Introduction

Today we are living in the technology driven world where day by day emerging technologies
give new shape to our legal system and creating a need Ior legal reIorm. The relation between
technology and law is dialectic. Both oI them providing or giving new horizontal to each
other. Issue oI third party liability Ior the inIringement oI copyright in digital world is also an
outcome oI this dynamic interrelation.
1
In today`s day to day work internet become
indispensable part oI human liIe. Internet includes many things as e-mailing, blogging,
surIing, searching, chatting etc. Internet is a large network oI linked computers through which
a person can do the lots oI activities which involves inIormation sharing also. All these
Iunctions or Iacilities are provided by the Network Service Providers through the Internet
access. These Network providers are commonly known today as 'Internet Service Providers¨.
In other words we can say that ISP is an enterprise that provides access to the internet,
website building and hosting services etc. Whether the some activities on internet like Iile
swapping or uploading, mirroring, scanning, browsing, caching, downloading really inIringe
the copyright oI the owner subsist in the work? All these activities can inIringe the author`s
copyrightable work by
Transmission oI inIormation Irom one computer to another
An authorized storage oI inIormation etc.
2

In US the Digital Millennium Copyright Act 1998 (DMCA) deIines service provider in two
ways under Section 512(k) (1).
3

Present deIinition exhibits an inIerence that the DMCA has aptly made the distinction
between the access service provider and intermediary.
In Indian Law the word intermediary has been used Under Section 79 in the InIormation
Technology Act 2000 (hereinaIter reIerred as IT Act 2000) and deIined Under Section 2(w).
4


1
Niva Elkin-Koren, MAKING TECHNOLOGY VISIBLE: LIABILITY OF INTERNET SERVICE
P ROVIDERS FOR PEER-TO-PEER TRAFFIC,
http://www.google.co.in/url?sa÷t&source÷web&cd÷7&ved÷0CEUQFjAG&url÷http°3A°2F°2Fw
ww.law.nyu.edu°2Fecm¸dlv3°2Fgroups°2Fpublic°2F°40nyu¸law¸website¸¸journals¸¸journal¸
oI¸legislation¸and¸public¸policy°2Fdocuments°2Fdocuments°2Fecm¸pro¸060720.pdI&rct÷j&q÷
pamela°20samuelson°20on°20ISP°20liability°20Ior°20copyright°20inIringement&ei÷CnikTc-
jNZC4vQPv24mFCg&usg÷AFQjCNEErr8Im0pLG7D63IzPR¸UHIt7KkA&sig2÷4n3lXuUEH7Qp5N
szb4DLBQ&cad÷rja
2
Sharma vakul ºlnformaLlon 1echnology Law and ÞracLlce" unlversal Law Þubllshlng CoŦ
3
(A) As used ln subsecLlon (a)ţ Lhe Lerm ºservlce provlder" means an enLlLy offerlng Lransmlsslonţ rouLlng or
provldlng of connecLlons for dlglLal onllne communlcaLlonsţ beLween or among polnLs speclfled by a userţ of
Lhe maLerlal of user's cholceţ wlLhouL modlflcaLlon Lo Lhe conLenL of maLerlal as senL or recelved
(8) As used ln Lhls secLlonţ oLher Lhan subsecLlon (a)ţ Lhe Lerm ºservlce provlder" means a provlder of onllne
servlces or neLwork accessţ or Lhe operaLor of faclllLles Lhereforeţ and lncludes an enLlLy descrlbed ln
subparagraph (A)Ŧ
From the deIinitions it is cleared that ISP only provides a platIorm to communicate through
the service to access the internet. It acts as a mediator or intermediary between the originator
and addressee. Exchanging the inIormation in the digital world sometimes includes the
violation oI copyright. When an individual copies the copyrighted work held in electronic
Iormat without the permission oI the copyright owner it results in the copyright
inIringement.
5

Then the issue arises here that whether the ISP`s are held liable Ior the copyright
inIringement merely providing the platIorm to the inIringer Ior copyright inIringement and
why are the ISP`s sued Ior the copyright inIringement? The answer oI this question can be
It is easy to trace an ISP.
An ISP, being a business entity, has deep pocket.
It prevents other subscribers/users oI the ISP Irom indulging in inIringing
activities.
Suing the ISP`s will involves or gives rise to Iurther issues like that iI ISP`s plays only
passive role in digital world then what are the criteria Ior determining the ISP's liability and
how we can Iix the liability on them.
The present paper broadly seeks to address the Iollowing issues:
What is the Iorm oI ISP liability? Whether they are liable Ior the primary
liability or secondary?

What are the requirements to determine the ISP`s liability? Whether the
intention or knowledge has any role Ior the determination oI ISP`s liability?

What are the changes brought by the DMCA? Whether the DMCA is
successIul to limit the liability oI the ISP`s?
To address the Iollowing issues the researcher proceeds on the hypothesis that the ISP cannot
be held liable Ior the direct inIringement or Ior the direct liability unless ISP itselI uploaded

4
1he lnformaLlon 1echnology AcLţ 2000ţ 8are AcLţ unlversal Law Þubllshlng CoŦ ÞvLŦ LLdŦ lL deflnes as
ºlnLermedlary"ţ wlLh respecL Lo any parLlcular elecLronlc recordsţ means any person who on behalf of anoLher
person recelvesţ sLores or LransmlLs LhaL record or provldes any servlce wlLh respecL Lo LhaL record and
lncludes Lelecom servlce provldersţ neLwork servlce provldersţ lnLerneL servlce provldersţ web hosLlng servlce
provldersţ search englnesţ onllne paymenL slLesţ onllneŴaucLlon slLesţ onllneŴmarkeL places and cyber cafesŦ
5
Sony CorpŦ of Amerlca vŦ unlversal ClLy SLudlosţ lnc 464 uS 417
the inIringing material. ISP can only be held liable Ior the Secondary liability because it is
storing and transmitting the inIringing material on behalI oI customer.

