Western Visayas Regional Development Plan 2011-2016

Iloilo City July 2011

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

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Message
I commend the NEDA, Regional Development Councils and all stakeholders in the 17 regions for coming together to formulate your respective Regional Development Plans. May this partnership among regional and local institutions, the private sector, and civil society ensure the continued success of these programs and the distribution of their benefits throughout the country. Along with the Philippine Development Plan, the RDPs will guide our development efforts in the next five years, and will act as a common roadmap for our country’s development and for the establishment of the necessary infrastructure that will help us achieve our goal of increasing economic and social opportunities for our people. Guided by our commitment to the UN Millennium Development Goals, our concerted efforts will not only help accelerate economic growth, but will also give our provinces improved access to quality education, health, and social services. We came to government with a mandate to eradicate poverty and create a better future for our nation. As we carry out key reforms in the bureaucracy, we also strive to set in place an environment of sustainable and equitable progress in the coming years. Together, let us fulfill the potential of our great nation.

BENIGNO S. AQUINO III President, Republic of the Philippines MANILA May 2011

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Message
The Regional Development Plans (RDPs) represent the aspirations of Filipinos in different areas of the country. As accompanying documents of the Philippine Development Plan (PDP) 2011-2016, the RDPs also provide the spatial dimension to the national plan by identifying the regions’ contributions to our goal of a high, sustained and broadbased growth. This “inclusive growth” involves rapid economic expansion that must reach population groups throughout the country through the provision of productive employment opportunities, thereby reducing poverty. The attainment of our goals requires massive investments in infrastructure, social services and other productive activities. The PDP, along with the RDPs are the key instruments that will guide the proper and equitable allocation of resources to ensure improvements in the welfare of our people. Likewise, our plans shall direct our efforts in protecting the environment, reducing climate and disaster risks, promoting good governance and ensuring peace and stability. The RDPs provide the framework for local development. We thus enjoin the local government units to align their local plans and programs with the RDPs. We likewise seek the support of regional institutions and the private institutions in the realization of the plans which many of them have helped prepare. We need to strengthen multistakeholder cooperation particularly as we promote public-private partnership to improve the provision of services for our people. I thank the Regional Development Councils (RDC) for spearheading the preparation of the RDPs and we count on their continued leadership in coordinating development efforts in the regions.

CAYETANO W. PADERANGA, JR. Secretary of Socioeconomic Planning

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Message
The Regional Development Plan (RDP), 2011-2016 is an integral component of the Philippine Development Plan, 20112016. It contains the major policies, outcomes, objectives, strategies, programs, projects and activities that the region will undertake for the next six years. As we put into concrete action and direction the National Development Agenda of President Benigno Simeon Aquino III, as spelled out in his Social Contract with the Filipino people, we will ensure that the principles of sustainable development, gender equality, productivity, protection of human rights and disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation will be upheld. Our vision of the region of being at the forefront of technological development will be the focus of our development efforts. We will pursue at a higher level, the region’s twin development thrusts of agri-industrial and tourism development. We will strive to make our major agriindustrial products to be globally competitive and at par with world standards and our tourism services and facilities will be hallmarks of excellence. As Chairperson of the Regional Development Council (RDC), I would like to express my deep and sincere appreciation to the valuable contribution of the regional planning committees composed of technical representatives of the regional line agencies and the private sector, and to the NEDA Secretariat for providing technical guidance and administrative support. The task of drafting the RDP may be initially daunting, but with their enthusiasm and commitment, the RDP has evolved into a dynamic and responsive development road map of this region for the next six years. We hope that with this Plan, Region VI can now take the next step towards achieving its vision. This can happen only if we muster the commitment of all sectors of the society and get our acts together as we work for the good of Western Visayas.

VICTOR A. TANCO, SR. Governor of Capiz Chairperson, RDC-VI

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Message
Greetings! The private sector group feels privileged working with the government in its development efforts, particularly in the momentous task of formulating the region’s blueprint for development- the Regional Development Plan (RDP) of Western Visayas and the accompanying Regional Development Investment Program (RDIP), for the period 2011 to 2016. These two documents, which are integral components of the Philippine Development Plan, 2011-2016, will serve as our development guide as we work towards a better and progressive Western Visayas. As the government’s development partner, the private sector group will strongly advocate for the implementation of the RDP’s vision, major policies and strategies, and programs and projects for the next six years. In the RDP, we have spelled out the proposed plans of action for Western Visayas. Likewise, we have made sure that our programs, projects and activities are aligned to the National Development Agenda of President Benigno Simeon Aquino III as embodied in his “Social Contract with the Filipino People.” Despite the challenges we are facing, Western Visayas is still better off than the other regions because of our rich resources and dynamic leaders who are development-oriented. Nevertheless, we should stay vigilant so that we may continue to exalt in the fact that “ Western Visayas is home to an empowered and happy people who are protective of their rights, proud of their culture and committed stewards of their heritage and natural resources. “ The RDC VI should undertake to provide a business-friendly environment that facilitates business transactions thereby encouraging more investments in the region. More investments in Region VI will lead to improved economy and eventually redound to social equity. To attain this dream, we will continue to network and establishof better and progressive Western Visayas a reality.

MA. LUISA C. SEGOVIA Trustee, Iloilo Business Club Co-Chairperson, RDC-VI

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Foreword
The Western Visayas Regional Development Plan (RDP), 20112016 was prepared with a conscious effort to involve as many sectors of society as possible. It is a product of extensive multi-agency, multi-sector research and consultations and drawn up with a deliberate effort to link with national and local development goals and targets. Following the issuance of Memorandum Circular No. 3 s. 2010, which mandates the formulation of the new Philippine Development Plan, 2011–2016 and its accompanying investment program under the Aquino Administration, 11 Planning Committees composed of government and non-government organizations were organized to prepare the RDP. To involve a broader participation in the formulation of the Plan, public consultations were held in Iloilo City, Roxas City, Bacolod City and Kalibo, Aklan to generate as much inputs from various stakeholders all over the region. This document has 11 chapters each containing a section on Assessment and Challenges which provides a diagnosis of past performance, current issues and gaps that served as guide for analyzing and identifying development constraints that prevents the region from moving forward more rapidly and achieving desired outcomes. The Plan proceeds with the Strategic Development Framework which details the objectives and measurable targets, development strategies, policy and legislative agenda and priority activities. The completion of the RDP is credited to the valuable contribution and full support of the Regional Planning Committees, the RDC-VI Sector Committees, the officers and members of the Regional Development Council, and participants of the public hearings coming from both government and private sectors. Their ideas and foresight are stamped in every chapter of this Plan. The challenge now is to galvanize the support of all local government units, regional agencies and instrumentalities, the academe, the business groups, non-government organizations, and, most importantly, the people of Western Visayas... to come together and work toward realizing the goals and targets of the Plan, so that the region ultimately succeeds in attaining the vision of its people ... of reaping the profits of a sustained economic growth and enjoying the benefits of equitable development.

RO-ANN A. BACAL, CESO III Regional Director, NEDA-VI Vice Chairperson, RDC-VI

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Table of Contents
Page No. RDC-VI Resolution No. VI-16, series 2011 List of Tables List of Figures Message of His Excellency, President Benigno S. Aquino III Message of the Secretary of Socio-Economic Planning Message of the RDC Chairperson Message of the RDC Co-Chairperson Foreword Chapter I Chapter II Chapter III Chapter IV Chapter V Chapter VI Chapter VII Chapter VIII Chapter IX Chapter X Chapter XI Chapter XII Chapter XIII Chapter XIV Introduction Regional Development Framework Macroeconomy and Poverty Alleviation Competitive Industry and Services Sector Sustainable Agriculture and Fisheries Development Tourism Development Infrastructure Support Human Resource Development Research and Development Thrusts Bio-Fuels and Renewable Energy Development Good Governance and the Rule of Law Peace and Security Environment and Natural Resources Plan Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation v vi vii viii ix 1 5 10 18 29 36 47 64 82 87 93 102 108 114 116 122

List of Acronyms Credits

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

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List of Tables
Table No. 2.1 3.1 3.2 4,1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2 6.1 6.2 7.1 7.2 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 10.1 11.1 11.2 12.1 12.2 Composition, Area and Population Employment Share by Major Industry Group, 2004-2009 (In Percent) Poverty Threshold and Incidence, by Province, 2009 Growth Rates of the Industry and Services Sectors, 2004-2009 (In Percent) Priority Investment Areas List of Industries with Strong Export Potentials, by Province Commodity Performance and Rank Productivity Performance by Agricultural Commodity, 2009 Visitor Arrivals and Tourist Receipts, 2009 Tourism Attractions and Festivals Major Inter-District of Regionwide Proposed Infrastructure Programs and Projects, 2011-2016 Major Proposed Infrastructure Programs and Projects by Congressional District, 2011-2016 Net Enrolment Rates in Elementary and Secondary Education, by Province SY 2004-2005 to SY 2008-2009 Cohort Survival Rates in Elementary and Secondary Education, by Province and City, SY 2004-2005 to 2008-2009 Drop out Rates in Elementary and Secondary Education by Province and City, SY 2005-2006 to SY 2008-2009 Mean Percentage Scores of the National Achievement Test in Grade 6 and Fourth Year High School, SY 2005-2006 Performance in Board Exams (Regional and National Average Scores) 2008 Infant Mortality Rate (per 1,000 live births) Under-Five Mortality Rates, 2005 and 2009 Number of Vulnerable and Disadvantaged Persons, 2009 Number of Migrant Workers, 2009 On-going, Completed, and Operational Bio-Fuels and RE Power Projects Number of Government Personnel by Category, 2004 and 2008 Number of Government Personnel by Classification, CY 2008 Top Cases Against Women and Children, 2009 Insurgency Parameters, 2008 and 2010 Title Page No. 5 13 13 18 23 27 29 30 37 42 60 60 64 65 66 67 68 70 71 73 73 88 93 93 102 103

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List of Illustrations
Figure No. 1.1 2.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 6.1 7.1 7.2 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 11.1 13.1 13.2 Map of Western Visayas Region Regional Development Plan Framework GDP and GRDP Growth Rates, 2004-2009 (In Percent) Comparative Economic Structure, 2004 and 2009 Comparative Regional Growth Rates, 2008-2009 (In Percent) Registered Investments, 2004-2009 (In Million Pesos) Value of Exports and Imports, 2004-2009 Mineral Map of Western Visayas Sufficiency Level Index, Selected Commodities, 2009 Visitor Arrivals, 2004-2009 Western Philippines Nautical Highway Existing and Proposed Major Infrastructure Map Skills Competency Assessment and Certification, 2007-2009 Maternal Mortality Rate (per 100,000 live births), 2004-2009 Maternal Mortality Rate (per 100,000 live births), by Province 2005 and 2009 Trend of Infant Mortality Rate and Under Five Mortality Rate, 1993-2008 Trend on the Prevalence of Undernutrition among Pre-School Children (PSC), 2005-2009 Revenue Shares from Local Sources, 2004-2009 Mangrove Areas Maintained and Protected, by Province, 2010 Number of Occurence of Tropical Cyclone and Earthquake in Region VI, 2000-2009 Title Page No. 4 7 10 11 12 19 19 25 30 36 48 59 69 69 70 70 71 94 109 110

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Chapter I

InTroduCTIon
On September 2, 2010, the Office of the President of the Philippines issued Memorandum Circular No. 3, Series of 2010, mandating the National Economic and Development Authority to take the lead in formulating the Philippine Development Plan (PDP) and its accompanying document, the Public Investment Program (PIP), covering the period 2011-2016. The said Memorandum Circular also mandated the parallel and simultaneous preparation of the Regional Development Plan (RDP) for all regions, including Western Visayas, and its accompanying document, the Regional Development Investment Program (RDIP).

A. Guiding Principles
The RDP and RDIP translate the President’s development agenda as contained in his “Social Contract with the Filipino People” into strategies, policies, expected outcomes, programs, projects and activities for the period 2011-2016. The Social Contract envisions a country having an organized, widely-shared, rapidly-expanding economy, with a government dedicated to honing and mobilizing people’s skills and energies, and responsibly harnessing its natural resources. The attainment of the vision entails changes among each and every Filipino toward doing the right things, giving value to excellence, integrity and rejecting mediocrity and dishonesty, and giving priority to others over themselves. The Social Contract specifies changes that will lead to transparent and accountable governance; the upliftment and empowerment of the poor and vulnerable; growing the economy through public infrastructure development, strategic public-private partnerships, policy environment for greater governance; and the creation of a sustainable development for reform through peace, justice, security, and integrity of natural resources. In translating the intended changes spelled out in the Social Contract, the formulation of the RDP is focused on the following approaches:
■ ■ ■

attaining a high and sustained economic growth; providing equal access to development opportunities; and formulating effective social safety nets.

Attaining a high and sustained economic growth that will provide full and productive employment will be realized by raising the levels of private investment and entrepreneurship, especially in micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). The contribution to growth of the industry sector on the supply side and investments and net exports on the demand side will be increased. This will be supported by macroeconomic stability, especially of the fiscal accounts; the provision of efficient and adequate infrastructure particularly in electricity, transport, and

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016 Chapter I: Introduction

financing; the improvement of investor confidence by minimizing corruption, ensuring political stability, and enforcing the rule of law; and effective management of the inadequacies of the market, especially of information and learning externalities. Access to development opportunities by each citizen living in and outside the country ensures that expanding employment opportunities will ultimately translate to poverty reduction. Focus will be on improving human capabilities, especially of the poor, through the provision of better education, primary health care and nutrition, and other basic social services. To level the playing field, improved access to infrastructure, credit, land, technology, and other productive inputs will be provided. Unbiased, but facilitative policies that promote competition will be formulated as government improves governance and strengthens institutions. Equitable access to development opportunities will be complemented by the implementation of responsive social safety nets that foster a more inclusive growth for Filipinos in residence and those abroad. These social safety nets shall be adequate, appropriate, equitable, costeffective, compatible with incentives, sustainable, and adaptable to ensure not only the protection but also the promotion of extremely vulnerable groups. The expected deteriorating effects of climate change in the future stress the need for social safety nets that support and capacitate vulnerable sectors to emerge out of poverty.

B. Formulation and Legitimization
Prior to the formulation of the RDP, a Plan Assessment Report containing an analysis of the region’s performance and current socio-economic situation was prepared. The report highlighted the region’s major accomplishments in the past administration and the extent to which the targets for the Millennium Development Goals and the Ten Point Legacy of the Arroyo Administration were attained. The formulation of the RDP took off on September 14, 2010 when NEDA-VI conducted an orientation on the formulation of the RDP highlighting on the instructions contained in Memorandum Circular No. 3. On the same date, NEDA-VI, with the approval of the RDC-VI, created 11 Regional Planning Committees corresponding to the 11 chapters of the RDP. Each Planning Committee subsequently identified the major development issues and concerns related to their assigned chapter using the problem tree analysis method, showing the causeeffect relationship of the different issues and concerns. Planning workshops were conducted by each of the 11 Regional Planning Committees involving regional line agencies, local government units, the RDC private sector representatives, business leaders, government-owned and controlled corporations, government financial institutions and the academe. Each committee formulated the strategic planning matrix which contains the development outcomes, objectives, policies and strategies, activities and measurable targets for each chapter.

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016 Chapter I: Introduction

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Public consultations were conducted in Iloilo City (November 18), Roxas City (November 24), Kalibo, Aklan (November 30), and Bacolod City (December 2) to consult with constituents and major stakeholders on the draft Regional Development Plan. After incorporating the comments generated from the public hearings, the draft RDP was presented and approved by the RDC-VI sector committees on the following dates: Social Development Committee Infrastructure Development Committee Economic Development Committee Development Administration Committee December 7, 2010 December 10, 2010 December 15, 2010 December 16, 2010

The RDP was presented and approved by the Regional Development Council during its meeting on February 4, 2011 through Resolution No. VI-16, Series of 2011, “Resolution Approving the Regional Development Plan (Western Visayas), 2011-2016.” With contributions coming from various sectors of society in the region and at various levels of governance, the RDP now serves as the main reference for all in the pursuit of economic growth and social equity for the Western Visayas region in the next six years.

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016 Chapter I: Introduction

Figure 1.1 Map of Western Visayas Region

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Chapter II

The regIonaL deveLopMenT FraMework
A. Brief Profile of Western Visayas Region
Western Visayas is located in the central part of the Philippines and lies between two large bodies of water – the Visayan and Sibuyan Seas. It is the fourth most populated region in the country, with population estimated at 6,843,643 in 2007 or 7.7 percent of the Philippines’ 88,574,614. The annual population growth rate of the region is 1.35 percent (2000-2007), which is way below the country’s annual growth rate of 2.04 percent for the same period. It is composed of the provinces of Aklan, Antique, Capiz, Guimaras, Iloilo and Negros Occidental. It is divided into 18 congressional districts including the highly urbanized cities of Iloilo and Bacolod, which are considered as distinct congressional districts. It has 16 cities, 117 municipalities and 4,051 barangays. Table 2.1 Composition, Area and Population
Province Aklan Antique Capiz Guimaras Iloilo Iloilo City Negros Occidental Cities Number of Municipalities 17 18 16 5 42 19 Number of Barangays 327 590 473 47 98 1,901 51 180 601 24 22 21 19 32 14 25 18 16 17 27 26 61 4,051 Land Area (hectares) 181,789 252,201 263,317 103,951 60,457 471,940 25,068 148,687 792,607 40,210 51,650 12,500 38,420 72,640 13,732 38,960 38,400 21,480 43,270 17,340 13,390 15,610 2,022,311 Population as of 2007) 495,122 515,265 701,664 147,737 151,238 1,691,878 76,045 418,710 2,370,269 159,933 150,750 92,035 102,014 166,970 63,584 140,511 129,809 120,365 67,211 96,444 88,149 499,497 6,843,643

Roxas Passi Bago Cadiz Escalante Himamaylan Kabankalan La Carlota Sagay San Carlos Silay Sipalay Talisay Victorias

Bacolod City Total
Source: NSCB VI

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016 Chapter II: The Regional Development Framework

The region occupies a total land area of 20,223 km2, the 7th largest in the country, constituting six percent of the country’s total. The islands comprising the region exhibit similar physical features characterized by relatively wide stretches of rivers and coastal lowlands that spread inland and series of rugged hills and mountains in the interior area. It is surrounded by bays and coves that serve as good harbor and fishing grounds. Region VI is the third largest regional economy in the country, the biggest outside Luzon, and the fastest growing economy among the Visayas regions. Its share to GDP was recorded at 7.3 and 7.6 percent in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The location of Western Visayas, at the very heart of the nation, provides the critical link that allows easy access to and from established markets of Metro Manila and Luzon, the thriving cities of the Visayas, and the promising markets of Mindanao through the Western Philippines Nautical Highway. With its fertile plains, rich inland and marine resources, and scenic natural attractions and impressive cultural and historical heritage, Western Visayas is known as the country’s major food provider and leading tourist destination in the country. It is a major contributor of agriculture products in the country: the biggest producer of sugarcane and carabao, number two in rice and municipal fisheries, and number three in mango, hog and commercial fisheries. The region is rich in metallic and non-metallic mineral resources. Mineral ore reserves are practically found in all provinces of the region while non-metallic minerals are likewise abundant. The region is also the biggest producer of coal in the country, providing 92 percent of the country’s total coal production. Western Visayas is known for its colorful history and diverse culture. From its idyllic beaches to its rugged mountains, century-old houses and edifices and colorful festivals, Region VI offers a wealth of adventure options and a variety of experiences. Its world-famous, distinct, colorful festivals throughout the year have been catalyzing the growth of micro-enterprises catering to a variety of interesting souvenir items and sought-after services. In 2009, the region attracted 1.5 million tourists and generated revenues of more than P28 billion. However, despite the significant economic gains of the region, poverty situation remains practically unchanged during the past decade. Poverty incidence increased from 22.1 percent in 2006 to 23.8 percent in 2009, higher than the national level incidence of 20.9 percent. The number or magnitude of poor families continues to increase from 298,058 in 2003 to 345,703 in 2009. As of 2009, a family of five needed to earn more than P6,682 a month so as not to be considered poor.

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B. Regional Development Framework
The improved quality of life in Western Visayas remains as the ultimate goal in regional development efforts. This will be manifested by an empowered people and a globallycompetitive economy. People are empowered when they are confident about what they want and how to attain them. On the other hand, a globally competitive economy for Western Visayas, will continually be driven by its diversified agri-business and tourism sectors. Balancing the need for a high and sustained economic growth while achieving social equity, is the kind of inclusive growth the region will pursue in its quest for development. Empowering the men and women of Region VI will entail interventions in the over-all macroeconomy and introducing poverty alleviation measures, especially for the weak and vulnerable. Education, health, and social welfare are components of the region’s human resource development that will respond to inadequacies and misery. Peace and security will ensure an orderly environment that is essential to development, not only to the individual, but society, as well. The protection of the environment and the sustainable use of its natural resources guarantee the people’s enjoyment of its God-given endowments for years to come. Figure 2.1 Regional Development Plan Framework

Improved Quality of Life in Western Visayas

EMPOWERED PEOPLE
knowing what they want and how to attain them

GLOBALLY-COMPETITTIVE ECONOMY
driven by diversified agri-business and tourism sectors

• Macroeconomy and Poverty Alleviation • Human Resource Development • Peace and Security • Environment and Natural Resources

• Competitive Industry and Services Sector • Sustainable Agriculture and Fisheries Development • Tourism Development • Biofuels and Renewable Energy Development

• • •

Infrastructure Support Research and Development Good Governance and the Rule of Law

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016 Chapter II: The Regional Development Framework

The pursuit of a globally-competitive economy involves the development of the region’s agriculture and fisheries sector, industry and services sector, its tourism sector, and its program on bio-fuels and renewable energy. A high and sustained inclusive economic growth consistent with President Aquino’s “Social Contract with the Filipino People” will serve as a guide for policy-makers and program/project implementors so that everyone benefits from the economy’s growth, whether in terms of employment or in terms of added revenues through livelihood opportunities. The attainment of regional growth and social equity will be supported by adequate infrastructure systems to ensure better transportation, communication, and access to power and water sources; strong and innovative research and development effort, good public and corporate governance, as well as, adherence to the rule of law. Public-private partnerships in infrastructure and utilities development will be encouraged, while non-government organizations, civil society, the academe and even religious groups will also be called upon to be involved in regional and local development efforts.

The development vision for the region places people as the focus and object of development. As the regional economy progresses, people’s living standards will improve making them more empowered and satisfied. As men and women are empowered, they become more vigilant and assertive of their rights as enshrined in the Constitution and in various international covenants and treaties. Empowered people are also more dutiful citizens who are obedient to laws and respectful of duly-constituted authorities. The people of Western Visayas are proud of their rich cultural heritage, language and traditions. The various festivals celebrated throughout the year in different localities showcase this heritage. The Ati-Atihan Festival in Aklan, the Dinagyang Festival in Iloilo City, the Binirayan Festival in Antique, the Halaran Festival in Capiz, the Manggahan Festival in Guimaras, the Masskara Festival in Bacolod City, to name a few, chronicle the pre-Hispanic and Hispanic past, and the journey of its people to the future. The region’s vast fertile soil provides the people of Panay, Negros and Guimaras islands with ample space for food production and farm-based enterprises. Its wide open plains derive their sustenance from rivers and streams flowing from the mountains that also provides its water supply to production areas and settlements in urban centers.

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The people of Western Visayas recognize the importance of protecting the environment and natural resources so that adequate food and water are assured not only for the present, but for years to come. The proper stewardship and protection of the region’s diversified natural endowments, particularly the flora and fauna, form part of the people’s deeply ingrained values. Similarly, the magnificently built structures that have become the heritage from the past are protected and conserved for the future generations. The region intends to solve contentious issues and problems that continue to hinder its development. In a highly competitive world, the region envisions itself to propel its growth through technological advancements. The region will continue to pursue its development thrusts along agri-based industrial development and tourism development at a higher level. Using modern methods and innovative technologies, the region’s major agri-based outputs will be globally competitive and will be produced at par with world standards. Excellent and worldclass services will become the hallmark of tourism-related establishments and facilities. The warm hospitality of the people will become renowned and charm foreigners who come ashore. Indeed, the ultimate indicator of economic progress is the smile in the faces of men, women and children projecting the happiness and satisfaction of their living conditions.

D. Development Goals and Targets
Consistent with the Millennium Development Goals and the Philippine Development Plan, 2011-2016, the following major development goals and targets will be pursued: 1. Sustain the region’s annual GRDP growth rate at 6.2 percent 2. Increase agriculture productivity for rice to 4.2 mt/ha and for corn to four mt/ha and sustain self-sufficiency rate from the current 123 percent for rice and 75 percent for yellow corn. 3. Reduce poverty incidence from 23.8 percent in 2006 to 18 percent by 2016 4. Increase public-private partnership collaborations 5. Reduce maternal mortality rate from 162 per 100,000 live births in 2006 to 50 per 100,000 live births in 2016 6. Reduce infant mortality rate from 39 per 1,000 live births in 2008 to 18 per 1,000 live births in 2016 7. Reduce under-five mortality rate from 43 per 1,000 live births in 2008 to 25 per 1,000 live births in 2016 8. Increase new investments, including foreign direct investments, by 35 percent 9. Increase tourist arrivals to 2.81 million and tourist receipts to P51 billion by 2016

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Chapter III

MaCroeConoMY and poverTY aLLevIaTIon
This Chapter provides an overview of the macroeconomic situation of the region. It focuses on policies and strategies to achieve the overall development goals of reduced poverty incidence and high and sustained economic growth.

A. Assessment and Challenges
The Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) of Western Visayas grew at an annual average of 5.9 percent from 2004 to 2009, higher than the national average growth rate of 4.7 percent during the same period. The growth in the regional economy mostly came from the industry sector, primarily manufacturing and quarrying of coal in Semirara Island, Caluya, Antique, as well as, from the construction of major government and private sector infrastructure projects. While Western Visayas is an agri-based economy, the agriculture, fishery and forestry sector managed only an average annual growth rate of about 3.0 percent from 2004-

2009. Except for 2004, when the sector registered a phenomenal 7.0 percent growth rate, the rest of the period experienced a sluggish growth. Low production and productivity in major crops due to inadequate production inputs and climatic stresses such as flooding and prolonged drought contributed to low growth. The industry sector, however, remained robust since 2004. Average annual growth rate of the sector was 8.4 percent, with 13.2 percent registered in 2007 and 12.0 percent in 2009. This performance was due to the tremendous growth of the mining and quarrying sub-sector, contributed primarily by coal mining operations in Semirara Island in Antique which accounts for 92 percent of the coal supply of the country. The expansion of agriculture-based industries

Figure 3.1 GDP and GRDP Growth Rates, 2004-2009 (In Percent)

Sources: NSCB-VI and NSO-VI

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016 Chapter III: Macroeconomy and Poverty Alleviation

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and cottage industries, as an offshoot of the fast-growing tourism industry in the region, also contributed to the growth of the sector. This, however, was hampered by unreliable and low supply of power resulting in frequent power outages; high cost of energy and water; and inadequate supply of industrial water in major urban centers. The construction of more public infrastructure in the last six years resulted in the rapid expansion of the industry sector. The Western Seaboard of the Strong Republic Nautical Highway physically linked the islands of Western Visayas to the vital markets in Luzon, principally in Metro Manila. The roll-on roll-off facilities provided easier access for manufacturers in the region to the thriving markets in Metro Manila. As a result, vegetables and fruits from Iloilo and aquaculture products from Capiz and Aklan, among others, are now easily transported to Metro Manila and other markets in Luzon. The opening of two major airports in Iloilo and Negros Occidental contributed significantly to the increased volume of goods in the two major urban hubs of the region, including the availability of inputs for production which invariably resulted in increases in the production of local goods by manufacturers. The two airports, together with Kalibo and Caticlan airports in Aklan, significantly increased passenger traffic during the period. The improvement of these airports greatly enhanced access of tourists coming from all parts of the world to the region, particularly to Boracay Island in Malay, Aklan with the opening of Kalibo Airport to international flights from South Korea, Taiwan and China which had positive spill-over effects to the other tourist havens in Panay Island.

The services sector registered an average annual growth rate of 6.2 percent from 20042009. The performance of the services sector was mainly attributed to the burgeoning tourism industry in the resort islands of Boracay and Guimaras and in the islets of Northern Iloilo and Antique, in the diving areas of Southern Negros and in the coastal areas of Capiz. The fast growing wholesale and retail trading in the major urban centers also propelled the growth of the tourism industry due principally to the proliferation of big shopping malls, convenience stores and fast food chains. Figure 3.2 shows the shift in the regional economic structure of Western Visayas over a period of five years: Figure 3.2 Comparative Economic Structure, 2004 and 2009

Sources: NSCB-VI and NSO-VI

While the services sector showed no change and remained at 47 percent from 2004 to 2009, the industry sector increased its share in the regional economy from 25 percent in 2004 to 29 percent in 2009, an indication of the fast-growing industrial base of the region. On one hand, the agriculture, fishery and forestry sector continued to decline over the past five years, from 28 percent in 2004 to 24 percent in 2009 which shows that the industry sector has outpaced the agriculture sector as a source of growth and employment.

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016 Chapter III: Macroeconomy and Poverty Alleviation

Figure 3.3 Comparative Regional Growth Rates, 2008-2009 (In Percent)

Sources: NSCB-VI and NSO-VI

The declining contribution from agriculture sector also implies that population pressure and shifting land uses over time would favor not only the manufacturing sub-sector but also the services sector, especially on house ownership, real estate development, trading and other services. This continued shift of the region’s economic structure appears to be a good indication of slow, but sustaining growth of the regional economy. With higher productivity and wages in the industry sector, the continued shift could impact on the disposable income of families and considerably reduce poverty incidence in the long run. The Western Visayas economy increased its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product in 2009 from 7.3 percent in 2008 to 7.6 percent in 2009 making it the 4th biggest contributor to the national economy. The country’s top three contributors include the National Capital Region (32.5 percent), CALABARZON or Region 4A (11.6 percent) and Central Luzon or Region 3 (8.1 percent). Also, GRDP estimates in 2009 showed that

Western Visayas continue to be the third fastest growing regional economy next to Regions V and IX, which only highlights even more, the strategic role that Western Visayas plays in the national economic front. The services sector generated almost onehalf of all employment in the region. In 2009, 1.42 million persons or 49.2 percent were employed in the services sector compared to only 40.1 percent and 10.7 percent for agriculture and industry sectors, respectively. In terms of the number of persons employed by subsectors, agriculture, hunting and forestry is still the biggest employer in 2009 followed by wholesale and retail trade, and transportation, storage and communication. The growing number of employed persons in private families implies an expanding trend of home-based employment vis-à-vis the information and communication technology expansion. While the region’s economy grew faster than the national economy, the high incidence of

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Table 3.1 Employment Share by Major Industry Group, 2004-2009 (In Percent)
Sector Agriculture Agriculture, Hunting and Forestry Fishing Industry Mining and Quarrying Manufacturing Electricity, Gas and Water Construction Services Wholesale and Retail Trade Hotel and Restaurants Transportation, Storage and Communication Financial Intermediation Real Estate, Renting & Business Activities Public Administration & Defense, Compulsory Social Security Education Health and Social Work Other Community, Social & Personal Service Activities Private Families with Employed Persons
Source: NSO-VI

2004 43.3 37.5 5.8 11.0 0.3 5.8 0.3 4.5 45.7 18.4 2.4 6.8 0.6 1.3 4.6 2.9 1.0 2.2 5.5

2005 43.1 37.4 5.7 10.8 0.3 5.7 0.3 4.5 46.1 18.7 2.6 6.7 0.8 1.2 4.4 3.2 1.2 2.0 5.4

2006 43.2 37.4 5.9 10.7 0.4 5.6 0.3 4.5 46.1 18.5 2.7 6.6 0.9 1.4 4.2 3.2 1.0 2.2 5.4

2007 43.1 36.7 6.3 10.4 0.4 5.4 0.3 4.3 46.6 18.2 2.7 6.8 0.8 1.2 4.5 3.3 0.9 2.2 6.0

2008 43.1 36.9 6.1 10.4 0.4 5.0 0.3 4.6 46.6 17.2 2.6 6.9 0.8 1.5 5.0 3.2 1.1 2.1 6.3

2009 40.1 34 6 10.7 0.4 5.3 0.3 4.7 49.2 18.5 2.7 7.1 0.7 1.7 5.2 3.4 1.2 2.2 6.3

poverty among families remains to be the region’s biggest challenge. Although the region’s poverty incidence declined by 1.4 percentage points, from 23.5 percent in 2003 to 22.1 percent in 2006, it worsened by 1.7 percentage points at 23.8 percent in 2009. Among the provinces, Aklan has the highest poverty incidence based on families and population, while Guimaras has the lowest. In terms of magnitude of families and

population, Negros Occidental had the most number of poor families at 144,828 poor families and poor population at 915,157. Most of the poor are in rural areas and are dependent on agriculture for livelihood. The frequent climatic disruptions, such as flood and drought, during the past six years exacerbated their plight. Moreover, the lack of industrial activities outside of agriculture

Table 3.2 Poverty Threshold and Incidence, by Province, 2009
Province Aklan Antique Capiz Guimaras Iloilo Negros Occidental Region VI
Source: NSCB- VI

Annual per Capita 16,907 15,902 17,306 16,265 16,584 15,217 16,036

Magnitude of Families 38,515 30,205 37,312 4,834 90,009 144,828 345,703

Poverty Incidence (%) 38.1 29.1 22.6 13.3 19.9 24.2 23.8

Magnitude of Population 205,197 169,679 215,033 39,092 569,097 915,157 2,113,255

Poverty Incidence (%) 46.1 39.3 28.8 20.5 26.8 32.2 31.2

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016 Chapter III: Macroeconomy and Poverty Alleviation

during lean months (mostly in summer) added to the slow growth of income and wealth accumulation among farmers, fishermen, and micro entrepreneurs. The Philippine’s geographic location and geologic setting makes it prone to various hazards. Located along the Pacific Ring of Fire, the country is vulnerable to geologic hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic-related hazards. Moreover, the country is located along the typhoon belt on the Western North Pacific Basin where 66 percent of tropical cyclones enter or originate. The economic impact of disasters, especially climate-related disasters, is increasing. The average cost of direct damage from natural disasters from 1970 to 2006 is estimated at P15 billion at 2000 prices. Direct damage covers damage to agricultural crops, public infrastructure and private homes. In 2008, tropical storm “Frank” caused substantial damage to property and loss of lives in Western Visayas, affecting 375,599 families, destroying 45,099 houses, and 315 deaths. Damage to agriculture amounted to P3.1 billion and destroyed infrastructure facilities estimated at P6.4 billion. Losses such as these not only affect the region’s economy but can further increase the vulnerabilities of people who are dependent on natural resources for a living, thus decreasing their capacities to cope with life’s challenges. The increasing severity of natural hazards like typhoons requires the systematic factoring of disaster risks into development planning and programming. Adaptation and mitigation also require resources and the cooperation of all sectors. Addressing disasters go beyond environmental challenges and will have to be closely linked with economic targets and social sustainability.

