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Howe Time and Frequency Division National Institute of Standards and Technology 325 Broadway Boulder, CO 80303 (303)–497–3277 FAX: (303)–397–6461 Donald B. Percival Applied Physics Laboratory University of Washington HN–10 Seattle, WA 98195 (206)–543–1300 FAX: (206)–543–6785

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. The discrete wavelet transform can be used to decompose a time series with respect to a set of basis functions. mathematics and signal processing. The wavelet variance corresponding to some of the recently discovered wavelets can provide a more accurate conversion between the time and frequency domains than can be accomplished using the Allan variance.Abstract—Wavelets have recently been a subject of great interest in geophysics. which decomposes the variance of a time series on a scale by scale basis. The properties of a time series at diﬀerent scales can then be summarized by the wavelet variance. This increase in accuracy is due to the fact that these wavelet variances give better protection against leakage than does the Allan variance. each one of which is associated with a particular scale.

First. we derive estimates of how a clock’s timekeeping ability might evolve [4]. In what follows. Historically. Wavelet variances based upon higher order wavelets are natural extensions to the Allan variance and have potential advantages over the Allan variance in terms of leakage and insensitivity to deterministic drifts. II.I. with emphasis on the problem of leakage (see [3] for more details). frequency oﬀset. The problems with the third approach are dependence on the chosen window and high variability because the windowed DFT is inherently narrowband. wavelet analysis is based upon the discrete wavelet transform. Second. there is already an enormous literature about them—see [1] and references therein. Introduction and Summary The analysis of a time-ordered set of phase measurements {xt } often falls into one of three categories. it is easier to translate higher order wavelet variances into reasonable spectral estimates. The ﬁrst approach treats {xt } as a series to be expressed in terms of global basis functions such as orthogonal polynomials. The problems with the ﬁrst approach (polynomial ﬁts) are that many coeﬃcients might be needed to adequately represent the phase measurements. which is used to estimate the power spectrum Sx (·) for {xt } . the wavelet transform is narrowband at low frequencies and broadband at high frequencies. a “time and scale” representation of {xt } that is hierarchical rather than global and hence can represent localized features easily. the wavelet variance can be regarded as an octave-band estimate of the spectrum and hence does not suﬀer from the high variability of the windowed DFT. The Allan variance of fractional frequency deviates is in fact a wavelet variance corresponding to the Haar wavelet. The third approach is the windowed discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The second approach uses the mean square of the second diﬀerence of {xt } at various sampling intervals τ to deﬁne the Allan variance. pure powerlaw noise processes have played a vital role in characterizing the random part. As is true for the Allan variance. and local features in {xt } can be misrepresented because the coeﬃcients are calculated using global basis functions. Power-Law Noise Processes The phase diﬀerence {xt } between two clocks measured as a function of time is generally modeled by a deterministic part (quantiﬁed by a time oﬀset. Once the exponent α has been determined. Wavelet analysis tries to address the above problems with one uniﬁed approach. Correctly determining α is a primary objective of spectral analysis. 1 . which means that the power spectrum Sx (·) for {xt } is proportional to f α for positive Fourier frequencies f . Plots of the square root of the wavelet variance versus averaging time (or scale) yield curves analogous to the usual “σ/τ ” curve for the Allan variance. Even though wavelets are a relatively new topic. but ignored in what follows) and a random part. Potential problems with the second approach include sensitivity to deterministic drifts and leakage because the transfer function for the Allan variance has substantial sidelobes (this leakage can also occur in the unwindowed DFT). and frequency drift. Because higher order wavelets provide a better approximation to octave-band ﬁlters than does the Haar wavelet. we merely motivate the use of the wavelet variance.