ŵ NATURE AND SCUPE UF LIABILITY

There are two basic theories oI the ISP liability Ior the copyright inIringement. These
are as Iollowing:

Ŷŵ Primary Liability
The ISP cannot be held liable Ior the direct copyright inIringement unless ISP itselI
uploaded the inIringing material on the website. Now a day`s direct inIringement is no
more an issue because in most oI the cases court held that ISP cannot be held directly
liable Ior the inIringing acts oI the user unless the ISP directly involve in the
inIringing activity.
6
BeIore this case in an important case
7
where the deIendant was an
operator oI a computer bulletin board service that, unknown to the deIendant,
distributed unauthorized copies oI Playboy Enterprises, Inc`s (PEI) Copyrighted
photograph. For a nominal Iee, anyone with an appropriately equipped computer
could log onto the BBS, look at the pictures, download the high quality computerized
copies oI the photographs, and then store the images into their home computer.
Among the many pictures stored on Frena`s BBS were one hundred and seventy that
were copies oI Playboy`s copyrighted photographs. Frena admitted that the materials
were displayed on the BBS and that he never received consent Irom Playboy.
However, Frena argued that he did not personally upload any oI the inIringing
pictures onto the BBS (his subscribers had uploaded the images) and that he removed
the inIringing pictures as soon he was made aware oI the matter, the court Iound that
the deIendant directly inIringed Playboy's copyright.
Regarding the intention and knowledge court held that Intent to inIringe is not needed
to Iind copyright inIringement. Intent or knowledge is not an element oI inIringement,
and thus even an innocent inIringer is liable Ior inIringement; rather, innocence is
signiIicant to a trial court when it Iixes statutory damages, which is a remedy
equitable in natureŦ

6
k1c vŦ Netcom (907 lŦ SuppŦ aL 1361 nŦuŦ CalŦ 1993) where courL refuses Lo hold lSÞ Lhe dlrecLly llable for Lhe
lnfrlnglng acLlvlLy of cllenLŦ
7
lloyboy íotetptlsesţ locŦ vŦ lteoo ţ 839 lŦ SuppŦ 1332 (MŦuŦ llaţ 1993)
In my opinion in this case the court erred in deciding the liability oI the ISP. As per
the Iacts it reIlects that prima Iacie that the ISP did not itselI uploaded the inIringing
material in to the BBS and aIter receiving the inIormation about the inIringing
material he removes that material Irom the BBS. In that situation ISP cannot be held
liable Ior the direct inIringement.
ŶŵŶ SECUNDARY LIABILITY

The real controversy is deciding the secondary liability issue. It involves the
contributory and vicarious liability concept. Let us discuss all these concepts in details
through the case laws.
SONY CORP. V. UNIVERSAL CITY STUDIOS
8

In the present case petitioner Sony Corp. manuIactures home videotape recorders
(VTR's), and markets them through retail establishments. The special Ieature oI these
Betamax VTR`s was inbuilt television tuner which enables its users to record
television broadcast. Respondents own the copyrights on some oI the television
programs that are broadcast on the public airwaves. Respondents brought an action
against petitioners in Federal District Court, alleging that VTR consumers had been
recording some oI respondents' copyrighted works that had been exhibited on
commercially sponsored television, and thereby inIringed respondents' copyrights.
The apex court aIIirmed the District Court's Iindings. Those Iindings are:
(1) That there is a signiIicant likelihood that substantial numbers oI copyright holders
who license their works Ior broadcast on Iree television would not object to having
their broadcast time-shiIted by private viewers (i.e., recorded at a time when the VTR
owner cannot view the broadcast so that it can be watched at a later time)
(2) That there is no likelihood that time-shiIting would cause nominal harm to the
potential market Ior, or the value oI, respondents' copyrighted works. The VTR's are
thereIore capable oI 8ub8tantial non infringing u808. Private, noncommercial time-
shiIting in the home satisIies this standard oI non inIringing uses both because
respondents have no right to prevent other copyright holders Irom authorizing such
time-shiIting Ior their programs, and because the District Court's Iindings reveal that
even the unauthorized home time-shiIting oI respondents' programs is legitimate Iair
use.
9


8
464 uŦ SŦ 417 (1984)
9
lJŦ ÞpŦ 442Ŵ436
The District court Draw the analogy Irom the staple articles oI commerce oI patent
law.
10
Thus on this basis the court concluded that that the home videotape recorder
was capable oI substantial non inIringing uses thus the manuIacturers sale oI such
equipment to general public did not constitute contributory inIringement oI
respondents copyright.
In my opinion in this case the court rightly made the analogy oI '8ub8tantial non
infringing u80¨ oI any product.
A & M R0cord8 Inc. v. Nap8t0r Inc
11

The brieI Iacts oI the case were that, Napster was a programmed which Iacilitates
upload and download oI MP3 Iiles by its users and allowed its users to exchange the
music Iiles through P2P networks. The plaintiII group oI copyright owners sued
Napster alleging that Napster was liable Ior contributory inIringement along with
other allegations oI vicarious inIringement.
The court said that ...Napster is liable Ior contributory copyright inIringement.
Traditionally, "one who, with knowledge oI the inIringing activity, induces, causes or

