32)
solution of equation (31)
is
(33)
We
In
shall
now
consider the
first factor.
all
machines
D
2
will
.
is
the negative
unstable.
The second
1
factor
2
2
.
better reduced
L
r
will
be diminished. When the airscrew is revolving
.=^JN P
. is due to the increased lift upon the other wing when turning.
this equation
approximately A
2
C2
+r>
A+jA=0.
L v the rolling moment due to a sideslip. L P may be increased by an increase of the dihedral angle.>N.
< ^~
.
experienced in making E 2 positive. The motion represented by this A p ( )
\
A
^
2
>
2
'
is a very heavilydamped subsidence. Np can be reduced by using a smaller rudder.
D
that with modern machines A 2 B 2 be positive.
. If the machine has
. . Effect of the Gyroscopic Action of the Airscrew and Engine on the Stability of an Aeroplane. that is.
The term
^ may be
N r may be increased without by increasing N r areas in front of and behind r by affecting putting equal the centre of gravity of the machine.
A B C D
2
.
. 2
. rolling due to rolling. extremely unlikely that xT> 2 _ A 2C 2\ 2 W ke ne gative. but L r is difficult to control. whilst L r the rolling moment due to yawing. the damping being due to Lp.
E
2N
X+
BD
2
2
between the may be written
is
Owing
values of
to the particular relationships which exist
2.
2
(\{
^>
)=Q
becomes
for
this
It is machine (\ + 8265) =0.
JN r
spiral instability will result. and
damping
There
^
is
2
not
will
much doubt
C 2 and
.STABILITY OF Atf'AEKOPLANE:
101
L
If
L
r
N. and
C
2
the motion
a damped
oscillation of period
2*V 3^2
that ^^ about 6 seconds.
2)
and
E2
.
negative wingtips. is dependent mainly upon the dihedral angle.

/C. although some difficulty may be
. but there will be some loss of controllN
ability.
factor
The
third factor of the equation
is
x.
would appear that if a machine be inherently stable during
gliding flight.
the lateral and longitudinal oscillations are not independent of each other. when the airscrew is not running. cannot be
The converse
stability of
made stable by rotating the airscrew. than the fin AB. The dihedral angle. the which has been calculated from resistance derivatives which ignore the gyroscopic action of the airscrew.. A consideration of one case that is. that the angular velocity of rolling =p.
Although a complete investigation has not yet been made.102
THE AEROPLANE.
Q o
approximately
.
(34)
Now. although there is good reason to believe that the gyroscopic action has small influence on the stability of the
motion of an aeroplane. 38) gives much
and yawing moments. Owing to the gyroscopic interconnection of the longitudinal and lateral oscillations a machine longitudinally stable and laterally unstable.
greater rolling
Increase of rolling
Assume. that is. an unstable machine. etc. rolling due to rolling may be regarded as typical of the rest. vertical longitudinal fins.
/3. no trouble is to be anticipated action of the airscrew and the engine.
from the gyroscopic
of pressure of the keelplate. rudder. as before. largely assists the lateral stability.
. It is worthy of note. becomes also longitudinally unstable
upon rotating the
it
airscrew. due to rolling and yawing.
of the fin
AB
. moment due to the dihedral angle of the wings
=
a
iU
TT
. if suitably
The centre
chosen.
is also true.
. should be above the longitudinal axis passing through the centre of gravity. that the dihedral angle A'AA" (see fig. the height
and the area
of the fin
AB =d
=j
/3. A machine which is laterally stable without the airscrew running will remain stable when gyroscopic actions are considered.
.
tendBut the rolling ing to reduce the banking.
increase of rolling
moment due
i. due to the skidding. vertical fins. and
also
any skidding.
very much less than expression (34). with the aid of controls. posiIf a machine sideslip tion. l U.
103
an element dA from the longi
= K dA. and the magnitude of the dynamic righting moment of any one of these parts depends upon its area.
if the period of an oscillation be large the pilot has ample time to perform the correct manoeuvre to swamp the oscillation.. and the rapidity of the oscillation.._
a
. machine which has great lateral stability in calm weather
A
be exceptionally dangerous and uncomfortable in gusty On the other hand.
Hence. rudder. the yawing and rolling oscillations will be rapid and the damping will be heavy. and possibly to
rolling.
o. Neverthe
may
weather. tail. a righting moment.
moments
of inertia of the
machine about the longitudinal
and normal axes be small.
tir
Expression (35)
is
3?"
R
~3~
. when the distance of the element tudinal axis =2. are readily damped
out by the dynamic action of the wings.. Nevertheless. may The position of the centre of gravity of the machine has very little influence upon the lateral stability. inward during turning.. so that a rolling moment.
of
The
lateral
oscillations
an aeroplane. etc.worked out similarly. Machines usually sideslip inwards when turning. if a machine has indifferent lateral stability the pilot. keelplate.
regarded favourably in many aeronautical circles. The management of such a machine imposes a severe strain upon the pilot. is
. may introduce the necessary righting couples.6.. is called into play. increase of rolling moment due to of this fin. chiefly because of the
other cases
important behaviour of the wings.
is
introduced
the
if
machine as a whole
If
the lateral position of centre of pressure of the is above the position of the centre of gravity.
to the fin
i
o
And
. The be. U u
1
1
*xz.STABILITY OF AN AEROPLANE..
less.
an indifference to yawing.
partly dependent on (a) ~Lp rolling due rolling due to sideslipping. however.
L y . or turning. 12).
spiral
in
Lateral Stability of a Machine at Low Speeds. the lift coefficient decrease with the angle of incidence. and we shall now
is
. increases the
now
the lateral stability
to rolling
(6)
L
t. At the usual speeds of horizontal flight. as is the case if the angle of incidence be greater than the critical angle. so that the couple due to the increased
falling wing and the decreased lift on the rising wing tend to damp out the roll. The lateral stability only " " stalled machine is of sufficient importance of the motion of a to be considered at some length.
to the yawing. If. as the value of a rolling moment due to the wings is dependent mainly on the air forces of the wingtip area. the sign of L p of the longitudinal fin surfaces.
lift on the wings.
lift
on the
will
we
are more concerned with the critical angle at the wingtips. as a control movement which. 90 it is seen that a roll inof incidence of the wings.
stability
is
The banking must rot be excessive
to be avoided. tends to increase the
if
moment due
banking. is a function of the dihedral angle of the wings and of the area and position For stability.104
THE AEROPLANE.
must be such that the
raise the
air forces acting
on the machine tend to
wing towards which sideslipping is taking place. the angle of incidence of the wing is
less
than the critical angle of incidence.. We have already read that
under normal circumstances. the rolling moment due to the forces on the wing aggravates the roll. and the variation of the lift
. the rolling due to sideslipping. diminishes the lift (see fig. The critical angle
at the region of the wingtips has not yet been experimentally determined. the lift coefficient of the wing increases with an increase of the angle of incidence. the angle of speeds the machine becomes A incidence of the wing is greater than the critical angle. The magnitude and sign of the part of L r due to the wings is dependent on the value of the dihedral angle. and the sign In the present discussion of IJ P is such as to produce instability. creases the angle of incidence of the falling wing and decreases
the angle of incidence of the rising wing." that is. At ordinary angles of incidence. " stalls " his machine finds the machine pilot who unconsciously behaving in an uncanny manner. but the present discussion is not in any way invalidated. but occasionally at low " stalled.
consider the dependence of these two coefficients on the angle
On p.
vary as a U that is.
The centre
L. has sufficient air room.
and pitch with increasing
violence.
and M. therefore. the
increases in the values of
. fall.
the machine may pitch. a horizontal gust does not
alter the value of
M.
machine.
Z. Longitudinal Instability.
should be above
part of
of pressure of the longitudinal fin system the centre of gravity of the machine.
rise.
to a
downward
the effect
vertical gust. We have already seen and Z due to a vertical gust are greater that the increases in
due to the
X
by about three to ten times those due to a horizontal gust of the same magnitude. A machine may be made moderately safe at low speeds. as the motion proceeds. It appears that the velocity of a gust is not a function of its direction. which is uninfluenced by the angle of incidence of the wings. It is a matter of common experience
that a pilot of a variablespeed machine prefers to travel at his lowest speed in gusty weather.
coefficient
105
with the angle of incidence. The
fin
system. if it
. as w\J and hence of a vertical gust increases with the speed of the It is to minimise the effect of vertical gusts that
the pilot prefers to travel at his lowest speed. Generally speaking. If.
X. the critical angle Also wings of a small camber of the wingtip will be delayed. A Gust Problem.
In a variablespeed machine the lift is a constant.STABILITY OF AN AEROPLANE. " " By washing out the angle of incidence. at ordinary flight speeds this part of L p be a damping coefficient. will then always be positive. a machine which is longitudinally unstable will.
:
A
have a high value of the
(6)
critical angle of incidence. Moreover. owing to the change " " of sign of the slope of the Lift Coefficient Angle of Incidence The lateral instability due to stalling should not be curve. roll..
possess the following features " " washout towards the wingtip of the angle (a) partial of incidence and the camber. due
. when the machine is stalled the sign of L p will change. and dangerous at high altitudes but a skilled pilot should readily regain control if he sideslip.
. and therefore U 2 a is constant approximately where the value of
a
ranges from
(y
to
Now.
and that they are comparatively uninfluenced
These rapid oscillations very rarely persist. to cause the machine to turn over upon be sufficiently great
back. and the decreased lift on the right wing. so that the new flight attitude may be upside down. Incidentally. so banking
that a recovery becomes hopeless. gravity sideslip causes the machine to sideslip inwards. but now.
to increase the banking.
under certain conditions.
(a)
(b) rapid oscillations. Catastrophic instability is avoided by ensuring that for any position of the controls there shall be only one flying attitude. Imagine such a machine to be performing a righthanded turn. whilst the oscillations are increased if the machine has a large moment of inertia and a small tail
may
be diminished
area. give the machine a bank. as the motion proceeds.106
THE AEROPLANE. These oscillations are of a com(c) Phugoid Oscillations.
may
The steady flight of a machine. in some cases give rise to a deadbeat motion.
Catastrophic Instability.
its
relatively to the wind. the increases and the radius of the turn diminishes. and gravity.
tions
The amplitude
if
of
successive oscilla
a sufficiently large tail and elevator are fitted to the machine. by virtue of the bank.
by
paratively slow period. be completely changed by the
The pitching moment may action of a powerful vertical gust.
It has
been shown mathematically
that rapid oscillations are almost entirely dependent upon air forces and couples. and thus the banking increases.
A
spirally
unstable
machine will probably be fitted with a large rudder.
Initially. Then the increased lift upon the left wing.
(b)
moment about
Rapid
Oscillations.
phugoid
oscillations. A large turning moment is now given to the machine by the action of the sideslip upon the large rudder. After a time the rolling moment due to sideslipping will tend
turn.
Spiral
Instability
(a
Spiral
Glide). The conditions favourable to
instability are
:
the
elimination
of
spiral
. Hence. the yawing couple due to the drag forces tends to diminish the
the centrifugal force of the turn has caused a outwards.
may
be divided into three sections
(c)
:
Longitudinal instability
(a)
catastrophic instability. which makes the pitching the centre of gravity of the machine zero.
Much
effect of
lateral stability
work remains
to be done. so that to the right. small. but these linear
of
great
practical
initial effect of
and angular accelerations are not uniform. The the machine the
moment. may
to yawing. if the machine be of reasonably small size. great. The assumption that a gust strikes each part of the machine simultaneously is not correct.
Under the action
yawing and
rolling oscillations are set
up
in the machine. such as the
negative wingtips.
A
pilot
is
Further. Negative wingtips rolling due to yawing.
slips finally big unstable
righthand turn. although.
This
good
is
dihedral. turnedup wingtips.
value.STABILITY OF AN AEROPLANE.
small.
Hence. eration to the centre of gravity and angular accelerations about the three principal axes of the machine.
great. Nevertheless.
(a)
107
a
Rolling
due to
to
sideslipping.
(6)
Yawing due
The
sideslipping. and the separate effect of each of these gusts upon the behaviour of the machine ascertained. but the gusts which a pilot encounters are not so well defined.
air pressure bank for a
the front of the machine produces another
sideslip
Imagine such a machine to
upon the large leading
fin gives
towards the left.
moment
(c)
greatly dependent upon the rudder. In the preceding stability work. and also a righthand yawing of gravity the machine now sideA reverse motion will then occur. the only conscious
of changes of acceleration. any gust may be resolved along the three welldefined directions.
timeaction of a gust
is
very small.
and the body sensations caused
. turneddown wingtips.
