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OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES Students to be able to : • Identify main use and why it is limited • Identify main parts and important features • Draw and use velocity diagrams • Explain expansion on Mollier (hs) diagram • Start the fluid and thermodynamic aspects of design. SCOPE Gas only, not used with steam. APPLICATION Almost only in turbochargers for small IC engines because : Easier to manufacture in small sizes than axial flow turbines Less affected by tip leakage than axial flow turbines, so in small sizes, efficiency better than for axial flow turbines Only other significant application is in production of liquid gasses. Not used in large steam and gas installations or aircraft because : Large axial flow turbines have greater efficiency Cross sectional area too large for most potential aircraft applications. MAIN PARTS AND FEATURES Similar to centrifugal compressors, but : • Direction of flow is opposite • Flow enters the outer part of casing called scroll (not diffuser) • Flow leaves through short exit pipe, which may be fitted with a diffuser • Rotating part called rotor (not impeller) • If there are vanes in scroll, called inlet nozzles or inlet guide vanes. or • Usually powered by exhaust gas from IC engines, so operating temperature greater than for centrifugal compressors but less than for most axial flow turbines. Hence, materials used in manufacture usually differ from those used in centrifugal compressors and axial flow turbines. OPERATION Gas enters the scroll tangentially. Due to the cross sectional area decreasing in the direction of flow : • Velocity and kinetic energy of the gas increases • Pressure, temperature and density of the gas decrease • Gas follows a spiral path into the rotor. If inlet guide vanes are fitted, they assist with all these, but especially with the last. Whilst in the rotor the direction of flow changes from circumferential/tangential and radial to circumferential/tangential and axial or to axial only. Change in momentum exerts forces on the rotor which results in transfer of most of the kinetic and pressure energy in the gas to the rotor. Thus it becomes available as shaft power.
No Inlet Guide Vanes) Rotor blades are usually radial at entry so will only consider these. want gas velocity as close to zero as possible. QUESTION : Why not equal to zero ? . • Rotor velocity (U1) is at 90° to relative velocity. absolute velocity (C1) is third side of velocity diagram. velocity diagram is a single 90° triangle because : • Rotor blades which are radial at entry require relative velocity at entry (W1) which is also radial. QUESTION : Why are rotor blades radial at entry ? At entry to rotor. so at exit from rotor.2 TERMINOLOGY AND SYMBOLS Reference directions for angles are : Radial at entry to the rotor Axial at exit from the rotor ω U W C α β Cp Cv γ R angular velocity of impeller tangential velocity of impeller velocity of fluid relative to impeller absolute velocity of fluid angle between absolute velocity and reference direction angle between relative velocity and reference direction specific heat at constant pressure specific heat at constant volume ratio of specific heats = Cp/Cv gas constant Position Subscripts (no inlet guide vanes) 0 entry to scroll ≡ conditions outside the turbine 1 entry to rotor 2 exit from rotor 3 exit from turbine Position Subscripts (with inlet guide vanes) 0 entry to scroll ≡ conditions outside the turbine 1 entry to inlet guide vanes 2 exit from inlet guide vanes and entry to rotor 3 exit from rotor 4 exit from turbine Other Subscripts Extra 0 stagnation a axial or actual i isentropic r radial x tangential or circumferential VELOCITY DIAGRAMS (No Slip. Rotor has to extract as much kinetic energy from gas as possible. Thus.
e. assume constant stagnation enthalpy (h03 = h02). but subscripts on previous page increase by 1 – i. COMBINATION OF THERMODYNAMICS WITH VELOCITY DIAGRAMS Power obtained from Euler’s turbine equation equals change in stagnation enthalpy (h01 – h02 = U1. entropy has to increase. so: h1 + C12/2 – h2 – C22/2 = U1. rearranging gives : h1 – h2 = (C22 – C12)/2 + U1. Most of remaining pressure energy is converted into kinetic energy in gas and then rotational kinetic energy in rotor. Since exit pipe is short. 1 becomes 2 and 2 becomes 3.Cx1 – U2. and • h3 > h2 .Cx2). If inlet guide vanes are fitted velocity diagrams have same shape. So. but from velocity diagrams. absolute velocity at exit (C2) has components in axial direction (Ca2) and direction of rotor motion (Cx2). but do not need component in direction of rotor motion.Cx1 – U2.4 pg. 7. so : h1 + ½C12 – U1.Cx2. EQUATIONS Euler’s turbine equation is p = m (U1.Cx1 – U2. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS See fig. If ignore losses. Exit pipe (point 2 to point 3) is usually short and usually has an increasing cross sectional area. . usually assume no change in stagnation enthalpy (i. 278 for expansion through centrifugal turbine without inlet guide vanes. Cx1 = U1 and Cx2 = 0. or h00 – h02) occurs in rotor. exit tube allows static pressure at exit from rotor to be less than pressure at exit from machine (usually atmospheric pressure). but stagnation pressure has to decrease (P01 < P00). h01 = h00). But entropy increases so stagnation pressure decreases (P03 < P02).Cx1 – U2. Scroll (point 0 to point 1). so : • P2 << P1 • h2 << h1 Gas only does work whilst in rotor.e.3 In general. Due to upward slope of constant pressure lines on Mollier (hs) diagram. Need a non-zero axial component (Ca2).Cx2. Euler’s equation becomes : p = m U12. Thus : • P3 > P2. as with draft tube on water turbine. rothalpy is constant (I1 = I2).U2.Cx2. So. Hence at exit from rotor velocity diagram is also a single 90° triangle with : • Absolute velocity (C2) in axial direction • Rotor velocity (U2) at 90° to absolute velocity (C2) • Relative velocity (W2) forming the third side of the triangle. At entry to scroll (point 0) : • h0 < h00 • P0 < P00 QUESTION : Explain these. so all decrease in stagnation enthalpy (h01 – h02. Rotor (point 1 to point 2). so to maximise energy transfer.Cx2) but h01 = h1 + C12/2 and h02 = h2 + C22/2. design rotor so that Cx2 = 0. Pressure energy is converted into kinetic energy.Cx1 = h2 + ½C22 . so : • P1 << P0 • h1 << h0 Also.