10
1he courL sald LhaL ƍSelllng a sLaple arLlcle of commerce eŦqŦţ a LypewrlLerţ a recorderţ a cameraţ a
phoLocopylng machlne Lechnlcally conLrlbuLes Lo any lnfrlnglng use subsequenLly made Lhereofţ buL Lhls klnd
of ƌconLrlbuLlonţƌ lf deemed sufflclenL as a basls for llablllLyţ would expand Lhe Lheory beyond precedenL and
arguably beyond [udlclal managemenLŦ"
ºCommerce would lndeed be hampered lf manufacLurers of sLaple lLems were held llable as conLrlbuLory
lnfrlngers whenever Lhey ƌconsLrucLlvelyƌ knew LhaL some purchasers on some occaslons would use Lhelr
producL for a purpose whlch a courL laLer deemedţ as a maLLer of flrsL lmpresslonţ Lo be an lnfrlngemenLŦƍ 1he
ulsLrlcL CourL concluded LhaL noncommerclal home use recordlng of maLerlal broadcasL over Lhe publlc
alrwaves was a falr use of copyrlghLed works and dld noL consLlLuLe copyrlghL lnfrlngemenLŦ lL emphaslzed Lhe
facL LhaL Lhe maLerlal was broadcasL free Lo Lhe publlc aL largeţ Lhe noncommerclal characLer of Lhe useţ and
Lhe prlvaLe characLer of Lhe acLlvlLy conducLed enLlrely wlLhln Lhe homeŦ Moreoverţ Lhe courL found LhaL Lhe
purpose of Lhls use served Lhe publlc lnLeresL ln lncreaslng access Lo Lelevlslon programmlngţ an lnLeresL LhaL
ƍls conslsLenL wlLh Lhe llrsL AmendmenL pollcy of provldlng Lhe fullesL posslble access Lo lnformaLlon Lhrough
Lhe publlc alrwavesŦ
1he dlsLrlcL courL also held LhaL ŧŦLhls case does noL fall ln Lhe caLegory of Lhose ln whlch lL ls manlfesLly [usL Lo
lmpose vlcarlous llablllLy because Lhe ƍconLrlbuLoryƍ lnfrlnger was ln a poslLlon Lo conLrol Lhe use of
copyrlghLed works by oLhers and had auLhorlzed Lhe use wlLhouL permlsslon from Lhe copyrlghL ownerŦ Pereţ
Lhe only conLacL beLween peLlLloners and Lhe users of Lhe v18ƌs occurred aL Lhe momenL of saleŦ And Lhere ls
no precedenL for lmposlng vlcarlous llablllLy on Lhe Lheory LhaL peLlLloners sold Lhe v18ƌs wlLh consLrucLlve
knowledge LhaL Lhelr cusLomers mlghL use Lhe equlpmenL Lo make unauLhorlzed coples of copyrlghLed
maLerlalŦ 1he sale of copylng equlpmenLţ llke Lhe sale of oLher arLlcles of commerceţ does noL consLlLuLe
conLrlbuLory lnfrlngemenL lf Lhe producL ls wldely used for leglLlmaLeţ unob[ecLlonable purposesţ orţ lndeedţ ls
merely capable of subsLanLlal non lnfrlnglng usesŦ
11
239 lŦ3d 1004 (9
Lh
ClrŦ 2001)Ŧ
materially contributes to the inIringing conduct oI another, may be held liable as a
'contributory' inIringer`.
12

On the Iacts the court concluded that it is apparent Irom the record that Napster has
knowledge, both actual and constructive, oI direct inIringement. The court also held
that Napster had materially contributed to inIringement as it had provided that site and
Iacilities Ior inIringement by maintaining an indexed central server and giving
technical support to its users. On the basis oI this the court held Napster liable Ior
contributory inIringement.
In my opinion in case the court can also hold the Napster directly liable Ior the
copyright inIringement because here Napster is maintaining the indexed central server
and giving technical support to its users.
In r0 Aim8t0r Copyright Litigation
13

The Iacts oI the present case are almost similar to Napster case, in this case owners oI
copyrighted popular music Iiled a number oI closely related suits. Copyright owners
oI popular music Iiled suit against owners and operators oI Aimster system Ior
vicarious and contributory inIringement.
The court held that Ior a product which was capable oI both inIringing and non
inIringing use uses, it would be necessary to examine the magnitude oI both, in order
to determine whether the product had substantial non inIringing use. The court justiIy
its stance by stating that every product is capable in some way oI non inIringing use,
and iI this view were not taken then the Sony doctrine would be taken to an extreme.
Accordingly the court held that in the particular case the substantial use was not
shown so the Sony doctrine would not apply. The Aimster had both actual and
constructive knowledge oI the inIringing activities and Aimster contributes to the
inIringement by providing soItware, tutorial explaining to share copyrighted music
and support services to use its system. The court also held that the Aimster 'wilful
blindn088¨ oI inIringement could be deemed to be knowledge, iI there is no evidence
that it had knowledge oI speciIic instances oI inIringement.
14

In this case also the court can also hold the Aimster liable Ior direct inIringement by
providing the soItware, tutorial explaining to share copyrighted music and support
services to use its system.