Oscillations. favour this condition. We have already seen that the a gust is to change the velocity of the machine The new air forces impart a linear accelrelatively to the air. the calculations have been based upon the assumption that the direction of any gust is along a principal axis of the machine. and it is possible that the near future may see start
changes in the design of machines. theoretical calculations upon such an assumption are
ling
Gusts.
(d)
Yawing due
Big
Yawing and Rolling
A
large
vertical
longitudinal fin in form of instability.
variable linear and angular accelerations inform the that his machine has been deflected from its course. should he be in a cloud. he will of the machine. pilot although.108
THE AEROPLANE. and therefore unable to
by the
see the ground.
have no sense of the new
flight
path
.
rather tend to confuse the elementary reader.
W.
In
fact.CHAPTER
VII. although the problem has been treated in an exceedingly interesting. is called the axis of the propeller. Imagine the surfaces of cylinders. perpendicular to the plane of the paper.
THE AERIAL PROPELLER.
.
which have the axis of the propeller as their common axis. The developments of the sections of the blade
so cut are
shown
term
in the figure. it is to be hoped that
theory
may aid the student considerably to the aerodynamical behaviour of a propeller.
been
Lanchester.
propeller theories now in existence.
3
. who appears to have further developed the
excellent
pellers
work
of F.
1}
is
2.
. Fig. 39 is an engineer's drawing of the blade of an aerial propeller. The line through A. Obviously. this
is
quite " engineer's theories.* appreciate Description of Propeller. although his method is not accurate. a tractor
being an air screw which pulls. some of a more or less conflicting nature. if not absolutely exact. It not the author's intention to adhere rigidly to any one of these theories.
A
research
upon
pro
which have
constructed upon
the Drzewiecki
assumptions.
cations.
to use the general
At the time the book was written
109
was customary
propeller.
. manner by S." the following remarks
and
as
may be accepted with modifisound as many of our socalled In any case. the discrepancy between the actual behaviour of a propeller and the assumed behaviour is of no great importance. indicates that. any theory which is not substantiated by experiis
THE many
mental evidence is valueless to the practical engineer. and the horizontal line AB may be conveniently termed the axis of the blade.
being the points
it
* It should be noted that a propeller
an
air
screw which pushes. and not a few of an unsound character. Drzewiecki. to cut the blade.
of intersection of the cylinders with the axis of the blade.
. whilst are the lines of intersection of the surCiCu C 2 C 2 C 3 C 3
. Propeller Terms.
faces of the cylinders with the plane containing the propeller axis and the blade axis." although adhered to when speaking of aerial propellers. and experimentally.
.
We
eye the true shape of the propeller blade.
velopments
of the lines of intersection of the surfaces of the
cylinders with the horizontal plane passing through the axis of should now be able to picture in our mind's the blade.
Pressure Face Downwards. " " the term " pitch should then strictly be termed the experi" mental mean pitch of the propeller. 39. The various elements of a marine propeller usually have the same pitch. 2 2
D D DD
. Next. it is desirable to have a clear con" " ception of the several propeller expressions.110
THE AEROPLANE. have undergone slight changes in their meanings. which is generally designed from different
considerations.
.
Sections
in
Direction oF Arrow
Scale of Inches
FIG.
It is better to
.
determine the pitch of an aerial propeller rather than from theoretical considerations. when the thrust has a zero value. so that we may
immediately proceed to the study of some experimental curves. but this is not the case for the aerial propeller.
.
. " By " pitch of an aerial propeller we shall mean the axial advance of the propeller during one revolution.
The timehonoured marine terms "pitch" and "slip. are the de3 3 DI^I.
.
is given in figs. simple calculation shows how a small increase in the rotational speed of the propeller greatly increases the thrust of the provariation in the
peller. when they develop the same thrust at the same translational speed. and the slip may
A
vary from 18 per cent. The large number of variables which influence the behaviour of a propeller
renders the exact appreciation of the experimental performance of the propeller a more or less difficult matter. without any appreciable
The following efficiency of the propeller.
a propeller that is.
The "
where
"
slipratio
is
Ill
r
1
of a propeller will
be defined as
v~i
. the ratio of the useful ency
work done
speed
the
product
of
the
:
thrust
2?r
to the total
work expended
and translational X torque x rotational
speed.THE AERIAL PROPELLER. is reached at a slip of 24 per cent. or. feet. 40 and 41) we see that the thrust and the torque of the propeller approximately vary as the square of the rotational speed. at the same slip.. Discussion of the Performance of a Propeller. It should be noted that the thrust and
torque of a propeller. Propellers may be most favourably compared when they drive the same
aeroplane at the same forward speed that is.
of
the translational speed of the propeller.
V
rotational speed. From these static curves (figs. H. Bramwell and the author. 39 has been tested by F."
but prefers
to discuss the physical meaning rather to regard it as a con
venient nondimensional expression which greatly facilitates a concise presentment of the performance of a propeller. as deduced from these experiments.
Thus
. to 32 per cent. as the square of the rotational speed. 4043. 42 and 43 completely define the performance of the propeller at a translational speed of 50 miles per hour. a test when the translational speed of the propeller is zero has little practical value. A maximum efficiency of 68 per cent. practically vary as the square of the translational speed. what is the same thing.
with no appreciable alteration in the
efficiency. " Effici" has the usual meaning. that is. and the anticipated performance of the fullsize propeller.
propeller
The pitch
Diameter of the propeller = 80
static test of
of the propeller
= 81
feet. A model of the
shown in fig. and p is the pitch.
n
is
the
The author does not wish
"
slip ratio. The curves of figs.
evs per Min
FIG.FIG
4Q.
.
4:1.
05
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
8
60
Slip (Percentage)
FIG 43.
.
the thrust is only 222 Ibs. further. rotational speed is 970 revolutions per minute. so that the slip is now 45 per cent. the efficiency remains practically unaltered. to the required value.
The good aerofoil contour
an element.
and. we increase the speed of our propeller to 990 revolutions
we
FIG.114
THE AEROPLANE.
We may now
which
is
consider the flow of air
at a distance r feet from
of such
around an element
the propeller axis.. by slightly opening the throttle valve of the engine. propeller to give the required thrust of 237 Ibs. as the case
. as a small variation in the engine speed is sufficient to bring the thrust up or down. If. 43 shows that when the peller =44 per cent. Hence slip of the proA glance at fig.
A
Propeller Theory.
we enable the
may
be.
per minute. reasonable discrepancies between designed and calculated values are not of great importance.
.
shall assume that to drive an aeroplane at 50 miles per hour. In other words. our propeller must have a thrust of 237 Ibs. and a rotational speed of 970 revolutions per minute. 44.
of a blade.
the angle between the chord of the ft element .
or. The efficiency of the
whilst the
The
useful
element
is
represented
by
V[L
^
If
cos a
2<7rm[L sin
D sin a] a+D cos a]
*
the ratio
'.
OX
OY
where
recognise that we are on familiar ground.
the section should have a good shape and should be inclined to
.THE AERIAL PROPELLER.and the wind direction the angle of attack of the and L. element. 44. have their usual signification. For our present purpose. 44). consider the blade of a propeller to be an aerofoil
shown
of such suitable configuration as enables it to glide in a helical If the rotational speed of our propeller be represented path.
by n revolutions per minute.
be represented by tan
0. that is. and its translational speed by V any element of the blade will have a forward
V feet
translational velocity (in the direction of the propeller axis) of per minute.
We
should
now
and we
will call
D
into the
convenient to resolve the resultant force upon the section two directions OX and OY. The component of the resultant force in the direction Y will then be [L cos a D sin a].
.n. and this work is accomplished by a work [L expenditure of [L sin a+D cos a]27rr .
the efficiency
is
concisely represented
by the expression
cot
The importance of the function $ is clearly demonstrated by such an expression and to ensure a small value of 'tan 0.
115
rather.
we may
In clearly in fig.
feet per minute. which act upon the Also the wind forces section. work done by the section will then be cos a D sin a]V.
it is
component in the direction OX is [L sin a+D cos a]. is
of
the section
made by an
imaginary cylinder of radius
fact.
of the
development
r. moving through the air in the direction ob with a velocity of
Vj
. and also a translational velocity of 27rrn in
and also the direction 1? where OXj^ is at right angles to The element is therefore to the axis of the blade (see fig.
Bramwell and the author to
(e)
Under such conditions the
of a propeller
ascertain the degree of accuracy of the foregoing assumptions. and these discrepancies were chiefly due to the nonagreement of
.
efficiency. and torque be determined theoretically when the aeromay dynamic properties of the elements are known.
the wind direction at the best value of the angle of attack /3. that the air flow around the blade element is not influenced by the presence of adjacent elements. the value of the best angle of attack of an aerofoil may undergo a change when a section of the
in the construction of a propeller blade. the hypothesis. and which the element moves is assumed to be motionless. although not accurate. Moreover. In the light of this research. We found that the calculated values
of the efficiencies
were less than the experimental values. Furthermore. if the working conditions of the propeller are not greatly different from those upon which the design has been based. we may.
where
V and n are arbitrary constants
for all the elements of the blade. the values of
L and D
for each section are
known. It has been thought desirable to summarise the prominent
features of the foregoing remarks
(a)
(b)
:
Each element of the blade has an aerofoil shape.
(c)
by
the presence of the neighbouring portions of
The
of the axial
the air into
(d)
upon each element are due to the resultant and circumferential velocities of the element. H. by integration. furnishes a convenient basis for the
aerofoil
is
employed
design of a propeller.
obtain the thrust. A series of experiments was conducted at the National Physical Laboratory by F. The air flow around each element is assumed
to
be
uninfluenced
the blade. Experimental evidence rather encourages the adoption of the theory. Nevertheless. and also to afford a comparison between the calculated and
experimental values of the various factors which define the performance of a propeller. torque. is not strictly accurate. the value of a for each element will depend upon the distance of the element from the axis of
the propeller. and efficiency of the propeller. in the hands of a skilled designer. this theory.
forces
Since tan
=^
V. if for the arbitrary values of V and n.116
THE AEROPLANE. thrust.
brief survey of the tests
A
mum
The Flow
of Air
around a
The air which is Propeller. The rotational motion of the discharged air has the same direction
When this motion is superposed on as that of the propeller. such portion of the air in the neighbourhood of a velocity being partly attributed to centrifugal force.THE AERIAL PROPELLER. and (b) to the radial velocity of that the blades.* The frictional contact between the air and the blades must influence
that
the character of the air flow. and it is assumed to be equal to the area swept out by the propeller blades. We anticipate that the discrepancy between the calculated and experimental values is mainly due (a) to the initial motion of the air into which the propeller moves. and then gradually decreases until the velocity has a zero or small negative
value in the neighbourhood of the boss of the propeller. our ignorance of the
*
No
account was taken of the eddying flow at the tip of the blade. The tically axial velocity of the discharged air increases from the tip of
propeller
the blade to a short distance
inwards.
efficiencies of
close agreement. The calculation of the thrust of
the propeller from the axial
momentum
of
the discharged air
can only be performed when we know the distribution of velocity across the area of the discharged stream. the usual spiral flow results (see The area of a cross section of the discharged fig. to 75 per cent. Furthermore.
. drawn in at the front of the
is discharged in praca cylindrical jet. 45).
117
the torque values. The calculated and experimental values of the thrusts were not greatly different.
stream
air
is
less
than
the area of a section of the incoming
column. the translational motion. and it is a matter for surprise we found the calculated and experimental values in such
performed upon a large number reveals the astonishing fact that the maxiof model propellers
almost all the propellers lie within a range of 60 per cent. and is therefore a matter of great difficulty.
nature and magnitude of the rotational motion renders the exact calculation of the torque.r ft>). and therefore of the propeller
efficiency. and also to be at a distance r from the axis
of the propeller.
The thrust T of a propeller may be represented by Z(rav). to get the necessary thrust. It is supposed that the air which is in the region of the high
speed propeller tips does not undergo any significant change
in density. Consequently if the speed of the machine and the thrust of the propeller be the same.
It would follow. where ra=the mass of Similarly. the torque Q an elemental volume of air in the discharge stream. Every particle of this volume is supposed to be moving with an angular
.