The impacts of climate change are expected to exacerbate poverty, particularly by constraining the income and earning capacity of the poor, and opportunities for progress. Most of the rural poor are dependent on agriculture and natural resources for their livelihood and are the most vulnerable to adverse effects of climate change. The country’s commitment to respond to disasters as provided by RA 10121 (Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act) may be overwhelmed by the cost of damage brought by natural hazards. Given this reality, the Philippines may not be able to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) by 2015 if typhoons, floods, and droughts continue to undermine development efforts.1

B. Strategic Development Framework
Goals
The major development goals of Western Visayas are: 1) to reduce poverty incidence; and 2) to achieve high and sustained economic growth that will increase employment opportunities, reduce economic dependency and spur further economic activities.

Objectives and Measurable Targets

Reduce poverty incidence among families from 23.8 percent in 2009 to 18 percent in 2016 Target 96 percent employment and four percent unemployment rates by 2016

1 Second National Communication on Climate Change

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Sustain the average annual GRDP growth rate to 6.5 percent Increase by 66 percent the number of business establishments complying with labor standards Increase to 27,000 the number of beneficiaries provided with capacitybuilding services on livelihood enhancement, formation and restoration for the informal sector Increase the number of farmers and entrepreneurs availing of microfinance

consistent with regional priorities will be given preferential attention and support in view of their multiplier impact in the region’s economy. The following industries/services will be promoted: business process outsourcing (cyberservices), tourism (health and wellness, leisure and recreation, adventure), hotels and restaurants, renewable energy or biofuels, mining and quarrying, construction, transportation and logistics, real estate development and education. Strong linkages and partnership between the academe and training institutions will be promoted. The business sector will be involved in the development of a holistic curriculum for tertiary education to enhance the skills of workers needed by the economy. Technical/ vocational schools and institutions will partner with industry in curriculum development and for on-the-job trainings and apprenticeship programs. Regular capability-building programs will be undertaken where technical/vocational schools and institutions will re-hone the skills of workers and apprentices to make them at par with the standards of the industry. Consortia with schools outside the region that offer specialized courses needed by local industries will be forged. The alternative learning system or distance education will be fully utilized to upgrade the skills of local workers. In the case of business process outsourcing or cyber-services, tie-ups with higher education institutions will be established to calibrate students’ communication skills, particularly for proficiency in the English language. Learning other foreign languages will also be encouraged.

Development Strategies
1. Enhance productive employment and productivity in the industry sector. 2. Create a business environment conducive for economic growth. 3. Enhance the competitiveness of the services sector. 4. Strengthen the implementation of labor standards in companies. 5. Enhance focus targeting of poor families. 6. Expand coverage of microfinance.

Priority Activities
1. Productive employment in preferred investment areas will be vigorously promoted during the plan period. Industries or services with highpaying jobs, with export potentials, are pioneering, have higher absorptive capacity for new graduates and are

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016 Chapter III: Macroeconomy and Poverty Alleviation

2. Public infrastructure and utilities will be improved to attract more businesses and investments in Region VI. During the plan period, renewable energy generation projects will be encouraged in order to augment the region’s power supply and, eventually, lower power rates. As such, power generating investors will be given incentives to entice them to locate in Western Visayas. More installed power capacities to augment existing ones that will meet the growing energy demands of business and industry will redound to achieving the projected ten percent growth of the industry sector and the eight percent growth of the services sector. Adequate water supply will be provided in urban areas especially those hosting manufacturing facilities. Since the region’s economy is anchored on agri-based industries, where water requirements are high, existing water supply systems capacities will be improved and expanded especially in identified growth centers of the region. Business registration procedures in national government agencies and local government units will be streamlined to improve processing of business permits and registration. Systems development will be undertaken to achieve uniform procedures in business registration and licensing. Capacity development in the areas of investment promotion will be supported to encourage more foreigndirect and domestic investments. Better real property taxation systems among LGUs will be pursued to increase the capacities of provinces, cities and municipalities to generate local revenues that are vital for effective public service delivery. Computer-based assessment of

real property taxes will be advocated in all local government units. 3. The services sector will remain vibrant in the region. Having dominated the regional economy over the past decade, the services sector is expected to continue as the region’s leading source of growth. More focused incentive package will be drawn up particularly on information and communications technology, healthcare and wellness, tourism and agribusiness. Improvements in standard operating procedures and workspace lay-outs will be introduced. Procedures and requirements in registering investments will be further simplified with import and export documentation and clearance procedures automated to improve efficiency, transparency and accountability. Management and provision of services will be benchmarked with global standards and deficiencies will be analyzed and efficiencies will be promoted to reduce operating costs. Labor productivity will be encouraged thru continuous capability-building seminars and incentives. Good practices and models relevant to the enterprise will be highlighted. 4. The Labor Standard Enforcement Program will be promoted and monitored in specific industries to ensure compliance. Companies with less than 200 employees will be routinely monitored, especially those in construction, security and manpower agency, sub-contractors, cooperatives, manufacturing, restaurant and fast food industries and sugar plantations. Compliance to core labor standards will be checked particularly on pay scale incentives and social protection coverage. For companies

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with 200 or more employees, self assessment approach will be used where both management and labor sit down and assess the company’s compliance to labor standards and identify areas for improvement. For those employing less than ten workers, labor education will be undertaken for management with emphasis on labor standard laws and responsibilities to employees. Employees will also be taught of their rights especially on wage and appropriate working conditions. Collaboration with various management association, chambers of commerce and industry, business clubs and other organizations to bolster promotion and compliance with industry and labor standards will be enhanced. Prompt action on labor cases will be ensured, alternative dispute settlement mechanisms at the workplace for both unionized and non-unionized establishments will be promoted, and labor and management will be continuously educated on dispute prevention and settlement. An inter-agency monitoring team and a mechanism to monitor the extent of compliance by agencies in the implementation of RA 6685 will be established in the region. RA 6685 mandates the hiring of 20 percent of local residents of the municipality in infrastructure projects. Local government units will be encouraged to use local resources for small infrastructure projects utilizing unskilled workers in their locality, and to set aside portion of the development fund to address the targets identified in the MDG along eradication of extreme poverty, achievement of universal primary education and the

promotion of gender equality and women empowerment. 5. Microfinance will create a viable and sustainable microfinancial market that will help provide poor families, farmers and microentrepreneurs with greater access to microfinancial services. It calls for a greater role by the private sector in providing credit and guarantee programs in support of government priorities. Emphasis is on the adoption of marketoriented financial and credit policies to ensure viability and sustainability especially the agriculture and industry sectors. The program involves the provision of a broad range of financial services such as deposits, loans, payment services, money transfers and insurance products to the poor and low-income families and their micro enterprises. The program will focus on the economically-active entrepreneurial poor (e-poor). They include shopkeepers, ambulant vendors and household based entrepreneurs who have stable economic activities and will be able to sustain and enhance these if provided with a small amount of readily available funds. If provided on a sustainable basis, microfinance can help increase income, build viable businesses, reduce vulnerability to external shocks, empower the entrepreneur and improve the quality of their lives. Microfinance services will be provided mainly by rural and thrift banks, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and cooperatives.

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Chapter Iv

CoMpeTITIve InduSTrY and ServICeS SeCTor
This chapter focuses on strategies and policies that will boost production and employment by appropriately identifying the growth areas, and the needed support for enterprises and investors.

A. Assessment and Challenges
The industry sector remains as the region’s engine of economic growth. From 2004 to 2009, the sector grew at an annual average rate of 8.4 percent, fueled mainly by the rapid growth of mining and quarrying and the construction subsectors (Table 4.1). The mining and quarrying subsector registered the highest average annual growth of 17.2 percent from 2004 to 2009. This was mainly contributed by the outputs of coal mining in Semirara Island, Antique which provides 92 percent of the country’s total

coal production. The construction subsector grew by 8.5 percent, while the electricity and water grew by 7.2 percent during the same period. The manufacturing subsector, which is the biggest contributor in terms of gross value added, had 7.1 percent average annual growth. This rapid growth has resulted in increasing the industry sector’s share in the GRDP from 25.1 percent in 2004 to 29.1 percent in 2009. While the region has been encouraging local investors to take advantage of the region’s resources and potentials, it is now ready to accept the fact that foreign direct investments (FDIs) can very quickly help boost the regional economy with the infusion of foreign capital.

Table 4.1 Growth Rates of the Industry and Services Sectors, 2004-2009 (In Percent)
Indicators Industry Sector Mining and Quarrying Manufacturing Construction Electricity and Water Services Sector Transportation, Storage & Communication Trade Finance Ownership of Dwellings & Real Estate Private Services Government Services
Source: NSCB-VI

03-04 6.5 15.0 6.2 1.2 8.0 8.6 12.1 10.1 10.2 4.4 8.7 (0.4)

04-05 6.9 7.4 7.8 (3.1) 6.3 6.8 5.9 7.1 8.7 6.8 8.4 2.4

05-06 4.1 (17.3) 5.9 12.7 7.1 6.8 7.2 7.1 7.8 7.6 6.8 2.4

06-07 13.2 44.9 7.7 17.5 9.5 8.6 9.8 10.7 9.1 2.5 8.2 2.4

07-08 8.8 7.5 9.0 8.9 9.5 2.0 3.3 1.2 1.5 3.6 2.2 3.3

08-09 12.0 45.5 5.8 13.8 3.1 4.1 4.9 1.8 6.6 2.5 10.0 7.0

AAGR 8.4 17.2 7.1 8.5 7.2 6.1 7.2 6.3 7.3 4.6 7.4 2.8

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Western Visayas will prepare the stage for more foreign investments that will translate to more employment and more opportunities for local businesses to thrive. Local government units will scan their resources and review their physical and land use plans to pinpoint where new investment areas or estates will be developed as possible sites for FDIs. Investment promotion is needed to draw in big-ticket investors that will meet the minimum requirements that are expected from them, including compliance to environmental protocols, tapping local manpower, adherence to corporate social responsibility. In 2009, there were about 11,604 firms registered with the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) for business names compared to only 8,639 firms in 2004, or an annual average growth of 5.5 percent. A total of 473 firms were registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission in 2009 compared to 381 in 2004. SEC registered firms recorded investments worth P1.73 billion from 2004-2009. Investments were mostly in the following

Figure 4.1 Registered Investments 2004-2009 (in Million Pesos)

Source: SEC- VI

areas: trading, real estate, hotels/ restaurants, agriculture, farm management services, general construction, internet café, lending and manufacturing. Most of these investments were in Negros Occidental and Iloilo. Exports from Region VI (Figure 4.2) grew at an annual average rate of 18.2 percent from 2004 to 2009. Major exports include muscovado sugar and coal in bulk, raw cane sugar and cane molasses, crabmeat, steel scrap and assorted marine products. Major export markets included USA, Japan, Hongkong, Taiwan, Thailand, China, India and Norway.

Figure 4.2 Value of Exports and Imports, 2004-2009
Exports (in US$ Million) Imports (in Billion Pesos)

Source: BOC-VI

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016 Chapter IV: Competitive Industry and Services Sector

On the other hand, imports grew at an annual average rate of 21.5 percent during the same period. The region’s major imports were fertilizer, wheat, construction materials and equipment, rice and liquefied petroleum gas. Countries of origin were Indonesia, Bangladesh, United States, Taiwan, Vietnam, Singapore and Malaysia. As for rice importation, imported rice are first brought to ports of Iloilo and Pulupandan for proper storage before these are distributed to other parts of the country. The region’s industries engaged in the export of traditional products are not competitive enough in the world market. There is lack of comprehensive and effective marketing strategies among local exporters. The region’s major products (coconut, sugarcane, mangoes, etc.) are not being effectively marketed abroad but rather left to transactions between existing enterprises to established clients, resulting to very limited markets for commodity goods. Processed food manufacturing is also hampered by lack of modern slaughterhouse and packaging facilities, resulting to products not meeting international sanitary and packaging standards. The most pressing problem facing business and industry is the frequent power outages. The inadequacy of power supply vis-à-vis demand resulted in rotating/unscheduled brownouts in all major urban areas of the region in recent years. Aggravating the power inadequacy is the high cost per kilowatt hour in Iloilo City and Bacolod City which are higher compared to other major urban areas of the country. Other factors that discouraged new investments include the high cost of doing

business. Manufacturing companies and local businesses complained about high registration fees and locally-imposed taxes and fees. Business registration procedures at the local level are not harmonized resulting in great inconvenience to local entrepreneurs. Local shipping practices, particularly the expensive yet, inefficient stevedoring and arrastre services, are drawbacks to the rapid growth and development of the region’s domestic and international trading. Industrial growth in the region is also hampered by poor access to credit and financing. Presently, there is no government financial institution offering lower development rates to new business enterprises, especially among micro- and small enterprises. Non-government financial institutions, on the other hand, do not provide bridge financing to start-up new or expanding businesses. Pioneering businesses cannot take off due to lack of adequate financing as many financial institutions are reluctant to lend money to them without the requisite real property collateral. Moreover, local businessmen are generally averse to taking risks. Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) play a major role in the region’s economic development through their contributions in the countryside through rural industrialization that create employment and income opportunities, use indigenous resources, create backward and forward linkages with existing local businesses that promote entrepreneurship in localities. MSMEs assisted by DTI grew by almost threefold from 700 enterprises in 2005 to 2,634 enterprises in 2009. Most of these MSMEs are engaged in loom weaving, bamboo furniture and furnishings, aquaculture products processing, fruits processing, cutfoliage and horticulture. While MSMEs contribute significantly to the

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region’s economy, presently, there is no government agency that actually shepherds the progress of MSMEs. The assistance of government is usually provided on a need basis and upon request. Although rich in metallic and non-metallic minerals, the region’s mining industry suffers from slow growth due to low investments for start-up and expansion. The region’s rich mineral resources, over the years, remain untapped and unexplored. There have been exploration projects but there are still no large-scale mining operations in the region. Mining operations are limited to small-scale mining and quarrying probably because of the suspension of the operation of Maricalum Mining Corporation in 2001 due to labor problems and high operating cost and the closure of Philex Gold Philippines, Inc. in 2002 due to depletion of deposits. Moreover, some LGUs refuse to post mining applications as required under the Mining Act of 1995. The growth of MSMEs is now threatened by informal business sectors like “ukay-ukay” trading and ambulant vendors of cheap products who are not properly registered. Rampant violations of intellectual property rights and piracy of copyrighted products are flooding the market and are usually of poor quality to consumers. These indicate poor enforcement of national laws and regulations that are meant to ensure a vibrant trade sector and protect end-users of traded products. The disaster caused by Typhoon “Frank” in 2008 resulted to physical damages and production losses while the services sector, specifically tourism suffered due to transport disruption. Preparedness for disaster and adaptability to climate change should be

considered in designing and identifying locations for economic activities in the region.

B. Strategic Framework
Goal
To improve the business environment in Western Visayas.

Objectives and Measurable Targets

Increase new investments, including foreign direct investments, by 35 percent Increase the number of MSMEs by five percent annually from 2,634 in 2009 Streamline business processes, particularly government units registration in local

Increase exports by six percent annually from US$160M in 2009 Increase traffic of international air and sea vessel cargoes by ten percent annually Reduce the time of processing mining exploration permits to a maximum of one year from the current practice of more than one year Establish a sufficient, reliable and sustainable power supply (see Chapter 10)

Development Strategies
1. Prepare the stage for increased foreign direct investments.

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016 Chapter IV: Competitive Industry and Services Sector

2. Strengthen government programs that focus on the development of MSMEs. 3. Undertake capacity-building and skills enhancement for MSMEs. 4. Increase awareness of micro-finance facilities among MSMEs. 5. Improve business registration procedures at the local level. 6. Improve port operations by proper enforcement of regulations and removal of red tape. 7. Encourage and support exploration of mineral resources and promote environmentally-sound mining practices. 8. Formulate a comprehensive and effective marketing strategy to make local products known to foreign markets. 9. Promotion of industries with export potentials. 10. Promote corporate social and environmental responsibility and genderresponsive programs among local industries. 11. Institute an enabling environment that will mainstream DRR and CCA measures in the industry and services sectors.

■ ■

Investment Incentives Code of LGUs Rationalizing fees and charges for business registration.

Priority Activities
1. Local government units will prepare the stage for attracting more foreign direct investments in their areas to speed up the establishment of more industries and ensuring more employment opportunities for their constituents. The region will mount an investment promotion campaign here and in other countries to showcase opportunities, skillful and competent manpower resources, relatively acceptable risks, high returns on capital, and the best livable environment that makes Western Visayas an attractive place to set up their businesses. 2. Programs, projects and activities of regional agencies such as the DA, DENR, DOST, DOT, DTI, PCA, BFAR, CDA, FDA, MGB, etc. as well as, those of local government units, and state universities and colleges will be enhanced and their coverage expanded in order to develop more MSMEs in the region that will cater to producing market-driven goods and providing world-class services. The enhancement of services will take the form of a more pro-active delivery of support services that will assist fledgling enterprises become more confident in their ways of doing business. These agencies will determine home-grown businesses that have the potential of growing and expanding by virtue of

Policy and Legislative Agenda

Harmonization of regulations on mining procedures of national government agencies and local government units. Revised import tariffs to support local commodities and products.

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the marketability of their products and determine the support services needed by the entrepreneurs in order to support their quest for growth. To further support the growth of MSMEs, the region will explore the possibility of expanding the Local Economic Enterprise Development offices of LGUs in order to focus on the development of local businesses in their areas of jurisdiction. This entity will provide the necessary technical assistance to MSMEs in the production, processing, marketing, and operations aspects of local businesses so that they can become more stable and competitive. It will also provide regulatory measures to protect MSMEs and provide the necessary advise for business financing and accessing of microfinancing. To increase productivity and efficiency, and improve competitiveness among MSMEs, managerial and technological trainings will be provided by government. Further, government agencies will partner with existing business organizations and chambers to deliver the necessary support in order for local business to grow and flourish, including matching raw materials and input suppliers to business-users, introducing productivityenhancing approaches in the businesses, and matching businesses with potential clients and markets. 3. Assistance to MSMEs will be pursued along the following areas: product development and market promotion; subcontracting arrangements; skills upgrading/seminars; technical trainings; technology transfer; packaging development; management trainings;

consultancy services; and organizational development. Small and Medium Enterprise Development (SMED) Councils at the provincial level will be strengthened to coordinate training and capabilitybuilding activities. The Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plans of the region’s six provinces have identified priority areas for investments. The selection of these priority industries is based on availability of raw materials and skilled labor, market Table 4.2 Priority Investment Areas
Province Aklan ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Priority Investment Areas Tourism Aquaculture Business Process Outsourcing Agri-business Agriculture (rice, muscovado sugar) Fishery Micro-Cottage Weaving Tourism Mining Cutflower and Foliage Production Eco-Tourism Food and Seafood Processing Abaca Processing Tourism Mango and Cashew Production Food and Fruit Processing Lime Quarrying and Processing Agriculture (palay) Livestock (swine) Fishery Tourism Business Process Outsourcing Mining Agri-business Business Process Outsourcing Tourism Mining Agri-business

Antique

Capiz

Guimaras

Iloilo

Negros Occidental

Sources: PDPFPs

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016 Chapter IV: Competitive Industry and Services Sector

potentials and source of livelihood for a majority of the population. Regular dialogue between industry leaders and technical/vocational schools will be facilitated to match the skills of graduates with the needs of industries in the region. MSMEs will be provided access to a comprehensive and focused support for enhancing managerial and technological capabilities, tapping business opportunities and becoming competitive in the local and international markets. To serve as the road map for the development of MSMEs, a Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Action Plan will be formulated within the medium-term to determine specific interventions in specific areas. It shall contain the enabling policies, strategies and activities that will chart essential public interventions in support of MSMEs. 4. MSMEs will continually be oriented on available micro-financing facilities of government and private institutions in support of their expansion and diversification plans. The operational and financial policies of major banks, such as the Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP) and support financial institutions, like the Small Business Corporation, will be streamlined to enable MSMEs to conveniently access their credit lines. The regional offices of the Department of Finance, the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Department of Trade and Industry and other MSME-supportive agencies, in collaboration with the Bankers Association of the Philippines (Western Visayas chapter) will conduct regular financing fora, training programs and information campaigns on small

business loan facilities. Non-government organizations will be mobilized to extend microfinancing support to MSMEs. 5. Local government units will reduce the cost of doing business to attract more investments in their areas. Registration and renewal procedures will be improved to cut red tape. Streamlined processing of business requirements and standardized procedures for acquiring permits and licenses are imperative to create an enabling business environment and reduce transaction time and costs. 6. Sea and airport processing of cargoes will be reviewed to reduce unnecessary signature requirements. To facilitate faster mobility of goods across islands and to major markets, fees and charges of shipping companies will be reviewed while stevedoring and arrastre services will be upgraded and modernized. Standard operating procedures and fees will be clearly disseminated to ensure transparency and proper processing of papers within the prescribed time period. Arrastre laborers will be provided with appropriate training, including proper dealing with customers and will be required to use clean uniforms. Ambulant vendors doing business around port areas will be regulated to comply with international standards and safety requirements. Access roads and vertical structures along port areas will be improved to increase efficiency in port operations. Order and systematic flow of people and cargoes in port areas will be instituted to enhance port security. 7. Given the mining resources of Region VI, interested investors will be given support for detailed exploration of both

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Figure 4.3 Mineral Map of Western Visayas

Source: MGB-VI

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016 Chapter IV: Competitive Industry and Services Sector

metallic and non-metallic areas towards commercial production and utilization. The presence of copper, gold, massive sulphides, manganese and chromite has been identified (Figure 4.3). Approved mining rights cover only about three percent of the region’s total land area. Previous explorations by private companies delineated ore zones. These will be revisited and investment promotion efforts may be undertaken to attract large-scale mining operators in the region’s mineral areas. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources- Mines and Geosciences Bureau (DENR-MGB) shall work on finishing all pending mining applications. Old mining applications (8 years up) will be processed in order to declog the region’s roster of mining applicants. Mining companies will be encouraged to initiate community projects that will provide livelihood opportunities, social development, and proper management of the environment among host LGUs. Mining activities will be monitored especially toward ensuring compliance to the provisions of the 1995 Mining Act (RA 7942). The design and program of implementation of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction measures will be required for all mining companies to ensure close coordination among mining stakeholders in protecting the region’s natural resources and in minimizing losses due to man-made and natural disasters. 8. Information technology and e-commerce will be utilized to disseminate locally-

made products to the world market. All potential foreign markets will be explored in order to have more diverse foreign customers. Product quality will be improved and quality control measures will be strictly enforced to make sure that local products conform to sanitary and health standards in the ports of destination. Product packaging shall be enhanced. Local research and design institutions will be tapped to develop appropriate packaging materials. Innovative technologies (e.g. vacuum packing and waterproof sealing) will be adopted to make local products attractive and competitive to discriminating customers. Laboratory facilities that will conduct tests in compliance with Bureau of Food and Drugs (BFAD) standards for food processors will be established. Moreover, indigenous/traditional crafts and designs will be protected through proper enforcement of intellectual property rights, laws and covenants. 9. The region has a wide array of industrial goods for export. Several of these industries, as shown in Table 4.3 below, will be promoted to generate bigger foreign currency reserves for the region. Each province has its own unique package of exportable goods. The markets are mostly in Asia, U.S.A., Europe and the Middle East. The priority sectors are clustered using the value chain approach so that each link will be able to improve the productivity and efficiency of the sector that will propel the competitiveness of regional products to the global market.

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Table 4.3 List of Industries with Strong Export Potentials, by Province
Province Aklan Priority Industry/ Services Loomweaving/ Indigenous Fibers Existing/Target Markets Existing markets: Japan, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Hongkong, U.S.A., South Africa, Canada, Italy, U.K, France, Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands Target Markets: Europe and other Asian countries Existing markets: Italy Target Market: Japan Existing markets: Hongkong, Japan Target Markets: Brunei, Southeast Asian countries, Middle East Existing markets: U.S. West Coast, Japan, Hongkong, Australia Target Markets: Taiwan and other Asian countries Existing markets: U.S.A., Japan, Italy, France, Spain, Germany, Belgium, Canada, Lebanon, Taiwan, Singapore, U.K., U.A.E., Portugal and India Target Markets: European countries, Mexico, Saudi Arabia Existing markets: Spain, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Kuwait, USA, Mexico, Egypt, Norway, New Zealand, France, Korea, Turkey, Japan, Canada, Dubai, South Africa, Greece, Brazil, U.K, Switzerland, China, Australia, Belgium, West Indies, Hongkong Target markets: Dubai, Middle East countries, Canada, USA Sample Products for Export Cushion covers, placemats, fabrics, table runners, bags, shawls Muscovado rocks, muscovado in sachets Dracaena sanderiana, Florida Beauty, Godseffiana, Polycias, Song of Korea, Ophiopogon Fresh mangoes, dried mangoes preserves, ketchup, wine Furniture: chairs, tables, cabinets, dividers Furnishings: trays, vases, picture frames, lampshades, candleholders/covers, torches, crucifix, etc. Assorted laminated products, tabletop accessories, lampshades, baskets, ceramics

Antique Capiz

Muscovado (sugar) Horticulture

Guimaras

Mango

Iloilo

Bamboo

Negros Occidental

Giftware and Holiday décor

Source: DTI-VI

Product quality and packaging will be improved and market linkages will be strengthened to increase the volume of exports. International standard safety and sanitary facilities in sea and airports will be provided to ensure that the region’s products conform with intended foreign markets and that export products are delivered based on clients’ expected time of arrivals.

Initiatives of provinces to promote their products for export will be supported. Marketing linkages will be enhanced through trade fairs and exhibits. Active participation of LGUs in trade fairs, exposition, e-services fora and job fairs in and outside the country shall be encouraged to enhance market linkages. To spur the development of MSMEs, access to information on business opportunities, available raw materials,

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available sources of funds and latest technologies, including product design shall be facilitated. Skills enhancement particularly on basic entrepreneurship training, organizational management and development will be undertaken. LGUs will be encouraged to update their Investment Incentives Codes and create one-stop-shops to facilitate business registration and harmonize government frontline service delivery. Industries will be required to initiate their corporate social responsibility programs that will benefit host LGUs and households within their influence areas. Priority will be given to socialrelated projects along health, nutrition, education, housing, as well as, livelihood endeavors, environmental protection and preservation, local infrastructure, etc. Firms will be held accountable over the impact and effects of their decisions, activities and all undertakings on sustainable development and the general welfare of the society. All forms of gender biases in the workplace, community, and at home will be removed to provide equal opportunities for men and women to engage in any occupation or career that they wish to pursue. Local business organizations will be tapped to promote gender advocacy and gender-related programs among their members. 10. The region will require industries to adopt and implement disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation measures, especially for those located in vulnerable areas and for pollutive industries. The use of market-based instruments and

fixed-fee or pollution load-based fee to address water pollution problems will be aggressively enforced. Cleaner, more efficient and environment-friendly technologies will be vigorously promoted. The strict compliance of the terms and conditions of environmental compliance certificates as well as the provisions of the Solid Waste Management Act, particularly on segregation, recycling/recovery of waste materials, will be aggressively pursued. Government will partner with private sector groups in the preparation of IEC materials to increase awareness of the general public on DRR and CCA concepts and preventive measures.

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Chapter v

CoMpeTITIve and SuSTaInaBLe agrICuLTure and FISherIeS
This chapter focuses on strategies and policies towards an efficient, competitive and sustainable agriculture and fisheries sector and increased income of resource owners and workers.

A. Assessment and Challenges
Region VI remains one of the major producers of agricultural products in the country (Table 5.1). Its 2.21 million MT palay production in 2009 makes it the second largest producer after Central Luzon, contributing almost 14 percent to the national total. It is still the largest sugarcane producer accounting for more than half (54.4 percent) of the country’s total output. In fisheries, the region is a major player, ranking third in commercial fishery, second in marine municipal fishery and sixth in inland municipal fishery and aquaculture production. In livestock, the region ranks first in carabao production, fifth in cattle, third in hog and fourth in goat production. One of the challenges confronting Region VI is how to transform a predominantly agriculture economy into a competitive, efficient, and sustainable agri-business economy. Agriculture employs about 35 percent of the regional labor force, but contributes only ten percent to the regional economy. This indicates that productivity growth in agriculture is low. Over the period 2004-2009, the average productivity growth of agriculture, including fishery and forestry, was only 3.2 percent annually. As a result, poverty in rural agricultural areas continues

Table 5.1 Commodity Performance and Rank, by Commodity
Commodity Palay Sugarcane Hog Fisheries Commercial Aquaculture Municipal Chicken Banana Chicken Egg Corn Mango Cattle Carabao Goat
Source: BAS-VI

Production, MT 2008 2,117,598 13,770,505 167,755 111,314 142,066 147,362 74,588 328,171 25,355 350,259 46,421 18,257 19,923 7,892 2009 2,205,071 12,469,613 176,260 109,159 155,135 168,937 76,388 451,410 26,779 272,844 47,408 19,778 20,071 7,301

Region VI Rank (2009) 2nd 1st 3rd 3rd 6th 2nd 5th 6th 6th 6th 7th 5th 1st 4th

to be severe. A study on the poverty in the Philippines by Asian Development Bank (ADB) shows that the average income of the poor in rural areas is only about 85 percent of the poverty income threshold; at the same time, income inequality is highest among families reliant on agriculture as a source of livelihood. Region VI is self-sufficient in rice estimated at 126 percent in 2008 and 136 percent in 2009, making it a major rice supplier to other parts of the country. Among the six

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016 Chapter V: Competitive and Sustainable Agriculture and Fisheries

Figure 5.1 Sufficiency Level Index, Selected Commodities, 2009

Table 5.2 Productivity Performance by Agricultural Commodity, 2009
Commodity Palay Irrigated Palay Rainfed Palay Corn White Corn Yellow Corn Coffee Sugarcane Banana Mango
Source: BAS-VI

2009 Yield, MT/ha Region VI 3.29 3.71 2.88 2.17 1.24 2.73 0.58 64.14 9.75 3.92 National 3.59 3.95 2.83 2.62 1.65 3.68 0.79 56.76 20.19 4.10

Source: BAS-VI

Region VI Rank 13th 10th 7th 10th 12th 11th 11th 1st 7th 5th

provinces, Capiz has the highest sufficiency level at 183 percent. The region is also a surplus producer of beef, pork, chicken meat and white corn. However, it has to import chicken eggs and yellow corn to satisfy its requirements. Despite a noteworthy performance in agriculture production, Western Visayas still lags in terms of agricultural productivity compared to the overall national performance and that of other regions (Table 5.2). The region’s yield in palay, corn, and high value crops such as mango, coffee, and banana, is low. Compared to other regions, Region VI ranks 13th in palay yield in 2009, (ranking 10th in irrigated palay and 7th in rainfed palay). For corn, it ranked 10th among the 16 regions. Its performance in high value crops like coffee also needs improvement. Even a major producer of the country, palay productivity of Region VI is only 3.29 mt/ ha, which is below the national average of 3.59 mt/ha in 2009. Nevertheless, the region is still the frontrunner in sugarcane production and productivity, ranking first with a production yield of 71.51 mt/ha in 2008 and 64.14 mt/ha in 2009, which is better than the national performance of 56.76 mt/ ha.