IV. unlike the DFT. . we deﬁne ψj. the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of {xt } preserves the energy Ex in a set of coeﬃcients. We can also regard {xt } as the “time domain” representation of our phase measurements. While leakage has long been recognized as a concern in spectral analysis. The windowed DFT is inherently narrowband and hence highly variable across frequencies. and then taking the squared modulus of the DFT of the windowed series {ht xt }. 1 Xk ≡ √ N N −1 t=0 xt e−i2πfk t . One rationale for the wavelet variance is that higher order wavelets eﬀectively address the leakage problem. Narrowband vs. This variance can be interpreted as the variance of a process after being subjected to approximate bandpass ﬁlters of constant Q. which makes interpretation of DFT-based spectral estimates somewhat problematic for the novice. x1 . namely. The time and frequency domain representations are equivalent because we can recover {xt } from {Xk } using the inverse DFT. . . the time and frequency community handles power-law noise processes using the Allan variance [4]. . Broadband Processing Spectrum analyzers typically compute a power spectrum for a time series {xt } by windowing the series using {ht }. but rather doubly indexed by time shift j and “scale” τ .τ (·) as a shifted and scaled version of ψ(·): 1 ψj. both types of processing are subject to leakage. these coeﬃcients are not indexed by frequency. The Allan variance can be used to form a broadband spectral estimate using well-known conversion schemes [4]. xN −1 form a sequence {xt } of N time-ordered phase measurements. however. Let us deﬁne |xt |2 ≡ Ex to be the “energy” in our ﬁnite set of measurements. Because narrowband processing is not required for broadband processes such as powerlaw processes. Assuming for convenience that N = 2p for some positive integer p. 1. while broadband processing produces less variable spectral estimates than those of narrowband processing. We can then trivially regard |xt |2 as the contribution to the energy Ex due to the component of {xt } with time index t. Parseval’s theorem tells us that |Xk |2 = Ex . . where ψ(·) can be any member of a large class of functions satisfying certain stringent conditions [1]. As is true for the DFT. . Wavelets and the “Scale Domain” Suppose that x0 . k = 0. . and we can regard {Xk } as the “frequency domain” representation of our phase measurements. The purpose of windowing is to reduce a potential bias known as leakage.τ (t) = √ ψ 2τ 2 t − jτ 2τ . N − 1. However. . its importance in broadband processing has not received much attention. in which power “leaks” from high power into low power portions of the spectrum. Hence we can regard |Xk |2 as the contribution to the energy Ex due to the component of {Xk } with frequency index k. .III. Next. where Xk is the kth DFT coeﬃcient and is associated with the kth Fourier frequency fk ≡ k/N . The DWT is deﬁned in terms of a “mother wavelet” ψ(·) and an associated “scaling function” φ(·). consider the DFT of {xt }.

a natural j. j.τ j=0 Specializing to the Haar wavelet.τ } and c using the inverse DWT. Under the assumption that E{dj.τ |2 + |c|2 = Ex . The corresponding scaling function φ(·) is given by |ψ (Haar) (·)| (a relationship unique to the Haar wavelet). . When viewed from the perspective of wavelets. 2 Let us now deﬁne the wavelet variance for scale τ as σx (τ ) ≡ var {dj. let us set our mother wavelet ψ(·) equal to the Haar wavelet ψ (Haar) (·). . .τ |2 as the contribution to the energy Ex due to the component of {dj. . 3 . ψ (Haar) (t) = 1 for 1/2 ≤ t < 1. . This representation is fully equivalent to the time and frequency domain representations because we can recover {xt } from {dj. and ψ (Haar) (t) = 0 otherwise. If the xt ’s represented average fractional frequency deviations rather than phase measurements.τ is equal to E{d2 }.τ } with time shift index j and scale index τ . Parseval’s theorem tells us that τ. For the Haar wavelet. . .τ } = 0 so that the variance of dj. 2. the Allan variance is thus not a “time domain” quantity. 4τ . we ﬁnd that σx (τ ) ˜2 τ = N N/2τ −1 j=0 2 x(2j+2)τ −1 (τ ) − x(2j+1)τ −1 (τ ) . 2τ . we ﬁnd that dj. N/2 indexes a “power of 2” scale.j |dj.τ estimator of this wavelet variance is σx (τ ) ˜2 1 1 = × τ N/2τ N/2τ −1 d2 j.τ (t) t √ along with c ≡ xt φ(t/N )/ N .τ }/τ . N − 2τ indexes shifts in time commensurate with scale τ . The Allan variance therefore corresponds to a wavelet variance when the Haar wavelet is used with average fractional frequency deviations. 2 where xt (τ ) ≡ j=0 xt−j /τ . The DWT coeﬃcients are the doubly indexed series {dj.τ j=0 2 = N N/2τ −1 d2 .τ } as the “scale domain” (or “time/scale” domain) representation of {xt } . while j = 0. which we deﬁne here as ψ (Haar) (t) = −1 for 0 ≤ t < 1/2. but rather is a “scale domain” or “time/scale domain” quantity.τ ≡ xt ψj. As an example of a scale domain representation.τ τ −1 √ τ = √ x(2j+2)τ −1 (τ ) − x(2j+1)τ −1 (τ ) . Hence we can regard |dj.τ } deﬁned by dj.where τ = 1. then the above would be the well-known “nonoverlapped” estimator of the Allan variance. and we can regard {dj. 4. .