The Position of the Propeller. The kinetic energy of translation wasted by the discharge
stream = 2 ^mv 2 \2 /
(
. more correctly.
the
machine.
and hence at a smaller
. The kinetic energy of rotation
is
only a fraction of the total
kinetic energy of the discharged stream. where ra=the mass of an elemental volume of air in the discharge stream. that to develop a given thrust.
an impossibility. the tractor screw has a greater velocity of entry into the
is
"
tractor screw
"
At the same
air than a propeller situated at the rear of the wings. The position of the propeller upon the machine is usually determined by constructional exigency. Every particle of this volume is supposed to be moving with the same axial velocity v. a propeller works with a slipratio well above the value which corresponds to the maximum
efficiency of the propeller. In monoplanes.118
THE AEEOPLANE. by virtue of the viscous drag exerted upon the air by the aeroplane wings. a shift of the airscrew from the front of the wings to the back will necessitate
the airscrew running at a greater
slip. Now.
=
velocity
co
about. The kinetic energy of rotation dissipated in the discharge
stream = 2
(
2
^mr
w 2'j
. it is advantageous to discharge a large mass of air at small axial
and rotational velocities. the propeller or.
conveniently placed at the front of the translational speed of a machine.
)
2 ](ra. then.
With the advent of a reliable make of engine. The Balance of the Propeller. introduce no disturbing torque upon the machine. the wings which
are situated in the slip stream of a tractor screw have a greater
lifting
credible that
capacity and also. may venture to assume that the efficiency of a
We
of the aeroplane body and wings. but rotating at the same speed in opposite directions.
Furthermore. a greater drag.THE AERIAL PROPELLER.p. Thus. a sudden failure
of the engine will greatly interfere with the equilibrium of the machine.
efficiency (see figs. Two similar propellers symmetrically situated. The centrifugal force due to this eccentricity
mv*
30 x 16007T 2
of
TV inch
=^g=
32x120
An unbalanced force of this magnitude and period may introduce unpleasant. the reaction torque of the air upon the propeller. It is if these forces have a large value. and diameter 8 feet has a rotational speed of 1200 r. which is driven by a righthanded tractor
discuss briefly
When an
.
Assume. if the engine be a rotary one. The Gyroscopic Action of a Rotary Engine and its Propeller. which will be transmitted to the machine. Before we proceed to the study of the gyroscopic behaviour of a rotary engine and propeller upon an aeroplane. 42
119
and
43). A simple calculation may demonstrate the importance of the employment of a wellbalanced propeller. but the inevitable increase of head resistance of the machine will tend to counteract this advantage. unfortunately. assume that a propeller of weight 30 Ibs. oscillaticms in the machine. further. that its C. extraneous couple acts on the machine. if not dangerous. is usually counterbalanced by a
wing warp of the requisite amount combined with a judicious employment of the rudder.G. propeller is the same as that of the applied couple. assume an aeroplane. tends to place itself. When flying. the axis of rotation of the propeller and engine.m. the utilisation of
tractor screw will be increased
by the near presence
the energy in the discharge stream for navigation and stabilising
purposes will be worthy of serious consideration. we shall
some principal features of gyroscopic action. is displaced a distance from the propeller axis. so that the direction of the rotation of the engine and Thus.in line with the axis of this couple.
to the angular momentum of the rotating masses multiplied by
of
the angular velocity of the precessional movement. so that the applied air couple acts about a vertical axis.
also that
The weight The weight
=200
Ibs. The mathematics
gyroscopic action is simple. let us assume that the applied air couple tends to turn the nose of the machine downwards.
one
of
pitching
.
Radius of gyration of the propeller =25 feet. the machine will tend to make a horizontal lefthanded turn. due to the influence of the rotating propeller and engine.
secondly. let us
one of turning.
.m. imagine our machine to
radians per
precess to the right with an angular velocity of
second
that
is.
Angular
momentum
of propeller
x 625x40
=
= y^ radians
per second. Then. In this case the machine will tend to dive.
The angular
velocity of turning
Hence the pitching couple exerted upon the machine due to the gyroscopic action of the engine and propeller
lbs.
when
it is
another illustration.120
that
is.
the tractor has a clockwise direction of rotation viewed from the pilot's seat is to turn to the right.
Angular
momentum
of engine
(Ft.
for a practical illustration.
THE AEROPLANE. to consider Further. Ibs. units). Rotational speed of engine and propeller =1200 r.
Now.lb. In the above illustrations we have dealt with two precessional move
ments
firstly. if we accept the following The magnitude of the gyroscopic couple is equal statement.
of the propeller Radius of gyration of the engine
= =
30
8 foot.
one turn in 16 seconds
of the rotary engine
.p.seo.feet.feet
= 490
o
Ibs.
This is determined. (c) The more or less.
tractor
of
the
= 65
=
Rotational speed of the tractor = 1100 r.
per square foot.
is
121
20 square
feet. is situated at a about which the machine point couple the pressure of the air on
elevator
turns.P.
. The following design presumes a knowledge of the matter of the foregoing pages.THE AERIAL PROPELLER.
Such an airpressure loading
cannot be considered of great magnitude. the inertia of the machine.
We
shall
assume that the following data have been supplied to
:
the designer "
The
" to be of the tractor type. and the author hopes that this treatment of the subject may
familiarise the reader with the
aerodynamical behaviour of a
The design has been based upon the teachings of propeller. propeller Translational speed of machine.
Also suppose the area of the its C.* (a) The thrust of the propeller at the known translational speed of horizontal flight.m. and therefore miles per hour. must tend to minimise
the disturbing influence of the gyroscopic couple. diameter of the propeller. F.
and that
distance of 15 feet from the
To balance such a the elevator in a direction
machine
will
normal to the longitudinal axis
490
oOO
of the
need to be
=16
Ibs. Pull of the tractor screw 385 Ibs. from a consideration of constructional exigencies. Lanchester and Drzewiecki. W. and the damping action of the wings and tail. useful information from the various conclusions and observations
which
are
interspersed
amongst the
"
troublesome
"
calculations. especially as the pilot has already anticipated the required elevator position for such a turn. Furthermore.
Data necessary for the Design of a Propeller.
The diameter
of the tractor
must not be greater than 10
* This design would need to be modified in the case of the helicopter. Design of an Aerial Propeller. (6) The rotational speed of the propeller when the machine This speed will be a function of the is in horizontal flight.p. but only in so far as have been substantiated by experimental their theories The nonmathematical student should glean some evidence.
speed of the engine and the type of gearing employed.
the best angle of attack.
THE AEROPLANE. tan
a=
^

.e.
which gives
In the light of the researches conducted upon aerofoils of multiform sections. 44. (Also see fig. /3. the thrust contributed by such a unit length of
[
xV
the blade
=K
Z a/0 1
V
2
1
cos a
JT
sin a
V
where
In
^r^tan 0.
This will allow a
clearance of 6 inches.
Let /!= chord length of a blade section at a radius r.
Hence take the diameter
as 9 feet. It should be remembered that by " angle " of attack we mean the angle between the wind direction and the direction of the line fixed upon the aerofoil section which
. lift upon a unit length of the blade. i. tageous to (p The values of a for the elements of the blade
make
may
be directly
calculated from the expression.
Use the same notation as previously.122
feet.) The lift upon an aerofoil=K a x p X area x (velocity of wind) 2 where K a = absolute lift coefficient at an angle of incidence equal
. assuming any cross section of this unit length to have the same shape and size as that of the cross section of the blade at a radius r
The
2 Similarly the drag T>= k ap xl i =k a pl l As before. for the
aerofoil sections suitable for propellerblade construction
may
be taken as 4.
like
2
1
suV a
cos
<p
manner the torque
sin 2 a
for such a unit length
cos
it
From
the
above two expressions
would appear advan
as small as possible.
to
a.
is
123
no
lift
upon the
section. in position. (4) Sections at the boss of the propeller should be designed
2J
feet.
(3)
The maximum ordinate
chiefly
section. 4 feet have the maximum widths
consistent with a suitable plan form. Now
+
properties are
some good aerofoil sections. of which the aerodynamical known. taking great care that the blade widths at radii 2J feet.
we then
design what appears
to be a good plan form.
Adopting a suitable linear
scale.
Also a designer may.
are given in
Table IV. and probably
should be good aerofoil shapes.
from considerations of strength.THE AERIAL PROPELLER. and sketch them in position about the nolift lines.
gives the wind direction when there The calculated values of (/3+a). have
:
aerofoil sections tested at the National Physical Laboratory. 3J feet. 3 feet. 3 feet.
(a +4).
i. 3 feet. the lines which will " eventually become the "nolift lines of the various sections. (2) The sections at radii 4 feet. should be as nearly as possible on the blade axis. From the known values of (/3 a) we may also draw.
TABLE IV.
if
he so wish. The following points should be borne in mind
(1) The chord lengths of the sections have already been fixed by the plan form. of each section should be situated at a distance from the nose of the section of about onethird the chord. which may (5) be decided upon quite accurately without calculation.e. That the centre of area of each
. Such sections may be found in the Annual Reports of the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and the published
select
works of
Eiffel.
.
construct the contour " " lines of the plan form (see fig.
if
of the blade sections. The success of the above operation. depends greatly upon the experience and the practical instinct A study of the characteristics of the many of the designer. the contour After fairing " " lines it may be necessary to refair the sections. By such a tentative method of fairing that is. like all fairing processes.Pi
C. by virtue of their great twist. 47 gives a good distribution of the centres of pressure on the several sections of a blade.THE AERIAL PROPELLER. constructing the contour lines of the plan form from the sectional shapes.
C. does not greatly alter the shapes Further. Also. the contour lines should not suddenly undergo any great
(5)
The conditions
and
(6)
may
From
these sections
we may now
Leadinq Ed. 46). present an unsightly appearance.
be occasionally antagonistic. although
accurate for the initial
. and vice versa we obtain eventually a smooth blade surface. Fig.Rs.
Una oF
Good Distribution of
FIG. aerofoil sections which have been tested at the big aeronautical laboratories should enable the designer to approximate with
some accuracy to the aerodynamical properties
of those sections. the author ventures to suggest
that
a deduction of the aerodynamical properties of the blade sections after fairing the alterations of the sections must be small may be productive of better results than the
utilisation
of
data.
well performed.
125
(6) That the centres of pressure of the various sections should be so placed with respect to the blade axis that the resultant air pressure on the blade passes through the blade axis. otherwise the propeller blades may. It has been the author's experience that the fairing of the blade
surfaces. Whilst fairing we should have constantly in mind the conditions above stated.
the shapes of which have been slightly modified by the fairing.
changes of curvature. which. 47.
from the two
expressions. Let the scale of blade widths be
1
inch represents k feet.
be applicable to the sections of the
blade sections.
Now. gives the aerodynamical properties of aerofoils having the same shapes as the several blade sections.
Table V.
TABLE V..126
THE AEROPLANE. cannot finished propeller.
a
cos
___. sin
2
___
cos
a
we may
calculate the values given in the following table
TABLE VI.
.
we obtain the (fig.THE AERIAL PROPELLER.
If the values of
127
that is.
. A study of the curve confirms a remark made formerly. the thrust upon unit length of the distribution of thrust over this unit the blade. 48.
that the portion of the blade between the radii feet is of small aerodynamical importance. to the total thrust of the blade. assuming as the actual length to be uniform and of the same magnitude on the blade section at radius r be plotted thrust distribution
T
Thrust Grading Curve
Scale of Blade Length 1=1 Foot
Torque Grading Curve
FIG.
" " The thrust grading curve against r. area of this curve gives the total thrust contributed by the blade. since
1
foot
and 2
it
only con
tributes about 6 per cent. whilst the remainder of the blade from r=2 feet to the tip. 48).
(c) the direct tension due to centrifugal force. and obviously a rigid calculation of the stresses
at
any point of the blade would be one of complex difficulty.
Aerodynamically. and. we find that the thrust contributed by a single grading blade = 289& Ibs.
where
%=number
efficient
of blades. and is usually weaker at the boss.
this investigation at a
and he hopes to publish the more opportune time. the ratio of the thrust as calculated from the above theory to the thrust actually given by the airscrew has a
mean
value of 1*4 over the working range of the airscrew. from the independent calculations of the centrifugal
.
results of
A propeller Calculation of the Stresses in the Propeller. we find that the torque of the propeller
= 318 x k x 2 = 424
The
propeller efficiency
Ibs.
contributes 94 per cent. (b) a bending moment.. The value of k may be deduced from the
expression 289&
xn = thrust
of propeller. that
is
385
Ibs. therefore. (6) small the action of side gusts
upon the blades.
k
We shall = %.
= 100X65X88X385
27rx
424x1 100
cent
_^
this
The values
of the thrust
and torque as calculated from
theory are greater than those given in practice.
=rV T
'
i
100 per cent.feet. 1 inch the linear scale of blade widths becomes
represents f
ft. a fourbladed propeller is probably more than a twobladed one.