Low profitability is also a major challenge that needs to be addressed by the agriculture sector. A study conducted by the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics shows that, on the average, total production cost per hectare for palay is P36, 473 with a net return of only P16,005, or a net profit cost ratio of 0.44 percent. This means that for every peso spent, only 44 centavos returns to the producer. However, although production cost is higher during dry than wet season, net return is also higher. The same situation is true with corn where net profit cost ratio is higher during the dry season. The constraints to productivity and profitability are results of several factors. These include the high costs of inputs, especially fertilizer which is vital to the production of agriculture crops. Fertilizer accounts for 20-30 percent of production costs and is, therefore, crucial in stabilizing the retail price of agricultural commodities. It was observed that palay production in the 4th quarter of 2008 contracted by 2.2 percent mainly due to the reduction of fertilizer usage by farmers amid high prices (NSCB 2008).

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Support infrastructure such as irrigation and electricity are inadequate. The deterioration of irrigation systems, compounded by destruction due to natural calamities, (most devastation was caused by Typhoon Frank in 2008) and inadequate logistics services lead to increases in wholesale prices of farm commodities. The quality of infrastructure relative to its periodic maintenance is also a concern. With the limited budget of LGUs, the regular maintenance of communal irrigation systems and farm-tomarket roads have become wanting. Poor infrastructure has resulted to untimely delivery and inaccessibility of raw materials leading to higher production costs and lower productivity. Inefficient and ineffective use of support services and facilities also contribute to low productivity and profitability. Despite the number of readily available S & T products, such as, high-yielding varieties, new farming systems, post-harvest technologies, which are expected to improve farm productivity and add value to products, adoption by target users has been slow in coming. The slow application of technologies has been due to a number of issues, particularly on: a) weak link between technology producers, extension workers to farmers/fisherfolks; b) financial and capacity constraints of users to adopt technology; and c) heavy dependence on subsidies to promote technology. A high degree of mechanization in the sector offers the potential to increasing productivity and profitability and achieving economies of scale. However, among rice and corn farmers, manual labor and use of animals in production, account for 75.7 percent, while the use of mechanization is only 21.7 percent (UPLB 2009).

Like the rest of the country, Region VI is historically vulnerable to weather risks. In 2008, Region VI was devastated by Typhoon Frank, with an estimated damage of P3.1 billion to agriculture, especially in rice production. Planting season was delayed in 2010 due to El Niño phenomenon and preliminary data showed reduced rice production of about 39 percent compared to last year. The vulnerability of the agriculture sector will be further increased with the threat of climate change. In 2009, the Philippines, in its Second National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, reported that as an agricultural country, the higher global temperature would lead to increased demand for water due to the higher evapotranspiration rates of plants. Water supply shortfall is expected in some regions and there would be decreasing rainfall in the Visayas which would mean less recharge of the groundwater aquifers and lowering of the water table. The physical growth and development of settlements as a result of increasing population and expansion of economic activities inevitably impact on agricultural production. Productive agricultural lands are subjected to conversion due to their proximity and accessibility to existing urban growth centers. Although land use conversion in the region is not significant as to greatly impact on productivity, conversion of prime agricultural lands to non-agricultural uses, if not regulated, would eventually lead to lesser area available for agricultural production. The failure to maximize the potential of lands through the application of appropriate farming practices could result to low productivity.

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Inadequate support services for agrarian reform beneficiaries (ARBs) have also resulted to low productivity in the agriculture sector. Funds allotted for the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) are prioritized for land acquisition and distribution and not enough funds are provided for support services to capacitate the ARBs to become productive farm entrepreneurs. Also, there is underinvestment in areas subject to land reform, due to the uncertainty faced by landowners. Studies have shown that landowners are reluctant to invest while their farms are undergoing acquisition processing. Because of complicated processes on land acquisition and distribution, both landowners and agrarian reform beneficiaries tend to delay the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) implementation and are reluctant to undergo the tedious process resulting to low accomplishment. As of 2009, only 67 percent of the target for land distribution under CARP in Region VI has been accomplished with the remaining 182,113 hectares still to be distributed as of December 2010. Finally, the inefficient marketing system as a result of weak rural institutions and poorly developed market linkages resulted to low profitability. There is also limited investment on market support services, such as, marketing information, trade facilitation, and trade centers. For the period 2004-2010, the funds allocated for marketing assistance accounted for only 1.1 percent of the average annual budget of the Department of Agriculture, which is seven percent below the prescribed allocation under the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA). With the advent of information technology and globalization, the timely access and dissemination of market and market-related information is critical to making sound

business decisions in order to increase productivity and profitability.

B. Strategic Framework
Goal
To improve agriculture and fisheries production, productivity, and profitability.

Objectives and Measurable Targets

Increase yield in rice to 4.57 mt/ha; corn – 4.22 mt/ha; sugar - 75 mt/ha by 2016 Improve and sustain self-sufficiency in rice (136 percent), white corn (178 percent), beef (159 percent), pork (174 percent), chicken meat (172 percent), yellow corn (75 percent) and chicken egg (75 percent) Promote the use of organic fertilizers and other environmentally-sound soil management techniques with 1,210 adopters per year Rehabilitate 45,000 hectares of irigation service areas, restore 10,000 hectares and develop 40,000 hectares new service areas Distribute the remaining target area of 182,113 hectares under the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program Institutionalize the agriculture and fisheries market information system

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Development Strategies
1. Promote the use of organic fertilizers, biological pest control and other environmentally-sound soil management techniques pursuant to the Organic Agriculture Act of 2010. 2. Improve rural infrastructure and facilities. 3. Strengthen support services to agrarian reform beneficiaries. 4. Proper utilization and scientific management of agriculture and fishery resources. 5. Develop and adopt hazard-resistant agricultural practices for food security. 6. Transform micro enterprises and individual farm holdings into formal and viable SMEs and larger establishments and cooperatives. 7. Institutionalize market information system and other innovations for more competitive agri-fishery products.

practices including integrated pest management will be promoted. As a legislative agenda, the use of generics for agriculture chemicals to bring down cost and improve production will be advocated. Environment-friendly program of crop and fishery diversification, especially highvalue and non-traditional commodities will be undertaken in existing crop, livestock and fish farms. State universities and colleges, private schools offering agriculture and agrirelated courses, local government units and agri-based NGOs/CSOs will be tapped to disseminate organic technology, farm methods, and protocols to farmers associations. The use of trimedia, especially local radio and TV programs, will be expanded to saturate the airwaves and ensure a wide reach of audience. Campaign for the production and use of biological control agents will be intensified. 2. Farm-to-market road projects that strategically link production and consumption areas will be prioritized to provide greater access of farmers, growers, fisherfolk, and agri-based traders. Rehabilitation and restoration of national irrigation systems, maintenance of existing systems and establishment of small scale irrigation systems will also be given due attention. Potential irrigable areas will either be developed or expanded. Farmers will be taught to construct shallow wells, to ensure water supply during extreme dry weather conditions, and different water impounding techniques to take advantage of abundant water during rainy season.

Policy and Legislative Agenda

Support the passage of the National Land Use Act to optimize the use of land based on best uses and the need to balance economic, environmental and social development objectives. Local ordinance providing incentives for farmers of organic products

Priority Activities
1. Training on efficient and sustainable farm practices will be conducted and organic agriculture and aquaculture

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016 Chapter V: Competitive and Sustainable Agriculture and Fisheries

Cost sharing/counterparting mechanisms with LGUs for financing infrastructure facilities will be enhanced. The private sector will be tapped to participate in government’s efforts in delivering the needed infrastructure and services of the agriculture and fishery sectors through public-private partnership schemes. Among potential projects to be promoted are warehouse facilities, slaughterhouses, blast freezers, dryers, hauling and transportation, trading centers, laboratories, etc. 3. Technology training, demo farms, and rural financing, will be implemented in agrarian reform communities to enhance crop and livestock production. Cluster organizations in the Agrarian Reform Communities (ARCs) will be strengthened. Typhoon-damaged irrigation facilities in ARCs will be rehabilitated and service areas will be expanded. The provision of farm-to-market roads in Agrarian Reform Infrastructure Support Program (ARISP) areas is expected to boost agricultural production and increase the income of ARBs in ARC areas. More importantly, farmers will be taught how to become entrepreneurs in order to hasten their emancipation from poverty. Training and education to enhance entrepreneurial capacities of individual farmers, fishers and their organizations will be provided and grassroots enterprise development will be promoted. Women will be trained along home-based livelihood projects in order to augment their family incomes. 4. Support services of DA, DAR, and DENR will be harmonized at the field level

through a multi-sectoral and integrated convergence approach towards more efficient use of resources. Promotion and utilization of community-based participatory approach to technology development will be enhanced where researchers, extension workers and farmers together develop locationspecific technologies to address specific field problems. Among the projects that will be promoted are sloping land management technologies and practices (e.g., alley cropping, agro-forestry, contour farming, natural vegetative strip technique, intercropping, and mulching), to help solve soil erosion problems in degraded hilly lands. Infusion of quality breeder stocks for the upgrading of existing stocks through artificial insemination will be done. Training will be conducted on new technologies such as feed formulation, feeding management among others. Furthermore, inland fisheries protection from diseases and mariculture will be undertaken to increase offshore fisheries production. Productivity in mariculture parks will be optimized and activities that will broaden the aquaculture base will be pursued and community-based coastal resource management mechanisms will be employed. 5. The resilience of agricultural communities to climatic changes will be pursued through research and development of climate change-sensitive technologies, establishment of climate-proof agricultural infrastructure, climateresponsive food production systems and the provision of support services to the most vulnerable communities. Better genetic materials especially seeds,

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planting materials, livestock and poultry will be promoted to farming communities to withstand extreme climatic variability. Disaster risk management shall be incorporated particularly in properly locating and scheduling of agricultural activities. Prerequisites to this are information on the nature, location and pattern of occurrence and impacts of hazards. IEC campaigns and capacitybuilding activities at the local level will be conducted to improve knowledge and capacity of agricultural extension workers and farmers to adopt climate-sensitive farming and fishing technologies. Appropriate and modern farm equipment will be provided to clusters of farmers’ associations. Community-based early warning systems, agrometeorology stations, and climate field schools will be established. 6. The clustering of farmers and fisherfolks and organizations and federations will be strengthened through capabilitybuilding activities. Cooperatives will be empowered especially on the areas of leadership, entrepreneurship, marketing and financial management. With the private sector taking the lead and with the support of concerned agencies and LGUs, clustering of individual farm holdings will be undertaken to promote economies of scale. 7. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) compliant agriculture and fish processing facilities will be promoted and institutionalized to enhance competitiveness in the international market in all provinces. At the same time, the implementation of the Agriculture and Fisheries Market Information System (AFMIS) will be strengthened, while

the feasibility of the warehouse receipt system will be piloted in coordination with the private sector. On the other hand, marketplaces for organic agricultural products in urban centers will be promoted and popularized. The use of information technology such as e-texting to reach more farmers will be institutionalized in order to get quick feedback on market prices, supply of commodities, sources of inputs, and other information. Government websites will be regularly updated to provide real time agriculture and fishery information.

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Chapter vI

TourISM deveLopMenT
This chapter focuses on strategies and policies that will boost and develop a more vibrant regional tourism industry.

A. Assessment and Challenges
The tourism sector is a major contributor to the growth of the regional economy. GVA for tourism-related services such as hotels, restaurants and recreational services grew annually by 6.1 percent from 2004 to 2008 where it accounted for 8.3 percent of other services during that period. Based on the 2008 List of Establishments, hotels and restaurants employed around 452,068 workers, with 93.6 percent employed by MSMEs. Region VI is one of the major players in the Philippine tourism industry. Blessed with natural tourist attractions that have placed the Philippines in the international tourism map, the region is host to one of the country’s most famous tourist destinations, Boracay Island in Aklan. Nonetheless, there are other beautiful beaches found in mainland Aklan, Capiz, Iloilo, Antique, Negros Occidental and in the island of Guimaras that adventurous tourists will find alluring. Aside from white sand beaches, the region has other diverse tourist attractions. Caves, natural parks and mountain resorts, heritage houses, centuriesold churches and buildings, colorful festivals and celebrations make Western Visayas one of the top tourist drawers in the country.

For the period 2004 to 2009, there was an annual increase of ten percent in the number of tourist arrivals in the region which is attributed to the active participation of both the government and private sectors. Figure 6.1 Visitor Arrivals, 2004-2009

Source: Department of Tourism VI

The availability of roll-on roll-off seaport services made the region’s tourist destinations more accessible to both local and foreign visitors, especially for Boracay Island. In 2009, Aklan accounted for the biggest share in total tourist arrivals, followed by Bacolod City, Iloilo City and Negros Occidental. The remaining four provinces posted an accumulated share of less than 10 percent of the total arrivals. Tourist receipts in the region increased from 2004 to 2007, but decreased slightly in

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Table 6.1 Visitor Arrivals and Tourist Receipts 2009
Province Aklan Antique Capiz Guimaras Iloilo Iloilo City Negros Occidental Bacolod City
Source: DOT-VI

Visitor Arrivals 674,447 34,982 107,886 51,786 31,000 363,277 463,154 358,159

Tourist Receipts (in Million Pesos) 12.40 0.64 1.98 0.95 0.57 6.68 8.51 6.58

will eventually attract visitors and further create jobs and increase the circulation of disposable income in the local economy, further providing the motivation for other private investors to participate in tourism development. The lackluster interest in tourism development is evidenced by the absence of a permanent tourism officer given that the position is not mandated under the Local Government Code. Local tourism councils are observed to be active only during the holding of festivals, which have often become the centerpiece of local tourism activities. The challenge, therefore, is to look for other tourism “products” that will increase the interest of foreign and domestic visitors to come, stay longer to further explore the area, and go back to their places with encouraging stories to tell that will entice more visitors to come visit the region. Tourism marketing and effective promotion strategies need to be further improved. This will cover the range of developing interesting itineraries for specific clients, producing a storyline and anecdotes for each destination, identifying unique souvenir items that are relevant to the attraction, ensuring value for money to visitors starting from their transportation expenses, to their lodging place, and goods or services procured during their stay. Lack of skilled frontline service workers, especially in hotels and restaurants, affect the growth of the tourism sector. Most tourism personnel have limited information about their own locality and are found wanting in communication skills that can easily turn-off clients. While tourism-related courses include hands-on experience and

2008 and 2009 because of the economic uncertainties as a result of the world-wide financial crisis that made many tourists postpone their travels. Nevertheless, tourist receipts of P33 billion in 2009 was higher than the P20.5 billion generated in 2004. Despite this commendable performance, the sector is still confronted with various challenges. While the region has many potential tourist destinations, many of these are stand-alone destinations and are not connected by an established travel itinerary. Foreign travellers in Boracay hardly explore other destinations even in the mainland province of Aklan, thus limiting the opportunities for economic and employment growth within the island itself. The role of local government units and local communities is crucial in tourism development. Many local chief executives have yet to recognize that tourism could be a major growth driver of their local economy. Providing incentives to investors to improve potential tourist destinations and to build tourism-related establishments, whether it be a beach resort, a mountain resort, a hotel or inn, a restaurant, or a recreation venture,

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on-the-job trainings, there is hardly any rigor in commanding excellent services expected from tourism-related personnel. Tourist guides, if at all available, need to study and be trained to narrate the region’s rich, colorful history and culture more authoritatively and should learn to highlight its natural and man-made endowments comprehensively. Heritage tourism is one of the strengths of Region VI and yet there are very few experts on the preservation of valuable artifacts, antiques and early structures. The impact of the fast-paced growth of the tourism industry, especially in major tourist areas, if not properly guided or regulated, may result to social ills like prostitution, health and drug-related problems. In this regard, the use of women as part of tourism packages to attract tourists will be discouraged. Inadequate infrastructure in remote destinations has resulted to limited tourists having access to otherwise impressive natural attractions. Basic tourism amenities such as information kiosks, road signs, clean and safe lodging rooms, and sanitary rest rooms are not available, making it inconvenient for tourists to travel to these areas. There is also a need to reinforce compliance of government accreditation of tourismoriented establishments. Another concern is the security of destinations and safety of tourists that should be ensured by concerned authorities by imposing strict safety standards in various modes of transportation. Finally, Western Visayas, with its rich culture and history, should vigorously pursue the establishment of “tourism enterprise zones” in selected areas of the region pursuant to

RA 9593 or the National Tourism Policy Act of 2009 to attract more foreign investors and tourists to visit places rich in history and culture. Local tourism offices have limited skills and competence in planning for the sector. This is manifested by the inadequacy of data that could establish the overall performance of tourism in the locality. The low number of tourist arrivals in some provinces may be due to inefficient data gathering as a result of lack of an established system at the local level to handle data collection and processing.

B. Strategic Framework
Goal
To increase domestic and foreign tourist arrivals and revenues.

Objectives/Measurable Targets

Increase tourist arrivals from 2.08 million in 2009 to 2.81 million in 2016 Increase tourism revenues from P38 billion in 2009 to P51 billion in 2016 Develop cultural maps and tourism itineraries as an initial activity to establish an integrated tourism circuit plan in six provinces and two highly urbanized cities Train 10,000 tourism personnel and service providers along marketing and promotion, language skills and information technology Harmonize and institutionalize standards for tourism products and services among 750 establishments by adhering to

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accreditation standards ■ Plantilla positions for tourism officers in 50 percent of 133 local government units

Policy and Legislative Agenda

Increase culture and heritage-based promotional activities with one major activity conducted per year, per province/ highly urbanized cities Adopt and operationalize tourism statistical systems in 27 local government units

LGUs, especially in local government units with strong tourism potentials, to pass ordinance creating permanent positions for tourism officers. LGUs to update tourism-related ordinances such as traffic and transportation to conform to international covenants and standards. Local ordinances providing incentives to tourism investors.

Development Strategies
1. Formulate a Regional Tourism Strategic Action Plan. 2. Harmonize and institutionalize standards for tourism services. 3. Enhance and sustain trainings for tourism-related frontline service workers and personnel. 4. Preserve and promote Western Visayan art, culture and heritage in the areas of music and literature, built heritage, museum pieces and artifacts, and traditional arts and crafts. 5. Instill a “culture of tourism” among Western Visayans. 6. Improve access to tourism destinations. 7. Improve Systems. the Tourism Information

Priority Activities
1. A Regional Tourism Strategic Action Plan will be formulated to consider the thrusts in the National Tourism Development Plan, action plans of LGUs, the results of cultural mapping, the review of current laws/issuances and recent developments affecting the sector. Regional and local tourism itineraries and events will be reviewed to enhance complementation among provinces. Priority destinations will include: Boracay Island (Malay, Aklan), the Mt, Kanlaon National Park and Mambukal Hot Springs (Murcia, Negros Occidental), Bugang River (Pandan, Antique), the diving and sightseeing spots in Southern and Northern Negros Occidental, Bulabog Putian National Park (Dingle, Iloilo), and Guimaras Island. In the coming years, emerging tourist attractions, such as the islands of Northern Iloilo, Madiaas National Park (Antique), Pangilatan Falls (Capiz), Jawili Eco-Tourism Park (Tangalan, Aklan) and the highlands of Don Salvador Benedicto (Negros

8. Encourage the creation of permanent positions for tourism officers in the LGUs.

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Occidental), among others, included in the itineraries.

will

be

The attractions and major festivals of LGUs like the Dinagyang (Iloilo City), AtiAtihan (Kalibo, Aklan), Masskara (Bacolod Cty), Halaran (Roxas City), and Binirayan (Antique), among others, will be aligned to complement and enhance rather than compete with each other. A multi-stakeholder consultation will be held to determine the brand that best fit the region and/or provinces. Moreover, a regional tourism marketing body will be created to focus on promoting Western Visayas and attracting more visitors to check out its various tourist destinations and activities. An integrated and pro-active regional marketing and promotion plan and package will be prepared together with a Regional Tourism Code of Ethics to identify the roles and responsibilities of service providers and serve as a guide to all stakeholders. 2. Accreditation of tourism establishments will be constantly pursued with more intensive advocacy among tourismrelated establishments, organizations and affiliates. Awards and incentives for outstanding tourism services will be institutionalized at the provincial level. Accredited establishments will enjoy privileges and support from government, especially in promotional paraphernalias that will be produced and distributed, as well as, in capability-building activities, seminars, trainings, and exhibits. 3. Competency gaps will be identified through the conduct of training needs

assessment among tourism service providers in order to determine appropriate trainings that will be provided. Competency-building trainings on marketing and promotion, communication skills, and use of information technology will be given due attention. 4. Towards the preservation and promotion of Western Visayan arts, culture and heritage, multi-sectoral cooperation in advocacy work will be encouraged and supported. Regional/local trade fairs specializing in traditional arts and crafts will be organized and supported. Built heritage laws will be strictly implemented. Pursuant to RA 9593, tourism enterprise zones in the provinces will be established to attract foreign investors and tourists to visit places rich in history and culture. 5. Information dissemination about the region’s rich history, its natural attractions, and updates and events on tourism will find its way in trimedia (radio, tv, and print) to prepare communities and its citizens to be host to foreign and domestic tourists. Academic offerings in tourism-related courses will be enhanced to advocate a culture of tourism especially in community outreach services of the schools. Local tourism festivals and events will involve local organizations and residents. coordination with relevant 6. In infrastructure agencies, access to tourism destinations will be improved. A regional infrastructure and utilities mapping in support of tourism activities will be prepared. Specifically, tourism infrastructure for the construction, improvement and maintenance, including

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the setting up of signages and markers will be inventoried to determine areas not yet reached. Budget for structures supportive of tourism spots will be lobbied with the region’s lawmakers and decision-makers. 7. To have a more holistic picture of the tourism situation in the region, provinces, cities and municipalities will be encouraged to institutionalize their tourism statistical system. Through legislation, local government units will require local establishments to report regularly information about tourist arrivals and receipts in their respective areas. Also, points of entries such as airports, seaports and bus terminals will be required to record arrivals and departures of tourists. In addition, guest assistance centers will be established in these points of entry to welcome and facilitate tourists’ requirements. The formulation and implementation of tourism-related ordinances will be reviewed to ensure harmonized implementation of local tourism regulations. 8. LGUs with strong tourism potentials will be encouraged to create permanent plantilla positions for tourism officers to ensure that tourism development will be given due attention.

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Table 6.2 Tourism Attractions and Festivals
Province Aklan Tourist Attractions Bakhawan Eco-Park Boracay Island Ignito Cave Hurom-Hurom Cold Springs Jawili Falls Libacao Wild River Kalantiao Shrine Kalibo Cathedral Kalibo Freedom Shrine Museo It Akean January 15 21 24 3rd Sunday March 3 23 April 24-30 25 28 30 May 16 June 15 November 3 24 Antique Buenavista Cave Bugton-bato Falls Fish Spa Igpasungaw Falls Malandog Marker Malumpat Cold Spring Mararison Island Mt. Madi-as Nogas Island San Juan de Nepomuceno Church Sira-an Hot Spring January 18 20 22 26 February 3 3rd Week Last Monday March 1st Week 12 17 28-31 April 9-11 20-25 22 27-29 30 May 1st week November 21-22 December 17-19 Festivals Makato Sto. Niño Festival Altavas Sto. Niño Festival Ibajay Ati-Ati Municipal and Devotional Fiesta Kalibo Ati-Atihan Festival Batan Ati-Ati Malakara Festival Pacto de Sangre XIX Martyrs of Aklan Aklan Pinya and Fiber Festival Aklan Day Celebration Lechon Parade El Levantamiento de los Ochenta y Dos de Liloan Bugna Festival (Tangalan, Aklan) Malay Day (Malay, Aklan) Kalibo Day Baesa Parada Bugas sa Lusong Festival Hamtic Sumakwelan Festival Panubason Festival Pahinis Festival Patuyao Festival/Feast of St. Blaise Maninihon Festival Udyakan Festival Madia-as Festival Banigan Festival Batabat Festival Panaet Tarambayaw Tatusan Festival Tugbong Festival Hambaru Festival Binirayan Festival Tiringbanay Festival Hantikan Festival Anipay Festival Buruyloganay Festival

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Table 6.2 2/4
Province Capiz Tourist Attractions Ang Panublion Museum Culajao Mangrove Eco-Park Igang Caves Panay Bell Paraiso del Rio Olotayan Island People’s Park Sta. Monica Church Suhot Cave Weny’s Butterfly Garden January 19 4th Sunday February 27 March 2nd Friday 20 Last Week April 15-17 May 1-4 3 9-15 3rd Friday & Saturday June 4-13 22-24 25-26 October November 10-11 20-25 December First Week Guimaras Alubihod Beach Balaan Bukid Shrine Baras Beach Isla Naburot Baras Beach Alubihod Beach Guisi & Tando Beaches Panobolon Island Trappist Monastery January 3rd Sunday Last Friday February 19 20 3rd Saturday March Good Friday Last week April 15 16-20 25 3rd Week May 1st week 15 Festivals Pangahaw Festival Taw-anay Gugma Festival Hil-o - Hil-o Festival Bayuhan Festival Niyogyogan Festival Saranggola Festival Capiztahan! Lingga-anay Festival Sinaot Festival Guyum-Guyuman Festival Talahong Festival Agdahanay Festival Hil-o-Hanay Festival Tagbuan Festival Hirinugyaw Ke Meme Ati Feast of St. Martin of Tours Inilusan Festival Sinadya sa Halaran Palayag Festival Bulantihan Festival Balsahan Festival Asinan Festival Sibiran Festival Ang Pagtaltal Saranggola Festival Banigan Festival Manggahan Festival Karosahan Festival Manggahan sa Guimaras Festival Layag Festival Padagyao Festival

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Table 6.2 3/4
Province Guimaras Tourist Attractions June 23-24 August Last week October-November 11-13 30 December 8-23 27 Iloilo Bucari Gigantes Island Janiuay Cemetery Imoy Falls Miag-ao Church Montinola-Sanson Antillan House Mt. Baloy Nadsadjan Falls Pan de Azucar San Dionisio San Joaquin Church Sicogon Island Sta. Barbara Golf Course January 2nd Sunday 15 3rd Saturday 3rd Saturday 3rd weekend 3rd weekend 26-28 Last Sunday Last week February 2 1st week 3rd week 2nd week Last week April 1st week 2nd week Good Friday 4th week May 1 1st week 3rd week Last Week June 1st-2nd week 3rd week Last week Festivals Rosas sa Baybayon Festival Kasadyahan Festival Sakayan Festival Harvest Festival Pangasi Festival Manokan Festival Iwag sa Paskua Kadagatan Festival Binanog Festival Fireworks Display and Contest Pasungay Festival Bayluhay Festival Sinadya sang mga Banwa Dinagyang Festival Saug Festival Hirinugyaw-Sugilanon Festival Chinese New Year Candelaria Fiesta Salakayan Festival Paraw Regatta Pintados de Passi Bantayan Festival Saad Festival Semana sang Iloilo Lanot Festival Paghukom Festival Taltal Festival Tampisaw Festival Heritage Month Celebration Santacruzan Festival Tubong-Tubong Festival Carabao Carroza Festival Katagman Festival Pahaw-as Festival Tangyan Festival Fiesta in the City Football Festival Kasag Festival Sulay Basya Festival Pandayan Festival Baroto Sa Lutac Race Biraw-Paraw Festival

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Table 6.2 4/4
Province Iloilo Tourist Attractions September 1 1st week 8-10 3rd week Last week October Last week 30 November 1 2nd week 17 December 1st week 3rd week 4th week Negros Occidental Balay Negrense Museum Chapel of Cartwheels Chapel of Sta. Clara Church of Vito Hofileña Heritage House Lacawon Island Mag-aso Falls Mt. Kanlaon Volcano Mt. Malapantao Negros Museum San Sebastian Cathedral Shay Steam Train St. Joseph the Worker Church The Ruins Tinagong Dagat Victorias Milling Co. January 1 5 10-16 3rd week 24 25 February 2-9 3-5 7-9 11 12-19 25 27 28 March 19 21 23-25 Last week 31 Festivals Handuraw Festival Tinu-om Festival Tambobo Festival Tumandok Festival Mountain Bike Festival Anihan Festival Saludan Festival Cry of Jelicuon Tigkaralag Festival Banaag Festival Kawayan Market Week Hablon Moda Kahilwayan Festival Festival of Lights Kalamay Festival IWAG Christmas Lights Pantat Festival Pasidungog kay Senor San Tultugan Festival Lights of Bago Bailes de Luces Sinulog Dinagsa Festival Feast of Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage Lubay Lubay Festival Bulang Bulang Festival Bacolaudiat Kali Kali Festival Dinagyaw sa Tablas Pasidungog Festival Babaylan Festival Salapan Arts Day Search for Lin-ay sang Escalante Cheer-dance Competition Pasundayag Festival Sinigayan Festival Kadalag-an Festival Kisi-Kisi Festival Magayon Festival Pasaway Festival

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Table 6.2 2/3
Province Negros Occidental Tourist Attractions April 1-5 2-9 18-25 24 26 25-30 18-25 May 1 3 26-30 June 6-12 13 20-21 29 July 1 August 2 September 10 October 18 November 1 2 3-5 December 8 15-31 30 Festivals Banana Festival Pana-ad sa Negros Festival Himaya-an Festival Pagbanaag Festival Malihaw Festival Hinugyaw sa Hinigaran Himayaan Festival Pasalamat Festival Feast of Our Lady Of Guadalupe Ugyunan Festival Pasalamat Festival Balbagan Festival Manlambus Festival Hugyaw Festival Sag-ahan Festival Mudpack Festival Lilas Pandan Festival Sagahan Festival Udyakan sa Kabankalan Festival Minuluan Festival Masskara Festival Parade Pasundayag sa Tigkalalag Tigkalalag Festival Kasaysayan and Adobo Festival Pintaflores Festival Hinigaranon Firework’s Festival Christmas Festival of Lights and Music Bailes de Luces

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Chapter vII

InFraSTruCTure SupporT
This chapter identifies the infrastructure needs of Western Visayas to achieve a high and sustained economic growth. It presents the assessment and challenges, and the strategic framework of the following sub-sectors: transportation, power and energy, information and communications technology, water resources, and social infrastructure.

A. Assessment and Challenges
The development thrust of the transport infrastructure network in the region is principally geared towards constructing more roads and bridges between major production areas, potential markets and tourism destinations. Existing road networks will allow seamless connection to roll-on rolloff (RORO) facilities in seaports and to major airports that will be upgraded to support easier transportation of goods and people within and outside the region. RORO facilities have been built or rehabilitated in various ports (Figure 5.1) of the region. As a direct result, there was a marked increase in traffic in the inter-modal Roll-on Roll-off Transport System (RRTS) connecting Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. An increase of 33.9 percent between 2007 and 2009 was noted on the number of vehicles transported through RORO vessels plying the region. For roads and bridges, a number of improvement and rehabilitation activities were undertaken to strengthen inter- and intra-regional physical linkages thus, enhancing the mobility of people and reducing the cost of the delivery of goods

and services and inducing more economic activities, particularly in rural areas. The implementation of the Roads and Bridges Information Application (RBIA), where earth roads were deleted from the list, reduced road density from 0.1453 kilometers of road per square kilometer of land area in 2004 to 0.1449 in 2010. However, the total paved roads increased from 2,146 kilometers in 2004 to 2,363 kilometers in 2010 and the length of permanent bridges increased from 28,883 linear meters in 2004 to 29,638 in 2010. Better economic conditions and the continued improvement of road and bridge networks encouraged the people of Western Visayas to purchase vehicles. Data show that from 2004-2009 the total number of registered vehicles substantially increased by 27.7 percent. To address the increasing demand for air travel going to and from the region, two airports of international standards were established. The new Iloilo Airport in Cabatuan, Iloilo was completed in June 2007 catering to passengers in Panay Island, while the new Bacolod (Silay) Airport was inaugurated and started commercial operations in 2008 serving visitors to and from the Negros Island. The Kalibo International Airport in Aklan opened its international flight operations in 2009, not only to serve passengers going to Boracay Island but elsewhere.