12
lJŦ Þara 32
13
334 lŦ3d 643 (7
Lh
ClrŦ2003)Ŧ
14
lJ aL 630
MGM Studio8 Inc. v. Grok8t0r Ltd
15

In the present case deIendants, Grokster & Streamcast were companies that use two
diIIerent peer-to-peer Iile distribution systems: Fast Track and Gnutella. The
deIendants distributed Iree soItware which enabled its users to share electronics Iiles
through P2P network. The users oI P2P network were involved in downloading
copyrighted material through the network. These systems were not similar to Napster
as they did not use a central indexing server. The petitioner MGM Iiled a suit against
deIendants alleging that P2P soItware distributed by respondents were used to transIer
the Iiles which they held the copyright. The Ninth Circuit held that Grokster was not
liable Ior contributory inIringement because it lacked suIIicient knowledge oI the
inIringement and it did not materially contribute to the copyright inIringement. Court
applies the Sony doctrine.
16

The decision oI Ninth Circuit was applied to the Supreme Court and the court gave a
unanimous verdict against the deIendants. The court held that the deIendants were
liable on the basis oI the 'Induc0m0nt th0ory¨ oI contributory copyright liability. As
per the theory one who distributes a device with the object oI promoting its use to
inIringe copyright, as shown by clear expression or other aIIirmative steps taken to
Ioster inIringement, is liable Ior the resulting acts oI inIringement by third party. The

13
123 SŦ CLŦ 2764 (2003)Ŧ
16
lJŦ Accordlng Lo Lhe courLţ Lhe peerŴLoŴpeer flleŴsharlng sofLware dlsLrlbuLed by CroksLer was capable of
subsLanLlal non lnfrlnglng usesŦ 8ased on Lhls flndlngţ Lhe courL held LhaL CroksLer could noL be found llable for
mere consLrucLlve knowledgeţ buL musL have had reasonable knowledge of speclflc lnfrlngemenL aL Lhe Llme lL
conLrlbuLed Lo Lhe lnfrlngemenLŦ Such knowledge was lmposslble ln Lhls case due Lo Lhe sLrucLure of Lhe
neLwork creaLed by Lhe CroksLer sofLwareŦ unllke prevlous flleŴsharlng neLworksţ CroksLer dld noL malnLaln a
searchable lndex on a cenLrallzed serverŦ lnsLeadţ lndexes were malnLalned on Lhe compuLers of lndlvldual
usersţ whlch prevenLed CroksLer from learnlng of any lnfrlngemenL unLll afLer lL had occurredŦ 1he neLwork
deslgn also prevenLed CroksLer from maLerlally conLrlbuLlng Lo any copyrlghL lnfrlngemenL because CroksLer
dld noL provlde Lhe slLe or faclllLles for lnfrlngemenLŦ 1he nlnLh ClrculL also held LhaL CroksLer was noL llable
for vlcarlous copyrlghL lnfrlngemenLŦ Accordlng Lo Lhe courLţ CroksLer lacked Lhe rlghL and ablllLy Lo supervlse
Lhe dlrecL lnfrlngersŦ 1he peerŴLoŴpeer flleŴsharlng sofLware dld noL allow CroksLer Lo block access Lo lnfrlnglng
users and dld noL provlde CroksLer wlLh any opporLunlLy Lo fllLer conLenLŦ Whlle MCM argued LhaL CroksLer
could alLer Lhe flleŴsharlng sofLware Lo conLrol user accessţ Lhe courL noLed Lhls was noL a vlable opLlon
because Lhe sofLware reslded on Lhe compuLers of Lhe users and noL on a cenLrallzed server.
court cited three reasons to hold company liable.
17
So accordingly court holds the
deIendant liable Ior the copyright inIringement.
Here in this case deIendant had actual knowledge that his soItware can be used in the
copyright inIringement also by the promotion oI the device. So the courts analogy is
right in this case.
L0gal Po8ition IN US & INDIA
US -Digital Mill0nnium Copyright Act 1998
Section 512, as added by the DMCA, give immunity to the ISPs Irom liability Ior
monetary damages and limits the availability oI injunctive relieI. The DMCA
immunity covers Iour strictly deIined categories: 'transitory digital network
communications,¨

18

'system caching,¨
19
'
hosting and storage,¨
20

and 'inIormation
location tools¨.
21

The saIe harbor regime introduced several mechanisms Ior enIorcing copyright. First,
there is the notice and take-down procedure, which requires ISPs to remove
inIringing materials residing on their systems upon notice Irom the copyright owner,
or to block access to sites where the inIringing material resides on an online
location outside the United States.
22
A second enIorcement mechanism requires ISPs
to terminate the accounts oI repeat inIringers.
23
And also ISP does not receive a
Iinancial directly attributable to the inIringing activity, in a case in which the service
provider has the right and ability to control such activity beneIit.
24

Indian Po8ition
Copyright Act, 1957

17
lJ aL 2781 !usLlce SouLer noLed LhaL Lhree aspecLs of Lhe evldence ln Lhe Lrlal record demonsLraLed LhaL Lhe
respondenLs lnduced Lhe lnfrlngemenL of copyrlghLs and acLed wlLh an unlawful ob[ecLlveť (1) markeLlng Lhe
llllclL use of Lhelr programsŤ (2) falllng Lo aLŴ LempL Lo curb Lhe lllegal use of Lhe producLsŤ and (3) maklng a
proflL as a resulL of Lhe lllegal acLlvlLles by users of Lhe proŴ gramsŦ
18
SecLlon 512(a)
19
SecLlon 512(b)
20
SecLlon 512(c)
21
SecLlon 512(d)
22
SecLlon 512(j)(1)(B)
23
SecLlon 512(i)(1), See also Article by ProI. Niva Elkin-Koren on MAklnC 1LCPnCLCC? vlSl8LLť
LlA8lLl1? Cl ln1L8nL1 SL8vlCL Þ8CvluL8S lC8 ÞLL8Ŵ1CŴÞLL8 18AlllCŦ