1/2τ ]. the shaded area in each plot would be entirely contained between the vertical lines. The shaded areas in the left column of plots in Fig. This leakage is most pronounced for white PM (Sx (f ) ∝ f 0 in the top left plot). this interval is [1/16. namely. −1. Examples We present two examples using the wavelet variance with phase measurements. The D10 wavelet variance for scale τ = 4 reﬂects the spectrum in the passband [1/16. two-oscillator phase deviations typically resemble a realization of a composite power-law process. The top plot of Fig. 1/8] and is delineated on each plot by a pair of thin vertical lines. let 2 σx (τ ) represent this variance. For pure power-law processes. whose spectrum can be described as Sx (f ) = α hα |f |α . The D4 wavelet was chosen because it is “one order up” from the Haar wavelet (and closely mimics the performance of the so-called modiﬁed Allan variance [4]). For τ = 4. We can then write 1/2 2 σx (τ ) = −1/2 Fτ (f )Sx (f ) df. Determination of Power-Law Noise Types As a function of time. that the integral of Fτ (f )Sx (f ) (the Allan variance) can be inﬂuenced mainly by values of f outside of the vertical lines and hence cannot accurately reﬂect the values of Sx (f ) between the vertical lines.V. −2. If the ﬁlters associated with the Allan variance were perfect octave-band ﬁlters. there are well-known formulae for converting from the Allan variance to the frequency domain [4]. These plots indicate that there is substantial leakage for the Allan variance. −3 and −4).7 day interval comparing NIST–7 to a hydrogen maser. The amount of the shaded area that lies outside of the vertical lines represents the contribution to the Allan variance attributable to leakage. σx (4) should roughly reﬂect the power in the spectrum in the frequency interval [1/4τ. while the D10 wavelet is an example of an even higher order wavelet. 1/8] to a much better degree than the other variances because the shaded areas are concentrated between the vertical lines to a higher degree for the D10 wavelet variance. If we now consider a composite power-law process dominated between the vertical lines by a power-law with a diﬀerent exponent than the one displayed in the plots of Fig. Fig. 1 also shows corresponding plots for the wavelet variance using the D4 (middle column) and D10 (right column) “extremal phase” wavelets [1]. The bottom plot shows the estimated Allan standard deviation (square root of the Allan variance) versus scale τ (the connected 4 . where Fτ (·) is the modulus squared of the transfer function associated with the Allan variance at scale τ [2]. this conversion can become problematic for the Allan variance. 2 shows phase measurements recorded every 100 seconds over a 3. we can see the potential problem with leakage. The integral of each shaded area gives σx (4) for the appropriate pure power2 law process. In the octave-band interpretation of the Allan variance. To see this. 1. VI. 1 show the product Fτ (f )Sx (f ) versus f for the Allan variance for three pure power-law spectra and 2 scale τ = 4. For composite power-law processes. where the summation is over a ﬁnite number of diﬀerent α’s (usually a subset of α = 0.

References I.A. 46th Ann. The bottom plot here shows the same quantities as in the bottom plot of Fig. to appear.B. C. Sullivan. [1] [2] [3] [4] 5 . 2. Allan. 48th Ann. Howe and D. The top plot of Fig.” Proc. 1992. 1994. D. Use of the D4 wavelet here tells us that leakage is not a major problem with the Allan variance for these phase measurements. Howe. D.A. moreover. While the Allan and D4 standard deviations agree quite well in the smallest three and largest scales.W. although there are two scales (τ = 3200 and 6400 seconds) for which the Allan standard deviation is just inside the conﬁdence limits for the D4 wavelet standard deviation.” Proc.A. Philadelphia: SIAM. 1990. 262–264..curve) and also the estimated D4 wavelet standard deviation versus τ (the crosses). 1992.B. The vertical portion of each cross delineates a “one sigma” (68. The Allan and D4 wavelet standard deviations agree fairly well here. D. Ten Lectures on Wavelets.L. Characterization of Clocks and Oscillators. and F. Frequency Control Symp. Percival.3%) conﬁdence interval for the true D4 wavelet standard deviation.“A Shortcut for Computing the Modiﬁed Allan Variance.Greenhall. Frequency Control Symp.. there is signiﬁcant diﬀerence in the middle three scales. Walls (Edits). pp. Daubechies. D. the difference is consistent with leakage in the Allan variance since the Allan variance is higher than the D4 variance. 3 shows phase measurements recorded every 40 seconds over a half day interval reﬂecting time-synchronization using the NIST satellite two-way transfer modem. “Wavelet Analysis for Synchronization and Timekeeping. NIST Technical Note 1337.

The integrals of the shaded areas yield the appropriate variance for τ = 4.Allan variance Sx(f) ∝ f 0 D4 wavelet variance D10 wavelet variance Sx(f) ∝ f -4 0. Modulus squared of the transfer function for the Allan variance (left column). 6 . f −2 (middle) and f −4 (bottom) for scale τ = 4. 1. D4 wavelet variance (middle) and D10 wavelet variance (right) times power-law spectra Sx (·) proportional to f 0 (top row).5 f f f Fig.5 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 Sx(f) ∝ f -2 0.

NIST–7 vs. hydrogen maser phase measurements (top plot) and estimated σx (τ ) versus τ (bottom plot) for the Allan variance (connected curve) and the D4 wavelet variance (crosses).103 104 105 τ (scale in seconds) Fig. 2. estimated σx(τ) xt 10-13 10-14 10-15 101 102 7 .

102 103 104 τ (scale in seconds) Fig. Time-synchronization phase measurements using the NIST satellite two-way transfer modem conﬁgured in an in-cabinet loop test (top plot) and estimated σx (τ ) versus τ (bottom plot) for the Allan variance (connected curve) and the D4 wavelet variance (crosses). estimated σx(τ) xt 10-12 10-13 10-14 10-15 101 8 . 3.

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