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Figure 7.1 Western Philippines Nautical Highway

Source: PPA-VI

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The absence of an integrated and wellcoordinated inter-modal transportation plan to help prioritize fund allocation is a major set-back in the establishment of a modern and seamless transportation system. This problem may be attributed to the current institutional set-up in the sector where transport policy and plan coordination, regulation, and oversight remain weak. The focus in the next six years, therefore,will be in strengthening the collaboration among LGUs and transport-related agencies in planning for the development, rehabilitation, reconstruction, maintenance, expansion and implementation of roads and bridges in connection with seaports and airports throughout the region. Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction measures will be integrated in the development, asset management, and maintenance strategies in the transport infrastructure development to protect the region’s investments. During the past six years, efforts have been geared towards ensuring energy security and in attaining 60 percent energy self-sufficiency beyond 2010. Implementing power sector reforms to establish power sources that would deliver competitive electricity prices was given special attention. With the passage of the EPIRA Law, more private sector-led projects started to be implemented, one of which is the construction of the 164 MW-Lapaz Coal-Fired Power Plant in Iloilo City which became commercially operational in 2011. The Northern Negros Geothermal Plant Augmentation Project is also on-going at the Negros side. The region started promoting for the adoption of renewable energy and bio-fuels as a better alternative in generating its power supply. Investments in renewable energy projects

have also started pouring into the region starting in 2008. A total of 472 circuit kilometers of submarine cable/transmission line was targeted to be installed by 2010 which was exceeded by more than 100 percent with the completion of the 575.2 circuit kilometers from 2004 to 2010. Among the major projects completed are the Panay-Boracay Interconnection Project, San Carlos-Guihulngan 69 Kilovolts Transmission Line Project and Northern Panay Backbone Transmission Project, while the implementation of the following projects is still on-going: a) 87 circuit kilometers (69 kilovolts) for Southern Panay Backbone and, b) 18.8 circuit kilometers (138 kilovolts submarine cable) for Negros-Panay Interconnection Uprating transmission line. The National Grid Corporation of the Philippines (NGCP), which replaced the National Transmission Corporation (TransCo) as power concessionaire, is tasked with the development, upgrading and rehabilitation of the electric grid for 25 years under the Execution Version of the Concession Agreement. The focus is now towards closely monitoring the concessionaire’s performance of the parties (i.e. private sector and the government) to their respective obligations. Government will continue exercising its oversight function in the concession agreement to ensure that public interest is protected. All the 133 cities and municipalities in the region have been covered by the Rural Electrification Program. The total number of energized barangays has increased from 3,564 in 2004 to 3,867 in 2009, with a barangay energization level of 92.09 percent in 2004 and 99.92 percent in 2009. However, a 100 percent barangay

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energization target by 2010 was not realized, including the target of extending service to small island grids, remote rural communities and other non-viable areas through missionary electrification program mandated under the EPIRA. This situation remains to be a challenge given the government’s current legislative and policy limitations/restrictions in the development of electric power to ensure future supply requirements. Developments in the Information Communications Technology sector are primarily private sector-driven, with government providing regulatory oversight and promotional support via public policy and incentives. In the region, access to ICT was made possible with the increase in the number of local exchange carriers (LECs) providing services to the different cities and municipalities from 136 LECs in 2004 to 150 LECs in 2009. Of the 133 municipalities and cities, 121, or 91.73 percent have digital LECs as of 2009. Telephone load density in the region showed an erratic trend during the period and there was an observed decline in the telephone density between 2004 and 2009. Record shows that there were 2.04 telephones per 100 persons in 2004 compared to only 1.87 in 2009. This may be explained by the growth of wireless and broadband technologies, resulting in more people availing of the Cellular Mobile Telephone Services (CMTS). To date, there are 887 CMTS stations in the region. An environment conducive for the private sector to set up more call centers with ancillary services has been provided in the region. However, there was no significant increase in the number of call centers and other services between CY 2008 and 2009

which may be attributed to the effect of worldwide economic slowdown. As of 2009, there were only 19 call centers, two medical transcription services and five business process outsourcing companies that were put up in the region. Only nine internet service providers were established due to inadequate connectivity/capability and intermittent signals and “deadspots” in certain areas. Water resources management is identified as one of the key factors to an improved and healthier socio-economic environment. It has three inter-related sub-sectors, namely: Water Supply, Sewerage and Sanitation; Irrigation; and, Flood and Drainage Management. The total number of households with access to safe water supply increased from 1.266 million in 2004 to 1.344 million in 2009. The significant increase may be attributed to the implementation of Administrative Order No. 12, Series of 2007, otherwise known as the Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water. Relatedly, the establishment of Level III water supply systems increased to 31.26 percent from 2004 to 2009 because of the continuing rehabilitation/improvement/ expansion of existing water districts, as well as, the development of new ones by the Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA). Out of the 133 cities under the jurisdiction of LWUA in Region VI, 89 are served by water districts, while the rest have yet to form their water districts. Big water districts in Western Visayas include the Bacolod City Water District, Metro Iloilo Water District, Metro Roxas Water District and the Kalibo Water District.

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The slump in the national economy has not spared the water districts operated by either the local government units or by the LWUA. Many water districts could not cope with the repayments of their loan obligations to LWUA and other financing institutions because they are operating at a loss. Collection efficiency was low due to high water rates and nonrevenue water areas. In addition, equity of funds for additional loans intended to extend service areas could not be raised. As a result, revenues could not be increased to sustain mounting operating and maintenance costs. Water resources in the region are limited in terms of quality and quantity. The most common water sources are limited to shallow wells or dugwells. The denudation of watersheds has contributed to the deterioration of the quality of surface water, thus, tapping this resource as alternative solution to the water availability problem is also an expensive proposition. Poor water quality and diminishing fresh water resources are prevalent in the coastal areas. Among the contributing factors are the proliferation of fishponds and prawn farms and pollution. Also, massive pumping of groundwater for fishponds, prawn farms, paddy rice and households consumption are causing destruction of aquifers and intrusion of saltwater. Most households in the region have poor access to sanitation facilities and are not practicing proper disposal of waste water. The cities of Iloilo and Bacolod, the region’s two highly-urbanized cities, as well as, other highly populated areas, have no septage/ sewerage systems and, instead, rely on stand-alone septic tanks. Water pollution is aggravated by solid wastes dumped in shorelines and urban waterways. Adverse environmental and social impacts of

improper sewage management go beyond political borders (red tide, pollution of watersgroundwater, surface water, lakes and seas). Irrigation is a vital facility in ensuring food security. In Region VI, data shows an increase in irrigation coverage from 2004 and 2009 with service areas increasing from 114,758 hectares in 2004 to 117,845 hectares in 2009. The percentage of irrigated areas to irrigable areas also increased from 49.82 percent in 2004 to 51.16 percent in 2009. Despite the increasing trend, irrigation development is considered minimal because most of the region’s activities were only on repair and rehabilitation projects due to lack of budget allocation from the national government. To sustain its operations, the National Irrigation Administration (NIA) depends only on the amount it generated from irrigation service fees, management fee, equipment rental, Communal Irrigation System (CIS) amortization, CIS equity contribution, pump amortization and interest income. Due to its geographical location, the region is exposed to weather hazards like strong winds and flooding that cause damage to infrastructure facilities and pose as risk to populations especially in low elevation areas and those with poor drainage systems. Aggravating the flooding problem are the indiscriminate dumping of solid wastes, inadequate and silted drainage facilities in major urban centers, siltation of major rivers, unfinished and unimplemented flood control projects, river revetments and dredging. These factors increased the vulnerability of the region’s critical areas to natural hazards. The Iloilo Flood Control Project, Stage I with an accumulated 74.26 kilometers of drainage/ flood control works was started in 2006 and

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is 91.09 percent complete in 2010. Stage II of the Iloilo Flood Control Project and the Panay River Flood Control Project in Capiz are envisioned to take place during the next plan period. Access to public basic education is still a perennial problem, especially in remote areas and island barangays of the region. Presently, 50 barangays of the 4,050 barangays of the region still do not have elementary schools. On the other hand, schools in urban areas, especially secondary schools, are congested which affects learning and motivation. In school year 2009-2010, there were 1,886 government pre-elementary schools, 3,390 government elementary schools and 602 government secondary schools in the region. Compared to the ideal ratio of 1:40, the existing classroom-pupil ratio is 1:32 for the elementary level. Classroom chairs and tables are still lacking in 12 out of 17 school divisions. Also, there is dearth of instructional rooms in both elementary and secondary levels. Instructional rooms are either used as academic classrooms, science laboratories, home economics, industrial arts, and computer rooms. Existing instructional rooms for elementary and secondary levels posted at 32,877 and 10,843, respectively. The location and spatial distribution of health care facilities affect access to health care. The poor and vulnerable groups and those that are living in remote and underserved areas generally have poor access to basic social services, especially health facilities. Most of the 60 government-managed hospitals are located in urban areas while the 27 privately-managed hospitals are all in major urban centers. In 2009, the hospital bed to population ratio is 1:1,212 which is below the DOH planning standard of one hospital

bed per 500 population. Transportation facilities and related infrastructure support will be important in improving accessibility. There is an urgent need to bring basic health care services closer to the people. The upgrading of rural health units, health centers and barangay health stations which are generally located in rural areas should be pursued to decongest hospitals located in major urban centers. Currently, there are 144 rural health units and 1,733 barangay health stations. Housing occupies the largest amount of built-up land. Rapid urbanization, low income levels and lack of areas allocated to affordable residential developments have led to the proliferation of unplanned, informal and overcrowded settlements. Many of these informal settlements also occupy disasterprone areas. The high price of housing units deter many households from availing them. Around 21,059 or 24.16 percent of the license-to-sell issued by the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board for the period 2004-2010 were for social housing. A large bulk of the total were for economic housing at 35,139 units (40.32 percent) and 30,954 (35.52 percent) for the medium-cost and open market housing. The Community Mortgage Program accomplished 616 units in 2010 from 144 in 2004. Retail lending for housing by Home Development Mutual Fund or Pag-IBIG Fund has improved from 1,677 in 2004 to 2,539 in 2010. As a whole, providing affordable housing is not a problem of housing but a problem of affordability. Despite the accomplishment in shelter provision, the region’s estimated socialized housing backlog remains large at 226,455 units in 2010 which is six percent

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of the country’s backlog of 3,756,072 units. The region’s backlog is expected to reach 267,073 units by 2016, assuming a high 0.87 percent annual backlog trend including new households formed in the region. Yet, housing is one basic concern that needs to be addressed by the LGUs. Very few LGUs have local housing boards, most of which are not even fully functional. The region is faced with a housing shortage as informal settlements in the urban areas proliferate due to migration. From 2004 to 2009, only 4,886 households were provided housing assistance, which is below the target of 7,287 households. There was limited financial assistance for shelter programs especially at the local level. The relocation or resettlement sites offered limited access to basic social services and facilities. Many of these relocation sites are located far from the beneficiaries’ sources of livelihood despite the provision of the law requiring relocation sites to be accessible to sources of income/ livelihood of the affected beneficiaries. For the region to meet the Millenium Development Goals, it has to drastically reduce the number of informal settlers, estimated at 226,455 in 2010. The continuing influx of population into the urban centers compounds the problems of inadequate housing and basic social infrastructure services. Access to basic social services and sources of livelihood in relocation sites, as well as, limited financial assistance for housing are still the major challenges of the housing sector. The region has exhibited outstanding feats in many national and international sports competition, in events such as swimming, volleyball, and football. However, there is still a need to improve sports facilities to

provide better venues for sports enthusiasts. Of the six provinces in the region, only five have operational sports facilities. These are Binirayan Sports Complex in Antique, Villareal Sports Complex in Capiz, Iloilo Sports Complex in Iloilo, Aklan Sports Complex in Aklan and Paglaum and Pana-ad Sports Complexes in Negros Occidental. The facilities of these sports complexes require refurbishment to meet the requirements of national and international sports competitions. The region is often exposed to tropical cyclones which bring high winds, storm surges and floods. On the average, five tropical cyclones cross the region’s area of responsibility annually. The region is also exposed to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. With the region’s vulnerability to natural hazards, infrastructure facilities and utilities remain at risk. Data shows that the region incurred a total of P9.1 billion worth of damage to infrastructure from 2000 to 2009 due to natural calamities. Damage to infrastructure was highest in 2008, in the amount of P6.4 billion, when Typhoon Frank devastated the region. Thus, limited government resources intended to finance infrastructure facilities that will enhance inter- and intra-regional connectivity are diverted to emergency response and relief leaving fewer use of resources for development activities and even for rehabilitation and reconstruction. Of the estimated P6 billion damage to infrastructure caused by Typhoon Frank in 2008, only P600 million was released in 2010 for reconstruction and rehabilitation.

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B. Strategic Framework
Goal
Enhanced mobility of people and flow of goods through efficient transportation; ensuring reliable communications and power supply; and provision of essential social infrastructure.

Coverage areas of irrigation facilities expanded and proportion of irrigated areas to irrigable areas increased by five percent annually One flood control project each for Capiz, Iloilo and Negros Occidental established 18,000 housing units/homelots for socialized housing made available through issuance of license-to-sell Housing needs, including the backlog, reduced annually by 13 percent from 2010 to 2016 118,501 seating facilities for elementary schools and 61,866 for secondary schools provided Majority of the LGUs have 75 percent operational local housing boards and local housing offices Additional 453 instructional rooms for elementary level and 986 for secondary provided 46 government hospitals rehabilitated by 2016

Objectives and Measurable Targets

Integrated Inter-Modal Transportation Plan formulated Total length of paved roads increased by 40 km annually Number of registered motor vehicles increased by five percent annually Two new community airports in Negros Occidental (San Carlos City and Kabankalan City) established One Principal Class 2 airport (Caticlan, Malay, Aklan) completed Air navigational facilities of Capiz, Iloilo, Kalibo and Silay-Bacolod airports upgraded One Motor Vehicle Inspection Center per province established Installation of 472 circuit kilometers of submarine cable/transmission line connecting Panay and Negros Island completed Local Exchange Carriers (LECs) in all municipalities installed Total number of households with access to safe water increased by ten percent annually

Development Strategies
1. Fast-track the development, rehabilitation and improvement of land, sea and air transportation. 2. Improve inter-connection of the Visayas Grid and encourage private investments in power generation. 3. Expand Coverage of Communication Reach. 4. Provide adequate and greater access to safe water supply.

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5. Improve the irrigation system management and facilities, and expand coverage area. 6. Establish flood control devices and mechanisms. 7. Establish sewerage and sanitation facilities in major urban centers and enhance LGU capabilities to implement regulatory measures. 8. Improve hospital facilities. and health care

Board that will coordinate, regulate and monitor the utilization of water resources within its jurisdiction. Amend RA 7279 or the Urban Development and Housing Act to require developers to situate their socialized housing projects in the host locality or region to address their housing backlogs. Amend IRR of RA 7279 to require Pag-IBIG to utilize the proceeds of housing bonds within the region where it is collected.

9. Promote cheap, but standard-compliant, housing technologies. 10. Construct or improve access to existing, unutilized and other potential affordable housing sites. 11. Encourage LGUs to formulate Local Shelter Plan. 12. Protect critical utilities and infrastructure in areas of high risk.

Priority Activities
1. To provide a holistic approach in the development of the region’s transportation system, a long-term Integrated Inter-Modal Transportation Study/Plan (2011-2020), including the Panay Railway System, will be formulated. The plan will guide the transport sector in achieving its goals and objectives through a well-coordinated and integrated transport system and to rationalize resource generation and allocation for a better transport services. It will establish the government’s policies with regard to matters like competition, tariff-setting, regulation, subsidies, and public-private partnership (PPP) options. Under the PPP, joint venture mechanisms and loan offers by government financing institutions will be explored and maximized. New road networks such as construction of outer circuit roads, including bridges in highly congested areas, interconnecting roads from production areas to market centers will be opened. Improvement of major seaports and airports and their attendant facilities will be fast-tracked to cater to the expanding needs of the Road Roll-on Roll-off Transport System, as well

Policy and Legislative Agenda

Review existing law on EPIRA to allow area offices of Energy Regulatory Commission in Visayas and Mindanao facilitate fast action on all regulatory and tariff issues pertaining to power generation, transmission and distribution submitted by investors of energy projects located in in Visayas and Mindanao areas. Amend existing law or pass a new law to create a Regional Water Resources Management Board to address the current fragmented institutional set-up and weak regulatory and monitoring framework. The law shall define the comprehensive role of the National Water and Resources

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as, to support the trade and tourism sectors of the region. Transport safety and security will be given priority. To reduce traffic accidents and crime incidence, thoroughfares with high incidence of traffic congestion will be widened, street lights will be installed, and traffic systems of international standards will be put in place in major urban centers. To ensure road worthiness of registered motor vehicles, the construction of Motor Vehicle Inspection Centers (MVIC) per province will be undertaken. In anticipation of environmental, geologic, and meteorological hazards posed on the development and preservation of transport infrastructure, climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction measures will be part of the transport policy framework, especially in the design and lo/cation of projects. To respond to the power deficit anticipated to be experienced by the region by end of the Plan period, there is a need to review and formulate a contingency plan to ensure a sufficient, reliable and sustainable power supply. Completion of on-going transmission highway projects including installation of additional submarine cables in the Visayas Grid will be pushed to ensure complementation of islands grid demand and power rate setting. Other sources of local indigenous and renewable energy shall be explored by independent power producers (IPPs) together with the Department of Energy to address the increasing demand for electricity. Promoting investments on renewable energy, as well as, providing venues for continued dialogue and

forums to encourage private investors/ investments and public awareness on its benefits shall likewise be given attention. 2. The region will encourage service providers to establish cellsites in strategic rural areas where economic and tourism potentials are high. To support the need for information related to agriculture, LGUs will be asked to establish a computer-aided market and price information center for agriculture and fishery workers to easily connect with websites that will provide ready information about commodity supply and market prices. The implementation of the Community e-Center Program will be sustained to maximize technologies for interactive e-governance (Real Property Tax Assessment, e-Purchasing, etc.). This will also allow access to internet services by unserved and underserved areas and to adopt policies that are area-specific and culture-sensitive to this particular kind of connectivity. 3. To ensure greater access to safe water supply, an Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) approach will be adopted to bring about a pro-active and well-coordinated action among stakeholders. The RDC will support the creation of an independent regulatory and coordinating body for water resources in the region to address the highly centralized, fragmented institutional setup, and weak regulatory framework. Development of new water supply sources will be given more attention to increase coverage area and to cope with the increasing demand of the population and to support anticipated economic

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activities. Embedding the Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) with CCA strategies present a good opportunity to mainstream a more integrated approach in developing the region’s water resources. Technical assistance and trainings for vulnerable communities will be provided to ensure that climate change and disaster risk considerations are addressed. 4. Irrigation facilities are vital to the region’s agriculture sector and are, by far, the largest user of water. In the context of growing scarcity of water, the current policy of focusing on the construction of small irrigation systems and the repair/ rehabilitation/improvement of national systems will be given due attention but potential irrigable areas will be prioritized in the development and expansion of irrigation system. To address NIA’s problem in its organizational system and financial performance, a reorientation and restructuring of its management strategy along with streamlining its organization will be undertaken. The volumetric pricing scheme on a wholesale basis of water at the head gate to Irrigators Associations (IAs) will be adopted. In this manner, expenses incurred on amortization collection will be drastically reduced since IAs will pay only one kind of fee to NIA and will be responsible for collecting irrigation service fees from their members. This method will also provide for greater contract assurances in the service delivery to the IAs, provide a good incentive to properly maintain the distribution system, improve equity of head-and-tail end distribution including

the quantification of the volume of water supplied from all irrigation systems, and conserve water resources. 5. To address the vulnerability of the region to flooding and inundation, an inventory of the status of natural waterways will be conducted. Sufficient fund will be provided for the immediate implementation of flood control projects including dredging of silted major rivers. LGUs will be responsible for controlling or relocating informal settlers along waterways to prevent indiscriminate dumping of garbage/solid wastes that result to clogging and sanitation problems. Researches on the possibility of developing floodways into reservoirs will also be conducted. 6. A sustainable sanitation and sewerage treatment management system will be established in the major urban centers of Bacolod and Iloilo. To enhance local capabilities, training will be conducted and linkages will be built to match proponents with sources of technical and financial assistance. 7. Government-owned and operated hospitals and health facilities will be upgraded to expand capacity and provide quality services. These facilities will be improved to attend to traumatic injuries and other type of emergencies and adequately manage the most common causes of mortality and morbidity. 8. With the steady rise in prices of conventional housing materials and construction cost using conventional methods, cheap but standard-compliant housing technologies and materials will be promoted, e.g., pre-fabricated materials which can be readily assembled

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thereby reducing labor cost. In keeping with safety standards, government has institutionalized the testing and accreditation of these materials and technologies. Houses made of accredited materials/technologies can be mortgaged by housing financial institutions. Also, to maximize the utilization of land, mixed use and higher density residential developments will be encouraged. 9. Infrastructure support to existing and potential affordable housing sites to allow higher densities will be provided. Mixed use and higher density residential developments will also be encouraged to reduce the demand. 10. It is necessary for local government units to have an approved local shelter plans so that housing backlogs can be properly addressed and informal settler families identified. Affordable housing programs will be formulated to address their housing needs. Technical assistance will be extended to local government units in drafting shelter plans as well as the creation of local housing boards and local housing offices. Presidential proclamations of occupied government/public lands for socialized housing purposes will be sought and processed. Other options such as LGU joint venture/partnership with National Housing Authority or private developers in the development of relocation sites with adequate basic services, community mortgage programs for informal settlers occupying privately-owned lands will be undertaken so that informal settler families will be given secure land tenure. There is a need to enhance access to funds for socialized housing projects. Adequate funds for shelter provision

will be explored, such as bond flotation, imposition of social housing tax and idle land tax, and district housing funds. Efforts will be exerted to encourage Congress to allocate funds per congressional district under R.A 7835 or Comprehensive and Integrated Shelter Finance Act (CISFA). Joint resolutions by the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC) and the National Housing Authority (NHA) requesting for CISFA funds releases will be formulated for submission to Congress. Also, there is a need to make available cheaper, but within standards, housing units in urban centers (in-city resettlement). In order to address high concentration of population in highly developed areas, the urban land will have to be maximized through various schemes such as in-filling/densification, vertical housing development and in-city relocation. Construction of medium-rise public housing in urban centers will serve as option to discourage squatting. 11. Structural mitigation measures will be put in place to protect these facilities like retrofitting and replacement of existing structures, if necessary, to be compliant with codes and public safety standards. Building codes and land use planning regulations shall take hazard and disaster risk into account. All public and private infrastructure system owners will be required to carry out hazard vulnerability assessments. Hazard-resilient construction methods and practices for homes and community facilities will be adopted using appropriate technologies.

Figure 7.2 Existing and Proposed Major Infrastructure Map
Roxas City Circumferencial Road Panay River Basin Flood Control Project

Kalibo Circumferencial Road

Panay East_West Link Road Bacolod-Silay Airport Access Road

Iloilo Flood Control Project Stage 2

San Pedro International Trans-Shipment Port and Flood Control

Bacolod-North Road (North-South Backbone)

Bago-Mambucal Road

Iloilo City Circumferencial Road San Carlos City Domestic Airport

Guimaras Circumferencial Road Himamaylan City-Negros Oriental Boundary-Tayasan Road

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016 Chapter VII: Infrastructure Support Jct. Bearin-Salong-Tapi Dacongcogon-Bantayan Road Kabankalan Domestic Airport

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Table 7.1 Major Inter-District or Regionwide Proposed Infrastructure Programs and Projects, 2011-2016
Program/Project Title Integrated Panay Railway System Rehabilitation and Improvement Jalaur River Multi-Purpose Project, Phase 2 Panay River Basin Flood Control Project Panay-Guimaras-Negros Island Bridges Rehabilitation/Upgrading of Iloilo-Capiz Road (New Route) Health Facilities and Services Rationalization Panay East-West Link Road Kabankalan Domestic Airport Location Iloilo-Roxas City Iloilo District-wide PanayGuimarasNegros Capiz-side Regionwide Iloilo-Antique Kabankalan City Estimated Cost (in Million Pesos) 16,200 15,200 5,700 4,800 450 1,900 1,600 1,500 Implementing Agency PNRI NIA/DOE DPWH DPWH DPWH DOH DPWH DOTC/LGU Source of Fund PPP ODA/PPP GAA and ODA GAA/ODA/PPP GAA GAA GAA/ODA GAA and ODA

Sources: PNRI, NIA-VI, DPWH-VI, DOH-VI, DOTC-VI, DOE and LGU

Table 7.2 Major Proposed Infrastructure Programs and Projects by Congressional District 2011-2016
Program/Project Title Aklan Lone District Marina Project Construction of River Control Concreting of Caticlan-Malay-Nabas Road Kalibo Circumferential Road Antique Lone District Irrigation System Operation Efficiency Improvement Project Odiong-Sibalom-San Remegio Road Construction of San Pedro International Trans-Shipment Port and Flood Control Location Estimated Cost (in Million Pesos) 1,010 1,050 1,300 781 445 204 10,000 Implementing Agency Source of Fund

Caticlan, Malay Numancia and Kalibo Malay and Nabas Kalibo Sibalom Sibalom and San Remegio San Jose

Prov’l Govt. DPWH DPWH DPWH NIA DPWH DPWH&PPA

Bond Float and GAA GAA GAA and ODA GAA ODA GAA GAA/ODA

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Table 7.2 2/4
Program/Project Title Capiz 1ST District Roxas City Circumferential Road Repair/Rehabilitation/Upgrading of Iloilo-East Coast-Capiz Road Capiz 2nd District Rehabilitation/Upgrading of TapazJamindan-Altavas Road Rehabilitation/Upgrading of Jct. National Road Dumarao-Iloilo San Rafael Road Guimaras Lone District Guimaras Circumferential Road Establishment of Large Scale Water Impounding Project Upgrading and Expansion of Guimaras Provincial Hospital Iloilo City Lone District Iloilo City Circumferential Road (C-1) Iloilo Flood Control Project Stage 2 Improvement of Dungon Creek Reclamation at Iloilo Commercial Port Complex Iloilo 1st District Iloilo-Antique Road Batiano River Flood Control Project Oton-Mambog-Caboloan-Abilay-San Jose Road Iloilo 2nd District Upgrading of Leganes-Sta. Barbara Road Rehabilitation/Upgrading of Iloilo CityLeganes-Dumangas Coastal Road Upgrading of Jct. Bancal-Leon-Antique Boundary Iloilo 3rd District Upgrading of Baje-San Juan-NgingianBingawan Road Upgrading of Pototan-Tina-Lambunao Road Location Estimated Cost (in Million Pesos) 417 583 Implementing Agency Source of Fund

Roxas City Capiz-side

DPWH DPWH

GAA and ODA GAA and ODA

Capiz-side Capiz-side

321 321

DPWH DPWH

GAA GAA

Provincewide Sibunag Jordan

247 60 125

DPWH DPWH PHO/LGU

GAA and ODA ODA GAA and ODA

Iloilo City Iloilo City Iloilo City Iloilo City

1,900 3,300 749 688

DPWH DPWH DPWH DPWH

GAA and ODA GAA and ODA GAA GAA

Iloilo-side Oton Oton

554 668 290

DPWH DPWH DPWH

GAA GAA GAA

Leganes and Sta. Barbara Iloilo City, Leganes and Dumangas Leon and Antique Bingawan Lambunao, Badinagan and Pototan

131 148 343

DPWH DPWH DPWH

GAA GAA GAA

207 325

DPWH DPWH

GAA GAA

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Table 7.2 3/4
Program/Project Title Rehabilitation/Upgrading of Cabatuan-New Lucena Road Iloilo 4th District Concreting of Dumangas Port-Barotac Nuevo-Anilao-Dingle-San EnriquePassi City-Dueñas-Calinog Road Network Repair and Improvement of Dingle Dam, upgrading of irrigation canal and water distribution system Upgrading of Passi-San EnriqueGarita Road Iloilo 5th District Rehabilitation/Reconstruction of Passi-San Rafael-Lemery-Sara Road Repair/Rehabilitation/Upgrading of Iloilo-East Coast-Capiz Road Completion of Barrio Fish Port Bacolod Lone District Reclamation/PMO Bldg. and other facilities in Banago Port Bacolod Circumferential Road Coastal Road Improvement from Sibucao to Punta Taytay Bacolod City Master Drainage Plan Negros Occidental 1st District Concreting of Jct. National RoadSagay-Bato-Dia-nay-Marcelo-Balea Road Bacolod-North Road (North-South Backbone) Location Cabatuan and New Lucena Districtwide Estimated Cost (in Million Pesos) 123 Implementing Agency DPWH Source of Fund GAA

700

DPWH

PDAF

Dingle Passi and San Enrique Passi, San Rafael, Lemery and Sara Iloilo-side Ajuy Bacolod City Bacolod City Bacolod City Bacolod City Escalante, Toboso and Calatrava Escalante, Toboso, Calatrava and San Carlos City Don Salvador Benedicto and Calatrava Manapla Sagay City Manapla, Cadiz City and Sagay City

500 211

NIA DPWH

PDAF GAA

176

DPWH

GAA

333 150 716 457 500 550 517 1,500

DPWH DAR DPWH DPWH DPWH DPWH DPWH DPWH

GAA GAA GAA GAA and ODA GAA GAA GAA GAA and ODA

Concreting of Jct. Don Salvador Benedicto-Spur 16-Calatrava Road Negros Occidental 2nd District Farm to Market Roads in Manapla Construction of Himoga-an Bridge Bacolod-North Road (North-South Backbone)

511

DPWH

GAA

48 188 552

PEO DPWH DPWH

GAA GAA GAA and ODA

Sources: LGUs, DPWH-VI, NIA-VI, PPA-VI, PHO-Guimaras and DAR-VI

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Table 7.2 4/4
Program/Project Title Negros Occidental 3rd District Malogo River Irrigation Project Location Estimated Cost (in Million Pesos) 1,030 Implementing Agency Source of Fund

E.B. Magalona, Silay City and Talisay City Talisay City, Silay City, E.B. Magalona and Victorias City Murcia

NIA

ODA

Bacolod-North Road (North-South Backbone)

246

DPWH

GAA and ODA

Concreting of Jct. Murcia-CansilayanDamsite-Abuanan-Bago City Road Negros Occidental 4th District Restoration/Overlay of Bacolod South Road

145

DPWH

GAA

Pontevedra, San Enrique, Valladolid, Pulupandan and Bago City Bago City San Enrique, La Carlota City, La Castellana Isabela Binalbagan Hinigaran, Binalbagan and Himamaylan City Himamaylan City and Negros Oriental Boundary Ilog Sipalay City and Candoni Kabankalan City and Candoni

107

DPWH

GAA

Bago-Mambucal Road Jct. Bagonawa-La Castellana Road (East-West Lateral)

535 199

DPWH DPWH

GAA GAA

Negros Occidental 5th District Concreting/Upgrading of IsabelaLibas Boundary Road Binalbagan River Irrigation Project (Reservoir Dam) Rehabilitation/Reconstruction of Bacolod South Road

306 743 421

DPWH NIA DPWH

GAA GAA GAA

Construction of Himamaylan CityNegros Oriental Boundary-Tayasan Road Negros Occidental 6th District Ilog-Hilabangan Flood Control Concreting of Candoni-Sipalay Road Construction of Jct. Bearin-SalongTapi-Dacongcogon-Bantayan Road

978

DPWH

GAA

2,600 697 747

DPWH DPWH DPWH

GAA and ODA GAA GAA

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Chapter vIII

huMan reSourCe deveLopMenT
This chapter identifies the soft infrastructure needed to improve human capital in the region. It focuses on education, employment, health and nutrition, and social welfare

A. Assessment and Challenges
Poverty remains as one of the main issues that need to be resolved to improve human capital. Inadequacy in the delivery of social services continues to be a paramount concern in the region. As a direct consequence, the region is faced with challenges such as low performance in education, low assurance of achieving the Millennium Development Goals for health, low employability of graduates, the proliferation of informal settlements in urban areas, and poor conditions of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups.

net enrolment/participation rates for both elementary and secondary levels showed decreasing trend from SY 2004-2005 to SY 2008-2009. For the elementary level, all provinces have consistently not improved their performance, while in the secondary level only the provinces of Aklan and Iloilo have showed improvement. The cohort survival rate (CSR) in the elementary level showed a slight improvement from 70.4 percent in SY 20042005 to 75.5 percent in SY 2008-2009. Fifteen out of seventeen school divisions have increased their CSRs in SY 2008-2009 with Iloilo City getting the highest percentage of 99 percent, followed by Bacolod City with 92.7 percent. The good CSR performance could be attributed to the ability of functional guidance counselors who were able to address the behavioral problems of students.

Education
Basic education in the region performed poorly in recent years. Regional data on the

Table 8.1 Net Enrolment Rates in Elementary and Secondary Education, by Province SY 2004-2005 to SY 2008-2009
School Year Elementary 20042005 80.5 87.0 78.6 84.4 78.0 79.1 78.3 20052006 77.1 84.7 74.5 81.0 75.8 76.8 74.2 20062007 75.0 82.0 72.8 78.4 75.7 75.3 71.3 20072008 75.4 83.6 72.9 81.0 76.1 76.9 71.3 20082009 74.9 82.8 73.1 79.0 75.2 78.00 70.7 20042005 57.0 59.1 56.8 53.0 59.2 55.1 54.4 20052006 54.9 59.7 54.9 51.2 54.5 53.3 52.0 Secondary 20062007 52.9 59.8 49.3 49.9 54.4 52.6 49.8 20072008 53.8 64.7 50.2 50.1 54.7 52.8 49.5 20082009 54.0 62.7 50.4 51.2 54.8 56.9 50.2

Area

Region VI Aklan Antique Capiz Guimaras Iloilo Negros Occidental
Source: DepEd-VI

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On the other hand, low cohort survival rate is attributed to the proliferation of child labor and poor health of students. Child labor caused children to quit school to earn money and help their parents financially, while sickly children dropped out from school. In Table 8.2, there is an erratic trend of cohort survival rate at the secondary level, with low accomplishment in 2004 to 2006, but posting an improvement of 1.7 percentage points from 78.5 percent in SY 2004 - 2005 to 80.2 percent in SY 2008-2009. Of the six divisions of schools, Aklan, Capiz, Guimaras and Negros Occidental have shown low and decreasing CSR, while Antique and Iloilo showed improvements. Aklan registered the greatest decrease at 24 percentage points from a 100 percent CSR in SY 2007-2008 to 76.10 in SY 2008-2009. The low CSR is attributed to poverty, child labor and the preference of students to find work and earn rather than study. The regional data in the elementary level showed that drop-out rates improved

consistently for the past four years. Almost all school divisions progressively improved Guimaras posting the lowest drop-out rate of 0.52 percent in SY 2008-2009. The improvement in the drop-out rate is attributed to the intensive campaign of encouraging students to remain in school as well as the strengthened linkages with external stakeholders after the establishment of school-based management structure. On the other hand, high drop-out rate is caused by absenteeism due to students needing to do family chores or earning a living to help the family, sickness or poor health condition and lack of support and guidance from family because of broken marriages, deaths in the family member/relatives or absentee parents (mostly overseas foreign workers). Meanwhile, the regional drop out rate at the secondary level has worsened, from 6.73 percent in SY 2005-2006 to 6.91 percent in SY 2008-2009. This may be attributed to the poor performance of 10 out of 18 divisions, mostly located in Negros Occidental.