24
SecLlon 312(c)
The Copyright Act 1957 does not provide any express provisions Ior ISP liability Ior
copyright inIringement by third party. But the Section 51(a)(ii) is wide enough to
include the ISP liability under its ambit.
25
Because this section uses the world 'any
plac0¨ which includes the internet and also Ior holding the ISP liable under this
section the when ISP p0rmit8 for profit i.e. the ISP must getting the beneIit out oI
those inIringing activities and have knowl0dg0 that the communication to the public
would be inIringement oI copyright.
Section 63 oI the Act holds criminally liable to any person who knowingly inIringes
or abets the inIringement oI copyrighted material.
26

InIormation Technology Act 2000
In this Act the word intermediary has been used Under Section 79 in the InIormation
Technology Act 2000 (hereinaIter reIerred as IT Act 2000) and deIined Under Section
2(w).
27

Section 79 oI the InIormation Technology Act 2000
28
speciIically deals with the
liability oI ISPs and provides Ior certain circumstances under which the ISP cannot be

25
Sec 31(a) (ll)ţ CopyrlghL AcLţ1937ťŴ
ºCopyrlghL ln a work shall be deemed Lo be lnfrlngedţ when any personţ wlLhouL a llcense granLed by Lhe
owner of Lhe CopyrlghL or Lhe 8eglsLrar of CopyrlghLs under Lhls AcL or ln conLravenLlon of Lhe condlLlons of a
llcense so granLed or of any condlLlon lmposed by a compeLenL auLhorlLy under Lhls AcL Ŵ permlLs for proflL any
place Lo be used for Lhe communlcaLlon of Lhe work Lo Lhe publlc where such communlcaLlon consLlLuLes an
lnfrlngemenL of Lhe copyrlghL ln Lhe workţ unless he was noL aware and had no reasonable ground for
bellevlng LhaL such communlcaLlon Lo Lhe publlc would be an lnfrlngemenL of copyrlghLŦ"

26
SecLlon 63 Cffence of lnfrlngemenL of copyrlghL or oLher rlghLs conferred by Lhls AcL

Any person who knowlngly lnfrlnges or abeLs Lhe lnfrlngemenL ofŴ

(a) Lhe copyrlghL ln a workţ or

(b) any oLher rlghL conferred by Lhls AcLţ excepL Lhe rlghL conferred by secLlon 33A

shall be punlshable wlLh lmprlsonmenL for a Lerm whlch shall noL be less Lhan slx monLhs buL whlch may
exLend Lo Lhree years and wlLh flne whlch shall noL be less Lhan flfLy Lhousand rupees buL whlch may exLend Lo
Lwo lakh rupees ť
Þrovlded LhaL where Lhe lnfrlngemenL has noL been made for galn ln Lhe course of Lrade or buslnessŽ Lhe courL
mayţ for adequaLe and speclal reasons Lo be menLloned ln Lhe [udgmenLţ lmpose a senLence of lmprlsonmenL
for a Lerm of less Lhan slx monLhs or a flne of less Lhan flfLy Lhousand rupeesŦ

íxploootlooŦŴConsLrucLlon of a bulldlng or oLher sLrucLure whlch lnfrlnges or whlchţ lf compleLedţ would
lnfrlnge Lhe copyrlghL ln some oLher work shall noL be an offence under Lhls secLlonŦ
27
5opto 3
28
Sec79Ŧ LxempLlon of llablllLy of lnLermedlary ln cerLaln casesŴ

held liable. For avoiding the liability under this section the ISP must not have the
knowledge and it has observes the due diligence while discharging the duty. The
word due diligence has not been deIined by the Act.
However the government prepared the InIormation Technology (Due diligence
observed by Intermediaries Guidelines) (DraIt) Rules, 2011 where the government
made an attempt to deIine the due diligence.
29


(1) noLwlLhsLandlng anyLhlng conLalned ln any law for Lhe Llme belng ln force buL sub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons
of subŴsecLlons (2) and (3)ţ an lnLermedlary shall noL be llable for any Lhlrd parLy lnformaLlonţ daLaţ or
communlcaLlon llnk made avallable or hasLed by hlmŦ

(2) 1he provlslons of subŴsecLlon (1) shall apply lfŸ

(a) Lhe funcLlon of Lhe lnLermedlary ls llmlLed Lo provldlng access Lo a communlcaLlon sysLem over whlch
lnformaLlon made avallable by Lhlrd parLles ls LransmlLLed or Lemporarlly sLored or hasLedŤ or

(b) Lhe lnLermedlary does
noLŸ (l) lnlLlaLe Lhe
Lransmlsslonţ
(ll) selecL Lhe recelver of Lhe Lransmlsslonţ and
(lll) selecL or modlfy Lhe lnformaLlon conLalned ln Lhe LransmlsslonŤ

(c) Lhe lnLermedlary observes due dlllgence whlle dlscharglng hls duLles under Lhls AcL and also observes
such oLher guldellnes as Lhe CenLral CovernmenL may prescrlbe ln Lhls behalfŦ