isentropic expansion through rotor ends at point 2s.C12 gives : h1a – h1i = 0.U2. Combining with h1 + W12/2 – U12/2 = h2 + ½C22 .Cx2 Absolute velocity at exit from rotor is usually axial. Thus : (h1a – h1i)/(h2s – h2i) = T1/T2. Rearranging gives : h1 – h2 = (C22 – W12 + U12)/2. from velocity diagram C12 = W12 + U12 and Cx1 = U1.5. at the end of the expansion in the scroll.5. or h2s – h2i = (T2/T1)( h1a – h1i).4 pg. Substituting into h1 + ½C12 – U1. From fig.ds = dh – ρ. and ηts = (T00 – T02a)/(T00 – T2i).U2. So for small enthalpy and entropy change.W22.ςN. h1 – h1i ≈ T1(s1 – s1i) and at the end of expansion in the rotor h2s – h2i = T2(s2s – s2i). For the exit pipe.Cx1 = h2 + ½C22. Assuming constant specific heat. so : h2 + C22/2 = h3 + C32/2.4 Since rotor blades are radial at entry to the rotor. 278.Cx1 = h2 + ½C22 .5.5.ςR.Cx2 gives : h1 + W12/2 – U12/2 = h2 + ½C22.ςN. ηtt = (h00 – h02a)/(h00 – h02i). RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOSS COEFFICIENTS AND TOTAL-TO-STATIC EFFICIENCY From section on combination of thermodynamics and velocity diagrams : h1 – h2 = (C22 – W12 + U12)/2. ∆h ≈ T. loss coefficients are used to quantify losses in each part of a stage – in this case. Similarly. Method of relating these to efficiency is similar to that for axial flow turbines. QUESTION : Is assumption of constant specific heat as valid for single stage radial flow turbines as it is for a single stage of an axial flow turbine ? Explain.dP).5.C12.Cx1 = h2 + ½C22 . along constant pressure lines dP = 0 and T. so for rotor : ςR = (h2a – h2s)/0. Similarly.Cx2. Thus.Cx2 gives : h1 + ½C12 – U1. rearranging ςR = (h2a – h2s)/0. Rearranging ςN = (h1a – h1i)/0.5. 7.W22 gives : h2a – h2s = 0.Cx2 gives : h1 + ½(W12 + U12) – U12 = h2 + ½C22 .U2. EFFICIENCY From definition : ηtt = ∆ha/∆hi = (h00 – h03a)/(h00 – h03i). so from velocity diagram at exit from rotor : C22 = W22 – U22 and Cx2 = 0. From Gibbs equation (T.Cx1 = h2 + ½C22 . Substituting both into h1 + ½C12 – U1.W22. Derivations and definitions are similar to those for axial flow turbines so for scroll : ςN = (h1a – h1i)/0. ηtt = (T00 – T02a)/(T00 – T02i).ds = dh.U2.U2. Cx2 = 0 and putting it in h1 + ½C12 – U1. so s1 – s1i = s2s – s2i. Constant entropy lines on Mollier (hs) charts are vertical and parallel.Cx1 = h2 + ½(W22 – U22). ηts = (h00 – h02a)/(h00 – h2i). which can be rearranged as : h1 – h2 = (W22 – W12 + U12 – U22)/2 If the absolute velocity at exit from the impeller is axial.C12. But h02 = h2 + C22/2 and h03 = h3 + C32/2. which simplifies to : h1 + W12/2 – U12/2 = h2 + ½C22 . from the previous section.Cx2 gives : h1 + ½C12 – U1. Rearranging gives : h3 – h2 = (C22 – C32)/2.∆s. Combining gives : h1 + W12/2 – U12/2 = h2 + ½(W22 – U22).5. h02 = h03. . in scroll and rotor. or assuming h02 = h03. LOSS COEFFICIENTS As with axial flow turbines. Substituting into h2s – h2i = (T2/T1)( h1 – h1i) gives : h2s – h2i = (T2/T1) 0.U2.C12.
