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FIVE YEAR PLANS • First launched: 1928 • Each plan made for industrial production ○ Targets set for each factory, even individual workers Targets aimed very high, and if workers didn't make it, then they were punished □ Lots of fudged numbers and suicides due to pressure □ If ppl made targets, then targets may be raised • Plans aimed at producing surplus • Each yr. there was a report that could be seen by foreign countries to see how successful communism was ○ No failures were reported ever STAKHANOVITES • 1935: coal miner Stakhanov reported to have dug 102 tons of coal in one 6hr shift ○ Was praised as an example of what workers should be Public not told there were 2 other men and machines helping • Ppl told to model themselves after Stakhanov. ○ Stakhanovite movement • Ppl reorganized the way things worked and performed great feats of productivity • This is one way Stalin attempted to persuade his ppl to work more efficiently
COLLECTIVISATION • To gain indust, Stalin had to get agri. ○ There had to be enough food for ppl, and to export • Stalin decided to take control of all farms and make them more productive ○ Farmers were not compensated Expected to work, give most of food over □ Given tools, tractors, and taught how to be more productive • Collectivization was not popular w/ peasants ○ Many rathered to slaughter animals, burn crops, and destroy farms Stalin had them removed
GULAG • Was a system of forced labor camps, plus transit camps and prisons • Increasingly prisoners were political opponents ○ Opponents to stalin ○ Ppl who didn't meet targets ○ Peasants during collectivisation • 1929-1932: Number ppl in gulags inc. greatly ○ Estimated that there were 5-7 mil at any one time • Also held victims of Stalin's purges ○ High officials ○ Intellectuals ○ WW2 prisoners • Prisoners used as workers for large projects in remote places ○ Belomor Canal-constucted by hand by prisoners • Not paid, underfed, poorly housed, and worked long hours in difficult climate • Prisoners executed if refused to work TERROR • Rapid indust led to opposition. • Stalin refused to stop his econ. Plans • Stalin's political opponents were arrested and given show trials before execution • Many ordinary ppl arrested too, but few were given a trial • Being accused was enough to convict innocent as well as guilty ○ March 1928: NKVD (Stalin's secret police)announced they had found foreign spies in Shakhty mines who were plotting to stop the mines reaching their targets. 55 ppl arrested. For next 2 months, newspapers, cinemas, and billboards all denounced these "wreckers" and demanded they be punished. 49- death camps, 5-shot, 1 acquitted. • People lived in terror that neighbor would denounce them to NKVD • No one protested-became obedient workers • Ppl arrested gave someone to blame-scapegoat
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