Table 8.2 Cohort Survival Rates in Elementary and Secondary Education by Province and City, SY 2004-2005 to SY 2008-2009
School Year Elementary 20042005 70.4 85.0 68.5 87.4 66.6 84.1 77.4 78.6 63.3 20052006 69.4 78.4 75.5 78.0 62.9 85.4 78.3 90.9 59.4 20062007 73.8 72.3 78.3 92.4 71.0 91.3 78.3 78.2 66.9 20072008 74.8 83.4 78.3 85.6 69.3 91.6 78.9 93.0 65.6 20082009 75.5 74.6 77.0 92.7 69.5 91.6 78.6 99.0 66.4 20042005 78.5 81.8 72.4 82.4 81.9 79.8 82.5 76.2 76.1 20052006 66.9 85.0 74.7 71.0 61.1 44.5 73.6 75.9 61.9 Secondary 20062007 76.6 68.3 68.2 79.5 79.6 83.0 79.5 86.0 77.7 20072008 81.1 100.0 82.0 78.0 89.1 86.3 81.6 79.1 76.1 20082009 80.2 76.1 86.4 83.5 76.6 82.3 83.3 100.0 70.4

Area

Region VI Aklan Antique Bacolod City Capiz Guimaras Iloilo Iloilo City Negros Occidental
Source: DepEd-VI

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Low family income is one of the causes of high drop out rates. Students of secondary school age, which is considered working age, prefer to work during harvest season to augment their family income. Children from low income families tend to have poor health and nutrition resulting in poor educational performance. Notably, drop out rate is higher among males than females. Illiteracy among Indigenous Peoples (IPs) is high. Generally, IP parents encourage their children to pursue higher education. However, dropout rates among school age children are high, with only 60 percent able to complete elementary education. Most IP children drop out of school due to poverty. They take care of their younger siblings while the parents are away earning a living. The irregular attendance of teachers due to inaccessibility of schools in far flung areas also contributed to loss of desire of IP children to attend school. Of those who were able to reach secondary education, only 10 percent are able to pursue college education and young IPs who have attained higher education are not too keen in continuing the practice of their culture and traditions. Illiteracy among IP adults is also high.

In terms of completion rate in the elementary level, the regional data showed an increasing trend from 70.6 percent in SY 2006-2007 to 72.6 percent in SY 2008-2009. However, there are some divisions whose completion rate is erratic. The prime contributory factor to the low completion rate is poverty. A large majority of pupils quit school and never get to finish Grade VI. Although school fees are voluntary, the parents find it hard to meet the financial requirements. Thus, a more concerted effort by the school divisions and stakeholders is needed to meet the target set for 2015-2016. The region’s completion rate at the secondary level showed an increasing trend for the last four years. However, the accomplishment of the Divisions of Aklan, Capiz, Negros Occidental declined from CY 2004-2005 to SY 2008-2009. Among others, the reasons cited were early marriages of high school students, which hampered the completion of the full cycle of basic education, and lack of money to finance their education. One way of ensuring higher participation rate is through the alternative learning system (ALS). The ALS is intended to bring back out-

Table 8.3 Drop Out Rates in Elementary and Secondary Education by Province and City, SY 2005-2006 to SY 2008-2009
School Year Elementary 20052006 2.70 2.73 1.99 2.42 2.46 0.77 2.47 1.66 3.12 20062007 2.68 2.41 1.59 3.71 2.09 0.59 2.53 1.76 3.25 20072008 2.43 2.28 1.53 2.58 1.50 0.49 2.43 1.89 3.06 20082009 2.36 2.10 1.53 2.17 1.72 0.52 2.34 1.41 3.09 20052006 6.73 4.09 6.21 8.28 5.71 5.31 6.03 11.30 7.23 Secondary 20062007 7.04 4.46 5.52 9.06 6.14 4.99 6.29 12.36 6.89 20072008 6.63 4.39 4.73 8.58 6.75 3.84 6.41 8.17 7.21 20082009 6.91 5.03 4.24 8.86 6.02 3.90 6.50 10.98 7.33

Area

Region VI Aklan Antique Bacolod City Capiz Guimaras Iloilo Iloilo City Negros Occidental
Source: DepEd-VI

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of-school youths and adults to the literacy classes/programs and enabling them to pass the accreditation and equivalency test conducted by the government to determine the level of learners, whether they are fit to enter college. In 2009, out of the 6,924 learners, 6,835 took the accreditation and equivalency test with only 15 percent or 1,054 learners passing the exam. The National Achievement Test (NAT) results for SY2005-2006 showed Western Visayas performed poorly compared with other regions. It is one of the bottom three regions, along with ARMM and NCR, in terms of mean percentage scores. Region VI had only a mean percentage score of 49.3 percent compared with the national average of 54.5 percent for elementary. The region did not also fare well in the secondary level, ranking 10th and having only a mean percentage score of only 42.6 percent.

Science was found to be the subject of lowest competence for both elementary and high school students. Also, there has been an erratic trend in achievement rates in subject areas of Mathematics and English for elementary level. Nevertheless, in SY 2008 – 2009, the general regional achievement rate showed improvement, posting 61.98 percent for elementary and 46.52 for high school. The slight increase for high school was a result of the improvement in mastery in Science and English subjects. However, the performance in Mathematics remained low as the mean percentage score dropped by 7.1 percentage points. Both the elementary and secondary achievement rates were still far below from the target of 75 percent. Notably, the majority of the school divisions have low mean percentage scores in the

Table 8.4 Mean Percentage Scores of the National Achievement Test in Grade 6 and Fourth Year High School, SY 2005-2006
Region Philippines NCR CAR I - Ilocos II - Cagayan Valley III - Central Luzon IV -A - CALABARZON IV -B - MIMAROPA V - Bicol VI - Western Visayas VII - Central Visayas VIII - Eastern Visayas IX - Zamboanga Peninsula X - Northern Mindanao XI - Davao XII - Soccskargen CARAGA ARMM
Source: DepEd-VI

Grade 6 54.5 81.6 64.8 86.7 63.4 84.1 75.7 74.0 67.4 81.6 64.8 86.7 63.4 84.1 75.7 74.0 67.4 81.6

Rank 16 7 6 11 10 4 3 13 15 8 2 5 9 12 14 1 17

Fourth Year High School 44.3 69.5 76.7 85.5 68.1 89.4 75.1 74.4 70.6 69.5 76.7 85.5 68.1 89.4 75.1 74.4 70.6 69.5

Rank 11 6 8 5 12 13 7 15 10 3 1 4 9 14 16 2 17

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three subject areas. Based on the key performance indicators reported by the DepEd Central Office, eight of the bottom 40 school divisions in the Philippines are in Western Visayas. These include the division of Roxas City in Capiz, and seven divisions in Negros Occidental. Access to public elementary schools is a perennial problem in remote areas and island barangays. Presently, there are 50 barangays in the region that do not have elementary schools. Rural to urban migration, particularly in Negros Occidental, resulted in congested or overcrowded urban school facilities, especially in the secondary level. Congestion affects learning and motivation. Availability of facilities and human resource for the education sector is still critical. In 2009, enrolment in basic education reached 997,733 and 471,543 for secondary education. Enrolment is expected to increase to 1,011,644 in elementary level and 479,117 in the secondary by 2016. The existing classroom-pupil ratio is 1:60 which is higher than the ideal ratio of 1:40. Shortage of classroom chairs and tables is apparent in 12 out of 17 school divisions in the region. Existing seating facilities for elementary level totaled 603,896 and 420,529 for secondary. Additional 17,991 seating facilities are needed for elementary and 63,180 for secondary. Existing classrooms for elementary and secondary levels are posted at 32,808 and 10,533, respectively. Many classrooms lack adequate toilet and have insufficient water and power supply. About 249 elementary and 465 secondary schools still do not have these facilities. In addition to these inadequacies, a total of 2,916 teachers are still needed for elementary and 2,794 for secondary levels.

The observed lack of motivation and support from many school children parents hamper learning and educational performance. Other than low educational attainment of parents, lack of support and guidance is also attributed to broken marriages, death of family members/relatives and absentee parents. The increasing number of overseas Filipino workers results in families having solo parents, and in several instances, broken marriages. The low employability of tertiary graduates remains a challenge. As new graduates join the workforce annually, very few find jobs because skills available do not match those required by the industry. There is a need to improve curriculum and review relevant courses for better employability of graduates. Another factor which contributed to low employability is the poor performance of graduates in board examinations. In 2008, the performance of board passers from Region VI was lower than the national average in the fields of criminology, agriculture and even in medical-related professions. Table 8.5 Performance in Board Exams (Regional and National Average Scores) 2008
Area of Discipline Maritime Programs Engineering/Architecture Criminology Agriculture Teacher Education Business Education (CPA) Health Related All Programs
Source: CHED-VI

Regional Average (%) 58 40 30 20 37 38 41 38

National Average (%) 55 39 32 32 33 34 44 38

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While integrating ICT into the educational sector requires a considerable investment, an ICT-literate manpower will boost the region’s competitiveness and create new employment opportunities. However, the region is faced with inadequate facilities and ICT-support infrastructure. The performance of technical and vocational education training (TVET) improved for the period 2005 – 2009 with the increase in the number of TVET programs conducted and the number of persons trained. The massive implementation of scholarships and intensive campaign also contributed to the improved performance of the TVET sector. The competency assessment results of TVET graduates and workers, though increasing from 2007 to 2009, show a certification rate of only 66.74 percent which means that there is difficulty in meeting the national industry standards. Competency assessment and certification seek to determine whether the TVET graduate or a worker can perform to the standards expected in the workplace more so, from various training institutions related to tourism, health and business process outsourcing courses. Figure 8.1 Skills Competency Assessment and Certification, 2007-2009

Even with the efforts of TESDA to match courses with industry needs, the inability to fill up available jobs has remained an issue because of lack of qualified applicants. A dearth of experienced and highly skilled workers needed by industries exists, indicative of the low placement rate of TVET and alternative learning system graduates in domestic and foreign companies.

Health
Meeting the country’s commitments, particularly in the health sector of the Millennium Development Goals, is still a daunting task for the region. Given its current performance, the region might not be able to achieve many of these commitments especially in decreasing the maternal mortality rate, infant mortality rate and under five mortality rate. Maternal mortality in the last three years is decreasing, however Field Health Service Information System (FHSIS) data of 2009 showed that most of the deaths occur in the Province of Antique, where facility-based delivery is low and most of the births were attended by hilots. Figure 8.2 Maternal Mortality Rate (per 100,000 live births) 2004-2009

Source: TESDA-VI

Source: FHSIS

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REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016 Chapter VIII: Human Resource Development

Based on existing data, most of the maternal deaths are being reported in the cities of the region because of the presence of hospitals in the areas. Common causes of maternal deaths are toxemia or pregnancy-induced hypertension, postpartum hemorrhage secondary to uterine atony, placenta retention and abortion which occur mostly during the first twenty four hours after delivery, and underscores the need for facilitybased delivery and births handled by skilled professionals. Pregnancy complications, on the other hand, could be attributed to lack of knowledge and poor seeking behavior of mothers in accessing health services. The number of births attended by skilled health personnel increased from 62.9 percent in 2005 to 75.8 percent in 2009. On the other hand, birth deliveries in the health facilities also registered an increase from 40.1 percent in 2005 to 58.6 percent in 2009. The DOH target of 80 percent for the two indicators was not realized. Figure 8.3 Maternal Mortality Rate (per 100,000 live births) by Province, 2005 and 2009

basic life support skills in these barangays. There are many municipalities whose health workers are not trained on Basic Emergency Management on Obstetric and Newborn Care or BEMONC. Figure 8.4 Trend of Infant Mortality Rate and Under-Five Mortality Rate 1993-2008

Source: NDHS

The National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2008 data shows that the region has a fluctuating trend on infant mortality and under-five mortality rates, although higher than the national figures. Among the provinces, Antique registered the highest infant mortality rates of 14.88 and 14.13 per 1,000 live births in 2008 and 2009, respectively, based on the Field Health Service Information System (FHSIS) report. Table 8.6 Infant Mortality Rate (per 1,000 live births)
Area Aklan Antique 2008 12.49 14.88 10.52 7.72 13.40 5.64 2009 9.40 14.13 9.75 5.24 14.10 8.45

Source: FHSIS

Capiz Guimaras Iloilo Negros Occidental
Source: FHSIS

Full delivery of basic health services by health workers was not continuously available in many far-flung barangays of several municipalities in the region. There is lack of health personnel trained and/or updated on

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A review of the under-five mortality data showed that most of these deaths are of neonates or children less than one month of age. Pneumonia remains as the leading cause of child deaths in the region, followed by septicemia, prematurity, congenital anomaly, respiratory distress syndrome, asphyxia, diarrhea, heart diseases, meningitis and tetanus. Some of the underlying causes identified were infectious and degenerative diseases due to indifference of mothers in availing of health and nutrition services, improper eating habits of children, poor caring and hygienic practices and unsanitary conditions which emphasize the need to prioritize quality prenatal care and facility based delivery wherein BEMONC is provided. Table 8.7 Under-Five Mortality Rates 2005 and 2009
Area Region VI Aklan Antique Capiz Guimaras Iloilo Negros Occidental
Source: FHSIS

Nutrition Committees in many municipalities and barangays are non-functional. With regard to the control and prevention Figure 8.5 Trend on the Prevalence of Under Nutrition among Pre-School Children (PSC) 2005-2009

Source: DOH-VI

2005 17.8 15.75 19.94 13.7 18.09 16.53 14.58

2009 9.47 7.98 14.29 6.77 6.95 11.86 7.74

Figure 8.5 shows a decreasing trend in the prevalence of under nutrition among preschoolers. This is a significant progress which could be attributed to joint interventions among the LGUs, DOH, National Nutrition Council (NNC) and other partners. Such interventions include intensive capability building on the infant young child feeding and promotion/advocacy of exclusive breastfeeding. MDG target on nutrition could well be achieved. However, the challenge would be in maintaining and/or lowering further the prevalence of malnutrition in the region considering that

of infectious diseases, Western Visayas is a consistent top performer in immunization for children in the last three consecutive National Demographic and Health Surveys, the latest of which is 91 percent, although below the target of 95 percent. Western Visayas remains polio-free in the last five years with the strong support from the LGUs and private sectors. However, there were clusters of measles cases which necessitated the conduct of special immunization. There are emerging diseases such as dengue, AH1N1 and filiarasis that requires immediate attention. Noticeable too is the increased cases of human rabies and tuberculosis primary complex among children. The proliferation of these diseases may be attributed to inadequate health facilities, equipment and supplies in some public hospitals and rural health centers. It is also attributed to the inaccessibility of health services in rural areas and the inadequacy of funds for health. Aggravating the problem is

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the inadequate access to potable water and sanitation facilities in poor households. From 2004 to 2008, only 40 percent of the total households had access to Level I water supply, 14.2 percent to Level II and 28.12 percent to Level III. However, there was a significant drop in 2009 in Levels I and II coverage by 0.67 percent and 1.02 percent, respectively, because those previously classified as Levels I and II did not meet the criteria set by the Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water which requires water laboratory results from accredited laboratories. The 2007 Census of Population showed that the annual population growth rate of the region was 1.35 percent with a total population of 6,843,643. With the current growth rate, the population is expected to double in 51 years. With the young population of the region, the momentum of population growth is expected to translate in continuing population growth in the coming years, hence, there is a need to provide reproductive health services in public health facilities for families who may wish to avail of them. Although the awareness about contraceptive methods for both men and women was very high (99.4 percent and 99.8 percent, respectively), there was low acceptance of modern family planning methods. Lack of information on the use of contraceptives and lack of access due to the phase out of donated contraceptives could be the reasons for the low acceptance rate. While the prevalence of HIV/AIDS is still less than 1 percent of the general population, it is alarming since it is increasing. To date, there are 124 cases with 31 deaths, most of which are males. The most common mode

of transmission is found in heterosexual activity, especially with male OFWs who may have contracted this disease abroad. Western Visayas has two hubs or treatment centers: Corazon Locsin Montelibano Memorial Regional Hospital in Bacolod City and Western Visayas Medical Center in Iloilo City. The multi-sectors’ involvement in the advocacy on the prevention of HIV/AIDS contributed significantly to more HIV/AIDS positive people coming out. People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) organization, AIDS Core Team in eleven hospitals and 17 local AIDS councils have been organized. Other support services include counseling and logistic assistance to seven social hygiene clinics. For control and prevention of tuberculosis, TB case detection rate at 96 percent and TB cure rate at 92 percent are consistently high at the regional level and have surpassed the 2015 target of World Health Organization (WHO) of 70 percent and 85 percent, respectively. The challenge is to meet the WHO standards in all cities and municipalities.

Social Welfare
At present, the region has 5,132 day care centers of which 2,398 or 45.14 percent are accredited. A total of 171,089 children ages 3-5 years old have availed of day care services from both accredited and non-accredited day care centers. With the increasing population of children aging 3-5 years, there must be a concerted effort to accredit more day care centers and workers to ensure proper day care services. Social services and facilities for the vulnerable and the disadvantaged groups, particularly the elderly, are still inadequate to

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respond to their needs. Out of the 344,814 elderly persons in the region, only 243,102 or 71 percent were issued identification cards by the Office of Senior Citizens Affair. Thus, many elderly are not enjoying the privileges accorded to them under the law. Dissemination of information about various laws pertaining to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups such as out-of-school youths, persons with disabilities, senior citizens, indigenous peoples, victims of violence against women, victims of human trafficking, children in conflict with the law, the urban/rural poor, among others, remain to be weak and limited. Assistance to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups is inadequate due to lack of local coordinating structures. There are 87,519 persons with disabilities in the region comprising of 42,990 males and 44,529 females. The highest number of persons with disabilities is in Negros Occidental with 26,618. The low compliance among building owners of the Accessibility Law or BP 344 has affected their mobility. Table 8.8 Number of Vulnerable and Disadvantaged Persons, 2009
Groups

The Indigenous Peoples (IPs) are spread out in the provinces of Panay Island, Guimaras Island and Negros Occidental. NCIP data showed that the total population of IPs in Region VI is estimated at 179,713. These are the Bukidnon, Ati and Ata/Negrito ethnic groups with a few population of Cuyonen ethnic group in Caluya Island in Antique province. The ancestral domain of the IPs are located in remote and mountainous areas where commuting is usually difficult. Discrimination is highly felt by these groups. Also, poverty is prevalent in indigenous cultural communities (ICC), characterized by food malnutrition, poor health, illiteracy and lack of access to education and medical services. Insurgency finds a fertile ground in ICC areas under these conditions. Table 8.9 Number of Migrant Workers 2009
Migrant Workers Land-based OFWs Sea-based OFWs Total
Source: OWWA-VI

Male 28,640 50,679 79,319

Female 73,326 677 74,003

Total 101,966 51,356 153,322

Persons with Disabilities
87,519 6,137 8,007 6,482 8,658 2,737 22,546 6,334 26,618

Indigenous Peoples
179,713 21,303 44,899

Region VI Aklan Antique Bacolod City Capiz Guimaras Iloilo Iloilo City Negros Occidental

23,331 703 65,936

23,541

Sources: DSWD-VI and NCIP-VI

Based on OWWA’s report, the total number of Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) from Western Visayas reached 153,322 in 2009, of which 101,966 are land-based and 51,356 are sea-based. Of the total OFWs, 51.7 percent are males. OFWs are employed permanently or temporarily as service workers such as domestic workers, production workers and professional/ technical workers. Poverty and lack of economic opportunities drive the residents to migrate as they see overseas migration as their hope for a decent existence. These migrant workers, especially temporary labor

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migrants, thrive on systemic vulnerabilities and oppressions, abuse and exploitation since most of them are not aware of their benefits and rights. There is a need then to ensure that migrants are properly oriented before they depart for their destinations.

Increase 3-5 year old children attending day care service to 55 percent by 2016 All TVET graduates are fully assessed and 80 percent certified by 2016 Increase HEIs regional passing average in board examinations from 38 percent in 2008 to 51 percent by 2016 Increase facility-based births from 58.6 percent in 2009 to 85 percent in 2016 Increase the number of newborns initiated to breastfeeding within one hour after birth to 80 percent Reduce prevalence of malnutrition from 9.97 percent in 2009 to below seven percent by 2016 Increase fully immunized children from 83.6 percent in 2009 to 95 percent by 2016 Zero incidence of malaria cases Decrease incidence of rabies Increase the number of households with access to safe water by 95 percent (with bacteriological examination) in 2016 Increase the number of households with sanitary toilets to 95 percent by 2016 Increase contraceptive prevalence rate from 51.9 percent in 2008 to 80 percent by 2016 Maintain the number of HIV/AIDS victims below one percent of total population TB case detection rate of at least 70 percent and cure rate of at least 85 percent

B. Strategic Framework
Goal
To improve quality and access to social services.
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Objectives/Measurable Targets

Increase net enrolment rate for elementary level, from 74.9 percent in 2009 to 94.9 percent in 2016; and for secondary level, from 54.0 percent in 2009 to 80.0 percent in 2016 Increase cohort survival rate for elementary level, from 75.5 percent in 2009 to 90.0 percent in 2016; and for secondary level, from 80.2 percent in 2009 to 90.0 percent in 2016 Reduce drop-out rate for elementary level, from 2.36 percent in 2009 to 1.95 percent in 2016; and for secondary level, from 6.91 percent in 2009 to 4.04 percent in 2016 Increase achievement rate for elementary level, from 61.98 percent in 2009 to 84.94 percent in 2016; and for secondary level, from 46.52 percent in 2009 to 74.94 percent in 2016 Increase the number of learners of the alternative learning system from 6,924 in 2009 to 7,508 in 2016

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Eighty-five percent of total households and 100 percent of poor households are enrolled in NHIP At least 80 percent of the total IP population will be covered by the National Health Insurance Program Increase the current population of 171,089 children ages 3-5 year old attending day care service to 265,188 or 55 percent by 2016 Increase the number of accredited day care centers and day care workers from 45.1 percent to 75 percent by 2016 Full utilization of the one percent IRA fund for older persons and PWDs in the region 80 percent of the LGUs have organized/ functional inter-agency structures for children and other vulnerable and disadvantaged groups

2. Enhance mastery of basic skills particularly in English, Science and Mathematics. 3. Address the dearth of teachers and facilities for basic education. 4. Strengthen and make more relevant the curriculum and instructions. 5. Ensure school-aged school. children attend

6. Strengthen Special Education Program. 7. Integration of IP culture and tradition in school curriculum. 8. For technical vocational education and training, develop holistic curriculum in coordination with industry needs. 9. Intensify industry linkages with tech/voc trainings. 10. Provide additional training scholarships and assistance for out-of-school youths and graduates of government entrepreneurship programs. 11. Build up the capability of TVET institutions. 12. Broaden access to higher education especially among the poor. 13. Expand Faculty Development Programs of Higher Education Institutions. 14. Harness the potential and power of Information and Communications Technologies through education. 15. On health, implement cost-effective public health measures to reduce risks to possible maternal and newborn deaths.

Development Strategies
The anti-poverty program of President Aquino focuses on building capacities and creating opportunities among the poor and the marginalized. Priority will be along the following areas: creation of local jobs so that working abroad will be a choice rather than a necessity, skills trainings and creating opportunities among the poor and the marginalized sectors, making education as the central strategy for investing in people along with the protection of their health. 1. On basic education, enhance performance of school divisions with low school participation and high drop out rates.

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16. Fast track interventions through the implementation of an integrated Maternal Newborn Child Health and Nutrition Strategy. 17. Implement programs. focused public health

29. Capacitate families affected by disaster and provide aid to individuals/families in crisis situation.

Policy and Legislative Agenda

18. Enforce proper sanitation and provide adequate and safe water for all. 19. Implement reproductive health programs. 20. Upgrade health facilities to expand capacity and provide quality services. 21. Financial risk protection through expansion in National Health Improvement Program enrollment and benefit delivery. 22. Capacitate health workers. 23. Under social welfare, implement the National Household Targeting System for Poverty Reduction project. 24. Ensure community participation planning and governance. in
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Support the passage of House Bill providing for the Magna Carta for Day Care Workers to ensure proper handling of child care services in day care centers. Support the passage of a law establishing a competitive system for registration, licensing and accreditation of social welfare an development agencies to ensure effectiveness, efficiency and accountability in the delivery of quality social welfare and development program and services. Establish special health fund to support local programs along health, nutrition and sanitation.

Priority Activities
1. With the passage of RA 9155 (Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001) which empowers school heads, the implementation of school-based management programs will be fully realized. The active involvement of stakeholders will be likewise sought. 2. Improvement in learning methods and materials on English, Science and Mathematics will be undertaken. Distribution of resources will be based on needs so as to address inadequacy in learning facilities in basic education. ICT package and internet connectivity to public schools will be provided.

25. Intensify advocacy in the utilization of Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) funds for programs/projects mandated in social welfare related laws. 26. Explore livelihood opportunities and access to capital for the economically active poor families. 27. Provide and strengthen coordination of delivery of basic services to IP communities. 28. Promote the protection of overseas Filipino workers and their families.

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3. To address the dearth of teachers and facilities for basic education, teaching positions will be created and teachers and education managers will undergo capability-building trainings. There is a need to construct new/rehabilitation/ repair of classrooms and provide additional seats for learners. Tables and chairs for teachers, as well as, textbooks and teacher’s manuals will be procured that will result in a 1:1 ratio. Also, water and sanitation facilities will be provided. 4. To strengthen and make the curriculum and instruction more relevant, the K-12 program will provide universal kinder education to five year old children and a 12-year basic education cycle that will add two years high school. This will be provided free by government. 5. In ensuring that school-age children are in school, priority will be given to 5-year olds and the 6-year olds to be in Kinder and Grade 1, respectively. Facilities and amenities in pre-school will be enhanced since preschool is a jumpstart for basic education. Local government units will be encouraged to provide financial resources to day care centers and nurseries and also to hire teachers/tutors. 6. Special educational programs for children with special needs will be strengthened. Teachers will be trained in primary and secondary schools with high incidence of children with special needs. 7. The DepED curriculum allows for localization of curriculum. In this case, schools in IP areas will develop and integrate indigenization of IP cultures and traditions in school curricula. There are several initiatives along this direction

that should be documented, improved and promoted for replication in other schools. Also programs such as School of Indigenous Knowledge, Arts and Tradition (SIKAT) shall be looked into for possible replication and institutionalization in IP areas. SIKAT encourages enrolment of IP children to attend formal schooling and utilizing indigenous curriculum, teaching approaches and methodologies. 8. The skill competencies of graduates from training institutions will be strengthened to meet, not just local industry needs, but also international standards. Advocacy on the offering of new courses needed by industries, including shifts from white to blue-collar jobs, will be promoted among high school students including parents and out-of-school youths. Incentives will be provided to industries that partner with academe and training institutions. Guidance counselors’ networks, that will assist students in determining their course paths, should be strengthened. 9. Among business, industry, education and training providers, government and other social partners will be strengthened and intensified to promote enterprisebased training that will allow the allimportant industry exposure to trainees. Participation in curriculum development, competency standards development and the planning and implementation of skills development programs will provide for a more industry-responsive TVET. 10. As a poverty alleviation strategy, Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is an alternative which can provide greater access to employment for those financially deprived students and out-ofschool youths. When adequately provided

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with sufficient skills, they will be given priority in job placement opportunities. Financially-challenged graduates of government entrepreneurship programs will be given financial support and assistance. 11. Extending continued assistance to TVET institutions to improve training facilities, curriculum and learning materials development and qualifying TVET trainers will enable these institutions to align their programs to standards of highly in-demand courses. Likewise, further development of selected centers based on priority sectors for hard-to-find skills will be initiated. 12. Scholarship programs in state universities and colleges, as well as, in duly recognized private higher education institutions will be broadened to encourage poor but deserving students to pursue tertiary education. Moreover, scholarships or subsidies will be provided to students enrolled in undersubscribed programs, but are needed by industries. 13. The ongoing Faculty Development Program has supported faculty scholars pursuing Masters and PhD in priority disciplines. The percentage of faculty with graduate degrees has increased largely as a result of this. This will further be strengthened by encouraging faculties to engage in researches responsive to the regional needs. 14. While integrating ICT into the educational sector requires a considerable investment, an ICT literate nation will boost the region’s and the nation’s labor competitiveness and will create new employment opportunities. One mode

is by integrating ICT in the curriculum across primary, secondary, tertiary and vocational and technical training and provides necessary content. High schools and higher education institutions should be equipped with computer laboratory and internet access with internet ready computers, LCDs and printers. Teachers, educators and trainers shall receive ICT trainings to facilitate the use on ICT and education and virtual and regional network for teacher training and online education portal can be created to support in their transition to ICT-based education. It is encouraged to establish online knowledge sharing for access and use by teachers at all levels. 15. Cost-effective public health measures capable of reducing exposure to and severity of increased risks to possible maternal and newborn deaths will be implemented in all public health institutions and in private health care facilities. These public health measures shall reach and cover population of women of reproductive age. Core packages of services are appropriate for each life stage: pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, delivery, post-natal and newborn. Clinical services cover prenatal care, clean and safe delivery, newborn care, post-partum care, emergency obstetrics and newborn care, prevention and management of abortion complications. Public health interventions include diagnostic and screening services, family planning, maternal health and nutrition services, newborn health and nutrition services, support services for women, mothers and newborn, health promotion, etc. 16. To attain MDG 4 and 5, the DOH, hand in hand with th LGUs, shall fast track

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the implementation of an Integrated Maternal Newborn Child Health and Nutrition Strategy. This calls for the enhancing capacity of health personnel to handle emergency obstetric and newborn care. Health facilities and necessary equipment will be provided. Already, WVMC was assigned as the training center for BEMONC and all Municipal Health Centers in Capiz have trained teams. Meanwhile, training is being rolled-out in the rest of identified BEMONC facilities. 17. Public health programs shall be focused on reducing maternal and child mortality, morbidity and mortality from TB and malaria, and the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, in addition to being prepared for emerging disease trends, and prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. These shall be attained by deploying community health teams that shall actively assist families in assessing and acting on their health needs; utilizing the life cycle approach in providing needed services, namely: family planning; antenatal care; delivery in health facilities; essential newborn and immediate postpartum care; and the Garantisadong Pambata package for children 0-14 years of age; aggressively promoting healthy lifestyle changes to reduce non-communicable diseases; ensuring public health measures to prevent and control of communicable diseases, and adequate surveillance and preparedness for emerging and reemerging diseases; and harnessing the strengths of interagency and inter-sectoral cooperation to health especially with the DA, DepEd, DOST, DENR and DSWD.

18. The Sanitary Code of the Philippines will be strictly enforced. Advocacy and networking will be intensified to properly enforce the regulations under the Code. 19. The Responsible Parenthood and Natural Family Planning Program will be advocated to women of reproductive age. Adolescent Health and Youth Development Program will also be implemented at the barangay level. The establishment of Teen Centers in Schools will be undertaken. Capability building for teachers will be provided in order to manage teen centers and provide counseling especially on adolescent premarital sex. 20. Government-owned and operated hospitals and health facilities will be upgraded to expand capacity and provide quality services to help attain MDGs, attend to traumatic injuries and other types of emergencies, and manage non-communicable diseases and their complications. These includes a targeted health facility enhancement program that shall leverage funds for improved facility preparedness to adequately manage the most common causes of mortality and morbidity, including trauma; provision of financial mechanisms drawing from public-private partnerships to support the immediate repair, rehabilitation and construction of selected priority health facilities; fiscal autonomy and income retention schemes for government hospitals and health facilities; unified and streamlined Department of Health (DOH) licensure and Phil Health accreditation for hospitals and health facilities; and regional clustering and referral networks of health facilities based on their catchment areas to address the current

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fragmentation of health services in some regions as an aftermath of the devolution of local health services. 21. The poor are to be protected from the financial impacts of health care use by improving the benefit delivery ratio of the NHIP. This maybe achieved through Redirecting PhilHealth operations towards the improvement of the national and regional benefit delivery ratios; expanding enrolment of the poor in the NHIP to improve population coverage; promoting the availment of quality outpatient and inpatient services at accredited facilities through reformed capitation and no balance billing arrangements for sponsored members, respectively; increasing the support value of health insurance through the use of information technology upgrades to accelerate Phil Health claims processing, and others; and a continuing study to determine the segments of the population to be covered for specific range of services and the proportion of the total cost to be covered/ supported. 22. Public health workers will have to be trained on emerging diseases such as AH1N1. The capability of the public health sector in responding to communicable diseases will be strengthened to respond to outbreaks and human contagion. Vulnerable groups like children will have to be immunized to protect them from diseases. 23. Regularly updated data in every barangay is needed as basis in determining the poor households and in targeting beneficiaries for government programs and services. The utilization of the National Household Targeting Survey results is necessary to

ensure that targeted recipients are truly poor families. 24. Community demand driven approach to development will be advocated. This will ensure community participation in planning, improve local governance and help in the prioritization of community subprojects. 25. Advocacy with LGUs in providing funding support to social welfare-related programs and projects as mandated in existing laws shall be intensified. These include the allocation of one percent funds as mandated by RA 9344 (Juvenile Justice Welfare Act), proper utilization of 5 percent Gender and Development fund, Circular 003: Setting aside one percent of the total budget of all cities and municipalities, state universities and colleges and government institutions (0.5 percent for Senior Citizen and 0.5 percent for differently-abled persons), and full implementation of child welfare related laws. This will ensure a budget for programs/projects for the disadvantaged and vulnerable groups such as health facilities and income-generating projects for persons with disabilities, residential care for children who are orphaned, abandoned and neglected, livelihood training for special children and out-of school youths. 26. There shall be more projects and programs that provide seed capital to economically active poor families for micro enterprise project. Continuing capability building activities will be conducted such as value reorientation, basic business management, credit management, organization development to family beneficiaries.