Similarly. so that
assume a twobladed propeller. The author has been working on a theory in which the effect of the inflow
velocity
is
considered. 48).128
THE AEEOPLANE. However.
Roughly speaking. Integrating the area of the thrust curve. the corresponding ratio for the torque being 1*3. of a fourbladed propeller are (a) good
:
Other advantages
interference forces are introduced
by
balance. but the former is more difficult
to make. blade is usually under the combined action of (a) a twisting couple. chiefly because no account has been taken of the flow of air into the airscrew. integrating the area of the torque grading curve (fig.
shall ignore the stresses due to the twisting couple. The calculation of the centrifugal stresses (see Table VII.
and bending
stresses
some approximation
to the stresses at
any
section of the blade
may
be obtained. and fig. because in a welldesigned propeller these should be quite small. 49)
'
We
9
.THE AERIAL PROPELLER.
.
a matter of small difficulty.
W=
TABLE VIII. In this calculation the weight of the wood was taken as
35 Ibs. per cubic foot. of a portion of the blade between any two consecutive sections.
TABLE VII.130
is
THE AEROPLANE.
weight in Ibs. and the student should readily understand the method adopted.
w
is
the sectional area
the weight of a footlength of the blade in Ibs. when is assumed to be constant. and the same as
at the section under consideration.
assumes the resultant
calculation to obtain the bending moment at a air forces over the elements
of the blade to be parallel. where i/^=tan~ 1 (~j
A study of columns 3 and 4 of Table IX.
distribution at the section at radius
Hence
R = ^/ \T
2
\{^
JJ. the bending was assumed to act about an axis parallel to the chord
when
passing through the C. Column 3 gives the angle at any section between the direction of R and the direction of translational motion of the blade. of the section. The angular change in the direction of R as we pass from section 1 to section 5 is only 13.THE AERIAL PROPELLER.
\fs
with
the direction of T.
and makes an angle
.) gives the total load per footof the blade.
TABLE IX.
(2)
and
also in the
same
plane.
Calculation of Stresses due to Air Pressure
131
upon the Blade.G. justifies the two assumptions previously made.
Afterwards.
moment
calculating the stresses. The value (see Table IX.
. Column 4 gives the angular displacement of the direction of R forward of the normal to the chord of the section.
Assumptions
(1)
:
The
section. assuming the distribution of load over the length
R
unit length to have the
same magnitude as the actual load
r. and it is seen that R is practically normal to the chord of the
section.
We may now
the bending
fig.M Scale 1200 ft
FIG.132
THE AEROPLANE. 50.
moment
construct a load grading curve from which at any section may be calculated (see
50).
Load Grading Curve
Linear Scale /"/'
Linear Scale
I
/
Force ^ca/e /^/bs B.
.
133
The maximum
to.
tension. per square inch.
The
walnut.
and walnut
. but
retains its shape
is a very heavy wood. (3) spruce. when in
it
the weakest of the three.
stresses at the sections
by adding the
Table IX. Assuming a working load for mahogany and walnut of 2000 Ibs.
TABLE X.THE AERIAL PROPELLER. Spruce.
Mahogany has a tendency
to warp.
centrifugal
may be approximated and bending moment stresses
(see
TABLE XI. we see that the above stresses are well within the safety limit.
well.
best
(2)
is
woods for the construction of a propeller are (1) Honduras mahogany.).
Inst.
. or FourStroke Cycle. vapour When the crankarm has slightly passed the lower dead centre
of the
opened. and the piston descends under the pressure of the burning gases.
London
:
C. piston descends.* The author has endeavoured to treat the subject more especially from an aeronautical standpoint. usually
is
poppet type and operated by a cam. Ltd. At the commencement of the cycle the inlet
itself after
valve. At this point.
THE
author presumes that the reader has some knowledge of
internal combustion engines. When the piston has almost reached the bottom of the cylinder. Just before the end of the compression stroke an electric spark
fires the mixture. the exhaust valve opens.. Griffin
&
Co. With such an
possible. the combustion proceeds very rapidly. detailed
A
and complete study of the petrol engine may readily be obtained from the many excellent textbooks entirely devoted to this subject.
1915. and. the work
performed upon the piston appearing as a turning moment about the crankshaft. as far as
prominence has been given to the essential characterthe aerial engine.. Burls. as the
the inlet valve closes. M. by G.
istics of
engine.CHAPTER
VIII.C. An indicator diagram. A.
AERONAUTICAL ENGINES. 51. and. two revolutions of the crankarm. and hence only the first few pages are devoted to a general study of petrol engines. however. is shown in fig.
134
. a mixture of petrol and air is sucked from the carburettor into the cylinder.E. but no appreciable combustion occurs until the piston reaches the top of the cylinder. and an escape
*
Aero Engines. the whole cycle of operations in each cylinder repeats four strokes of the piston that is. taken from a fourcycle engine. The Otto. and the rising piston compresses the charge.
and drive the burnt At the commencement of gases out through the exhaust port.
Displacement
Indicator diagram of fourstroke engine. Imagine the piston at the top of its stroke.. 52. allowed to flow into the cylinder.
During the fourth stroke the remaining exhaust gases. 51. an engine which has one working stroke during each complete revolution of the crankarm. During the further descent of the piston a port connected to the crankcase is opened. the return stroke the piston first closes the port connected
. and a fresh mixture. An indicator diagram from this type of engine is
1st
stroke=
.AERONAUTICAL ENGINES. usually by baffle plates.
Charge drawn in=o6
Compression
/
I
2nd
3rd
=
=
Ignition
4th
.
given in fig. We will
now
consider
very briefly the two stroke engine that is. which has been
slightly
is
compressed in the crankcase by the descending piston.
135
of the products of combustion occurs. are expelled into the atmosphere. with the exception of the gases which will eventually remain in the
clearance space. the pressure within the cylinder falling to approximately that of the atmosphere. The TwoStroke Cycle Petrol Engine.
=
Expansion Exhaust
=6c =cd =de =ea
Prsttjn
FIG. it uncovers an exhaust valve and allows
the products of combustion to escape into the atmosphere. The inflowing gases are deflected upwards. When the descending piston is near the end of its working stroke. and that the petrol mixture in the combustion space has just been ignited.
A sketch of a jet carburettor is shown in Carburettors.
to the crankcase. Ibs. even although the weight of the engine is thereby slightly increased. at the end of the second stroke the
uncovering of a port enables a fresh charge of
mixture to pass
from the carburettor into the crankcase.p.136
THE AEROPLANE. per square inch. The petrol. partly as a fine spray and partly as a vapour. tank K. the employment of two synchronised magnetos is to
to ignite the charge of
an
300
I
2"
Pi'slnn Displacement f/nches)
FIG. normally a little below the jet. Speed of engine=900 r. and the petrol is projected or sucked into this air. is maintained at a constant level.
be recommended. which passes through a pipe G to the small 53. is therefore lower than atmospheric pressure. If we assume the area of the petrol
. so that the further rise of the piston compresses the gases into the com
bustion space. by means of a float A and a needle valve B. fig.m. of misfiring of the charge of a highspeed aerial possibility engine. 52.
Mean pressure= 6281
Indicator diagram of twostroke engine. The area of the petrol orifice may be regulated by the needle valve L.
Magnetos.
Further.
Hightension
magnetos are
largely
employed
aerial engine. and afterwards the exhaust port. The air drawn in at C passes a constriction D on its way to the The pressure of the air surrounding the jet at D cylinder. and these are quite To diminish the reliable at' the ordinary speeds of rotation.
which mixes with the mixture flowing up the pipe E. Assume
:
V = velocity of the air at D.
orifice is
137
adjusted to give the correct mixture strength at low engine speeds.
i
FIG. This disadvantage is partly overcome by fitting an air inlet valve F. (d) The difference of head h between the petrol in the tank and the petrol orifice. (c) The viscosity of the petrol. 53.AEKONAUTICAL ENGINES.
Vj= velocity
PJ
= density
of the petrol in the pipe at D. would be too rich at any higher speed. The area of this inlet opening and the air flow depend upon the difference between the suction pressure at F and the atmospheric pressure.
The weight of the petrol flowing from the orifice depends upon (a) The pressure of the air at D.
.
Carburettor. as regulated by the needle valve.
i
i
. (6) The area of the petrol orifice.
of the liquid petrol in the pipe. This extra air. p = density of the air at D. the mixture. tends to make the mixture strength more or less independent of the speed of the engine.
138
THE AEROPLANE.
available
7.
Then the
1
head which produces
the
flow
of
the
petrol
= VV
~^'
hpi. to
The
resistance
the flow of petrol
in
the
pipe^KVj
approximately. is a constant, and depends upon (1) the viscosity of the petrol, (2) the shape and size of the petrol jet and pipe. The " carburettor equation " will then be
K
If
the petrol jet area be large,
j
will
be more important than
V may be ^V
1
small,
and therefore
2
l
2
It is desirable that
KVj may
be negligibly small, because
of the petrol, is a factor
K, which depends upon the viscosity of uncertain amount.
Assume that
negligibly small.
in a particular carburettor
h=Q and KV
2
X
is
Now
let
A = area of the air orifice at D, Aj = area of the petrol orifice,
air to petrol
The above equation then reduces to V p = Vj
2
/^.
then the weight ratio of the
A
If
such a carburettor were fitted to an aerial engine, we see
is
that the petrolair ratio, which
proportional to
>, would
be dependent upon the height of the machine in the air. Dependence of the Performance of a Petrol Engine upon the Compression Ratio r. The percentage of the heat of combustion which is wasted by the escape into the atmosphere of the exhaust gases may be reduced by increasing the compression This may be demonstrated by the aid of a hyporatio r.
thetical diagram, see
fig.
54.
Thus, assume the charge to be drawn into the cylinder at At the atmospheric pressure P and absolute temperature / end of the adiabatic compression, pvv = a, constant, the volume,
.
pressure,
and temperature are
y
,
Pr?,
and
t
ry~ 1 respectively.
The
rise of
temperature due to the complete combustion of the
AERONAUTICAL ENGINES.
mixture, say
t,
139
may
The
pression ratio.
be assumed to be independent of the comstate of the mixture at C (see diagram) is
then represented by a volume
l pressure Pr\ ry~ f
.
V
,
a temperature (tf*~ l +t), and a
After adiabatic expansion to the original
t
volume V, the temperature and pressure become
\
L
1+
*o^
'I
I
and
P
1H
^
by
cooling the
We may now complete our imaginary cycle volume V of the products of combustion to the
.
Volume of Stroke
FIG. 54.
temperature and pressure. Such an ideal cycle does not (a) the thermal losses due to conduction and radiation the cylinder walls, and (b) the changes, with temperathrough
initial
consider
ture, of the properties of the
The
efficiency of this J
working substance. Work done cycle === J Heat taken in
Heat taken in Heat given out Heat taken in
1where
K = specific
F
heat at constant volume.
for air
The value
of
y
= 1408.
140
THE AEROPLANE.
of the products of
The temperature
at the
combustion at D, that
is
t
\
is,
commencement
of the exhaust stroke,
^
,
and
therefore
an economical use
a large value of the compression ratio encourages of the fuel. The maximum value of r is
limited, however, by the maximum pressure reached during the combustion of the working substance, a large value of r greatly
and initial cost of the engine. the point of view of fuel economy, the employment of a heavy, strong engine, which has a large compression ratio, is to be encouraged. To prevent preignition of the petrol mixture, the temperature at the end of the compression stroke should be less than 700 C. Preignition is encouraged by the presence of
increasing the size, weight,
From
hot particles of carbon or drops of lubrication oil on the cylinder walls, and for this reason the cylinders of aerial engines are thoroughly examined and cleaned at frequent periods. Compression ratios
common
in aerial engines
vary from 3J5
.
The HorsePower developed by an Engine.
The work done
per stroke is the product of the thermal efficiency of the engine and the heat of combustion supplied at each working stroke. Let the thermal efficiency of the engine be denoted by Y\.
Also
let
if
V= stroke
volume
of the
in cubic feet,
mixture drawn in per stroke, measured at the pressure and temperature of the atmosphere, and h = heating value of a cubic foot of this mixture measured
rj
.
. .
XV= volume
at the same temperature and pressure, then the work done during the working stroke = \ V h, and the mean effective pressure during the stroke = X h. The Volumetric Efficiency A. The value of the volumetric efficiency is always less than unity, and this may be chiefly attributed to the following causes
//
. .