(3) 1he provlslons of subŴsecLlon (1) shall noL apply lfŸ

(a) Lhe lnLermedlary has consplred or abeLLed or alded or lnducedţ wheLher by LhreaLs or promlse or
auLhorlze ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe unlawful acLŤ
(b) upon recelvlng acLual knowledgeţ or on belng noLlfled by Lhe approprlaLe CovernmenL or lLs agency
LhaL any lnformaLlonţ daLa or communlcaLlon llnk resldlng ln or connecLed Lo a compuLer resource
conLrolled by Lhe lnLermedlary ls belng used Lo commlL Lhe unlawful acLţ Lhe lnLermedlary falls Lo
expedlLlously remove or dlsable access Lo LhaL maLerlal on LhaL resource wlLhouL vlLlaLlng Lhe evldence ln
any mannerŦ
LxplanaLlonŦŸlor Lhe purposes of Lhls secLlonţ Lhe expresslon ºLhlrd parLy lnformaLlon" means any
lnformaLlon dealL wlLh by an lnLermedlary ln hls capaclLy as an lnLermedlaryŦ
29
uue ulllgence observed by lnLermedlaryŦŸ 1he lnLermedlary shall observe followlng due dlllgence whlle
dlscharglng lLs duLlesŦŴ

(1) 1he lnLermedlary shall publlsh Lhe Lerms and condlLlons of use of lLs webslLeţ user
agreemenLţ prlvacy pollcy eLcŦ
(2) 1he lnLermedlary shall noLlfy users of compuLer resource noL Lo useţ dlsplayţ uploadţ modlfyţ
publlshţ LransmlLţ updaLeţ share or sLore any lnformaLlon LhaL ť Ÿ
(a) belongs Lo anoLher personŤ

(b) ls harmfulţ LhreaLenlngţ abuslveţ harasslngţ blasphemousţ ob[ecLlonableţ defamaLoryţ vulgarţ
obsceneţ pornographlcţ paedophlllcţ llbellousţ lnvaslve of anoLherƌs prlvacyţ haLefulţ or
raclallyţ eLhnlcally or oLherwlse ob[ecLlonableţ dlsparaglngţ relaLlng or encouraglng money
launderlng or gambllngţ or oLherwlse unlawful ln any manner whaLever

4Ŧ 1he lnLermedlary shall noL lLself hosL or publlsh or edlL or sLore any lnformaLlon or shall noL lnlLlaLe
Lhe Lransmlsslonţ selecL Lhe recelver of Lransmlsslonţ and selecL or modlfy Lhe lnformaLlon conLalned
Conclu8ion & Sugg08tion8
The internet has successIully revolutionize the entire copyright law and principles
holding the ISPs liable Ior the copyright inIringement. It made us to think in new
dimension, that whether to apply the traditional thinking i.e. traditional law to hold the
ISP liable r to develop the new analogy. It is very important to develop a new law Ior
the uninterrupted service oI internet and to remove the Iear oI unknown liability Irom
the mind oI ISP because it may aIIect the growth oI internet.
II we compare the US laws they are more speciIic than India Ior determining the ISP
liability Ior the copyright inIringement. AIter the amendment in IT Act 2000 India
also successIully made an attempt to limit the liability oI ISP`s and now India also
have the quite similar laws as US and also provides Ior notice and take down regime¨
In this technological issue courts will have play the substantial role in the
development oI this law and to interpret accordingly. While deciding the case the
courts need to keep in its mind the interests oI ISPS and copyright authors. Courts
must balance the interest oI both the parties as in one hand there should not any Iear in
mind oI ISP`s regarding the secondary liability but also economic interest oI copyright
owner should not be ignored and also the courts have to play an important role while
interpreting the law because we cannot made new law every time because the
technology changes every day.


ln Lhe Lransmlsslon as speclfled ln subŴrule (2)Ŧ

3Ŧ 1he lnLermedlary upon obLalnlng acLual knowledge by lLself or been broughL Lo acLual knowledge by
an auLhorlLy mandaLed under Lhe law for Lhe Llme belng ln force ln wrlLlng or Lhrough emall slgned
wlLh elecLronlc slgnaLure abouL any such lnformaLlon as menLloned ln subŴrule (2) aboveţ shall acL
expedlLlously Lo work wlLh user or owner of such lnformaLlon Lo remove access Lo such lnformaLlon
LhaL ls clalmed Lo be lnfrlnglng or Lo be Lhe sub[ecL of lnfrlnglng acLlvlLyŦ lurLher Lhe lnLermedlary shall
lnform Lhe pollce abouL such lnformaLlon and preserve Lhe records for 90 daysŦ

6Ŧ 1he lnLermedlary shall lnform lLs users LhaL ln case of nonŴcompllance wlLh Lerms of use of Lhe
servlces and prlvacy pollcy provlded by Lhe lnLermedlaryţ Lhe lnLermedlary has Lhe rlghL Lo
lmmedlaLely LermlnaLe Lhe access rlghLs of Lhe users Lo Lhe slLe of lnLermedlaryŦ

7Ŧ 1he lnLermedlary shall follow provlslons of Lhe AcL or any oLher laws for Lhe Llme belng ln forceŦ
11Ŧ 1he lnLermedlary shall Lake all measures Lo secure lLs compuLer resource and lnLegrlLy of lnformaLlon
recelvedţ sLoredţ LransmlLLed or hosLed shall be ensured
http://www.mit.gov.in/sites/upload¸Iiles/dit/Iiles/due¸dilligance4intermediary07¸02¸11.p
dI