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27. Many national government agencies, LGUs and civil society groups provide assistance in the delivery of equitable and sustainable services to indigenous cultural communities/indigenous peoples areas. However, there is a need for strong coordination and convergence of programs, projects and services to create impact. Basic services such as IP-focused education, health services, housing, potable water, basic infrastructure, livelihood, occupational health and safety and other social services shall be delivered to the IP sector in a coordinated manner. 28. Salient provisions of RA 10022 (Amendatory Law on Magna Carta for Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos) shall be pursued. These include the formulation of policies that would establish a standard of protection and promote the empowerment of migrants and their families. This is critical to protect migrant workers from abuse and exploitation. This is adequately responded to by R.A.10022 (Amendatory Law on Magna Carta for Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos). 29. Capability building activities such as Family and Community Preparedness Training are needed for affected families and communities. Psycho-social support such as stress debriefing, cash for work, food for work and housing assistance will be among the immediate interventions that government should provide to individuals/families in crisis.

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Chapter IX

reSearCh and deveLopMenT ThruSTS
This chapter focuses on building the capabilities of institutions along research and effectively transferring new knowledge and technologies to targeted recipients.

A. Assessment and Challenges
New knowledge and technology, as a product of research and development, has significantly improved the quality of human life over the years. Technology produced medicines that improved longevity and cured various ailments, machines that eased human labor, equipment and gadgets that broadened human knowledge, and systems that improved commercial transactions. Modern technology also enhanced food production and improved product quality and utility. All these improvements in the quality of life were products painstakingly done by innovators and scientists. The region envisions itself to be at the forefront of agriculture-based industrialization. This involves production of globally-competitive and innovative industrial goods which can generate substantial export earnings for local industries. To achieve this, product innovation and technology generation must be in place through more intensified research and development efforts. Presently, the region’s research and development thrusts have not been vigorously pursued due to the slow institutionalization of research and development programs in various agencies and institutions.

Weak performance in research and development is attributed to the lack of harmonization of priority areas by the different agencies and institutions with research mandate. Researchers and scientists are not motivated to conduct studies and may not be well-informed on the incentives available for them. Their competence, facilities and equipment for technology commercialization need to be improved to effect faster technology transfer in order to extensively respond to the requirements of industry and other users. Furthermore, linkages of research to extension services and activities remain weak. Also, there is no overall mechanism for facilitating collaboration among the various research and development consortia and networks in the region. Currently, there is no effective information system that can serve as a portal for sharing and disseminating newly generated researches and technologies. As a result, the sharing, adaptation, and transfer of technology are limited and very much constrained. Research and development efforts are mainly constrained by the inadequate creation and utilization of science and technology human capital. There is low interest to pursue science and technology courses resulting in inadequacy in the number of per capita researchers and scientists in the region. Moreover, the available science and technology graduates sometimes have

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mismatched competency vis-à-vis industry requirements. Another major concern is the inadequacy of existing infrastructure for science and technology research and development. It is important to improve access to available facilities in the region to optimize their utilization. In terms of science and technology service providers like laboratories and testing centers, only the DOST VI Regional Standards and Testing Laboratory (RSTL) has acquired accreditation ISO/IEC 17025. Crop productivity has been constrained by the failure to develop appropriate agricultural technologies that can boost production of crops, livestock and fisheries. In the past decade, the prawn industry collapsed due to the failure to arrest the various diseases plaguing the industry and also for the inability to generate technology that can enhance production. The potentials of mango, cashew nuts, ginger, etc. have not been fully tapped as major export products. As the region envisions itself to be a leader in agriculture production, modern methods and technologies in agriculture and fisheries need to be generated and adapted. Better techniques must be developed to enhance the region’s lagging competencies in the elementary and secondary levels. The poor performance of the region in nationallyadministered achievement tests reflect the inability to cope with new learning methods and techniques. Innovative learning systems must be developed to enhance student performance especially in mathematics and sciences. Social science researches must focus on improving absorptive and creative capacities of pupils and enhancing teachers’ ability to infuse and trigger new knowledge.

Despite the presence of flora and fauna which can be developed as cure for various ailments and diseases, and for bio-diesel production, local researches on traditional medicine and bio-fuel extraction processes are not sufficiently given attention. However, the recent outbreak of dengue and hemorrhagic fever in the region has encouraged local researchers to explore the use of local plants, like the “tawa-tawa”, possibe cure for these ailments. The rich biodiversity of plants in the region can be explored as potentials to cure cancer, diabetes, HIV, cardiovascular diseases, among others, and for bio-fuel production. The threat of climate change, particularly on agriculture, health and nutrition, and biodiversity challenges the sector. In the region, climate change adaptation is still in its inception stage. At present, the region lacks the capability of monitoring climate change and its impacts, assessing vulnerabilities, piloting adaptation interventions, planning longer-term adaptation efforts and warning systems for incoming calamities. Moreover, the dearth of experts on climate change adaptation hampers efforts to mitigate these occurrences. Only few researchers delve into climate change adaptation or resiliency enhancing studies.

B. Strategic Framework
Goal
To enhance technological innovation and modernization to support the region’s agriindustrial and tourism development thrusts.

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Objectives/Measurable Targets

Policy and Legislative Agenda

Formulate a regional research and development (R&D) agenda Create a Regional R&D Coordinating Council Establish a technology databank Establish a research and development ICT-enhanced library Establish six new R&D Centers Develop six pilot demonstration-farms technology

Pass a law promoting commercialization of agricultural research results. Local legislations supporting the implementation of the “Magna Carta for Science and Technology” and the “Technology Transfer Act of 2009”, among others.

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Priority Activities
1. A Regional Research and Development Coordinating Council will be created to coordinate the research and development efforts of the various research institutions and consortia in the region. It will serve as the clearing house for all research and technology generation initiatives so that limited resources can be channeled to highly relevant and priority research efforts. Relevant oversight bodies and line agencies, state universities and colleges and research institutions, among others, shall be the members of the Coordinating Council. The Coordinating Council will also assess and review the region’s existing/ mature technologies for tie-ups with the industries. To guide the Coordinating Council in prioritizing research efforts, the Regional Research Agenda, 20102015 will be updated to generate more ideas and researchable topics. 2. Efforts shall be exerted to develop diverse programs for technology commercialization in the region. Indigenous products like mango, cashew, ginger, muscovado, piña, abaca fiber and livestock, among others, shall be carefully

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Development Strategies
1. Harmonize research and development efforts. 2. Promote the commercialization of generated knowledge and technologies. 3. Explore new, innovate learning techniques to improve educational competencies. 4. Enhance linkages between research institutions and industry. 5. Establish strategic knowledge centers and technology bank. 6. Advocate for bigger budgetary support for research and development programs, projects and activities of national government agencies. 7. Upgrading R&D establishment of Network. facilities and Open Laboratory

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studied and nurtured so that their export potentials can be maximized. Other activities that would support this strategy will include the strengthening of the DOST Small Enterprises Technology Upgrading Program (SET-UP), establishment of technology hubs and technology development and packaging assistance, among others. Techno Hubs will function as onestop-shop for commercialization of technologies as well as S&T services. Packaging materials that will make the local products more attractive in the world market will be developed and commercially produced. Indigenous healing practices will be studied for medical purposes. The diverse biodiversity of the region is a goldmine for health and medicinal products, as well as, bio-fuel products that are commercially viable. Research institutions will focus their efforts towards exploring the commercial viability and medicinal values of these plants and values for bio-fuel production. Adoption of climate change resilient technologies will be advocated. Institution leaders will be capacitated to understand and address issues on potential climaterelated losses to economies and societies which would give them options for averting such losses including the investments that will be required to fund those measures. Comprehensive capability building activities will be undertaken to capacitate stakeholders in the region in order to maximize their technical knowhow in preparing and implementing climate-adaptation programs.

3. Social science researches will be undertaken to explore and adopt new methods, systems and techniques that will improve the region’s competencies in all educational levels. Improvement in the area of research and development shall entail creation and maintenance of qualified researchers with creativity and flexibility. Hence, capability programs/trainings for research institutions and other research oriented groups shall be provided to ensure sustainability of research and development programs and also improve human resource. To ensure that research institutions have competent science and technology personnel, the “Balik Scientist” and other scholarship programs will be pursued and given priority. Assistance shall be provided to scientists in the registration of their intellectual property so that the knowledge generated by these scientists can be appropriately protected and remunerated. 4. Commercialization of new technologies entails the transfer of newly-generated and adopted researches from universities and other research institutions to industries. A functional tie-up through research-industry-business (RIB) encounters can immensely improve the transfer of appropriate technology and advance skills needed by the industry. A knowledge management system will facilitate the flow of data and provide the necessary platform for sharing information among the academe, research institutions and industry. A research and development ICTenhanced library will be established in

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strategic state universities and colleges and private educational institutions as depository of commercially viable technologies. Educational institutions with proven capability and ready advanced facilities for properly organizing and cataloguing research materials will serve as databank for all commercially viable and financially feasible researches. The libraries assure data sharing among the research institutions and at the same time serve as the “one-stop shop” for mature researches and technologies. While the region will strive to establish one technology data bank that will serve as the repository of viable researches and technologies for commerce, six research and development centers will be developed, one for each province, which will replicate the regional technology data bank. For agriculture and natural resources technologies, six new demonstration farms will be established, one for each province. 5. Research and development activities particularly on science and technology come with a range of costs, and the needed financial investments such as the establishment of open laboratory networks. Capability of private research institutions will be strengthened to improve their technology generation and adaptation capacities. They will also be tapped to conduct researches on climate change mitigation and adaptation. Provide the necessary resources to strengthen the critical agencies involved in R&D like the DOST, DA, DENR, DOH, CHED, among others. Support will be given to research and development institutions to conduct basic or upstream researches along the areas of agriculture,

natural resources, industry, health and education. 6. The R&D facilities in the region will be upgraded and modernized to utilize current trends like telemetry, use of electronic devices and equipment and systematization of laboratories An open laboratory network will maximize the use of the many laboratories in the region and lead to the full implementation of the priority R&D areas for Western Visayas.

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Chapter X

BIo-FueLS and renewaBLe energY deveLopMenT
This chapter outlines how Western Visayas will become the country’s front-runner in bio-fuels and renewable energy mix by 2020.

A. Assessment and Challenges
For the past six years, the strategies drawn up for the energy sector were designed primarily towards ensuring energy security and assuring a 60 percent power selfsufficiency beyond 2010, and implementing power sector reforms in order to establish electricity markets that would make available competitive electricity prices. The country has vigorously encouraged the implementation of renewable energy (RE) projects to increase energy self-sufficiency and to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The Bio-fuels Act of 2006, the Renewable Energy Act of 2008 and Climate Change Act of 2009 are the enabling laws which support and promote the shift to more sustainable and indigenous energy sources. In recent years, the country’s vulnerability to fluctuations in fuel prices has challenged the region to look for alternative sources of fuel and power. In the case of Region VI, with a more aggressive push at the regional and local levels culminating with the RE Summit in 2008 in Iloilo City, private sector investors expressed their firm commitment to venture into renewable and eco-friendly

power generating projects. Already, the Department of Energy (DOE)has declared Western Visayas as the country’s laboratory for renewable energy, pointing to upcoming projects that will draw power from wind, solar, bio-mass, sea current, and hybrid power configurations. The vast sugarcane plantations in Panay and Negros Occidental and the steadily increasing areas planted with jatropha provide enormous opportunities for bio-fuel production. “Bio-fuel” basically refers to organically-derived materials where solid, liquid or gaseous materials can be produced for either bio-ethanol or bio-diesel. Region VI can claim pioneering efforts in this field and has made significant strides in renewable energy development. The country’s first bio-ethanol plant, the San Carlos Bioenergy in San Carlos City, Negros Occidental with a 40 million liter annual capacity, was inaugurated in September 4, 2009 and is expected to provide ten percent of the country’s ethanol requirements. This P3 billion-facility marks a critical technological advancement for the sugar industry in the region. The 15 MW bagassefed Co-Generation Power Plant of the Central Azucarera de San Antonio (CASA) located in Passi City, Iloilo is already operational. The

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Table 10.1 On-going, Completed, and Operational Bio-Fuels and RE Power Projects
Proponent Hydro Power Sunwest Water & Electric Company, Inc. (SUWECO) National Irrigation Administration (NIA) Conal Holdings/Alto Power Mgt. Corp. Description 8MW Villasiga Hydro and 2.1MW Guiamon-San Ramon Hydro Jalaur River Multi-Purpose Project to generate 11.5MW of Power 40MW Bago River Hydro (P4B investment which will build 3 hydro plants along the Bago River in San Carlos, Don Salvador Benedicto and Murcia) 15kW Igpatuyao Micro Hydro 40kW Canauilan-Barasalon Micro 32kW Balea Micro Hydro 32kW Vergara-Magtu-od Micro Hydro 21kW Baclao MicroHydro 54MW San Lorenzo Wind Farm (US$100-million investments) 15MW Passi Co-Gen Power Plant 15MW Cabalabaguan Biomass Plant 12MW Agbanawan Biomass Plant 30 MW Pedada Biomass Power Plant 21MW FFHC Co-Gen Power Plant Location Bugasong, Antique Laua-an Antique Calinog & Lambunao, Iloilo Don Salvador Benedicto, Neg. Occ. Sebaste, Antique Janiuay, Iloilo Calatrava, Neg. Occ. Toboso, Neg. Occ. Cauayan, Neg. Occ. San Lorenzo, Guimaras Passi, Iloilo Mina, Iloilo Banga, Aklan Ajuy, Iloilo Talisay City, Neg. Occ. On-going On-going For ICC/ NEDA Board approval MOA for hydro power exploration inked between Conal/Alto, Negros Province & LGU Kabankalan On-going Completed Completed Completed Completed On-going Status

CPU-ANEC/JICA Preferred Energy Inc. Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction

Wind Power Trans-Asia Renewable Energy Corp. (TAREC) Biomass Power Central Azucarera de San Antonio Green Power Panay Phils., Inc. Asea One Power Corp.

Operational On-going site preparation On-going site devt. and procurement of equipment On-going site acquisition Commissioned; 5MWpower supply agreement inked between CENECO & FFHC to be approved by ERC. Power is meanwhile exported to Cebu. Operational; inaugurated last Sept. 4, 2009 Completed Site acquisition

First Farmers Holding Corp.

Bioethanol Bronzeoak

Roxol Bioenergy Corp. Biofuels International Philippines, Inc. Geothermal Energy Devt. Corp.

San Carlos Bioenergy – the 1st sugarcane based ethanol (125,000 liters daily capacity) and cogeneration plant (8MW) in Asia Bioethanol Plant with 100,000 liters daily production capacity Co-generation plant capable of producing 19MW at 45 million liters of alcohol 10MW-Northern Negros Geothermal Project 30MW-Northern Negros Steam Augmentation Project

San Carlos City, Neg. Occ. La Carlota City, Neg. Occ. Murcia, Negros Occ. Bago City & Murcia Neg. Occ. Buffer Zone of Mt. Kanlaon Natural Park, Neg. Occ.

Recommissioned last May 2009 Civil works- completed Well drilling on-going

Source: RDA, CY 2010-2020

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Northern Negros Geothermal Project in Bago City and Murcia, Negros Occidental was recommissioned last May 2009 providing a 10 MW of geothermal power. Recently, however, there appears to be no new investments on Renewable Energy despite efforts to entice investors to come in. This could be attributed to the low awareness of potential investors on RE incentives and benefits; the lack of information and education campaign by concerned agencies; and the slow processing of application for RE contracts. One option that is being looked into to resolve power deficit is net metering. As enshrined in the RE Law, net metering is an offsetting mechanism that is proposed for all endusers who are willing to take the initiative to generate new and renewable energy sources for their own use, with the option of selling extra RE power to the grid. Presently, however, the grid in the region is not yet ready to accept the net metering scheme. There are initial proposals formulated by the National Renewable Energy Board (NREB), mainly for residential end users that will integrate the cost of setting up the scheme with feed-in tariff. Commercial end-users will be treated differently. As noted by NREB, there will be two special metering systems: one to measure the export of kWh and the other to measure the import of kWh. The DOE is currently undertaking a study, with support from JICA, for initial testing of net metering technologies in some pilot areas. On bio-fuels, the issue of food production and biodiversity function may arise since the areas earmarked for bio-fuel production might encroach on the areas for food production. In the same manner, the seasonal availability of feed stocks, such as agricultural wastes

and low fuel wood production due to low marginal land utilization for biomass power may prove a hindrance to the full operation of the plants. Nevertheless, the use of biomass power can directly increase savings in household energy expenditures by reducing household operational expenses, as well as, reducing health-related expenditures with the introduction of clean and efficient fuels. Due to the slow formulation of the Energy Conservation Law, there appears to be a lack of awareness on the demand-side management (DSM) option of energy utilization. DSM refers to cooperative activities between the utility and its customers (sometimes with the assistance of third parties such as energy services companies and various trade allies) to implement options for increasing the efficiency of energy utilization and the resulting benefits to the customer, utility, and society as a whole. In view of this, there may be a need to develop new methodologies in accounting the true costs and benefits of power projects, with particular emphasis on protective tariff setting regulation and value added tax (VAT) collection from RE developers, as well as, other impacts of using alternative energy sources. These may include, among others, environmental and social impacts including gender-differentiated impacts in bio-fuel production, updated data from DOE with regard to site potentials and characterization, updated data from the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics to support bio-fuel and biomass investment requirements and transmission requirements for RE sources. A more comprehensive economic valuation methodology is required especially for the evaluation of power projects in areas considered non-viable by the private sector which may require government intervention.

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The shift to more climate-friendly sources of power involves dynamics that are beyond technological transformation alone, e.g. corresponding shifts in financing policies. For small RE projects there is a need to provide windows for micro-financing to households and communities considering that the usually higher investment cost of non-fossil fuel-based energy may present financing challenges, particularly in the case of non-viable areas. A comprehensive assessment of available renewable energy sources throughout the region may be necessary for the smooth implementation of the RE Act, as well as, the formulation of a comprehensive energy policy that is responsive to the current environmental concerns.

All major e-jeepneys

urban

centers

utilizing

Utilization of solar or wind power for schools

Development Strategies
1. Improve processing of application for contracts of renewable energy. 2. Widely disseminate incentives and benefits to increase investments in renewable energy projects. 3. Enhance awareness on the demand side management option. 4. Advocate for proper land use and zoning. 5. Develop and support alternative sources of energy.

B. Strategic Framework
Goal
To Increase dependable power capacity and reliability and ensure reasonable power rates.

Policy and Legislative Agenda

Objectives/Measurable Targets
■ ■ ■ ■

Pass a law imposing 20 percent tariff on imported bio-ethanol to make the fledgling local ethanol industrq more competitive. Pass an Energy Conservation Law to lower electrical consumption through the use of energy-efficient facilities and technologies. Local ordinances to facilitate clearance of sites for renewable energy projects.

Construct one hydropower project Establish one wind power project Install two biomass power projects Construct additional bio-ethanol power project Establish one geothermal power project

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Priority Activities
1. The region is poised to provide full support to investors on bio-fuel and renewable energy projects in order to increase dependable power capacity and reliability. RDC will request ERC/NREB to fast-track the issuance of the guidelines on the ruling on renewable portfolio standards, feed-in tariff and net metering, as well as, updates on protective tariff setting regulations and value added tax collection from RE developers and other related issues. 2. Intensification of IEC on RE incentives and benefits, both at the regional and local levels will be undertaken with the participation of the DOE, independent power producers, and local government units in order to increase public/investors awareness. This will involve the conduct of sustained regular IEC activities through fora/summits and capacity-building of host LGUs in preparing the required documents for the availment of RE Law benefits. 3. By fast-tracking the formulation of the Energy Conservation Law, there will be an increased awareness on demand-side management (DSM) options. Guidelines for DSM will be provided to LGUs, regional line agencies, NGOs, the academe and other stakeholders to strengthen and enhance the energy efficiency and conservation program. LGUs will then be encouraged to pass local ordinances providing incentives to DSM adopters. 4. Areas earmarked for bio-fuel production will be delineated through proper land use and zoning. The LGUs will identify compatible sites for bio-fuel

production, while the mapping out of suitable areas and species will be a multi-agency (DA, DOST, Academe, DENR, DAR, DOE and LGUs) concern. Farm areas currently planted with rice and corn will not be compromised in order to protect the supply of these staples for human consumption and to sustain feeds production for the region’s growing livestock and poultry industries. Extension support for bio-fuel crops will be in the form of trainings, provision of planting materials, tissue culture laboratories, and market information on prices to ensure profitable returns for planters. 5. To support biomass power generation, marginal lands for feedstock and fuel wood production will be optimized providing additional income to local communities and fueling the rural economy. A network for collecting agriculture wastes like rice and corn stalks, rice husks, wood chips, bagasse, coconut husks, among many others, will be set up starting at the barangay leading to a central consolidator. Existing rural cooperatives will be strengthened and utilized in this endeavor to provide additional income to their members. A techno-economic study of the Ethanol Alliance in 2007 shows that Negros Island has the potential to host seven to nine biofuel production facilities and each can produce an average of 100,000 liters to 150,000 liters of ethanol a day. In this regard, the Northern Negros BioFuel Corporation signed a memorandum of agreement with the Philippine National Oil Corporation (PNOC)-Alternative Fuel Corporation for the planting of jathropha curcas on about 5,000 hectares in

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Cadiz City within the next three years. Joint ventures with existing sugar mills are already inked and will continually be promoted to reduce costs and take advantage of the proximity of raw materials and facilities. 6. Solar projects in far-flung areas will be used to power schools, health centers and even residences. In major urban centers, LGUs will advance the use of E-jeepneys with solar panels to replace fuel dependent public utility jeepneys (PUJ). 7. DOE will provide an updated database for RE-related studies, while the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) will provide updated agricultural statistics for biofuel and biomass-based power-related studies. The conduct of baseline studies for technical measurements such as wind regime, and hydro flow duration curves, among others, will be undertaken by DOE, DOST and the academe. The LGUs will provide local inventory of RE resources in their respective areas. 8. The National Grid Corporation of the Philippines (NGCP), together with the distribution utilities and the independent power producers, will undertake pro-active planning for the transmission system needed by the RE in order to ensure easy access and connection to the Grid. For the region, the distribution of power will be facilitated with the completion of the Southern Panay Backbone Transmission Project by 2011. With the NorthernPanay Backbone Transmission Project already in place, the Southern Panay Transmission Project will essentially complete the electricity highway for the provinces of Aklan, Antique, Capiz and

Iloilo in Panay Island. The underwater cables interconnecting Panay, Guimaras and Negros will be uprated to allow for higher capacity power sharing within Region VI and among the Visayas regions. 9. The Affiliated Renewable Energy Centers (ARECs) established by DOE in universities and agricultural colleges with strong technical capabilities and community outreach programs will continuously be supported and strengthened. These centers are designated by DOE as its extension arms in the provinces to promote the use of non-conventional or renewable energy for a sustainable countryside development and cleaner environment and also to help implement area-based rural energy programs. The establishment of reliable and cheaper sources of energy will pave the way for modernizing the agriculture and fisheries sectors, attracting more investors for big-ticket manufacturing ventures and, ultimately, improving the quality of life of the region’s households.

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Chapter XI

good governanCe and The ruLe oF Law
This chapter details how the region will achieve efficiency in the bureaucracy in order to better serve the general public, as well as, to guarantee the just enforcement of law among its citizens.

A. Assessment and Challenges
Efficiency, effectiveness, and adequacy are major challenges that confront the bureaucracy. In his Social Contract with the Filipino People, President Aquino committed to pursue a reform-oriented leadership which will transform the civil service into one that is well-motivated and adequately provided with the means to perform its public service functions. In 2008, there were about 1.3 million government personnel working in the bureaucracy. Of the total, 60,589 were in Western Visayas, majority of which were employed by national government agencies (NGA). The decrease of NGA personnel from 2004 to 2008 is largely due to the streamlining of the bureaucracy and the devolution of its functions and personnel to the local government units. Despite efforts to trim the bureaucracy, the government is still perceived to be “bloated.” Its performance management system is apparently ineffective, highly politicized, and hampered by unclear, sometimes overlapping, and not properly delineated functions. There are still non-permanent employees, especially in the LGUs. Table

Table 11.1 Number of Government Personnel by Category 2004 and 2008
Category Regional Agencies GOCCs LGUs TOTAL
Source: CSC-VI

2004 74,197 2,604 33,568 110,369

2008 25,144 1,198 34,247 60,589

% increase or (decrease) (66.11) (53.99) 2.02 (45.10)

11.2 shows the proportion of non-permanent government employees viz-a-viz permanent employees in CY2008. Although nonpermanent employees, comprised only 9.75 percent of the total number of government personnel in the region, non-permanent employees in the LGUs are still increasing at two percent from 2004 to 2008. Table 11.2 Number of Government Personnel by Classification CY 2008
Classification of Position
Non-permanent Coterminous Casual Contractual Permanent Total 835 4,225 845 54,684 60,589 30 432 53 24,629 25,144 16 181 28 973 1,198 789 3,612 764 29,082 34,247

Total

NGAs

GOCC

LGU

Source: CSC-VI

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Government addresses these concerns through various institutional reforms that are intended to strengthen its capability to be more efficient and responsive to the call of duty. The Civil Service Commission introduced several enabling mechanisms such as the Public Assistance Desks, performance evaluation of personnel, etc. However, there is still a need for these mechanisms to be fully institutionalized and adopted to ensure that efficiency and smooth delivery of services are realized. In addition, the inadequacy of facilities and equipment hampers work efficiency and effectiveness in the workplace. Basic tasks of government, like program/project implementation, monitoring and evaluation are delayed due to lack of logistical support such as computer equipment and service vehicles. During the past five years, there was a significant improvement in local revenue collection, from P2.9 billion in 2004 to P4.6 billion in 2009. Dependency of LGUs on Internal Revenue Allotment was significantly reduced from 85.07 percent in 2004 to 77.20 percent in 2009. In terms of revenues generated from local sources, real property tax has the greatest share at 40 percent. Figure 11.1 Revenue Shares from Local Sources, 2004-2009

Nonetheless, poor fiscal management and revenue generation are still the major challenges in local public finance. Revenue collection mechanisms in many local government units are weak. Most LGUs have low collection performance especially on real property tax attributed mainly to establishments being closed down. Big taxpayers like Mang Inasal, Foremost Milling Corporation, Boracay Shangri-la, among others, were taken out of the region and yet the tax goals of the region were increased. Also, there was low collection on CARP covered properties. LGUs need to enhance their skills in revenue collection. They need to invest in computerization to intensify efforts in collecting taxes and fees, and in implementing revenue-generating programs and projects that could supplement their income. Currently, efforts are being undertaken by DILG to capacitate the LGUs in local economic development, with the Province of Guimaras as pilot province. The slow processing of procurement transactions and business permits are examples of inefficiencies among LGUs which deter the entry of potential investors. Most local government units do not have Revenue and Investment Codes that will increase local revenues and provide an environment conducive for investment. As of 2009, only 34 out of 139 LGUs, have prepared their Investment Incentives Code. The low accomplishment can be due to lack of proper skills and competencies in codification and little appreciation of its importance. There also appears to be no unified action for transparency and accountability, creating a culture of apathy among the citizens. Weak internal controls, inefficient standard operating procedures, and lack of determination to report on illegal transactions

Source: BLGF-VI

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result to poor public accountability. This is manifested by delays in the submission of financial reports and required documents to the Commission on Audit. The procurement of public goods and services are also flawed such as the use of emergency purchases to short cut the bidding process which limits the participation of bidders. Anticorruption programs and measures still have to be effectively and widely disseminated by the concerned regional offices such as Office of the Ombudsman, Commission on Audit and Civil Service Commission. The public perceives no closure on many graft and corruption cases because of the slow prosecution and processing of cases by the judicial system. The preparation of the Citizen’s Charter as mandated by the Anti-Red Tape Law is intended to serve as one of the strategies to fight graft and corruption. Although the region has fully complied with the submission of documents and the establishment of onestop-shops, their usefulness has yet to be fully appreciated and recognized. Government’s engagement with civil society organizations in development processes has not been fully maximized. The current initiative along public-private partnership calls for greater collaboration with private institutions, civil society and non-government organizations in program and project implementation. A token participation of the private sector in local development councils and local special bodies has been noted as well as its negligible participation in project monitoring and giving feedback on program and project implementation. The local monitoring and evaluation committees need to be reactivated and its functions strengthened. Likewise, public access to

information on programs and projects and their financial status is limited. As a result, there is no effective feedback mechanism that can serve as inputs in future program/ project planning and implementation. Many local development councils are not fully operational, especially in cities and municipalities. Redundant, duplicating and overlapping programs and activities occur because of poor coordination among national government agencies, local government units and civil society organizations. It is observed that various national and international organizations continue to require LGUs to formulate separate sector plans that are too many and redundant, despite the provisions of Joint Memorandum Circular #1, s. 2007 calling for the harmonization and synchronization of planning, programming, investment programming, revenue administration, budgeting and expenditure management. A meaningful partnership and working relationship between the executive and the legislative branches is needed to ensure that the executive priorities are effectively translated into legislations and provided with sufficient funds for implementation. All LGUs in the region have submitted their respective State of Local Governance Report, which summarizes the major accomplishments of the local chief executive in a given period, while about 83 percent have formulated their Executive-Legislative Agenda. Because of bitter political rivalries, however, some LGUs do not have a unified development agenda, which generally resulted in the delay of project implementation. Also, local committees and special bodies do not meet regularly.

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Disaster risk reduction management has not been fully mainstreamed in development planning and land use planners have limited knowledge on frequency of occurence and the consequence or severity of hazards. Also, available data on hazards are still incomplete or inaccurate. With climate change, risks would be compounded and would need scientific information for adaptation. A systematic effort to mainstream, not only disaster risk reduction (DRR), but also climate change adaptation (CCA) in development processes should be undertaken. In mainstreaming DRR and CCA in planning, one can guide development and allocate resources towards the protection of life and assets, restoration of productive systems and livelihoods, regaining market access and rebuilding human capital and physical and psychological health. DRR and CCA-enhanced plans would allow LGUs to gather information about the sustainability of land for development, so that limitations of hazard-prone areas are understood by policymakers, potential investors and community residents. Strengthening of organizations for managing disasters should also be addressed. Disaster risk reduction and management councils (DRRMCs) that were organized at the regional, provincial, city and municipal levels pursuant to RA 10121 (Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act) should be strengthened and capacitated in terms of preparedness, response, mitigation and prevention and recovery and rehabilitation to be able to effectively perform their mandated functions. The DRRMCs should strengthen collaboration with NGOs, LGUs and NGAs and provide a mechanism to facilitate multisectoral and inter-agency coordination in the delivery of services before, during and after the occurrence of disasters.

Poor administration of justice is increasingly viewed as a threat to the growth and development in the region. The prevailing perception of inadequate access to justice by the marginalized sectors of society erodes public confidence in government. To improve the administration of the justice system, inadequate court personnel and facilities and insufficient human resource development programs should be adequately addressed. The prosecution service, which is one of the five pillars of the justice system, had only 186 prosecutors in 2009. The ratio of prosecutor viz-a-viz the population in the region is 1:36,500, which is below the ideal ratio of 1:20,000. Despite the recent increases in allowances, many prosecutors leave the government service in favor of more lucrative private practice. Meanwhile, the regional probation service handled 1,269 cases in 2008, of which 1,250 were completed and submitted to courts with a disposition rate of 98.50 percent. Problems noted in the area of correction and rehabilitation include jail congestion due to inadequate funding for jail facilities and slow dispensation of justice, inadequate food, poor maintenance of jail facilities, low ratio of jail personnel to prisoner, and lack of capability building programs for jail personnel. In the case of parolees and ex-convicts, there is still insufficient budget allocation for their rehabilitation and livelihood programs.