:
its temperature increased by (a) contact with the hot cylinder walls and valves, and also by further contact with the high temperature exhaust gases of the
The incoming mixture has
clearance spaces.
(6)
The pressure within the cylinder
is
lower than the
atmospheric pressure. (c) By virtue of the drop of pressure at the supply valve, usually about 2 Ibs. per square inch, work is done upon the mixture as it passes from the supply pipe to the cylinder. This
AERONAUTICAL ENGINES.
141
work is proportional to the square of the mixture velocity at the valve opening, and may be lessened by an increase in the area of the valve opening.
(d) To enable the frictional resistance of the valve and pipes to be overcome, work is performed upon the incoming mixture, and this work increases the temperature of the mixture.
The heating value h of a cubic foot of the mixture depends partly upon its density, and therefore upon the temperature and pressure. The fluctuation of h with the altitude of the engine is a question of importance. The
Consideration of h.
X
2625 where P is pressure of the air at a height of x feet P e~ the pressure at the earth's surface. It follows, then, that at a height of 5000 feet the pressure may be reduced by about
<>,
A
before passing through temperature with altitude is of less consequence. Assuming that the absolute temperature that is, the ordinary adiabatic of the air varies as (pressure)' 28 the fall in the absolute temperature at a height of relation, 5000 feet would be about 7 per cent. Now, h varies as the ratio of pressure to absolute temperature, and hence the value of h at a height of 5000 feet would be about 13 per cent, less than
18 per cent.
is
Usually the air the carburettor, so that any
warmed
fall of
its
value at the earth's surface.
Considerations of
Hence the torque
of
an engine
diminishes with an increase of altitude.
rj.
We may express the thermal efficiency of
1
(
an actual engine by
is
R

j
,
where R, the relative
efficiency,
denned as the ratio of the actual efficiency of the engine to the efficiency of an ideal engine working with the same comWe shall base the' following investigation into pression ratio.
the dependence of >/ upon the size of the engine, upon the assumption that the heat loss furnishes a criterion of the work wasted per stroke. The losses due to conduction of heat through the cylinder walls of similar engines are proportional to the area, whilst the radiation losses are a function of the cylinder volume.
Hence, in similar engines, the heat losses may be conveniently 2 3 expressed by a 1 L +6 1 L where a, and b l are constants and L is the linear scale of the The ratio of the heat disengine. sipated during the working stroke to the total heat of combustion
,
is
then proportional to ^^b^
If
R
represent the relative
142
THE AEEOPLANE.
efficiency of an engine of which the cylinder walls are impervious to heat flow (this is not an ideal engine), the relative efficiency
of a similarly designed engine, but with conducting walls,
may
be expressed by
is
R
1
^
b
.
The experimental value
of
R
about 8. It is apparent, then, that the proportionally greater heat loss during the working stroke of a small engine will affect adversely the value of
tj.
Mechanical Efficiency. The engines which are run at the same to area, since the pressure between of rubbing between these parts
frictional
losses
in
similar
piston speed are proportional similar parts and the velocity
have constant values.
The
pump
losses are also proportional to area, and hence both the frictional and pump losses of similar engines may be accounted
for by a constant reduction from the mean effective pressure. The mechanical efficiency of an engine depends greatly upon the workmanship and the method of lubrication employed. It
is
common experience that an engine gives smoother and a higher mechanical efficiency when it has been running " warmed up," and this is probably due to the lower viscosity
a matter of
of the lubricant at the higher temperature. Forced lubrication ensures a steady supply of lubricating oil at a constant tempera
maintenance of an oil film of sufficient viscosity between the bearing surfaces, and these advantages more than compensate for the additional cost of the engine. The feedingture, with the
in of lubricating oil by centrifugal force, a characteristic of many aircooled engines, is usually a most wasteful process, and does
not encourage a uniform supply of lubricant to the vital working parts of the engine. Engine Cooling. The necessity for efficient cooling of the cylinder walls is manifest when we consider that a temperature
of 2000
probably reached during the combustion of the The preignition of a fresh charge can only be petrol mixture. prevented if the temperature of the cylinder walls be below 700 C. The temperature and density of the gas have maximum
C.
is
values at the commencement of the working stroke, and to keep the temperature of the inside of the cylinder walls within safe limits, by the maintenance of a great heat flow, the cooling of the cylinder head must be very efficient. Usually aircooling
depends upon the position and speed of the engine, and hence
AERONAUTICAL ENGINES.
143
cannot ensure uniform cooling of the working parts. Moreover, any unequal expansion of the cylinder walls, due to a lack of uniformity in cooling, introduces frictional losses between
the piston and cylinder walls.
The
lightness of aircooled engines
is
only attained with a
sacrifice of reliability,
the Gnome, cylinders, there
and, furthermore, in rotary engines such as to overcome the air resistance created by the rotating
is
a further sacrifice of the enginepower.
Dependence of the Ratio
upon
(a)
Size
f
We now propose to compare the Cylinder, (6) Piston Speed. performances of engines built from the same drawings but to different linear scales when running at the same piston speed. Assume, further, that the same strength of mixture is employed, and that similar engines have the same efficiency. The latter assumption will need further qualification. The horsepower of a fourcycle petrol engine is "equal to Mean effective pressure x Piston area x Piston velocity
4x33,000
Under the above
engines will
conditions, the horsepowers of similar 2 It is interesting to vary as area that is, as L
.
note
that
,
the
H.P. = 4D 2
Koyal Automobile Club Taxation where D, the bore, is measured in inches.
Rule
vary
is
The
T^
inertia

that is, as L 2 and those of reciproj' Linear dimension 2 and eating masses vary as (Mass x Acceleration) that is, as L therefore the stresses in like parts of similar engines, due to
;
Mass x (Piston velocity) 2

forces
of
the
rotating
masses
as
;
inertia forces, have constant values. in like parts due to the gas pressures
In addition, the stresses have also constant values, and hence from such considerations similar engines have the same factor of safety.
Under the above
varies as L.
conditions, the ratio
=

if
then
Horsepower
The foregoing
discussion needs to be modified
we
con
sider the decrease in the efficiency of a small engine due to the proportionally greater heat loss during the working stroke.
The data furnished below were obtained from a test upon a 725 H.P. Renault engine. We desire to find the probable
144
values of
THE AEROPLANE.
(a) '
ratio, and (6) _ TT . ratio, of an ' B.H.P. hour Horsepower engine of the same B.H.P. and piston speed, but a larger
^

number
of smaller cylinders.
THE FIRST RENAULT ENGINE.
Bore = 3 8 inches. B.H.P.=725.
Stroke =4 7 5 inches.
of engine
.
No. of cylinders = 8.
Weight
jxH.J:
= 52Mbs
Efficiency
17
Piston speed = 1420 feet per minute.
= 77.
Mean
764 Ibs. per square inch. effective brake pressure Petrol consumption per B.H.P. hour 665 Ib.
=
=
For the
THE SECOND RENAULT ENGINE. purpose of illustration we shall assume
38
that the
bore of each cylinder =
are similar the stroke =
=19
inches,
and
since the cylinders
2i
= 2375
inches.
50,
.
The value of may be expected to be about and Mean effective brake pressure (rj \ .*.
>;
.
h)
=
50

X 764=495
Ibs.
per square inch.
H.P. per cylinder^
so that the
495 X7r(l9) 2
x 1420 = 161.
number
Weight * 
of cylinders
of engine
*
=  =48.
151
The
525
ratio
B
fl
p
75
x
^ X =39
=1
Ib.
1
48
Ibs.
Fuel used by the engine=
x
665
We
thus see that the saving of

per B.H.P. hour. 100 = 257 per
O'^O
cent, in the
^

Weight
of engine
^=pj_=
of
_
ratio
is
only accomplished by
per
cent,
the large
Petrol
increase
boo
J
1
100 =50
in
the
B.H.P. hour
ratio.
AERONAUTICAL ENGINES.
145
An increase in the piston speed V will (6) Piston Speed. be accompanied by a rise in the temperature of the engine, since the heat of combustion has less time to escape from the Also, if the cylinder be very hot r\ has a high value cylinder. and A a low value. The maximum value of the piston velocity is limited by a consideration of the inertia stresses of the
reciprocating and rotating masses, and, obviously, these stresses have to be taken in conjunction with those dependent upon
the pressure of the burning gas. necting rod of a highspeed engine
The whipping
of the con
may
introduce large bend
ingmoment stresses. Furthermore, the great wear and tear between the moving parts of a highspeed machine are not favourable to smoothness nor reliability of running. The Weight of an Engine. By the weight of an engine we
mean
the
sum
fuel
of the weights of all the parts, such as flywheel,
and lubrication tanks, cooling water, radiators, The etc., which are essential for a prolonged run. piping, of fuel and of lubricating oil carried by an aeroplane weights
silencer,
are not included in the engine weight. factor of great imto the aeronaut is the sum of the weights of the engine portance and of the fuel and lubricating oil which must be carried for
A
The curves of fig. 55 have been plotted from the data of Table XII., and give for several wellknown engines the sum of the weights of the engine and of the fuel and lubricating oil consumed during a flight of known
a
flight of
known
duration.
time.
is
From
these curves
it is
apparent that the fuel economy
practically unimportant for a shortdistance flight, whilst, on the other hand, a strong, heavy engine, with a good fuel and
oil
economy,
is
most suitable
for a longdistance one.
importance that the lightness of an should not be due to a weakening of the engine parts, engine but the design should be such as to favour a minimum number
It is of the greatest
working parts. The saving may be achieved by rotating the cylinders, air cooling, has been dealt with elsewhere, effects of such a practice, however, must
of light efficient
of weight which and so adopting
the detrimental not be ignored.
lightness in the piston and cylinder greatly interferes with the heat flow, so that preignition may probably result from the high temperatures of these parts. An economic distribution of the stresses in the working parts by a judicious
Undue
io
146
THE AEROPLANE.
.
where simply constructed engine parts should be employed.
Gnome
i
*5
3
3
Hours.P.P.
147
is
use of hollow shafts and rods.
General Remarks. Sunbeam
9
8
/Inzani
IQO HP. and a silent exhaustgas escape.
Fia.. of torque of a wellbalanced stationary motor may give rise to
so that the
unpleasant vibrations. if at the front of the machine. The aircooling of an engine introduces a large air resistance.AERONAUTICAL ENGINES. which be considerable at a high velocity. Hsection connecting rods. The absence of chattering amongst the working parts of the valve mechanisms. 66. are in
. of the engine In the absence of a flywheel.P. should be enclosed in a good streamline casing.
possible. A watercooled engine.A
10
Wo/s
Renau
/35ft P.
110
120 H.Dudbridge
6
'05 H. Also. the nonuniformity is inevitable. so that a reduction in the useful H.
power expended in overcoming air resistance. etc. Green
7
^200H. a favourable method of reducing engine weight. may be reduced to a may minimum.P.
Some
of the principal parts of
idea of the materials employed in the construction an aeronautical engine is given in
Table XIII.
M.148
THE AEROPLANE. nickel: .
chrome vanadium
Crankshaft
nickel steel.I.. Hsection chiefly
steel.
is
a factor to
The following
suggested by
classification of aeronautical engines
has been
J. Semisteel. Engines which retain the approved design of the automobile motor. Pressed steel.
expansion of the cylinder and jacket. steel. so that accessibility to these parts be considered. Special steel.
ferred. The valves and vital working parts of the engine must be cleaned
of small
Where
TABLE XIII.
Material
and Design.
Aluminium
alloy. (d) Mercedes. and a reduction of weight. special steel. more or less.
Piston
.
Name
of
Engine Part. (a) is not to be recommended because of the unequal
.
Cylinder jacket
Jacket
(6)
may be
steel.
iron.N. Steel.
Cylinder
Cast iron (stationary engines). Nickel steel. This is the largest class.M.
. but which have slight modifications in favour of an increase of reliability and mechanical strength.
:
Green.
estimable qualities of a land engine.
frequently. so that the motor and machine may not present an unduly dirty appearance. (e) Renault.E.
:
Class (A). Chrome vanadium steel.
Cast
Piston rings Connecting rods
Cast iron.
(/)
(6)
Wolseley.V. Nickel steel Nickel steel to be pre(rotary engines). Ball
bearings. White metal between each crank. but in view of the great noise created by the rotating propeller they are. and includes
the following wellknown engines (a) (c) E. S.
plated or copper electrolytically deposited on the inside (c) aluminium.
(g)
GobronBrillie. possible.