ςN(U12/sin2 α1)] which simplifies to : ηts = 1/[1 + 0. Substituting all into ηts = U12/(U12 + 0.T1. But h02a = h2a + C22/2.ςR(U22/sin2 β2) + (T2/T1) 0.5(U22/tan2 β2) + 0. Substituting both into ηts = U12/( U12 + h2a + C22/2 – h2s + h2s – h2i) gives : ηts = U12/( U12 + 0. Combining this with h1 – h2 = U12[1 – (1/tan2 β2) – (D2/D1)2/tan2 β2]/2 gives : (γ.C12. Rearranging gives : Cp(1 – γ) = – γ.γ.U2/D2. so : h00 = U12 + h02a.5.Cp – γ. tan α1 = U1/W1 so W1 = U1/tan α1 and sin α1 = U1/C1 so C1 = U1/sin α1.5. use the similarities between these two definitions of efficiency. so U2 = U1.5(U22/tan2 β2) + 0.a12. Rearranging gives : T1 – T2 = U12(γ – 1)[1 – (1/tan2 β2) – (D2/D1)2/tan2 β2]/2.5.R.ςR + (T2/T1) 0. Substituting into h1 – h2 = Cp(T1 – T2) gives : h1 – h2 = (γ. so substituting gives : 1 – (T2/T1) = U12(γ – 1)[1 – (1/tan2 β2) – (D2/D1)2/tan2 β2]/2. so substituting into h00 = U12 + h02a gives : h00 = U12 + h2a + C22/2.ςR(U12(D2/D1)2/sin2 β2) + (T2/T1) 0.R.5.T1 = square of speed of sound at point 1 (a12).5.5((D2/D1)2/tan2 β2) + 0.5 From velocity diagram at entry to rotor. rearranging gives : U2 = U1.C22 + 0. As for axial flow turbines. p = m . This is the same as equation 7.R/(γ – 1).5. To eliminate specific heat start with Cp/Cv = γ. Dividing both sides by T1 gives : 1 – (T2/T1) = U12(γ – 1)[1 – (1/tan2 β2) – (D2/D1)2/tan2 β2]/2. sin β2 = U2/W2 so W2 = U2/sin β2 and sin α1 = U1/C1 so C1 = U1/sin α1.5. so : ηtt = (h00 – h02a)/(h00 – h2i – C22/2).R.γ.5.ςN). so Cv = Cp – R.ςR((D2/D1)2/sin2 β2) + (T2/T1) (0. Rather than proceeding as in previous section. Also.D2/D1.5(U12(D2/D1)2/tan2 β2) + 0.5.C12.5. ςR(U22/sin2 β2) + (T2/T1) 0.C12.U2/D2.D2/D1. or h1 – h2 = [U12(1 – (1/tan2 α1) + U22/tan2 β2]/2. h1 – h2 = Cp(T1 – T2). From previous section h2a – h2s = 0. Ignoring the exit pipe. 1/ηtt = (h00 – h2i – C22/2)/(h00 – h02a) and 1/ηts = (h00 – h2i)/(h00 – h02a). From velocity diagram at exit from rotor. Substituting into h1 – h2 = [U12(1 – (1/tan2 α1)) + U22/tan2 β2]/2 gives h1 – h2 = U12[1 – (1/tan2 β2) – (D2/D1)2/tan2 β2]/2. and so : Cp = γ.W22. But γ. From velocity diagrams. R = Cp – Cv.5.ςR + (T2/T1) 0. Replacing W12 and C22 in h1 – h2 = (C22 – W12 – U12)/2 gives : h1 – h2 = (U22/tan2 β2 – U12/tan2 α1 + U12)/2.ςR and h2s – h2i = (T2/T1) 0. add and subtract h2s to and from denominator equation for total-to-static efficiency gives : ηts = (h00 – h02a)/(h00 – h2s + h2s – h2i).R. In ηts = (h00 – h02a)/(h00 – h2s + h2s – h2i).4 pg. so combining gives : 1/ηtt = 1/ηts – C22/2(h00 – h02a). but h02i = h2i + C22/2. .ςN(U12/sin2 α1)]. 280.ςN(U12/sin2 α1)] gives : ηts = U12/[U12 + 0.U1/D1 = 2.5.ςN/sin2 α1)].C22 + 0. But ω = 2. Assuming constant specific heat. Substituting into Cp = γ.U1/D1 = 2. tan β2 = U2/C2 so C2 = U2/tan β2.Cv gives : Cp = γ(Cp – R) = γ.W22.R/(γ – 1))(T1 – T2) = U12[1 – (1/tan2 β2) – (D2/D1)2/tan2 β2]/2.5. Combining gives h00 – h02a = U12. so : Cp = γ. 7. ηts = (h00 – h02a)/(h00 – h2i).5.Cv. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOSS COEFFICIENTS AND TOTAL-TO-TOTAL EFFICIENCY Ignoring exit pipe. replacing h00 – h02a with U12 and h00 with U12 + h2a + C22/2 gives : ηts = U12/( U12 + h2a + C22/2 – h2s + h2s – h2i). isentropic expansion is from point 1 to point 2s (see fig.W22.U12 and p = m (h00 – h02a).a12)[1 – (1/tan2 β2) – (D2/D1)2/tan2 β2]. tan β2 = U2/C2 so C2 = U2/tan β2.R.14 pg.5. Rearranging gives : T2/T1 = 1 – (U12(γ – 1)/2. Since ω = 2. For the rotor alone.5. ηts = (h00 – h02a)/(h00 – h2i). 278). Substituting into ηts = U12/[U12 + 0.ςN) gives : ηts = U12/[U12 + 0. ηtt = (h00 – h02a)/(h00 – h02i).R/(γ – 1))(T1 – T2). Recall that for rotor with radial blades at entry and only axial velocity at exit. Also ignoring exit pipe.ςN.