B. Strategic Framework
Goal
To promote an efficient and effective delivery of public services and a credible justice system

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Objectives/Measurable Targets

50 percent of national and local agencies provided with trainings in gender mainstreaming 85 percent of barangays capacitated in government procedures Increase local revenues by 20 percent annually Improve by 20 percent or more the collection of fees from enforcement activities by LGUs compared to prior years Reduce by 10 percent annually the Internal Revenue Allotment dependency ratio of LGUs All LGUs have updated tax ordinances 139 LGUs have updated revenue codes and investment incentives code All NGAs and LGUs implement the Citizen’s Charter provisions by 2016 Undertake public-private partnership projects in at least 30 percent of provinces and cities At least three projects jointly managed with civil society implemented annually All provinces, cities and municipalities have organized citizen consumers in the boards of public utilities All LGUs with State of Local Governance Report All LGUs with executive-legislative agenda by 2011 and 2014

All provinces have Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plans (PDPFPs) and Provincial Development Investment Programs All cities and municipalities have updated Comprehensive Development Plans and Comprehensive Land Use Plans All PDPFPs and 50 percent of CDP/CLUPs enhanced by integrating disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation concerns Resolve all administrative cases within the period required by law Maintain or improve the 90 percent disposition of cases investigated from receipt of the order Reduce jail population by two percent annually Increase number of jail personnel by three percent annually

■ ■

Development Strategies
1. Institutionalize a comprehensive capability building program for all government employees and newly elected officials. 2. Provide enabling mechanisms to improve local revenues. 3. Enhance involvement of civil society, non-government organizations, private sector groups, peoples’ organization in governance. 4. Improve investigation and prosecution of anti-graft cases.

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5. Institutionalize the Anti-Red Tape Law (Citizen’s Charter). 6. Promote public-private partnership. 7. Maximize utility of the Local Governance Performance Management System. 8. Strict implementation JMC #1, Series of 2007 at the local level. 9. Enhance resiliency of communities to cope with environmental emergencies. 10. Enhance executive-legislative partnership. 11. Enhance administration of justice.

officials will be briefed on government policies, and legislative/administrative procedures and guidelines. Existing government employees will be “re-tooled and re-honed” to improve their skills and technical competencies by undergoing appropriate capability building trainings. The government will employ modern methods and techniques to improve the service delivery of public servants. NGAs and LGUs to formulate capacity development agenda based on TNA tools as basis for the conduct of trainings of all NGAs and LGUs. Development practitioners at the regional and local levels will be capacitated on gender mainstreaming. They will be made aware that gender concerns need to be integrated in sector policies, programs and projects. 2. Efforts will be intensified to collect taxes from evaders and delinquent taxpayers in order to increase revenue collections. Taxpayers will be updated on new policies, rules and regulations so that full compliance will be attained. Monitoring mechanisms will be instituted to run after tax evaders and delinquent taxpayers, especially big taxpayers. Indicators will be used for determining gross receipts of business establishments as part of intensifying and implementing administrative measures on collection from delinquent accounts. Tax mapping will continually be pursued to ensure accurate tax collection. Several mechanisms will be implemented such as deputizing barangay treasurers in the collection of revenues, particularly Real Property Taxes, as well as, the computerization of revenue and financial operations.

Policy and Legislative Agenda

Retainment of fees collected from use of national wealth, power generation, road users tax, and airport terminal fees for regional and local development. LGU ordinances laying down stringent measures to ensure payment of real property taxes.

Priority Activities
1. Training needs assessment programs will be undertaken to determine the level of competencies and skills required for civil servants and public officials in the performance of their duties and responsibilities. A comprehensive capability building program will be implemented to provide newly hired government employees with sufficient skills to enable them to capably perform their functions. Newly-elected

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Local government units will be encouraged and required to update their revenue codes and investment incentive codes and legislate new tax ordinances to update tax and levy rates. Technical assistance will be provided to LGUs in the updating of revenue codes and zonal values of Real Property. “OneStop Shop” as the center of information and assistance for investors in the local government units will be established and adequately maintained. Those with existing one-stop shops will still have to improve and expand their functions to deliver better services not only during renewal of business permits but throughout the year. Economic enterprises as sources of additional revenues for the local government units must be properly managed and maintained. This includes proper training of personnel in financial management and bookkeeping, inventory management and control and also in effective personnel management. 3. Activities will be conducted to draw out local government unit-civil society engagement and partnership, as well as, to strengthen and sustain civil society organizations’ participation in governance and program/project implementation. This partnership will be undertaken through public-private partnerships/joint ventures and constructive engagements in the implementation of local development programs and projects. Inspired by the timeless Filipino tradition of “bayanihan,” volunteerism will be anchored on the dynamic partnership among the government, the private sector and the community, through

complementation, maximization and integration of efforts and resources. Volunteerism will mobilize the talents, expertise, time and energies of the vast human potential as a cost-effective resource in the provision of technical assistance, delivery of social services, undertaking humanitarian efforts, and responding to disasters, among others. One mechanism for transparency and social accountability is the representation of organized citizens or consumers in the boards of public utilities such as water, energy, transportation, waste management and disaster coordinating councils. The active participation of NGOs and civil society groups in these public utilities will ensure that these utilities are properly managed and the essential services like water and electricity are well-provided. Technical experts from the private sector will be tapped to ensure that competent technical advice is readily made available. 4. Mechanisms will be formulated to expedite investigation of graft cases. Corruption prevention action plans will likewise be formulated and compliance to the said plan will be monitored through the Integrity Development Review, among others. 5. The Ombudsman and the Civil Service Commission will ensure that all national government agencies, local government units and government-owned and controlled corporations comply with the provisions of the Anti-Red Tape Law, particularly on the preparation of the Citizen’s Charter, Public Assistance & Complaint Desks, installation of courtesy lanes and the posting of flow charts. The

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Monitoring and Tracking Compliance System will be organized to ensure the institutionalization of the Citizen’s Charter. Sanctions will be imposed on those public institutions which fail to comply with the requirements of the law. CSC will use the report card survey or public satisfaction evaluation on the quality of delivery of basic services. Efforts will be exerted to popularize the Citizen’s Charter to improve the delivery of frontline public services. This is to provide government clients with knowledge about the standard operating procedures of government institutions including the expected transaction time/ period and fees to be paid. 6. Government will reach out to the private sector to be its partner and participate in socio-economic development initiatives. Since private sector has resources, it has more expertise to carry out projects more efficiently. Public-private partnership (PPP) schemes will focus on infrastructure support facilities for tourism, agriculture, social services and growth centers. To attract more private sector partners, the national and local governments will provide incentives and assistance in starting-up priority projects. Fair competition and transparency will prevail in PPP projects. On the other hand, government will fast-track project approval process and protect public interest. At the local level, local government units will promote the following PPP projects: public markets, commercial buildings, transport terminals, water supply, solid waste management facilities and agriculture support facilities, like warehouses, blast

freezers, and other post-harvest facilities. Other priority projects qualified for PPP include school buildings and health facilities. LGUs are encouraged to access resources of private developers to finance shelter provision and its related services. Privatepublic partnerships will be strengthened with community associations/basic sectors in financing shelter provisions. Local government units need to enact local legislation that will ensure and encourage private developers to locate their 20 percent socialized housing counterpart (as provided under Section 18 of RA 7279) in their respective localities. 7. Local government units will be provided with trainings and/or orientation on the use of the Local Governance Performance Management System with the results presented in relevant gatherings like the Local Governance Forum. LGPMS will be validated through the local development councils and LGU personnel will be trained to effectively access and utilize the system. 8. Under Joint Memorandum Circular No. 1, series of 2007, the different oversight national government agencies agreed to streamline planning efforts at the local level by mandating that provinces will prepare only one plan, while cities and municipalities will prepare two plans. International and national agencies will be dissuaded from requiring sector plans from LGUs and instead, prepare only action plans for the particular sector, consistent with the approved development plans of provinces, cities and municipalities.

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9. Pursuant to Administrative Order No. 1 of President Aquino, local plans, particularly the Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plans (PDPFPs), will be enhanced by integrating disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) so that these concerns are considered in development and physical framework planning and decision-making processes. DRR/CCAenhanced plans will provide mechanisms to strengthen capacities for disaster mitigation and increase the resiliency of localities to cope with impacts of environmental emergencies and maintain sustainable development. Disaster risk reduction and management councils at all levels will be capacitated in terms of preparedness, response, rehabilitation and recovery, and prevention and mitigation to be able to effectively perform their mandated functions in times of disasters. The DRRMCs would provide a mechanism that would strengthen collaboration with NGOs, LGUS and NGAs as well as in facilitating multi-sectoral and interagency coordination in the delivery of services before, during and after the occurrence of disasters. The passage of the National Land Use Act in Congress to address cross-cutting land use issues to optimize the use of land based on best uses and the need to balance economic, environmental and social development objectives will be advocated. 10. Harmonious relationship between the executive and the legislative branches at the local and regional levels will be

enhanced. Both the executive and the legislative branches will be encouraged to formulate a common development agenda to harmonize the prioritization of policies, programs and projects and chart appropriate legislations that will support executive priorities. Trainings for newlyelected officials in the formulation of a joint executive and legislative agenda and in carrying out its implementation will be conducted. Also, there is a need to strengthen local development councils and bodies of the LGUs. 11. The Speedy Trial Act of 1998 will be put into operation to ensure a faster dispensation of justice. The region will ask Congress to allocate funds for the creation of 1st and 2nd level courts, the hiring of competent and highly qualified judges and additional prosecutors to reach the ideal ratio of one prosecutor to 20,000 population. This will help in ensuring that justice is accessible to the poor. The improvement of jail management will be addressed through the enhancement of skills of warden and guards. Decongestion efforts will be intensified and new jail buildings will be constructed. Volunteer Probation Aides will be utilized to supervise and provide rehabilitation services to supervised clients. A better rehabilitation program will be introduced to assist offenders to reintegrate back to their communities and be productive citizens of society.

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Chapter XII

peaCe and SeCurITY
This chapter highlights the importance of ensuring peace, order and security in the region so that people and institutions can go about their daily activities with the least disruptions.

A. Assessment and Challenges
Peace and order is an essential ingredient for sustaining economic development, social order, and political stability. A peaceful and orderly environment encourages the growth of investments and tourism which, in turn, generates employment opportunities. Foremost in the region’s agenda is resolving peace and order conflicts. This will be achieved through government’s continuous and active campaign against insurgency, terrorism and criminality, including kidnapping, robbery/hold-up, murder, rape, widespread use of illegal drugs, proliferation of illegal fishing/mining/logging activities, rampant gambling, street crimes, human rights violations, among others. For Western Visayas, the Regional Average Monthly Crime Rate (AMCR) was placed at 26.95 per 100,000 inhabitants. Per area, Iloilo City posted the highest crime volume followed by Bacolod City, the provinces of Negros Occidental, Iloilo, Aklan, Capiz, Antique and Guimaras, with the least crime incidents. The increase in the crime volume for the year 2009-2010 is attributed to the new parameters set by the Philippine National Police (PNP) headquarters in recording crime incidents wherein all incidents recorded in the blotter reports were included in the crime statistics.

Women and girl children are vulnerable to sexual violence and abuse, whether at home or in the workplace, or in some instances, even in relocation areas where conflict situations are bound to arise. PNP records show that the top cases against women are those covered by Republic Act 9262, which provides an enabling mechanism for the protection of women and children against violence. For children, cases reported were those covered by Republic Act 7610 which provides for stronger deterrence and special protection against child abuse, exploitation, and discrimination. Most of these cases occur inside the homes where women and children are supposed to be safe and secured. Table 12.1 Top Cases Against Women and Children, 2009
Number of Cases Reported Physical injuries/Battery Rape Other Abuses: RA 9262 (Violence Against Women) RA 7610 (Child Abuse)
Source: PNP-VI

Women 350
112

Children 538
411

1,462 -

504

For the period January to September 2010, the volume of crime cases regionwide reached 16,729, posting an increase of 2,572 cases from the 14,157 incidents recorded in 2009. The increase in crime rates is caused by poor law enforcement due to inadequate funds for

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logistics, regular upgrading of law and order resources, as well as, public safety officers’ skills. The region’s human resource for law enforcement is below the ideal standard with police to population ratio averaging at 1:992 for 2004 to 2009, far from the ideal ratio of 1:500. The lack of coordination among law enforcement and public safety agencies with local government units, non-government organizations, the community and the trimedia has resulted in procedural lapses during law enforcement operations and in handling crisis situations. With the observed increase in the proliferation of illegal drugs, new groups were uncovered to be operating in the region: two in Panay and three in Negros Occidental. Drug syndicates laundered money through different mediums bypassing the banking system. On July 26, 2010, the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency destroyed approximately P4.8 Million worth of illegal drugs. These were evidences taken by law enforcement agencies from 1998 to 2008 to support 75 drug cases now pending in various courts in the region. It has also been observed that more and more children are utilized as couriers for illegal drugs due to Republic Act 9344 which provides a protective mantle for juvenile offenders from prosecution and incarceration. Criminal elements engaged in illegal activities and syndicated crimes continue to pose threats to the region’s peace and order. The government has responded against these threats by creating task forces on kidnapping and illegal drug trafficking, illegal fishing/ mining/ logging/gambling and activation/reactivation of local Peace and Order Councils. The Commission on Human Rights is also exerting all its efforts to fight rampant human rights violations such as

illegal trafficking of persons, women’s rights violations, child abuse, and congestion of jail facilities. Communist terrorists still pose a threat because of scattered factions operating in the region. The insurgency parameters from the Philippine Army showed that while a decreasing trend in Panay Island is observed, the trend in Negros Island is increasing where insurgent-affected barangays grew from 18 registered in 2008 to 106 in 2010. To counteract this, the government has strengthened peace-building efforts by continuing direct peace negotiations and anti-insurgency campaigns through peace talks, and delivery of socio-economic programs and projects to conflict-afflicted communities. Despite these efforts, there are still persistent problems of insurgency because of weak Peace and Order Councils, unsustained efforts to retain recovered barangays from the influence of insurgents, and collusion of some local chief executives and elected officials with the insurgents for the protection of their vested interests. Table 12.2 Insurgency Parameters 2008 and 2010
Insurgency Parameters Strength Firearms Affected Barangays Guerilla Fronts
Source: PNP-VI

Negros Island 2008 253 172 18 4 2010 163 242 106 2

Panay Island 2008 221 159 123 4 2010 162 120 68 2

Community participation in peace and order initiatives needs to be enhanced. The community must be a partner with law enforcement and public safety service agencies to maintain peace and order.

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Efforts to tap the community in the fight against crime through Patrol 117 had been launched. Its continuous implementation and advocacy will be pursued. Barangay Anti-Drug Abuse Committees were organized all over the region to provide information to law enforcers that lead to the confiscation of millions of pesos worth of shabu and the dismantling of shabu laboratories. As of 2010, 3,362 out of the 4,050 barangays in the region have functional Barangay AntiDrug Abuse Committees. Peace and Order Councils/Committees have been organized and have formulated and implemented their Integrated Area Community Public Safety Plans. The plans enabled concerned barangays to identify responsive peace and order and public safety-related programs in partnership with the community and law enforcement and public safety agencies. As of 2010, 98 percent of the total barangays in the region have functional peace and order councils/ committees.

for urban and 1:1,000 for rural areas by 2016

Reduce the 174 insurgents-affected barangays in 2010 by 60 percent in 2016 Empower 83 conflict-affected communities by 2011 and 291 communities by 2016 Monitor 60 percent of the total number of PNP offices/units in the region every year to ensure their non-involvement in illegal activities Organize Student Crime Prevention Committees, in close coordination with DepEd and CHED in 60 percent of the total number of schools in the region by 2016 Monitor 20 percent of the total number of Student Crime Prevention Committees that have been organized every year Attain the ideal ratio of 1:14 fire truck to firemen ratio and firemen to population ratio requirement of 1:2,000 by 2016

B. Strategic Framework
Goal
To improve the peace and order situation of Western Visayas.

Development Strategies
1. Effectively address the problems of insurgency. persistent

Objectives/Measurable Targets

Decrease the regional average monthly crime rate from 26.95 to 10 per 100,000 inhabitants by 2016 Increase police recruitment quota per year by 1,354 to compensate for the ideal police to population ratio of 1:500

2. Enhance and consolidate efforts of stakeholders in the peace process. 3. Effective involvement of community in monitoring illegal activities. 4. Prevention of the widespread use of illegal drugs.

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5. Continuous and active campaign against rampant illegal gambling activities. 6. Continuous and active campaign against illegal fishing, mining, and logging activities. 7. Continuous and active campaign against rampant human rights violations. 8. Effective law enforcement and public safety services.

peace building, reconstruction and development in conflict-affected and vulnerable areas. In Region VI, there are 39 priority areas covering 15 municipalities in Negros Occidental that were identified. Other barangays recovered from the influence of insurgents will be supported with basic services and livelihood projects. Peace and Order Councils and Lupong Tagapamayapa will be strengthened through the strong involvement and participation of local government units, non-government organizations, the community, and tri-media in its activities especially in anti-insurgency campaigns. Monitoring mechanisms will be installed and errant local chief executives and other officials found to be in collusion with the insurgents will be prosecuted. 2. Assistance for the reintegration of former rebels to society will be facilitated. There will be convergence of initiatives by all sectors to address needs such as education, health, social protection and social infrastructure to ensure the success of reintegrated rebels in society. Peace building and complementary tracks will be integrated in local development plans. 3. The involvement of Peace and Order Councils, NGOs, the tri-media and the community, in general, will be encouraged in the monitoring of illegal activities. The different and unique roles of men and women will be emphasized in these activities to maximize their contribution in combating illegal activities. 4. Barangay Anti-Drug Abuse Committees will be activated/reactivated and

Policy and Legislative Agenda

Amend pertinent provision of RA 9344 (Juvenile Justice and Welfare System), which protects minors from prosecution, to prevent them from being exploited and used in illegal activities. Pass a law or ordinance regulating the sale of components of explosives used in illegal fishing and mining. Local ordinance requiring CCTVs in major establishments and thoroughfares.

Priority Activities
1. Government will continue to intensify its operations to neutralize communist groups operating in the region and exert efforts to reduce the number of insurgent-affected barangays. In addressing the root causes of armed conflict in the community, the identified Payapa at Masaganang Pamayanan (PAMANA) barangays will be prioritized for development efforts. PAMANA is a comprehensive peace-building program that aims to respond and strengthen

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strengthened to provide timely and accurate information to law enforcers on the proliferation of illegal drug use in their respective areas. Attention will be given to the emerging use of minors as couriers and pushers in the illegal drug trade and will be closely monitored to prevent collusion of local chief executives and elected officials with drug syndicates. There will be coordinated efforts among the pillars of criminal justice system with regard to the advocacy and implementation of procedures embodied in RA 9165. This is to increase the rate of confiscation of shabu and other forms of illegal drugs, apprehension of number of persons that are in the drug watch list, and reduce, if not eliminate, drug syndicates operating in the region. There will be strict monitoring in the full implementation of RA 9165 so that authorities involved in the drug trade will be penalized. Since a large number of drug victims are students, more efforts will be exerted, in coordination with DepEd and CHED, to strengthen crime prevention efforts inside and outside the schools and in promoting community involvement. The organization of Students Crime Prevention Committee will be promoted and supported. The amendment or repeal of RA 9344 which protects minors from prosecution and incarceration will be advocated given that they are being utilized by syndicates and other lawless elements in their illegal activities. There will be strong local government support through the provision of budgets in the conduct of anti-illegal drugs campaign with the strong and active participation of youth organizations.

5. Intensive advocacy against illegal gambling especially at the grassroots level are necessary. Information drive involving tri-media will be utilized to prevent and monitor illegal gambling activities. Mechanisms shall be created for sustainable monitoring of the people in the community such as the reactivation of inactive Barangay Peace and Order Councils. Data gathering will be conducted in order to review existing policies. Police disciplinary machinery shall be strengthened in order to monitor PNP members and local elected officials who are involved in illegal gambling activities. Local Chief Executives will be held accountable for the enforcement of existing laws against illegal gambling. 6. Barangay Peace and Order Councils and Task Forces on illegal fishing, mining, and logging will be activated or reactivated and strengthened to combat illegal activities and collusion of some local officials and other government agencies because of vested interests with the syndicates. There is a need to have a strong policy to regulate the sale of components for explosives that are being used in illegal fishing and mining. Strict implementation of RA 9175 (Chainsaw Act of 2002) will be enforced so that the use of chainsaws for illegal logging activities will be stopped. Local government units’ efforts will be complemented by corresponding national programs/projects, especially at the grassroots level. 7. To eradicate the presence of syndicated groups engaged in illegal trafficking of persons, rampant violation of women’s rights, and abuse of children, law enforcement agencies will undertake trainings to strengthen the technical skills

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and capabilities of personnel within their ranks. Support from local government units will be tapped in order to ensure a coordinated approach in monitoring, information drive and advocacy through the Inter-Agency Committee on AntiTrafficking. Province-wide promotion of community-based human rights protection resource mobilization will be pursued. 8. The region will push for more budget intended for logistics, personnel recruitment to meet the standard personnel to population ratio, training for upgrading/upscaling of capacities and capabilities of personnel, and establishment of a Witness Protection Program to ensure effective law enforcement and public safety services in Western Visayas. There will be strong coordination among law enforcement and public safety agencies, local government units, non-government organizations, the community and trimedia in order to prevent procedural lapses during operations and in handling crisis situations.

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Chapter XIII

envIronMenT and naTuraL reSourCeS
This chapter discusses efforts to minimize enviromental degradation and loss of natural resources and local initiatives as it faces the emerging challenges of disasters and climate change.

A. Assessment and Challenges
The harvesting of forest products, continuing kaingin practices, typhoons, forest fires, timber poaching have destroyed the region’s forest resources at an alarming rate. These have resulted in biodiversity loss, low forest cover, loss of forest products, damage to flora and fauna, and erosion leading to siltation in many bodies of water in the region. The survey conducted by the Japan Forest Technology Association in 1996 showed that the region had a remaining forested land area of only 206,667 hectares or ten percent of the total land area of the region. Although this has increased to 260,642 hectares in 2005, it is not enough to reverse the drying up and siltation of major rivers that support irrigation systems, prevent the occurrence of flashfloods during rainy season, and scarcity of potable water during dry season. The unfavorable weather conditions like El Niño and La Niña further aggravate the region’s agriculture-based economy. Due to many operational problems affecting the implementation of the programs, projects and activities on environment and natural resources, the forestry sector was not able to meet some of its targets. For instance, the maintenance and protection of forest areas

was affected with the shift of budgetary support to the development of upland areas. Also, the cancellation and suspension of issuance of logging permits, pending the review of related policies, has resulted to shifts in priorities affecting the development of agro-forestry areas within the planning period. Areas opened up for tree plantations and developed under the Industrial Forest Management Agreement (IFMA) and Socialized Industrial Forest Management Agreement (SIFMA) reached only 23 percent of the targeted 8,125 hectares. Some of the approved areas were ordered cancelled due to non-compliance with the terms and conditions of agreements. The region only issued 43 percent of the targeted certificates of ancestral domain titles (CADT) due to legal impediments on overlapping claims by indigenous people with other claimants. Thus, forest protection, rehabilitation and restoration of degraded forestland, and maintenance of tree plantation remain as critical concerns of the region. The growth and development of settlements, as a result of increasing population and expansion of economic activities, have adversely affected the lowland ecosystem. Productive agricultural lands, including

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environmentally critical areas, have been converted into residential, commercial, or industrial uses. Inappropriate practices in land utilization have affected agricultural and fishery productivity. Watershed denudation has adversely impacted on downstream water users. Less reliable water flows have reduced irrigation viability, and in the rainy season, has extended and increased the severity of flooding. Air pollution is one of the significant environmental problems being experienced in urban areas. The rapid growth in the number of motor vehicles, public and private construction, commercialization and industrialization are among the causes of air and even noise pollution. Although there was an improvement in air quality at the Jaro area in Iloilo City for the period 20042009, the ambient air quality in La Paz area remains fluctuating. Water quality is measured by monitoring the dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total and fecal coliform. Although records in 2004 to 2009 indicate improving water quality of major rivers and resorts, with increasing DO and decreasing BOD, total and fecal coliform in the Iloilo and Guimaras Straits, continued to exceed the allowable limits. This situation could be attributed to the proliferation of shanties and expansion of structures without sanitation facilities along the coastline. Excessive extraction of ground water causing salt water intrusion has also contributed to the deterioration of the urban ecosystem. The region is endowed with beautiful natural seascapes and landscapes such as white beaches, on-shore areas, islets and

mountain ranges, many of which have been developed into major tourist attractions. However, overfishing and illegal fishing, white sand quarrying and construction of establishments disregarding physical characteristics and carrying capacity of the area led to the degradation of the coastal and marine ecosystem. Destruction of mangrove, sea grasses and coral reefs, upland erosion and lowland pollution by agricultural chemicals, infected effluents from factories, household wastes, aquaculture facilities, and unregulated development of settlements have resulted to serious environmental problems in coastal areas. Figure 13.1 Mangrove Areas Maintained and Protected, by Province 2010

Source: DENR-VI

In 2010, the region had only about 7,276 hectares of mangrove areas due to conversion to ponds during the early 1980’s when prawn business was highly profitable. Conversion of mangrove areas into other uses like fishponds, salt beds, and residential areas continue to cause the disappearance of fish breeding grounds and reduce marine biodiversity.

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Technological disasters, like the oil spill in Guimaras in 2006, led to widespread destruction not only to marine resources of the province, but also to adjacent areas in Iloilo and Negros Occidental. It significantly depleted the mangrove resources in affected areas along the coastlines of the region. Western Visayas Region is vulnerable to tropical cyclones. The region’s geographic and tectonic setting also makes it prone to flooding and landslides. Its elevation is generally low with more than 50 percent of its total land area rising less than 100 meters above sea level. These are areas where food crops are grown, economic activities are centered and settlements are located. The highlands of Northern Iloilo, the borders of Iloilo and Antique, the mountain range of Antique, and the slopes of Mt. Kanlaon in Negros Occidental are the most vulnerable areas to erosion. The plains abutting the river basins are usually inundated by overflows due to excessive run-off and siltation. The highly urbanized cities of Iloilo and Bacolod are generally flood-prone due to their low location vis-à-vis the surrounding terrain.

From 2000 to 2009, an average of five tropical cyclones crossed the region’s area of responsibility. In 2008, the region experienced one of the most devastating typhoons in recent times. Floods spawned by Typhoon Frank (internationally known as Fengshen) submerged the provinces of Iloilo, Aklan, Antique, Capiz and Iloilo City for several days. Climate change can further aggravate the situation and lead to economic losses greatly affecting the poor. In 2007, the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) came up with a report that global temperature is increasing at a faster rate. With a projected increase in global temperature of up to 5.8 oC that will result to a sea level rise of between 18 to 59 centimeters by 2100, several climatic impacts are foreseen: increased or higher frequency of hot days and warm nights, more intense droughts over more or wider areas and increase in the number of stronger or intense tropical cyclone. With these scenarios, climate change could compromise the country’s achievement of

Figure 13.2 Number of Occurrence of Tropical Cyclone and Earthquake in Region VI 2000-2009

Source:OCD-VI

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long-term vision and the MDGs especially on poverty reduction, health, water, environmental sustainability and human settlements, among others. There is a need, therefore, to introduce adaptation methods in order to increase resiliency of communities and reduce vulnerability of elements at risk.

reduction of processing period from 60 to 20 working days

Operationalize seven sanitary landfills in areas issued with ECCs Target the awarding of 12 Certificates of Ancestral Domain more

B.
Goal

Strategic Framework

Develop and operationalize the Integrated Coastal Management Plan of 16 LGUs Establish 9,821 control points for land surveys under the Philippine Reference System of 1992.

Effective protection of the environment and sustainable management of the region’s natural resources.

Objectives/Measurable Targets

Development Strategies
1. Protect, rehabilitate and develop the forest ecosystem. 2. Ensure proper land acquisition and distribution. 3. Improve air and water quality in the urban ecosystem. 4. Protect the ecosystems. marine and coastal

Increase the forest cover from 12.89 percent in 2009 to 13.53 percent by 2016 Prepare and implement Forest Land Use Plans for 65 LGUs Establish 17,609 hectares forest plantations in different modalities Assess the vulnerability of ten critical and priority watersheds Conduct detailed geohazard assessment of six highly vulnerable areas Improve the ambient air in major cities and towns, and water quality by ten percent from the 2009 level Fasttrack the issuance of Environmental Compliance Certificate, for nonenvironmentally-critical projects located in environmentally critical areas, with the

5. Reduce climate change risks and vulnerability of natural ecosystems. 6. Address operational and institutional issues affecting the implementation of environment and natural resources PPAs.

Policy and Legislative Agenda

Law providing for permanent boundary delimitation and monumenting of forest areas.

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Local legislation establishing an Environment and Natural Resources Office (ENRO) and providing for mandatory creation of ENRO position in LGUs. Local legislation providing incentives to major private sector investments and PPPs. Local incentives for private initiatives along green and DRR/climate change proofing projects.

of the Philippine Reference System of 1992 and complete public land surveys, issuance of patents, and other tenurial instruments within A&D lands. Certificates of Ancestral Domain Titles (CADTs) will be awarded to deserving Indigenous Peoples. 3. Ambient air and water quality will be improved with the establishment of airsheds and more water quality (monitoring) management areas. The region will enforce the mandatory requirements of RA 9003 and fast track the processing of Environmental Compliance Certificates (ECC), particularly for sanitary landfills. The use of market-based instruments such as fixed-fee and pollution load-based fee to address water pollution problems will be aggressively enforced. Cleaner, more efficient and environment-friendly technologies will be vigorously promoted. 4. An Integrated Coastal Management Plan will be developed and implemented in coordination with LGUs where marine protected areas and sanctuaries will be established and managed through the Coastal Law Enforcement Alliance of Region VI in collaboration with national government agencies, non-government organizations and local government units. Coastal policies will be formulated and coastal management projects will be implemented by concerned local governments. 5. Wetlands will be monitored and critical habitats outside of protected areas identified in the National Integrated Protection Areas System will correspondingly be identified and assessed. Vulnerability assessment of

Priority Activities
1. Forest areas will be developed and rehabilitated through the establishment of forest plantations under different modalities. Forest land use planning and co-management approaches for the region’s natural resources will be pursued in close coordination with and cooperation of LGUs. Permanent delineation of forest lines and vulnerability assessment of critical and priority watersheds will be undertaken. Forest protection and law enforcement will be aggressively pursued with the deputization of forest protection officers and strengthening of Police Environment Desk Officers in LGUs. Environmentally sound and socially acceptable mining practices will be strictly followed along with the implementation of environmental protection and social development programs, with due consideration for the free and prior informed consent of affected indigenous communities. 2. To address land management and land use conflicts in the lowland ecosystem, the region will fast track the establishment

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critical and priority watersheds, detailed geohazards assessment of highly vulnerable areas, and carbon stock, biomass and volume assessment of forest plantations will be conducted. To address groundwater shortage, groundwater assessment in identified municipalities will be undertaken. On the other hand, eco-tourism business plans of potential investors for protected areas will be closely regulated and monitored to ensure that natural resources are least disrupted. 6. The maintenance and updating of the environment and natural resources database and information system will be improved for planning and decisionmaking. Existing policies and legislations will be harmonized. Geological and hazard mapping will be continued to be undertaken as inputs to provincial and city/municipal planning. Capacitybuilding for LGUs and other stakeholders to handle environment and natural resources devolved functions will be pursued to address operational and institutional issues affecting implementation of programs, projects, and activities.

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Chapter XIv

plan Implementation, Monitoring and evaluation
The Regional Development Council (RDC), Region VI will oversee the implementation of the RDP, 2011-2016. Under Executive Order 325, the RDC is mandated to “coordinate the preparation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of short and long-term regional development plans and investment programs, the regional physical framework plan and special development plans, including the formulation of policy recommendations.” This mandate empowers the RDC to call on government instrumentalities to realign their resources towards supporting the development priorities of the RDP to ensure the realization of its goals and objectives. The entire government machinery in the region, including regional agencies, local government units, government owned and controlled corporations, and government financial institutions, will be mobilized to ensure that the development directions and strategies articulated in the Plan are understood, internalized and adopted by all concerned. Appropriate action plans will be formulated and will include specific programs, projects and activities that will be pursued in the next six years. The support of non-government organizations, people’s organizations, the academe and various civic clubs will also be tapped so that they will become effective proactive partners of the government in implementing the Plan. Private sector investments will be the main engines of growth for the economy. Public-private partnership schemes will be promoted to entice business groups and investors to get involved in projects traditionally pursued by government. The RDC will initiate the generation of a list of projects that may be implemented through public-private partnership schemes. As a result, local resources will be realigned to fund other priority concerns, especially those designed on improving the lives of the poor and underserved. Local government units will be asked to submit reports on programs/projects being pursued through PPP schemes. Local government units will play a critical role in the implementation of the RDP. They will be called upon to collaborate with regional agencies on special events, projects and activities that assure that the twin goal of promoting growth and eradicating poverty will be realized. Their cooperation will be sought on major social, economic, infrastructure and development administration programs and projects initiated by government agencies and other public institutions to ensure their successful implementation and sustainability. At the same time, regional line agencies, GOCCs, and state universities and colleges will be called upon to support the aspirations of LGUs and to contribute towards the continued development and progress of communities and its people, knowing that this will redound to the overall progress of Western Visayas.