(a) integral with the body shrunk or welded on. Critchley. nickel chrome
Main bearings
Crankcase
Nickel chrome.
importance in an aeronautical engine. the burnt gases and unburnt oil should be exhausted at a convenient place.
arrangement of cylinders.
(c)
Engines characterised by a starwise or a radial Engines of this class are (a) Anzani.A. Class (A)..
when the connecting rods
same pin
of
two opposite pistons
is
are connected to the
Class
(B).
A
V
lightness are favourable characteristics of the type of engine..wise arrange
ment
Also. Furthermore. and the efficient use of this material is ensured. popular design of this class is the diagonal or type of motor.AERONAUTICAL ENGINES. (d) Clerget.
The important rotary engines
are
:
(a)
(6) (c) Gyro. We have now a two throw crank engine that is. When the
cylinders are arranged in a vertical plane.P. Salmson.
running are achieved
Constancy of torque and smoothness of by an increase in the number of cylinders.
Korting Brothers. the successful lubrication of the set of cylinders below a central horizontal plane is a matter of great difficulty.
by connecting all the pistons to the same crankpin.
The motors of this class were designed to meet Class (C). in which the centre lines of the cylinders make 90 with each other.
Sturtevant.
(i)
Austro Daimler.
(h)
N.
Burlat.
maining stationary.G. It is worthy of notice that a uniform series of impulses can only be obtained during a complete engine cycle that is.
of the crankshaft. the special requirements of aeronautical engines.
(k)
149
(j) Curtiss. about an imaginary axis passing through the crankshaft. two revolutions of the crankshaft when the engine has an odd
culties
may
set of cylinders
number
of cylinders.
Class (B).
of cylinders. but the cylinders themselves rotate. Undoubtedly
.
The economic
distribution of stress
one of
the fundamental reasons for the adoption of a star. the crankarm and pin are continuously under maximum stress. compactness and
Gnome. These engines have the starwise disposition of the cylinders of Class (B). the crankshaft reClass (C).E.
(6)
R.
:
The design of this class of engine is essentially a complete departure from that of the preceding classes. of an eightcylinder of engine is thoroughly The balance type
V
V
satisfactory. These lubrication diffi
be successfully overcome by rotating the lower through 180. the two cranks are 180 apart and the balance of such an engine is less perfect than when the cylinders were arranged uniformly in a vertical plane.
Other tests were imposed to bring out the relative merits competing engines. the desirable attributes of an aeroplane engine were classified thus
(d)
of
:
(a)
(c)
Total
Smooth running. and.
weight. Reasonable (t)
Satisfactory running under climatic variations of
temperature.
55.
and the compactness
the small value of the ratio
xi.
(u)
(in
spare
price. or ejections of oil and petrol.
(h)
Absence of
deterioration
after
(i) Simplicity of construction.
is
cylinders
perform
The Gnome
adequately the functions of a . to a lesser extent. (/) WorkAbsence
manship.engine.
described on p.
(6)
(c)
Each engine was placed
full power or throttled an inclined position not
exceeding 15
The consumptions of fuel and lubricant were measured. whether in an inclined or normal position.Jr. and number) of minimum Excellence of material.
of
(p)
(I)
Adaptable
(ra)
by (n) Freedom from risk parts. at
in
for short special runs.
.
fire. reliability. running. such as fuel and oil economy. gives the performances during a sixhour run of some good The data of this table have been plotted British engines. and the
revolving
flywheel. Precautions against accidental (k)
stoppage.
aeroplane. Table XII. that otherwise than
is. (j) Suitable shape to minimise head resistance.
bulk.
(g)
(6) light weight.150
THE AEROPLANE. the most popular rotary engine.
Nevertheless. Consideration of some Modern Aeroplane Engines.
(r) (q)
airscrew swinging. Each engine was dismantled between tests.
A
in the curves of
fig.
(s)
Economy
parts. balance of these engines is exceptionally good. For the benefit of engine makers.
During a recent competition the following formed on each engine
:
tests
were per
(a)
Two
runs of six hours each. 155.
Silence.
of this type of engine have only been achieved with a sacrifice in other important factors. (e) Slow running under light load. of vibration.
down. the cooling.
(o)
starting Accessibility of Absence of smoke
for
Convenience of fitting in an Relative invulnerability to smallarm projectiles. (d)
Economy
of
consumption. and whether at full power or throttled down.
dual ignition.
are
A Bosch hightension doublespark magneto is fitted. turned without the pilot leaving his seat. as in the Argyll engine.P.
is fitted between the piston and the cylinder which alternately covers and uncovers the inlet and ex
haust valves in the cylinder walls. The cylinders.
valveless piston
pumps. a large double The water is ballbearing taking the thrust of the airscrew. runs in seven main bearings. The pistons are of steel.
of this engine
is is
A
photograph
given in
fig. plus oil from the bottom of the oil chamber and returns it to the tank. which is at the rear of the engine. and each
. Beardmore AustroDaimler Engine.
120 H.AERONAUTICAL ENGINES. whilst the cooling takes place in a light honeycomb radiator. The engine has six separate vertical A single steel cylinders on which are welded steel water jackets.
This engine
The
cylinders are of forged steel. Salmson Engine (CantonUnn6 System). 120 H.
manufactured at the Dudbridge Ironworks. The two synchronised carburettors supplied with the engine are fitted with hotwater The lubricating oil is forced to the working parts by jackets. each supplying three A hand startinggear enables the engine to be cylinders. The six vertical cylinders are each fitted with
A
an
photograph
electrically
deposited copper waterjacket. A hightension two
spark Bosch magneto is fitted and is connected to both plugs. and other important parts.
We
castiron sleeve valve
walls. and a honeycomb radiator The oil is pumped under a pressure of 25 Ibs. The valves. are provided with detachable watercooled
heads in which two plugs are fitted. and the crankshaft. which are situated in the head of the cylinder.
of this engine is given in fig.P.P.
steel
square inch to the crankshaft bearing. The crankshaft has seven journals running in seven whitemetal bearings. 56. The 200 H. 57. per is fitted. sleevevalve actuating A second pump sucks the surgear.
151
shall now give descriptions of several wellknown aeronautical engines. machined all over. Two Zenith carburettors are carried. the water being circulated by a centrifugal pump. Thus the valves of ordinary type are not fitted.
operated by push rods and overhead rockers. which are attached to an aluminium crankcase. The pistons are made of and are fitted with two rings. Argyll Engine. circulated by a centrifugal pump.
and are each with three rings. and the resulting slight increase of weight fully compensated for by the greater reliability of the engine.
:
over. The casing is in two parts one carries the brackets for fixing the engine. These two parts.152
cylinder
THE AEROPLANE.
120 H. removed.
may
The water
be readily removed without parting the crankcase.
FIG. and the other the valve gear. crankpin by By means of a patent planetary gearing all the pistons have exactly the same stroke. fitted with phosphorbronze bushes.
moving parts are
sufficient to
is
even when the airscrew
keep the engine running steadily. brazed on. rods are connected to a central collar. which
The connecting
. circulation is maintained by a centrifugal pump driven by gearing.
The
The connecting rods
all
are
made from
highgrade
steel. 56.
fitted
is
pistons are of cast iron of a special quality. the momentum and perfect balance of the engine is in motion. The water jackets are of spun copper. which draws the water through the radiators and forces When the it through the water jackets from bottom to top. Beardmore AustroDaimler Engine.
machined
is carried on a two ballbearings.P.
and are held on
their
by double springs.
200 H.
seats
They
are of large dimensions.
and are
all
mechanically
FIG.AERONAUTICAL ENGINES.
Two
Zenith carburettors are fitted at the extremities of a
. but in such a manner that the clamping of the cylinders does not produce
any distortion. bushes of tempered steel being
fitted
between the parts
in contact. These springs are so designed and arranged that their active parts are practically isolated from the hot parts of the cylinders.
153
when bolted together.P. The valves are operated by means of push rods and rocking levers. hold the cylinders in position.
operated. 57. The valves are
of special steel. Salmson Engine.
From this passage short induction pipes are led to each cylinder.
in the crankcase
is
obtained by spraying petrol into the front
. and conducts the oil
to the principal parts to be lubricated the second to the valve The oil which collects at the lower part of the engine is gear.
provided. Each cylinder is provided with an exhaust valve in the cylinder head. The first pump forces the oil under pressure into two single feeds. composed of the pure air drawn in the exhaust valve and the rich mixture which passed through the inlet The rich mixture valve. the piston descends.
horizontal diameter of an annular space.
100 H. is compressed during the fourth stroke. A photograph of this engine is shown in fig. Each carburettor is heated by exhaust gases. and the remaining burnt gases are driven out of the exhaust During the third stroke air is drawn into the cylinder through the exhaust valve.
. as follows
:
The
cycle of operations
is
After firing the mixture. Gnome Engine. This rotary engine is made from the design of Laurent Sequin. force prevents the exhaust gases passing into
and at f
stroke. The cylinders are arranged in such a way that the oil which flows along the walls cannot flood the lower cylinders. The uncovered just before the end of this stroke.
During the return stroke the inlet ports are covered by the piston. 58. At the end of this stroke the inlet ports are again uncovered and a rich mixture is drawn into the cylinder. nine in number. are arranged in one plane radially round a single fixed crank. which is cast integral with the rear half of the crankcase.
valve. which does not close until the middle of the stroke. Ignition by two Bosch hightension
magnetos.
A
compressed
is
air
self starting
arrangement
oil
is
Efficient lubrication
assured by a double
pump
situated
at the lower part of the engine. The explosive mixture.
inlet ports are
but centrifugal
the crankcase. Communication is made from the interior
of the crankcase to the inlet port. the exhaust valve opens. The cylinders. approximately. Monosoupape Type.
taken up again by the second pump and returned to the tank. and is manufactured by the Gauthier Company. which is hollow.P. one of which leads to the centre of the crankshaft.154
THE AEKOPLANE. and the inlet ports are in the cylinder walls in such a position that they are uncovered by the piston as it approaches the bottom of its stroke.
is machined out of a solid bar of steel.P. whence the lubricant to the cylinders by centrifugal force.
155
ls
half of the hollow crankshaft. of the engine may be varied. which can be rotated about
FIG. which delivers oil into the
of these
centre of the crankcase. Monosoupape type. the air necessary for the caruration of the fuel passing through this shaft. By means movable rocking levers.AERONAUTICAL ENGINES.
the centre of the camshaft by means of bellcranks and a worm situated in the rear part of the crankshaft.
Gnome
Engine. cylinder A dripfeed lubricator is provided.P. the lift of the exhaust valves is Each adjustable. 58. the
are carried in a separate housing. through tappet
valves are operated
in the front of the crankcase. The worm can be
operated by a handwheel placed near the pilot's seat.
is
distributed
.
100 H. The exhaust
by long push rods from the cambox situated cams operating these rods The rocking levers rollers and rocking levers. and thus the H.
bore
300 H.P. At the botton of the jacket a rubber ring fitting into a groove takes up the difference
.
The rocking
levers are pivoted in
an extension
water. The crankshaft runs in whitemetal bearings. four of which are carried right through the crankcase and form supports for the main bearing caps. The oilpump unit and the water
V
unit are duplicated. Hence no separate The oil pump lubricating pipes are employed on the engine.). which
rotated from the crankshaft
by skew
of the gearing. and thence to the main bearings and
the crankshaft. The valves are of the
of
usual mushroom type.
100 H.
each side of the engine. at the same time forming a watertight joint. The design of these cylinders is similar to that of the 100 H. engine.
sucks
case. and oil is forced from this by a small gear pump through hollow columns.P. The most economical speed of only
pump
.
The
expansion of the copper jacket and the steel cylinder. The controls of the carburettors. shaft bearings are of phosphor bronze.156
THE AEROPLANE. and has a The camlarge doublethrust bearing at the airscrew end.
cylinders are of caststeel. four in number. which are bolted down to the top half of an aluminium crankcase by five bolts. The main oil channel is cast solid with the crankcase. Green Engine. although the engine may be run with a single set of units.
oil
from a tank placed immediately under the crankThis powerful engine has twelve formation (stroke 172 mms. The valves are actuated by short rocking from one camshaft which is enclosed in a small aluminium
casing
made
in sections. machined inside and outside spun copper water jackets are fitted.
is
The camshaft
is
driven by a vertical
encased shaft. Two interconnected Zenith carburettors are A water pump maintains the circulation of the cooling fitted. and are fitted in cages side by side in an The valve springs are inverted position on the cylinder head. enclosed under a small dome through the centre of which the
levers
valve stem projects.
in
cylinders arranged 142 mms. This engine has six separate vertical cylinders.P. the latter being hollow. through which the holdingdown bolts pass. camshaft casing in such a manner that they can be swung clear of the cylinder heads. Green Engine. the design of the cylinder heads ensuring the efficient Two spiral tube radiators are fitted on cooling of the valves.. are synchronised.
