Ad van ced Te chn iqu es o f M ob ile Ad Ho c a nd W ir ele ss S en sor

Ne two rks

Ho mew ork

通訊碩 一

79 581 203

駱宇承

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1. Describe what’s the difference of mobile ad hoc network (MANET) and wireless sensor network (WSN)? Differences Limited resources: limitations in processing, memory, and power Battery sources are usually not replaceable or rechargeable Stationary nodes: nodes in sensor networks are generally stationary after deployment except for a few nodes such as mobile sinks Scalability is more important: # of nodes in a sensor network can be several orders of magnitude larger Environment interaction: core of WSN, absent in MANET Data centric V.S. id-centric networking Others: more prone to failure, no global IDs, more massive data, etc 2. Think more possible applications of wireless sensor network. 無線感測網路(WSN)的應用範圍很廣,主要可分為下列幾類: 1.環境觀察(Environmental observation):感測網路可用來偵測環境。例如,用來偵測化學工廠 附近的水質是否有受到汙染,森林火災的警報,空氣污染,取得生態環境中的溼度壓力溫 度,追蹤動物的行蹤等等。 2.軍事監控(Military monitoring):對於戰場上的任何交通工具位置,敵蹤,皆可用感測網路 來持續監控觀察。 3.建築物監控(Building monitoring):感知建築物結構上有無發生問題。 4.健康(Healthcare):Sensor 可以植入人體用來掌握個人的身體狀況及變化。 5.互動式的電腦遊戲 6.保全 3. What’s the difference of WPAN, WLAN, WMAN, WRAN, cellular area network, and satellite network.

WPAN : UWB(Ultra Wide Band, 超寬頻) IEEE 802.15.3a 高傳輸率(小於 480Mbps),短距離傳輸(小於 10m),低耗電量,低成本

Zigbee IEEE 802.15.4

Modulation technique: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) 低傳輸率(小於 250Kbps),短距離傳輸(數十公尺),低消耗功率,架構簡單具有 Master/Slave 屬 性 特性:可靠度高(當有資料傳送需求時立即傳送,並進行雙向確認) 擴充性高(一個 Zigbee 網路最多包含 255 個 Zigbee 網路節點) Bluetooth IEEE 802.15.1 Modulation technique: Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) 傳輸率:1Mbps,傳輸距離數十公尺,低耗電,使用頻段2.4GHz,主要應用於Device與 Device之間的聯結,如手機與藍芽耳機的連結。
WLAN: (WiFi) IEEE 802.11 a/b/g比較如表: IEEE 802.11a IEEE 802.11 b IEEE 802.11 g 使用頻率 5GHz 2.4GHz 2.4GHz 傳輸速率 54Mbps 11Mbps 54Mbps 普及度 少 最多 多 展頻技術 OFDM DSSS DSSS 優點 傳輸速率高 、 技術最為成熟 、 價格便宜 、傳輸速率高 、與 傳輸距離最遠 802.11b相容 不易受干擾 缺點 耗電量高、傳輸距離 傳輸速率低 、易受干擾 易受干擾 短、價格高 WMAN IEEE 802.16 a/d/e 比較如表: IEEE 802.16a/802.16-2004 (IEEE 802.16d) 2~11GHz 使用頻率 70Mbps 傳輸速率 傳輸距離 4~6 英哩 應用方向 Last mile 及 Backhaul 應用模式 固定式

IEEE 802.16e 2~6GHz 15Mbps 1~3 英哩 Mobile device 移動式

WRAN IEEE 802.22 最大資料傳輸率 18Mbps,傳輸距離 40km,目的是發展空中介面(MAC 和實体層)在各種 不同地理區域提供頻寬無線接入,包括人口稀少的農村地區,空中介面具有干擾保護機制, 以便作為次要使用者使用 54MHz~862MHz 的電視頻段,即以電視為頻道優先,在電視空 出頻道之後可轉移給無線寬頻網路來使用,

Cellular area network A cellular network is a radio network made up of a number of radio cells (or just cells ) which allows cellular subscribers to wander anywhere in the country and remain connected to the Public Switc hed Telepho ne Net work(P STN) via their mobile phones. A cellular network has a hierarchical structure and it is formed by connecting the major components mentioned below :• • •

Mobile phones[1] - main piece of equipment as far as a subscriber is concerned Base Station(BS) Mobile Switching Centre(MSC)

Cellular networks offer a number of advantages over alternative solutions:
• • •

increased capacity reduced power usage better coverage

Satellite network: A satellite is a microwave radio system with only one repeater. A satellite system or a part of a satellite system, consisting of only one satellite and the cooperating Earth stations

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