optimum specific speed is Nsp ≈ 0. Recall that for rotor with radial blades at entry and only axial velocity at exit. 279. so Cs2/2 = U12 and U1/Cs = 1/√2. DESIGN Experimental and analytical work has shown that : • Optimum entry angle to impeller is α1 ≈ 74° • For turbine without inlet guide vanes.69. at entry to the rotor. This is the same as equation 7. is β1’ = 2. Combining gives h00 – h02a = U12.Cx1 – U2. But this will cause additional losses. p = m . (Nsp = N√Q2/(h00 – h02i)0. U1/Cs ≈ 0. .U12(tan2 β2) = 1/ηts – U22. Also.6 From velocity diagram. Substituting into 1/ηtt = 1/ηts – C22/2(h00 – h02a) gives : 1/ηtt = 1/ηts – U22/2(tan2 β2)(h00 – h02a). Taking slip into account.U12 and p = m (h00 – h02a). relative velocity is not parallel to the blades. so ∆h = Cs2/2 and Cs = √2.65 (Dixon) or somewhat larger (Sayers).16 pg. so combining gives : U12 = ∆h. relative velocity curves in the direction of blade motion. Hence. Also. So.Cr1. the pressure on the leading side of the blades is greater than the pressure on the trailing side of the blades.∆h Isentropic enthalpy decrease can be total-to-total or total-to-static.cot2 β2/2. Euler’s turbine equation is p = m (U1. so for isentropic efficiency of 95 %.∆h. Stanitz slip factor is applicable (σs = 1 – 0. Thus. fans and compressors is due to pressure difference across the blades. ideal entry angle of gas.1 pg. SLIP Recall that slip at the exit from the impellers of centrifugal pumps. Euler’s equation becomes : p = m U12. change in specific enthalpy of gas = change in specific kinetic energy of gas. so both total-to-total and total-to-static enthalpy decreases can be with or without diffuser. Due to rotation. p = m . The ratio decreases with decreasing efficiency.U1/Z. To compensate. Similarly there is slip at entry to the rotors of radial flow turbines.75). turbines can be fitted with a diffuser downstream of exit pipe. Substituting into : 1/ηtt = 1/ηts – U22/2(tan2 β2)(h00 – h02a) gives : 1/ηtt = 1/ηts – U22/2. Cx1 = U1 and Cx2 = 0. But ∆h = Cs2/2. This is the maximum ratio of rotor speed at entry to spouting velocity.6 to 0. the leading side of the blade is moving into the flow and the trailing side is moving away from the flow.U12. tan β2 = U2/C2 so C22 = U22/tan2 β2.π/Z ≈ 1 – 2/Z). Thus four different enthalpy decreases exist – see table 7. blades are radial. at entry to the rotor the gas must have a tangential/circumferential velocity component in the opposite direction to the motion of the rotor. 281. SPOUTING VELOCITY If expansion through turbine is isentropic. So. at entry to the rotor. Velocity in this kinetic energy called sprouting velocity (Cs). So : • W1 > Cr1 • Cx1 is reduced.63. Since at OD of rotor.Cx2) but from velocity diagrams.
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