P.P.H..M.
300 H.P.
weight of the engine connections 150 Ibs.M. but the engine runs smoothly when to 160 R. The
petrol
FIG. Green Engine. the jackets being of copper electriType).
135 H.
and the weight
of radiator
and
This engine has The eight cylinders in two monoblock castings of four each. consumption during an hour being about 1 gallon.AEKONAUTICAL ENGINES. Sunbeam Engine (90
V
. hour.
The
the
oil
consumption is about 63 pint per B.. cylinders are watercooled.P.
running
throttled
is
157
down
1300 R. 59.P.
is
900
Ibs.
. The crankcase The lubricating oil is forced of an aluminium alloy. to the crankshaft journals and pins.
The valvecaps
the water being circulated by a centrifugal are watercooled by means of a manifold
pump. but splashed to the cylinders
liners
is
made
and gudgeon
pins. with phosphorbronze
housed in the webs of the crankcase.
THE AEEOPLANE.158
cally deposited. The crankshaft has five journals running in whitemetal bearings.
placed along the tops of the cylinders.
Area of wings = 370 square
feet. in
on the wings = K u ApV 2 = k a ApV 2 Ibs. undercarriage.
Lift. which is called the " extratowing resistance. p = density of the air (p = 000237
method
159
Drag. and wing area 370 square feet.
.. and (b) the resistance of the remaining parts of the machine body. etc. It is convenient to consider the resistance of the machine as made
up of two parts (a) the resistance of the wings. The data from which the calculations are made are given below..
:
TABLE XIV.
at the ground level).
.APPENDIX
I.
A GRAPHICAL METHOD OF CALCULATING THE AERODYNAMICAL PERFORMANCE OF AN AEROPLANE.
Consideration
taken of the extra resistance of
those parts of the machine in the slipstream of the airscrew.
and no allowance
is
made
is
for the lift
wings on other parts of
the machine.
1
THE machine
for
which the calculations are made
is
a tractor
It is
biplane of weight 2100 Ibs.
. on the wings
. " tail plane. V = wind speed in feet per second.
is
1
A
of calculating the aerodynamical performance of an aeroplane
given
in
Chapter V. in Ibs.where
A = area of wings in square feet. assumed that the weight of the machine is taken on the
alone.
of which 65 Ibs. is the thrust of the airscrew.
The interference
body on the airscrew has been neglected. R = 65 Ibs. per second. gives the aerodynamical properties of the wings. (d) stagger.
=T D V 3 2 Ibs.
torque.160
THE AEROPLANE. of
the
airscrew = 9' 1" =
translational speed of the airscrew. and the
2
extratowing
[
130
(^)o)
+
'
08T
lbs

]
9'08'.
The
increase of resistance of the machine due
to the slipstream of the airscrew
may
be expressed approximately
is
by the expression TYA/V^T' where
^lUOj pA.. which were deduced from experiments on a model of a single wing.
Airscrew Data. and A square feet is the disc area of the airscrew.
(e)
aspect ratio. in a wind of speed 100 feet per second and of density p.
. in revs.ft.
2R T
R
the resistance of that
portion of the machine affected by the slipstream. " " the appropriate corrections having been applied for (a) biplane
"
"
effect. = Q c pD V
2 C/0
2
. The performance of the airscrew is expressed by the data of
The
the following table
:
TABLE XV. (b)
scalespeed
effect.
The The
* And
thrust. is assumed in the slipstream
of the airscrew. (c)
gap. in
.
Diameter.
resistance
A
=Q'08T approximately. For the machine under consideration. T. V. is measured in feet per second. n. Q.
oD .
"
so that
2R T
/1Am 2
is
(100^ pA. At a wind speed of 100 feet per second the "extratowing" resistance is 130 Ibs. and A =
65 square
"
feet.
Table XIV. the horsepower put into the airscrew = 27rQ c/ Lan 550
of the
3
V2
.
(/) wing tips.. in lbs. T Ibs.
. and the rotational speed. D.
= 000237). The relationship between the speed of rotation and the horsepower of the engine is given in Table XVI.APPENDIX
I. The table needs no explanation if we remember that.
The airscrew runs slower than the engine. machine is in horizontal flight. shows the relationship between the resistance of the machine and the speed of horizontal flight. the gearing
being
2.
TABLE XVI.
W
. when a = K a/oAV 2 that is.
161
Engine Data.
ratio
Calculation of the Performance of the
Machine
at
Ground
Level
Table XVII.
11
.
2100
000237 x 370 x
49
K
(
TABLE XVII.
transferring the curve " lines of fig.
61 to the
"
Similarly. of fig.
above table are shown graphically in fig.Flight at Ground level
Curve A. at a constant value of the translational speed. Similarly. horsepower put of fig.
of the
Using the data
61. 60 we see that at a speed of horizontal flight of 100 feet per second the resistance of the machine is 260 Ibs. so that for
. 61. the "constant
62 give the relationship between the fig. gives the thrust
600
Resistance Curves For Hor. into the airscrew and its speed of rotation.
/40
ISO
160
and the rotational speed
speed of horizontal
at the corresponding Thus. and plotting this resistance on the " 100 ft.. Res'?* oF Aeroplane with SlJpStreai
70
80
90 100 110 120 130 Speed oF Machine.
500
Curve B. from fig.M.162 The data
fig. 62.
FIG. F* per Sec." line of fig 61 we find the rotational speed of
of the airscrew
flight. 60.persec.velocity
curve A.Res c Curve D. we next construct the curves of
of the family
each
member
showing the variation of the
thrust of the airscrew with the speed of rotation. 60. from which we can read directly the horsepower put In curve B into the airscrew at any speed of horizontal flight.
60.P.
A
of
fig. we obtain constant. Res$* oF Wings.. of Table XV. which is constructed from Any point on curve
velocity"
lines
of
A
information obtained from curve
D
of
fig.of Aeroplane without SlipStream Curve C. 62 the maximum horsepower developed by the engine is
plotted against the rotational speed of
the airscrew.
THE AEROPLANE. "Extra to
Wmg" Res
ce

.
the airscrew to be 772 R.
.FIG. 62.
FIG. 61.
.
The maximum speed
of horizontal
by the point S. be neglected with safety. from which it is seen that the maximum
speed of horizontal flight is 121*5 ft.
small correction should be applied to the rate of climbing as calculated above.60. speed of the machine. because. = resistance of the machine. W Ibs.
= thrust of the airscrew.
Curve
B
of
A
.
. per min. and also that the machine has a maximum rate of climbing of 510 ft.164
any speed
of
THE AEROPLANE.
of the machine
we may
engine
obtain the speed of rotation
is
the airscrew
when
the
developing
its
maximum
horsepower at that speed.. gives for any speed of the machine the maximum thrust which the airscrew can develop. Obviously.
T
Ibs.
. 63.. at the same speed. have been plotted in fig.
R
TABLE XVIII. 62. where
and
V
ft.
flight is given
sect.V.
The data of the first and last columns of Table XVIII. = per sec.ft. the attitude relatively to the air of a machine during a climb is slightly
different
A
from that of horizontal however. the rate
of climbing
is
(TR).
^
per mm...
flight.
per
sec. per sec. 61.
is
given in
rate of climbing at any speed Table XVIII. = weight of the machine. which is plotted from the data B of fig. Ibs. and its speed of rotation. at
a speed of 79
ft..
This correction can.
. where the curves A and B interof curve fig.
calculation of the
maximum
of the
machine
.
.
121
ft.
Calculated Performance at an Altitude of 6000 feet. the performance at any altitude
if
may
be similarly calculated. and the maximum per min. per sec. an
FIG. at a speed of 85 ft.
330
per sec. gives the performance of the machine at an altitude of 6000 feet.
p be given
its
correct value. 63.
calculations give the performance of the machine Obviously.
63. Table XIX.
approximate rule being that for any given speed of the engine and for the same setting of the throttle and petrol mixtures
'
the horsepower developed is proportional to the density of the outside atmosphere.
The above values have been plotted
speed of horizontal
rate of climbing
is
in
fig.
The maximum
flight is
ft.
It
must be remembered that the maximum power developed by an engine falls as the altitude of the machine increases.
. where the density of the
air is 0'81 of the density at the
ground.APPENDIX
The above
at
I.
TABLE XIX.
165
ground
level.
APPENDIX
II.
where
F = the
frictional force per unit of area.
V = the
and
wind
K is a numerical
A summary
speed. constant.
Skin Friction for various Lengths of Rectangular Surface at a Wind Speed of 10 Feet per Second.
of the data obtained
from these experiments on
smooth
boards is given in Table
XX.
of the first experiments to determine the friction of air flowing over even surfaces were made by Dr A.
The length
of the board
is
in the direction of the wind.
SKIN FRICTION OF FLAT SURFACES IN
A UNIFORM
CURRENT OF
SOME
AIR.
TABLE XX. It was found that for rectangular any one board the surface friction due to the flow of air could be
expressed in the form
F = KV 185
.
166
. of the
United States.
" found that the law connecting the values of I 07 and henceJihe law and "/" of the above table is /= 000055 H' for skin friction on rectangular boards is given by the expression
"
It can easily be
'
. who measured the
frictional forces on smooth. boards at various wind speeds.
fO
6(V
that
is.
=
88' 185 = 0000551 V X 55V
A. Zahm. plane. F.
U. or sheet zinc. V = wind speed in miles per hour.APPENDIX
where
II. 1 Plate glass was used as the standard or ideal surface. two distinct types of surface
:
from
and free from nap.
Zahm
observed
the
same
whether the
board was
covered with glazed cambric.
15 per cent. He came to the conclusion that all even surfaces have approximately the same coefficient of skin
friction. The surfaces marked by * are classified as rough. or dry varnish. or covered with calendered or uncalendered paper but the friction was increased from 10 to
.
of the table are plotted in fig.
when the board was covered with
coarse
buckram
having sixteen meshes to the inch. it is seen
that at a
wind speed of 60 miles per hour the skin friction per unit of area of an average size of plank is 0*027 lb. From Zahm's expression for skin friction.
less continuous.. or sprinkled with water.
whereas uneven surfaces have a greater coefficient of skin the resistance increasing approximately as the square of the wind speed. Gibbons in the wind channel of
Some
the Washington Navy Yard. and K and n are constants for any one surface. even.
I
= length
of the board
measured in
friction
feet.
United
States of America. The table has been made more complete by the of the surfaces 1824.
surfaces having been deduced from Froude's experiments.
167
V = wind velocity measured in miles per hour. the skin F = KV n where
. 64. which could be roughened by the attach
ment
of various fabrics. the values of K and n.
The values of K and n for various surfaces are given XXI.
friction
F = frictional force in Ibs. and for practical purposes it is safe to assume that the frictional resistance
varies as the square of the
wind
speed.
. or wet sticky varnish.
As
in
has been expressed by the relationship
Zahm's experiments.
further experiments on skin friction of various surfaces in air have been made by Willis A.S. 1915.
1
First
Annual Report of the National Advisory Committee
for Aeronautics.A. per square foot. whilst fabric surfaces of fine threads closely woven and free from
Smooth
which are more or
The
nap mark the other extremity.
in Table
inclusion
of these
The values
which
(a)
it is
of
K
and n
seen that there are
surfaces.
friction. A = area of the surface measured in square feet. for air. best surface in this group is smooth glass.
in Air.
of Various Surfaces.168
THE AEROPLANE.
Results of Experiments on Surface Friction.
.
TABLE XXI.
and the coefficient of kinematic viscosity
and n v. the velocity of the plane relatively to the fluid V.
u kinematic viscosity of the fluid. higher
wiry nature of the linen yarn.
is
00276
Ib. has a high resistance than linen. size of the plane and the col
. being absolute coefficients.
K
. The values of K and n may be calculated from the measurement of forces on similar surfaces which are
similarly situated relatively to the fluid. is F = Kpj/2 n L' V where the force F.
169
Surfaces roughened by nap.
FIG.APPENDIX
(6)
II. are all measured in any system of consistent units. the density of the fluid p. 64. at a wind speed of 60 miles per
hour. although of fine weave.
A
which takes into consideration the linear
efficient of
general expression for the frictional resistance of a plane. From the above experimental data it is seen that the frictional force per unit area of plate glass. Usually these surfaces have indices (1*9 to 2*0). this being probably due to the smooth. Cotton.