Annotat0d Bibliography
Book8 R0f0rr0d
Melville B. Nimmer, David Nimmer On 'Nimmer On Copyright¨ Lexis Publication -
The researcher has taken a brieI idea Irom the book about the ISP`s liability Ior
copyright InIringement and saIe harbor provisions.
Raymond T. Nimmer On 'InIormation Law¨, West Group - Irom this book the
researcher has taken the various aspects & practices oI internet.
Sharma Vakul 'InIormation Technology Law and Practice¨ Universal Law Publishing
Co. Irom the chapter 34 oI this book the researcher has taken the ideas about the
copyright issues in the Digital Medium
Cornish W & Llewellyn D, 'I.P: Patents, Copyright, Trademarks & Allied Rights¨,
Sweet & Maxwell Publishers, 6
th
ed., London, 2007.- The researcher has taken a brieI
idea Irom the book about what P2P soItware`s and various aspects & practices oI
internet.
Articl08
Striking a balance between Liability oI ISPs and Protection oI Copyright over the
Internet`, by Priyambada Mishra and Angsuman Dutta, Journal oI Intellectual
Property Rights, vol. 14, 2009 (pp 321-329). - This article basically talks about the
evolution oI Internet and how it shakes the basis oI copyright law and insisted on the
striking a balance between liabilities oI ISP`s and interest oI copyright owners.
Peer-to-Peer File Sharing and Secondary Liability in Copyright Law Edited by Alain
Strowel Published by Edward Elgar Publishing Limited The Lypiatts 15 Lansdown
Road Cheltenham Glos GL50 2JA UK This article basically Iocus on the various
aspects oI contributory liability with the help oI interpretation by court in various
cases and research has taken reIerence as to elements oI contributory liability and
their interpretation by courts.
From the Cluetrain to the Panopticon: ISP Activity Characterization and Control oI
Internet Communications by Eric Evans Michigan Telecommunications and
Technology Law Review |Vol. 10:445| This article gives the idea about pre
DMCA and post DMCA statutory saIe harbor Ior ISP`s.
ases
#% v. Netcom (907 F. Supp. at 1361), -In the present case court reIused to hold an
ISP directly liable Ior direct liability oI the ISP Ior copyright inIringement.
!layboy Enterprises, Inc. v. Frena , 839 F. Supp. 1552 (M.D. Fla, 1993)- in this case
the court hold ISP directly liable and also said that intention and knowledge had no
role Ior deciding the liability.
Sony orp. J. Universal ity Studios (464 U. S. 417 (1984)- In the present case
court relied on a patent law doctrine i.e. doctrine oI staple article oI commerce` and
on the basis oI doctrine held that where a product is capable oI both inIringing and
non-inIringing uses there should be actual knowledge oI inIringement otherwise no
liability.
& M #ecords, Inc. v. Napster, Inc 239 F.3d 1004 (9
th
Cir. 2001).- In the present
case court reIused to grant the Sony deIense because oI diIIerence in technology and
relation Irom Sony and the substantial participation oI deIendant.
In re. imster opyright Litigation 334 F.3d 643 (7
th
Cir.2003).- In the present case
court held that uses oI a product is important and wilIul blindness could deemed to be
knowledge.
MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster Ltd 125 S.Ct. 2764 (2005).- In the present case court
added Iurther substance to principles oI secondary liability and propounded
inducement theory`. Under inducement theory intent` is very signiIicant.
Mi8c0llan0ou8 Sourc08
Reading Material on International and Comparative law oI Intellectual Property
Rights.

0b R08ourc08
www.j8tor.org
www.int0rnational.w08tlaw.com












Ann0ur0
DraIt Rules - Due diligence observed by intermediaries guidelines




To b0 publi8h0d in THE GAZETTE OF INDIA EXTRAORDINARY Part II
S0ction 3 Sub-80ction (i) of dat0d th0 ---------- 2011]


Gov0rnm0nt of India

MINISTRY OF COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

(D0partm0nt of Information T0chnology)


NOTIFICATION


N0w D0lhi th0 ------------ 2011


G.S.R. ... (E).÷ In exercise oI the powers conIerred by clause (zg) oI sub-section
(2) oI section 87, read with sub-section (2) oI section 79 oI the InIormation Technology Act,
2000 (21 oI 2000), the Central Government hereby makes the Iollowing rules, namely: ÷

1. Short titl0 and comm0nc0m0nt.÷ (1) These rules may be called the InIormation

Technology (Due diligence observed by intermediaries guidelines) Rules, 2011.

(2) They shall come into Iorce on the date oI their publication in the OIIicial Gazette.