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The RDC-VI sector committees will primarily be the forum for resolving development challenges identified in the RDP. Every sector committee meeting will include agenda items that will take up the issues, concerns and problems identified in the RDP so that appropriate solutions will be addressed by responsible agencies and other partners of society. To monitor the implementation of the RDP, the different sector committees of RDC-VI will be tasked to coordinate and ensure the implementation of their assigned concerns:
Committee Social Development Committee Economic Development Committee RDP Chapters Human Resource Development Competitive Industry and Services Sectors Tourism Development Competitive and Sustainable Agriculture and Fisheries Research and Development Thrusts Environment and Natural Resources Infrastructure Support Bio-Fuels and Renewable Energy Development Macroeconomy Good Governance and the Rule of Law Peace and Security

Infrastructure Development Committee Development Administration

Specific action plans will be prepared that will identify concrete interventions and verifiable indicators to be used in monitoring and tracking the progress of plan implementation. A results monitoring matrix that will harmonize plan targets and office performance indicators will be established to ensure that programs and projects being implemented by the various government agencies and instrumentalities indeed contribute to the achievement of RDP goals and targets. Proposed legislative measures that will further boost the development of the region will be advocated among the region’s legislators in Congress and in the Senate. The list of priority legislative agenda will be generated from the RDC Sector Committees and processed into proposed policy measures/amendments processed through completed staff work. The resulting policy proposals will be discussed during the RDC Advisory Committee meetings where the status of proposed legislations being pushed will be taken up. An Annual Regional Development Report will be prepared every year to monitor the progress of the region in achieving the objectives and measurable targets identified in the RDP. The Report will also assess the extent to which the different policies and strategies have been implemented by responsible agencies. A Plan Assessment Report will be prepared towards its mid-term and the end of the Plan to establish the extent of the RDP implementation and attainment of targets and plan outputs.

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

List of acronyms
4Ps

AAGR ADB A&D AFP AFMA AFMIS ALS AMCR APJR ARB ARC ARISP ASEAN BAS BEMONC BFAD BFAR BFP BJMP BOT BPO CA CAAP CADT CALABARZON CARP CCA CDP CENECO CHED CHR CICL CIS CISFA

Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program Annual Average Growth Rate Asian Development Bank Alienable and Disposable Armed Forces of the Philippines Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act Agriculture and Fisheries Market Information System Alternative Learning System Average Monthly Crime Rate Action Program for Judicial Reform Agrarian Reform Beneficiary Agrarian Reform Community Agrarian Reform Infrastructure Support Program Association of Southeast Asian Nations Bureau of Agricultural Statistics Basic Emergency Management on Obstetric and Newborn Care Bureau of Food and Drugs Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Bureau of Fire Protection Bureau of Jail Management and Penology Build-Operate-Transfer Business Process Outsourcing Concession Agreement Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal and Quezon Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program Climate Change Adaptation Comprehensive Development Plan Central Negros Electric Cooperative Commission on Higher Education Commission on Human Rights Children in Conflict with the Law Communal Irrigation System Comprehensive and Integrated Shelter Finance Act

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

117

ckt-km CLMMRH CLUP CMTS COA CPDC CPU-ANEC CPU-AREC CSC CSR CY DA DAR DENR DepEd DFA DILG DO DOE DOH DOJ DOLE DOST DOTC DPWH DRR DRRMC DSM DSWD DTI DU ECC ELA EPIRA e-poor ERC FFHC FHSIS

Circuit Kilometer Corazon Locsin Montelibano Memorial Regional Hospital Comprehensive Land Use Plan Cellular Mobile Telephone Services Commission on Audit City Planning and Development Coordinator Central Philippine University-Affiliated Non-Conventional Energy Center Central Philippine University-Affiliated Renewable Energy Center Civil Service Commission Cohort Survival Rate Calendar Year Department of Agriculture Department of Agrarian Reform Department of Environment and Natural Resources Department of Education Department of Foreign Affairs Department of the Interior and Local Government Dissolved Oxygen Department of Energy Department of Health Department of Justice Department of Labor and Employment Department of Science and Technology Department of Transportation and Communications Department of Public Works and Highways Disaster Risk Reduction Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council Demand-Side Management Department of Social Welfare and Development Department of Trade and Industry Distribution Utility Environmental Compliance Certificate Executive-Legislative Agenda Electric Power Industry Reform Act Entrepreneurial Poor Energy Regulatory Commission First Farmers Holding Corporation Field Health Service Information System

118

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

GAA GDP GOCC GRDP GVA HACCP HEI HIV/AIDS HUC HUDCC IACAT IA ICC ICT IEC IFMA IP IPCC IPP IRA IRR ISF ISO IT IWRM JAFTA JICA JMC kW kWh LBP LCD LCE LEA LEC LGPMS LGU LSEP

General Appropriations Act Gross Domestic Product Government-Owned and Controlled Corporation Gross Regional Domestic Product Gross Value Added Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points Higher Education Institution Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Highly Urbanized City Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council Inter-Agency Committee on Anti-Trafficking Irrigator’s Association Indigenous Cultural Community Information and Communications Technology Information and Education Campaign Industrial Forest Management Agreement Indigenous People Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Independent Power Producer Internal Revenue Allotment Implementing Rules and Regulations Informal Settler Family International Organization for Standardization Information Technology Integrated Water Resource Management Japan Forest Technology Association Japan International Cooperating Agency Joint Memorandum Circular kilowatt kilowatt-hr Land Bank of the Philippines Liquid Crystal Display Local Chief Executive Law Enforcement Agency Local Exchange Carrier Local Governance Performance Management System Local Government Unit Labor Standard Enforcement Program

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

119

LTO LWUA MDG MGB MHC MIWD MNCHN MOA MPDC MSME MSMED MT MT/ha MVIC MW NAPOLCOM NAT NBI NCIP NDHS NEDA NGA NGCP NGO NHA NHIP NIA NNC NRE NREB NSC NSCB NSSMP NSSP NTC OFW OSCA OWWA

Land Transportation Office Local Water Utilities Administration Millennium Development Goals Mines and Geosciences Bureau Municipal Health Center Metro Iloilo Water District Maternal Newborn Child Health and Nutrition Memorandum of Agreement Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Metric Ton metric ton per hectare Motor Vehicle Inspection Center Megawatt National Police Commission National Achievement Test National Bureau of Investigation National Commission on Indigenous Peoples National Demographic and Health Survey National Economic and Development Authority National Government Agency National Grid Corporation of the Philippines Non-Government Organization National Housing Authority National Health Insurance Program National Irrigation Administration National Nutrition Council New and Renewable Energy National Renewable Energy Board National Security Council National Statistical Coordination Board National Sewerage and Septage Management Program National Sustainable Sanitation Plan National Telecommunications Commission Overseas Filipino Worker Office of Senior Citizen’s Affair Overseas Worker Welfare Administration

120

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

PABX Pag-IBIG PAMANA PCA PCSO PDEA PDP PDPFP PHIC PIA PIP PLWHA PNOC PNP POC PPA PPA PPP PUC PUJ PWD RA RBIA R&D RDC RDIP RDP RE RIB RLA RORO RPS RPTA RRTS RSTL SCPC SEA SEC

Private Automatic Branch Exchange Pagtutulungan sa Kinabukasan-Ikaw, Bangko, Industriya at Gobyerno Payapa at Masaganang Pamayanan Program Philippine Coconut Authority Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office Philippine Drugs Enforcement Agency Philippine Development Plan Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan Philippine Health Insurance Corporation Philippine Information Agency Public Investment Program People Living with HIV/AIDS Philippine National Oil Corporation Philippine National Police Peace and Order Council Philippine Ports Authority Programs, Projects and Activities Public-Private Partnership Projects under Construction Public Utility Jeepney Person with Disability Republic Act Roads and Bridges Information Application Research and Development Regional Development Council Regional Development Investment Program Regional Development Plan Renewable Energy Research-Industry-Business Regional Line Agency Roll-on, Roll-off Renewable Portfolio Standards Real Property Tax Assessment Road-Roll-on Roll-off Transport System Regional Standards and Testing Laboratory Student Crime Prevention Committee Self Employment Assistance Securities and Exchange Commission

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

121

SET-UP SIFMA SIKAT SK SMED SRNH S&T SUCs SUWECO SY TAREC TB TeLOf TESDA TNA TR TransCo TVET UAE UK UPLB USA VAT VAW VAWC WD WHO WV WVMC

Small Enterprises Technology Upgrading Program Socialized Industrial Forest Management Agreement School of Indigenous Knowledge, Arts and Tradition Sangguniang Kabataan Small and Medium Enterprise Development Strong Republic Nautical Highway Science and Technology State Universities and Colleges Sunwest Water and Electric Company, Inc. School Year Trans-Asia Renewable Energy Tuberculosis Telecommunication Office Technical Education and Skills Development Authority Training Needs Assessment Training Regulations National Transmission Commission Technical Vocational Education Training United Arab Emirates United Kingdom University of the Philippines Los Baños United States of America Value Added Tax Violence Against Women Violence Against Women and Children Water District World Health Organization Western Visayas Western Visayas Medical Center

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

Credits
regIonaL deveLopMenT CounCIL vI
officers
Hon. Victor A. Tanco, Sr., Chairperson (Governor, Capiz), Ms. Ma. Luisa C. Segovia, Co-Chairperson (Trustee, Iloilo Business Club), Dir. Ro-Ann A. Bacal, Vice-Chairperson (Regional Director, NEDA), Atty. Raul S. Anlocotan, Secretary (OIC-Assistant Regional Director, NEDA)

Members
Governors: Hon. Carlito Marquez (Aklan), Hon. Exequiel Javier (Antique), Hon. Felipe Hilan Nava (Guimaras), Hon. Arthur Defensor, Sr. (Iloilo), Hon. Alfredo Marañon, Jr. (Negros Occidental) Mayors: Hon. Evelio Leonardia (Bacolod City), Hon. Ramon Torres (Bago City), Hon. Patrick Escalante (Cadiz City), Hon. Melecio Yap (Escalante City), Hon. Agustin Ernesto Bascon (Himamaylan City), Hon. Jed Patrick Mabilog (Iloilo City), Hon. Isidro Zayco (Kabankalan City), Hon. Juliet Marie Ferrer (La Carlota City), Hon. Jesry Palmares (Passi City), Hon. Angel Alan Celino (Roxas City), Hon. Leo Rafael Cueva (Sagay City), Hon. Gerardo Valmayor (San Carlos City), Hon. Jose Montelibano (Silay City), Hon. Oscar Montilla (Sipalay City), Hon. Eric Saratan (Talisay City), Hon. Severo Palanca (Victorias City), Hon. Cresente Chavez, Jr. (Jordan, Guimaras), Hon. William Lachica (Kalibo, Aklan), Hon. Rony Molina (San Jose, Antique), Hon. Ramon Legaspi, Jr. (Makato, Aklan), Hon. Norberto Raymundo (Libertad, Antique), Hon. Dante Bermejo (Panay, Capiz), Hon. Samuel Gumarin (Buenavista, Guimaras), Hon. Ma. Theresa Debuque (Anilao, Iloilo), Hon. David Albert Lacson (EB Magalona, Negros Occ.) Regional Directors: Dir. Melba Sullivan (BLGF), Dir. Job Nepomuceno (BSP), Dir. Virginia Resurreccion (CHED), Dir. Larry Nacionales (DA), Dir. Alexis Arsenal (DAR), Dir. Alfonso Bedonia (DBM), Dir. Julian Amador (DENR), Dir. Mildred Garay (DepEd), Dir. Sarah Salcedo (DFA), Dir. Evelyn Trompeta (DILG), Dir. Antonio Labios (DOE), Dir. Ariel Valencia (DOH), Dir. Manuel Roldan (DOLE), Dir. Rowen Gelonga (DOST), Dir. Edwin Trompeta (DOT), Dir. Evelyn Barroso (DPWH), Dir. Minda Brigoli (DSWD), Dir. Dominic Abad (DTI), Eva Maria Marfil (HUDCC), Luis Cuison (PPA), Dir. Florencio Sunico, Jr. (TESDA) Private Sector Representatives: Marcelo Villones (CAILO), Hermino Maravilla (CREBA), Herman Santos (CSPAI), Celia Matea Flor (DAWN Foundation), Mona Liza Diones (FPOP), Emmanuel Areño (Iloilo CODE NGOs), Jessraf Palmares (IFIT), Marianne De Leon (NEDI), Roberto Montelibano (PCCI), Wilfredo Homicillada (PROCESS), Luis Molavin (TPFI), Marcela Reyes-Tinagan (Aklan), Romeo Baldevia (Antique), Danilo So Chan (Capiz), Joyce Eledia (Guimaras), Melvin Purzuelo (Iloilo), Ma. Antoinette Colmenares (Negros Occ.) Special Non-Voting Representatives: Major Gen. Emmanuel Bautista (PA), Chief Supt. Cipriano Querol, Jr. (PNP), Atty. Ma. Janet Mesa (PIA), Dir. Rosario Cabrera (OCD)

Sector Committees
Development Administration Committee (DAC): Dir. Evelyn A. Trompeta, Chairperson (DILG), Wilfredo Homicillada, Co-Chairperson (PROCESS), Atty. Glen Geraldino (BIR), Chief Supt. Ignacio Panti (BJMP), Dr. Melba Sullivan (BLGF), Mr. Job Nepumoceno (BSP), Juliet Alfeche (Bureau of Treasury), Dir. Salvador Isiderio (COA), Dir. Rodolfo Encajonado (CSC), Dir. Alfonso Bedonia, Jr. (DBM), Eleanor Gregorio (GSIS), Dir. Roy Gonzales (NICA), Dir. Honey Paredes (NaPolCom), Atty. Domingo Laurea, Jr. (NPS), Dir. Rosario Cabrera (OCD), Atty. Pelagio Apostol (Ombudsman Visayas), Maj. Gen. Emmanuel Bautista (PA), Dir. Ma. Janet Mesa (PIA), Chief Supt. Cipriano Querol,

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

123

Jr. (PNP), Dir. Emetri Amoroso (PPA), Elvira Banico (SSS), Marcelo Villones, Jr. (CAILO), Agnes Villaruz (GRF), Emmanuel Areño (Iloilo CODE NGOs), Dr. Jessica Salas (KSP), Gov. Carlito Marquez (Aklan), Gov. Exequiel Javier (Antique), Gov. Victor Tanco, Sr. (Capiz), Gov. Felipe Hilan Nava (Guimaras), Gov. Arthur Defensor, Sr. (Iloilo), Gov. Alfredo Marañon (Negros Occ.), Mayor Evelio Leonardia (Bacolod City), Mayor Jed Patrick Mabilog (Iloilo City) Economic Development Committee (EDC): Dir. Dominic P. Abad, Chairperson (DTI), Jessraf Palmares, CoChairperson (IFIT), Dir. Drusila Esther Bayate (BFAR), Dir. Larry Nacionales (DA), Dir. Alexis Arsenal (DAR), Dir. Julian Amador (DENR), Dir. Rowen Gelonga (DOST), Dir. Edwin Trompeta (DOT), Dir. Oscar Cabanayan (EMB), Dir. Leo Van Juguan (MGB), Marie Antoinette Colmenares (ANP), Danilo So Chan (Capiz SMED), Herman Santos (CSPAI), Ana Eva Villanueva (GPEFI), Salvador Sarabia, Jr. (ICVB), Valerie Maravilla (Iloilo SMED), Georita Pitong (MASIPAG), Marianne De Leon (NEDI), Abel de Pedro (Sigmahanon Devt Foundation, Inc.), Gov. Carlito Marquez (Aklan), Gov. Exequiel Javier (Antique), Gov. Victor Tanco, Sr. (Capiz), Gov. Felipe Hilan Nava (Guimaras), Gov. Arthur Defensor, Sr. (Iloilo), Gov. Alfredo Marañon (Negros Occ.), Mayor Evelio Leonardia (Bacolod City), Mayor Jed Patrick Mabilog (Iloilo City), Hon. Patrick Escalante (Cadiz City), Hon. Agustin Ernesto Bascon (Himamaylan City), Hon. Isidro Zayco (Kabankalan City), Hon. Juliet Marie Ferrer (La Carlota City), Hon. Jesry Palmares (Passi City), Hon Rafael Cueva (Sagay City), Hon. Severo Palanca (Victorias City) Infrastructure Development Committee (IDC): Hon. Jed Patrick E. Mabilog, Chairperson (Mayor, Iloilo City), Ma. Luisa Segovia, Co-Chairperson (IBC), Alan Java (CAAP), Dir. Antonio Labios (DOE), Dir. Evelyn Barroso (DPWH), Dir. Gerard Camiña (LTO), Mary Armi Arcilla (MARINA), Engr. Wilfredo Billena (NEA), Engr. Gerardo Corsiga (NIA), Dir. Eleuterio Navarro, Jr. (NTC), Winfred Michael Elizalde (PPA), Dir. Lilia Barcelon (PPC), Dir. Albert Jovero (TELOF), Melvin Purzuelo (Green Forum), Frank Carbon (MBCCI), Roberto Montelibano (PCCI), Andres Tionko (PRDCI), Leny Albert Apaitan (Roxas City FCCCI), Raymund Balogo (UAP), Gov. Carlito Marquez (Aklan), Gov. Exequiel Javier (Antique), Gov. Victor Tanco, Sr. (Capiz), Gov. Felipe Hilan Nava (Guimaras), Gov. Arthur Defensor, Sr. (Iloilo), Gov. Alfredo Marañon (Negros Occ.), Mayor Evelio Leonardia (Bacolod City), Hon. Patrick Escalante (Cadiz CIty), Hon. Isidro Zayco (Kabankalan City), Hon. Jesry Palmares (Passi City), Hon. Lee Rafael Cueva (Sagay City), Social Development Committee (SDC): Dir. Minda B. Brigoli, Chairperson (DSWD), Celia Matea Flor, CoChairperson (DAWN Foundation), Dir. Virginia Resureccion (CHED), Dir. David Bermudo (CHR), Dir. Mildred Garay (DepEd), Dir. Ariel Valencia (DOH), Dir. Manuel Roldan (DOLE), Eva Maria Marfil (HUDCC), Dir. Alfonso Catolin (NCIP), Nona Tad-y (NNC), Rhenelyn Queen Dadulo (NYC), Dir. Neil Victor Saril (PCUP), Marilyn Geduspan (PhilHealth), Dir. Vicente Molejona (POPCOM), Dir. Florencio Sunico, Jr. (TESDA), Mona Lisa Diones (FPOP), Eveline Jover (IPHF), Edwin Balajadia (PRRM), Luis Molavin (TPFI), Zinnia Teruel (TSKI), Gov. Carlito Marquez (Aklan), Gov. Exequiel Javier (Antique), Gov. Victor Tanco, Sr. (Capiz), Gov. Felipe Hilan Nava (Guimaras), Gov. Arthur Defensor, Sr. (Iloilo), Gov. Alfredo Marañon (Negros Occ.), Mayor Evelio Leonardia (Bacolod City), Mayor Jed Patrick Mabilog (Iloilo City), Hon. Isidro Zayco (Kabankalan City),

rdp pLannIng CoMMITTeeS
Macroeconomy: Presentacion Penpillo (Team Leader); Competitive Industry and Services: Ma. Luisa Segovia (Team Leader), Mr. Jessraf Palmares (Asst. Team Leader); Modern and Competitive Agriculture and Fisheries: ARD Joyce Wendam (Team Leader); Tourism Development: Salvador Sarabia, Jr. (Team Leader), Angeles Gabinete (Asst. Team Leader); Infrastructure Support: Engr. Cecil Caligan (Team Leader), Samela Bunda (Asst. Team Leader); Human Resource Development: ARD Joel Galicia (Team Leader), Harold Marshall (Asst. Team Leader); Research and Development Thrusts: ARD Alicia Lustica (Team Leader), Joseph Idemne (Asst. Team Leader); Bio-fuels and Renewable Energy Development: Melvin Purzuelo (Team Leader), Magdaleno Baclay, Jr. (Asst. Team Leader); Good Governance and the Rule of Law: Luz Tenedero (Team Leader), Emmanuel Areño (Asst. Team Leader); Peace and Security: Christopher Montaño (Team Leader), Prosecutor Virgilio Garcia (Asst. Team Leader); Environment and Natural Resources: Dir. Livino Duran (Team Leader)

124

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

rdp ConSuLTaTIon parTICIpanTS
ILOILO, GUIMARAS AND ANTIQUE: Maj. John Andrada , 1Lt. Mark Andrew Posadas (AFP-PA), Ireneo Olivares (BAS), Roberto Espinosa (BFAR), FSI Melanie Habawel (BFP), JCI Gilbert Peremne (BJMP), Alicia Suclan (BLGF), Jose Naig (BOC), Doreen Santerva (BSP), Allan Patches (CAAP), Dr. Rex Casiple (CHED), Josephine Berte (DA), Eileen Zurita, Erna June Camba (DAR), Edgar Javison (DBM), Francisco Gallego, Edna Locsin, Nerliza Alegata, Wyleen Capito, Gregoria Alenaje (DENR), Jeanette Sapilan (DENR-EMB), Mamerto Caballero, Ildefonso Tuliva (DENR-LMS), Damaso Fuentes (DENR-PAWCZMS), Maria Cabag, Suzette Pamplona, Corazon Brown (DepEd), Violeta Castillo (Zarraga NHS), Nelida Baitan (Oton NHS), Engr. Rochelle Ang, Annabelle Bernadas, Jocelyn de los Santos (DOH), Salome Siaton, Amalia Indicpa (DOLE), Andrea Panilla, Felipe Pacholo (DOST), Francis Santander (DPWH), Rebecca Geamala, Mary Ann Masculino, Delia Bagolcol (DSWD), Henry Tampani, Lea Gonzales (DTI), Almi Flo Endonila (HUDCC), Felicisimo Robles (LTO), Ephraim Jacildo (LWUA), Lara Artajo, Cecilia Ochavo (MGB), Elena Cirjuales (NAPOLCOM), Rafael Ragos (NBI), Josela Gregorio, Edgardo Labordo, Jr. (NCIP), Vilma Zarraga (NFA), Antonio Lamzon, Liza Enicola (NIA), Mary Jogen Montaño (NICA), Engr. Nestor Antonio Monroy (NTC), Engr. Isagani Jalbuena, Arch. Jesus Fantilaga (NHA), Consuelo Virgula, Felina Chin (NSO), Celeste Milan (OCD), Emilia Drilon (OSCA), Jose Cruz (PCA), Peachy Marie Ochong (PCUP), Paul Ledesma (PDEA), Darryl Dabi (PHIC), PCSupt Ernesto Tesoro, Jr. (PNP), Adelfa Marcelo (PPA-DOJ), Asuncion Grecia (SEC), Noemely Dolar, Toni June Tamayo, Araceli Eraldo (TESDA), Nilson Liu Chiang (ACC), Jedi Jim Carcallas (Asea One Power Corp.), Reygene Santillan (ATON, Inc.), Jeriel G. Militar (CPU-AREC), Jay Presaldo (CUI), Jessica Badrina (Guimaras MPC), Annie Tobias, Cecilia Lamberto, Jofil Sulliva (GRECON, Iloilo), Ramon P. Apura (Green Power Panay Phils., Inc.), David Villaluz, Tomas Hautea (IFPMC), Engr. Jose Roni Peñalosa, Bonifacio Caclagan (Iloilo City, CPDO), Edwin Brasileño (Iloilo Mango Growers), Remy Villanueva (ITUCAFC), Ding Loguibis (JASAC), Paperno C. Cabangisan (NGCP), Dr. Joel Limson (NIPSC), Edna Gabayeron (NUMPTSC), Rene Lescano (PLDT), Danica Gallego (SSG Federated), Arlon Menchavez (Trans-Asia Renewable Energy Corp.), Gilda Cadagat (Ilog Kinder Home Foundation), Benito Jimena, Joeffrey Agilles (Iloilo CTO), Archt. Manuel Tingzon (Iloilo Heritage Council), Judith Gallano, Gilbert Marin (Iloilo PTO), Frenel Ambid (PYAP, Guimaras), Janith Jovero (Rising Sun Assn. of Iloilo), Haydee Montances (Reg’l/City Fed. Of DCW), Pedro Altar (SAC), Jimmy Gurrea (Samaritan Foundation Allied Services), Nerces Fortuna (SCFAI), Fe Dolores Estepa (SEAFDEC), Febie Ibojos (Signpost International Inc.), Adrian Fontelar (SPI Global), Rolly Solidum (World Vision), ,Azucena Pestaño (Women Health), Kimar Gargarita (WESVARRDEC), Ninfa Tubianosa (UA), Carmelo Ambut. (WVCST), Dr. Jose Mari Fermin (WVMC) , Dr. Pablo Subong (WVSU), Juliana Cepe, Engr. Ireneo Varona Engr. Benny Fabila (Province of Antique), Mario Nillos, Mila Dellomo (Province of Iloilo), Jimmy Baban (Province of Guimaras), Joseph Eugene Alojipan CAPIZ: Salvacion Baria (BHW), Ma. Lourdes Arcangeles, Irene Inson, Alex Besana (BNS), Joseph Eugene Alojipan (Board Member), Virgilio Clavel, Ma. Tessie Betes (Buklod Pamilya, Inc.), Antonio Balgos (Capiz Halaran CCI), Muslimin Macaayong (Capiz Roxas Islamic Foundation), Jonathan Palomar (Capiz Press), Ruel Doce (Capiz PTO), Nicola Brain, Geronimo Gregorio (CAPSU), Beverly Billones (CAPSTEA), Roxanne Edrosolano (College of St. John), Dr. Geronimo Gregorio (CSU), Fredirick Esquillo, Yehlen Lumajen, Marie Hazel Olivare (CSWDO), Mira Talabong, Josephine Berte, Lilia Peñaranda (DA 6), Gloria Sandapu (Datu Bangkaya Traders MPC), Bernardita Lerio, Jocelyn Lerio (DENR 6), Edwin Borja, Noemi Losbañes, Mary Jane Molina (DENR), Roel Bermejo, Divina Borbon (DepEd), Atty. Helen Catalbas (DOT), Mercedes Sabidong (DPWH 6), Expedito Señeres, Silvero Ramie (Filamer), Shirly Tamayo (Panit-an Devt. Foundation), Jose Nery Ong (PCCI, Capiz), Yvette Andion (PENRO), Hernane Suico (PEO), Roxanne Dichosa (PGO-CPPB), Ma. Tessie Beter (PSWDO), Antonio Asis, Stephen Bediones, Salim Biclar, Albert Porras, Wilar de los Santos, Ma. Regina Espinosa, Elvira Trogo, Diva Tarrosa (PPDO), Archt. Maria Socorro Traviña, Archt. Peter John Fantinalgo (UAP, Capiz), Alphonsus Tesoro AKLAN: Ricky Parcon (AAI), Marcela Reyes Tinagan (AGMRMFI), Arnulfo Magcupe (Aklan Coop Alliance), Roselita Sauza (Aklan Food Processors), Jose Jerome (Aklanon Bukidnon), Dr. Benny Palma, Danilo Abayon (ASU), Rico Magno (BFAR), Leonora Templonuevo (BSP), Jones Arrieta (CDA), Floralinda Muega (CDO), Baltazar Gerardo (CENRO), Glenda Himatay (DA 6), Ferdinand Abueg (DAR), Antonio Luis (DENR), Edna Ayon (DepEd), Joselito de la Banda (DOLE), Aster Oliva (DOST), Ruperto Tabuena, Eleanor Orbigo (DPWH, 2nd Engr. District), Diosdado Cadena, Jr. (DTI), Rene Enriquez (farmer), Benedict Goboy (Hagod Aklanon), Gabriel Delfin (IPPS, NVC), Gerwin Garcia (Kalibo Ati-atihan Tourism Council), Emmanuel Parco (KASAMA), Ambrocio Villorente (Madyaas Aklan Press Club), Roy Cichon (LBP), Erna Young (NFA), Wilson Rey (NIA), Nelida Losare (NSCB 6), Rodelyn Panadero (NSO), William Castillo, Christian Deza, Edilberto Bueno, Salme David (OPA), Eduardo Cabungco (PCCI), Lelanie Caro, John Kenneth Almalbis (PENRO), Felix Jizmundo, Jayvee Fontejon (PEO), Jo Arlu Sabar (Phivolcs-Kalibo),

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (Western Visayas), 2011-2016

125

Dr. Emma Cortes (PHO), Venus Villanueva (PIA), Sr. Supt. Epifanio Bragais, Jr. (PNP), Engr. Roger Esto, Reylourd Aragon, Godofredo Isedenia, Francisco Regatallo, Joji David (PPDO), Roselle Ruiz, Rowena Dailisan (PTO), Vicky Ramos Antonino (WV Tourism Council), SP Member Selwyn Ibarreta (Aklan), SB Member Medialyn Barcelona (Altavas), SB Member Cesar Cortez (Batan), Malou Lachica (Kalibo), Dante Zubiaga (Libacao), Atty. Ariel Igoy (Malinao), Francis Salabante (Nabas), SB Estrella Belarde (New Washington), Mayor Adolfo Iligan (Numancia), Mayor Gene Fuentes (Tangalan), Jenette Suco (SP Office), Richie Oloroso, Odon Bandiola, Josefa Elena Martin, Lilse Panes NEGROS OCCIDENTAL: Benju Araneta (Assoc. of Negros Producers), Roberto Escollar (Bacolod City Water District), Ellen Lagtapon (Bacolod Girls Home Foundations, Inc.), Crisanto Jamero (Betty Bantug Benitez Foundation, Inc.), Honey Bee Borromeo, Ana Ma. Carmen Principe (CPDO, Bacolod City), Melanie Sudarco (CSPA), Roger Salcedo, Glenda Panilan (DA) , Jose Freddie Mocon (DepEd), Jesse Vego (DENR), Rosemary Caunca (Fed. Of Irrigators Assoc.-Bago City), Katherine Maguad (Institute for Negros Devt), Mars Villones (Labor), Frank Carbon (MBCCI), Jun de la Cruz (NACUSIP-TUCP), Ma. Carmen Regalado (Negrense Volunteers for Change Foundation Inc.), Lyn Gamboa (Negros Cultural Foundation), Roseo Depra (NEDF), Alegria Makilan (Negros Kabisig Livelihood Foundation, Inc.), Roque Hofileña (Neg. Occ. Historical Council, Inc.), Richie Dalpatan (NOPSSCEA), Johnnar Dequilla (NORFI), Margarita Lopez, Joy Mar Valle, Michael Juen (NODRFI), Joseph Guevarra (NWTFI), Carmen Beñares (PEC-Bacolod), Eufemia Octaviano, Rose Jessica Octaviano (PMHA), Ma. Lina Sanogal, Lanie Calaor, Ma. Theresa Defiesta, Grace Lipa,Jonas Escalona, Tito Millendez, Evijane Viñas, Jessebil Dollosa, Jonathan Orense (PPDO), Jennylind Cordero (PTO), Edith Villanueva (SIFI), Wilman Natuel (SIMAG Foundation, Inc.), Glenn Burgos (USLS), Joneva Joy Miranda (VRHD), PSupt. Roderick Alba (WOPDO), Col. Francisco Patrimonio, LTC Rodrigo Flores, TSgt Ben Mijares (303 Brigade)

neda-vI TeChnICaL STaFF
Plan and Policy Formulation Division (PPFD): Ma. Lourdes Miado, Manuel Luis Dionio, Ma. Leah Letrero, Joyalita Tigres, Elizabeth Bugna, Juvelyn Boniba Project Development, Investment Programming and Budgeting Division (PDIPBD): Gilberto Altura, Ma. Teresa Guadalupe, Melinda Jamelo, Melvin Madriguera, Yvette Batacandolo, Ma. Solita Lequillo Project Monitoring and Evaluation Division (PMED): Erlinda Chiu, Othelo Derecho, Alex Aquio, Danilo Molato Knowledge Management Division (KMD): Estela Paredes, Rene Ledesma, Ma. Isabel Blancia, Christinne Anne Gaitana, August Melody Andong, Mark Algreg Solina

neda-vI adMInISTraTIve STaFF
Administrative Division: Cynthia Lumampao, Ingrid Magno, Anthony Borbon, Scarlet Molato, Mary Ann Brotarlo, Nelly Sustiguer, Ma. Gina Silloren, Reynaldo Deopido, Melinda Narvaez, Sandra Serguino, Antonio Villanueva, Erwin Francisco, Ronie Demonteverde, Francis John Palabrica, Moonyeen Bolivar, Enalie Dela Cruz, Gregorio Sierra, Romeo Cabayao, Ismael Dacula, Jr., Joselito Gatuteo, Gary Quilantang, Larry Jalandoon, Rodney Gucana

phoToS
thenewstoday.info, silent-gardens.com, island-environmentblog.org, tripwow.tripadvisor.com, boracaysand.com, habagatcentral.com, sitemaker.umich.edu, joshuastrees.com, meghnavillagevinegar.webs.com, republikangpinoy. blogspot.com, uscb.gov.ph, gigsilonggo.com, etravelpilipinas.com, exploreiloilo.com, byahilo.com, istorya.net, members. virtualtourist.com

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