170
.
TABLE XXII.
A COLLECTION OF USEFUL DATA.
Table showing some Properties of Metals and Alloya.APPENDIX
III.
9
'
1
l S
ggSSSSS^ oo
88
C^l
^^^<M
IS w
CD t
g
1Si
g
j
g ^
^_ SSS^2S'd'2 gg^^t^g^gt^g^SS^^^^
8
x
x
OO ^^
CO
OO
^^
OOt>*
C^
C*^
00
1
"5 h5 ^i
.
"^3
s
^
"
1
* *
in oi
G e <
ao "i
^5
.o>
Pi
O
CO
j
CCCO
e.
171
CO
CO
CO <M
>
n"3
i
OiOOOOOOOOOOOOOiQ
rT
rT <M~
E
fl
.APPENDIX
III.
4
r!
II
I
en
42
rC)
g
I
8SJ 3
.
g3*
"HOOOOOOOOOO
^ I &
Is
i^ o 5*3 W g H
r\* CQ
III
II
.172
THE AEROPLANE.5
3
S 2
I
i
II
<
s
^
Q*0
05
03
till C S
^D O5 O^ ^H
T}H
oo
^"J
^O
T
H
t>
co
^6000006600
i>
^^
ft!
c i ^
co
IH
i
ii
i
IIS ill O o
.
> X w
h
\
O r
i
s
E^
CO CD
bO
(MiOQOi i^
<*l
(M
CO CO
^cq
C^l
lO OO
O
'S
CO
.
ounce (Avoir.825 grammes.
Equivalents.
per
mile per
hour=
feet
second
= 044704 metre
OU
1
knot = 0*5145 metre per second
per second.
litre.
Stress
1
1
pound per sq.
Volume
1
1
1
1
pint gallon
ton
= 16387 = 28317 = 0f>682 = 45460
litres
litres.
ergs.APPENDIX
TABLE XXV. inch = 70'31 grammes per sq.
Length
1 1 1
inch
yard
mile
= 2 '54 centimetres.) = 28'3495 grammes.
=13.
cubic centimetres.
Area.
=16093 metres.
=
1*15 miles per hour.
173
Measurement and
their Equivalents. = 746 watts = 7 '46 x 10 ergs per second = 10 7 ergs per second.317 cubic centimetres. = 17*86 kilogrammes per metre. square centimetres. = 28.
Acceleration
1
centimetre per second per second second per second.
pound
radian
Angle
Density
1
= 180
degrees
= 57 '296
degrees. =13.
1
1
1
square inch square foot square yard
cubic inch cubic foot
= 6*4516 =929 '03 = 8361 '3
square centimetres. = 45359 grammes.
= 0'03281
foot per
Force
1
1 1
= weight of '00 102 gramme.
ergs. centimetre. poundal
footpound
footpoundal Joule
Work and
Energy
(^
1
981)
of
1
1
= 1 3562 xlO 7 = 42139 x 10 5 = 10 7 ergs.
Rate
1
Working
1 1
9 horsepower = 33. = 0'9 144 metre.825 grammes per centimetre. square centimetres. pound per inch
. watt force de cheval = 7 36 x 10 9 ergs per second.lbs.
1
1
1
= 101605 x 10 6 grammes.000 ft.
foot per second
Velocity
1
1
= 3'048
88
r
metres per second. dyne 5 pound weight = 4'45 x 10 dynes.
Mass.
Measurement of
British Units of
III.
centi
1
pound per cubic foot = 0*01602 gramme per cubic
metre.
= 1*2928 grammes per litre.. = 85 Ibs. temperature of
Density of carbon dioxide under a pressure of 760 C. of mercury at a temperature of C. per square inch. =0000181 C. =0*1476 C.S. units.
1 square yard of doped aeroplane fabric weighs 56 '5 ozs.. head of 1 foot of water gives a pressure of 0'4325 Ib. =0'01142 C. = 78'5 Ibs. 1 square yard of undoped aeroplane fabric weighs 354*5 ozs.174
THE AEROPLANE. Coefficient of kinematic viscosity at 15 C.S.
petrol
.
mm.G.G.
Miscellaneous Data..
A
gallon of pure water weighs 10 Ibs. = 001144 C. = 0'08987 grammes per litre.
. Specific heat of air at constant volume = 0'1 69.
(average)
glass
1720
Ibs. temperature of
Specific heat of air at constant pressure = 0*238. 1416 Ibs..
salt
water
.
mm.. Density of air under a pressure of 760 mm.
of
mercury mercury
at a
of
at a
Ordinary viscosity of water at 15 C.
of a cubic foot of pure water
. Ibs.
TABLE XXVI. = 1*9768 grammes per litre.
Ibs.G. = 1*2504 grammes per litre. units.
..
Weight
. temperature of
of
mercury at a
Density of carbon monoxide under a pressure of 760 C.
. Coefficient of kinematic viscosity at 15 C..
= 62*3 = 64'0 = 44*0 oil = 58 0 = 60'0
Ibs..S.
Ibs.
Ordinary viscosity of air at 15 C.
celluloid
glycerine
cork
1
=135180 Ibs. units.S.
Ibs.
Density of hydrogen under a pressure of 760 mm. C..
asbestos
.G. units.
lubricating
rubber
.
Farman
biplane. GobronBrillie engine. 138.
of
aeroplane
Dope. 109.
Lift. 35. Automatic stability.
Beardmore AustroDaimler. 24.
Bristol 80 H. 83. 52. Dihedral angle. 105.P.
flight.
angle of incidence curve
Leading edge
of a 24.
Balance of propeller. Bryan.
average value of pressure. 149. 105. of
rolling.
bodies.N.
Biplane wings.. H. W.
END
effects.
GLIDING
BAIKSTOW.
Bleriot monoplane.
Drzewiecki. definition of. of wing angle
24.
Chassis. 81. biplane. 69..
Eulerian coordinates. of similar machines. Longitudinal instability. Clerget engine. 10. 142. Body axes.
Alighting.
Green engine. 39
Floats. 19.
Equations of motion of an aeroplane. 16. 149. 38. 62.
of. F. Anzani engine. 98. 106. 9. 75. 148. Curtiss engine.
Inclined flight. 119. 80. 71. Fineness ratio.
Crocco. 35. 11. 20.
construction of. Air flow around a wing.
Catastrophic instability. 81...
wing
.
etc. 146. G.
of body forms. 32. 82. 109. Engine weight. 91. 30. Centre of pressure. 146.
Axes
50. 19.
175
variation
stability. 116. in a regular wind. 20.
76.
Atmospheric winds. 19.
Instability. 109. definition of. Compression ratio of an engine. engine. 119. 1.
Gnome
146. material and design
Engines. 149.
Ferber. 65. properties of.
CAMBER
Hydroaeroplane. 149. 104.
ABSOLUTE coefficients.
calculating. Climbing. Alloys. 154. Aspect ratio. behaviour of. 78.
S.
140. 57.
engine. Aerodynamic consideration
wings. Comparison of forces acting upon
similar
KORTING BROTHERS'
LANCHESTER.
IMPERFECT streamline bodies
fluid.
machine at low speeds.
resistance of
smooth
wires. 94. 21. 148. 19. Gust problem. 145.
Avro biplane.
wing.
Lateral stability.
Gyroscopic action.
149. 6. 92. 149.P. H. 148.
Aerodynamical performance
of
an aeroplane.
forms. 11. 172. 151.
of
incidence
curve.
hydroaeroplane. AustroDaimler engine.
GrahameWhite
biplane. 170. of body..
78.
HEATING value
Horizontal
of fuel. 151. 82. Carburettor. 57. 40. flight.
Energy considerations.
DEPENDENCE
the performance of a machine on the characteristics of the
of
Line squalls.
of. 156. 141.
L.
in
a viscid
Chord
of a wing.V. Influence of altitude. 58.
of
32. 134.
FABRIC. 78. F. 148. 43. 101.
of a wing. Dipping front edge. 151. 5. comparison Bramwell.
Coefficient of kinematic viscosity. classification E. 27. 31. 150. 136. Argyll 120 H. 42. Drag. of. Equilibrium of an aeroplane. 149.
Horsepower of an engine. 78. Burlat engine. 72. motion on water of
a. 146. 17. 44. 23. 58. 32. 78. 2. Angle of incidence. 50. 146.INDEX.
Fourstroke cycle. 59. longitudinal. 148. 159 Aeroplane.
L. 99. engine. Cooling of an engine. Airscrew (see Propeller). 105.
Gusts. 146. 149. 5.
of.
Gyro engine. 107.
engine. definition
Flaps of wings.
rolling
moment due
to
..
calculation of stresses in a.P.
Wind
velocity.
VICKERS biplane. 80. 25. 92.
Lv
of
.
variation
Rolling oscillations. 170.
. distributions around a cylinder and a streamline body. 91. 86. 119. engine. Reflex curvature towards the trailing edge. 143.
UNDERCARRIAGE
of an aeroplane.
.
upon square plates.
136.
for struts. 22.E. Relative importance of the two surfaces of a wing. 62.
moment due
to
flow. variation of lateral force due to yawing. Propeller. LTD. 78. 1. 92. 90. 118.
Trailing edge.
oscillations. 148.
variation
of
yawing moment due to
yawing moment due
to
yawing. 85.
of an aeroplane. Properties of metals and alloys. variation of longitudinal to normal velocity.
variation
of
normal
force
due due
due
to to
to
94.
variation
normal
of pitching velocity.L AND
CO.
Piston speed. 121. air resistance of smooth.
6. 173. 128. 86. 191112.
to
5. 10.
PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY NEII. 110.176
Lr. variation of lateral force due to sideslip. 61.
pitching. 142. automatic.
of
19. 110.
of airscrew.
THE AEROPLANE. properties of.
M. 18.
yawing. gyroscopic action of. 140.
Mw. 119. Routh's discriminant. longitudinal. 5. 12. 17. description of. 109. 99. 86. 111. 149.
N. air flow around.
PERFORMANCE curves
Phugoid
Turning. performance of. 106.
THERMAL
OTTO
cycle of an engine. 29.
. Pressure distribution around a wingtip. Pitch of an airscrew.
8. 111. Twostroke cycle. derivatives of aeroplane. 91. Mercedes engine. R. definition of. variation of longitudinal force due
force
to forward velocity. 106.
moment due
sideslip. design of. 33. 79. 82.
54. Wolseley engine. 4. 100 H.
Maximum
Square plates. oscillations. 30. 92.
Woods used
Xg. 94. 114.
efficiency of engine. 87.G. flow of air around a. Mg. 149. 92. Nieuport monoplane. 73. terms. 39. Wing. 134. and suction tube. 144. variation of normal
force force
Shock absorbers.
of
variation variation
rolling
rolling
moment due
to
to
Skin friction of
Slip.
variation of longitudinal force due to pitching.
54. 88. 88.
Routh. 106.
Volumetric efficiency of an engine. 89. 146. 145. 72. position of. 98. 33.
Ns. 106. 135. 149.
Sopwith Batboat. 16.
for
Yp Yr
Yv
Z. 32.
Nr.
oscillations of an aeroplane.
Winds. theory. 91. 107. Metals. Ratio of engine weight to horsepower.
a biplane.P. weathercock. lateral. 148.
Stability. variation of pitching
moment with moment with
forward velocity.P. 149.
Wires.
variation
forward velocity.
design and construction. 20.
WARPING. effect of gyroscopic action of airscrew and engine. 3.
ratio.
variation of
Sunbeam
material of.. 146. Np. Struts. main or front. 48. Units of measurement. Sturtevant engine.
ZM
SALMSON
engine. British. variation of yawing
rolling. engine.
.A.
RAPID
XM
. Mechanical efficiency of engine. Xj..
. Starting. position of.
Streamline bodies. Spiral glide. 148. 49
Spar. ordinate. 52. Similar machines.
Zw
. 151. of an aeroplane.
. 100. 40. 87. 34. 101. of normal normal velocity.
flat surfaces. 135 H. 117.
EDINBURGH. variation of pitching moment due
MAGNETOS. 3. 157. hydroaeroplane.
Pitot and static pressure tube. of lateral force due to rolling.
due
YAWING
Report
of the Advisory Committee Aeronautics. 166. Wight hydroaeroplane. 88. 81. 141. 170.
pitching. balance of. "
yawing. Renault engine. Resistance of smooth wires.
Wings. 86. engine. 6.
instability. 110.. 107.
41.
. 18.
CHARLES GRIFFIN & COMPANY."
Telephone 363*Genrand.
1820
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