2. D0finition8.÷ In these rules, unless the context otherwise requires,--

(a) 'Act¨ means the InIormation Technology Act, 2000 (21 oI 2000);

(b) 'Blog¨ means a type oI website, usually maintained by an individual with regular
entries oI commentary, descriptions oI events, or other material such as graphics or
video. Usually blog is a shared on-line journal where users can post diary entries
about their personal experiences and hobbies;

(c) 'Blogger¨ means a person who keeps and updates a blog;

(d) 'Computer resource¨ means computer resource as deIined in clause (k) oI sub-
section (1) oI section 2 oI the Act;

(e) 'Cyber security incident¨ means any real or suspected adverse event in relation to
cyber security that violates an explicitly or implicitly applicable security policy
resulting in unauthorised access, denial oI service or disruption, unauthorized use oI
a computer resource Ior processing or storage oI inIormation or changes to data,
inIormation without authorisation;

(I) 'Data¨ means data as deIined in clause (o) oI sub-section (1) oI section 2 oI the Act;

(g) "Electronic Signature" means electronic signature as deIined in clause (ta) oI sub-
section (1) oI section 2 oI the Act;
Page 1 oI
4
DraIt Rules - Due diligence observed by intermediaries guidelines


(h) 'Indian Computer Emergency Response Team¨ means the Indian Computer
Emergency Response Team appointed under sub section (1) oI section 70(B) oI the
Act;

(i) 'InIormation¨ means inIormation as deIined in clause (v) oI sub-section (1) oI
section 2 oI the Act;
(j) 'Intermediary¨ means an intermediary as deIined in clause (w) oI sub-section

(1)oI section 2 oI the Act;

(k) 'User¨ means any person including blogger who uses any computer resource Ior the
purpose oI sharing inIormation, views or otherwise and includes other persons
jointly participating in using the computer resource oI intermediary.



3. Du0 Dilig0nc0 ob80rv0d by int0rm0diary.- The intermediary shall observe Iollowing
due diligence while discharging its duties.-

(1) The intermediary shall publish the terms and conditions oI use oI its website, user
agreement, privacy policy etc..

(2) The intermediary shall notiIy users oI computer resource not to use, display,
upload, modiIy, publish, transmit, update, share or store any inIormation that :
(a) belongs to another person;

(b)is harmIul, threatening, abusive, harassing, blasphemous,

objectionable, deIamatory, vulgar, obscene, pornographic, paedophilic,
libellous, invasive oI another's privacy, hateIul, or racially, ethnically or
otherwise objectionable, disparaging, relating or encouraging money
laundering or gambling, or otherwise unlawIul in any manner whatever;

(c) harm minors in any way;

(d)inIringes any patent, trademark, copyright or other proprietary rights;

(e) violates any law Ior the time being in Iorce;

(I) discloses sensitive personal inIormation oI other person or to which the user
does not have any right to;

(g)causes annoyance or inconvenience or deceives or misleads the addressee
about the origin oI such messages or communicates any inIormation which is
grossly oIIensive or menacing in nature;
(h)impersonate another person;

(i) contains soItware viruses or any other computer code, Iiles or programs
designed to interrupt, destroy or limit the Iunctionality oI any computer
resource;




Page 2 oI
4
DraIt Rules - Due diligence observed by intermediaries guidelines



(j) threatens the unity, integrity, deIence, security or sovereignty oI India,
Iriendly relations with Ioreign states, or or public order or causes incitement to
the commission oI any cognisable oIIence or prevents investigation oI any
oIIence or is insulting any other nation.

(3) The intermediary shall not itselI host or publish or edit or store any inIormation or
shall not initiate the transmission, select the receiver oI transmission, and select or
modiIy the inIormation contained in the transmission as speciIied in sub-rule (2).

(4)The intermediary upon obtaining actual knowledge by itselI or been brought to
actual knowledge by an authority mandated under the law Ior the time being in Iorce in
writing or through email signed with electronic signature about any such inIormation as
mentioned in sub-rule (2) above, shall act expeditiously to work with user or owner oI
such inIormation to remove access to such inIormation that is claimed to be inIringing
or to be the subject oI inIringing activity. Further the intermediary shall inIorm the
police about such inIormation and preserve the records Ior 90 days.

(5) The Intermediary shall inIorm its users that in case oI non-compliance with terms
oI use oI the services and privacy policy provided by the Intermediary, the
Intermediary has the right to immediately terminate the access rights oI the users to the
site oI Intermediary.

(6) The intermediary shall Iollow provisions oI the Act or any other laws Ior the time
being in Iorce.

(7)The intermediary shall not disclose sensitive personal inIormation.

(8) Disclosure oI inIormation by intermediary to any third party shall require prior
permission or consent Irom the provider oI such inIormation, who has provided such
inIormation under lawIul contract or otherwise.

(9) Intermediary shall provide inIormation to government agencies who are lawIully
authorised Ior investigative, protective, cyber security or intelligence activity. The
inIormation shall be provided Ior the purpose oI veriIication oI identity, or Ior
prevention, detection, investigation, prosecution, cyber security incidents and
punishment oI oIIences under any law Ior the time being in Iorce, on a written request
stating clearly the purpose oI seeking such inIormation.

(10) The inIormation collected by the intermediary shall be used Ior the purpose Ior
which it has been collected.

(11) The intermediary shall take all measures to secure its computer resource and
integrity oI inIormation received, stored, transmitted or hosted shall be ensured.


Page 3 oI
4
DraIt Rules - Due diligence observed by intermediaries guidelines



(12) The intermediary shall report cyber security incidents and also share cyber security
incidents related inIormation with the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team.

(13) The intermediary shall not deploy or install or modiIy the technological measures or
become party to any such act which may change or has the potential to change the normal course
oI operation oI the computer resource than what it is supposed to perIorm thereby circumventing
any law Ior the time being in Iorce.

Provided that the intermediary may develop, produce, distribute or employ
technological means Ior the sole purpose oI perIorming the acts oI securing the computer
resource.

(14) The intermediary shall publish on its website the designated agent to receive notiIication oI
claimed inIringements.

.

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