OCTOBER 2011 www.tankeroperator.

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Find out more about our range of
products at www.castrol.com/marine
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October 2011

TANKEROperator 01
News Focus
EEDI- collaboration needed
Sweden Report
Battling for the future
Tanker giant expands further
Armed guards- IMO speaks
Specialised training offered
Vetting is crucial
Fighting the menace
Pirates change tactics
Satellite Communications
Always available communications
Inmarsat gears for the future
31 Propulsion systems
ABB looks for efficiency
Switching fuels causes problems
Platinum control systems
NAPA goes shipboard
Front cover
Thomas Gunn avigation Services is the world's market leading International Admiralty Chart agent. The company specialises
in the supply of navigational products and associated services to the shipping industry on a worldwide basis.
It has recently upgraded its website and offers many services online.
40 Underwater repair
UMC extends reach
Saving time and money
44 Safety Systems
Accident investigation failures
Viking gains certification
Liferaft exchange programme
49 Tank Servicing
From dirty to clean cargoes
Cargo heating management
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We make no apology for the number of pirate
related stories and articles appearing in this issue
of TANKEROperator Magazine.
There is no doubt that the problem continues and will continue to
escalate, while the world’s shipping and military organisations debate
about what to do next.
One security advisor has suggested putting together a large combat
force, which could be paid for by the insurance industry and act as a
single unit with the capacity to get anywhere in the world quickly. At
the moment we have diverse military and commercial organisations
with different agendas trying to solve a problem, which is becoming
increasingly insolvable.
What of the victims of pirate attacks and hijackings? They have
seemed to be overlooked in all the rhetoric being banded about.
It was pleasing, therefore, on World Maritime Day to receive details
of a new initiative put together by industry heavyweights aimed at
helping seafarers and their families cope with the physical and mental
trauma caused by torture and abuse at the hands of the pirates. They are
routinely using extreme brutality and the threat of death against
seafarers and their relatives in search of ever more lucrative ransoms.
The new initiative goes by the name of Maritime Piracy
Humanitarian Response Programme (MPHRP). It is funded by the ITF
Seafarers’ Trust charity and The TK Foundation and is chaired by
former Intertanko managing director Peter Swift.
This new programme claims to speak for a grouping of shipowners,
trade unions, managers, manning agents, insurers and welfare associations,
representing the entire shipping industry, from crews to owners.
Its mission is to aid seafarers who have been, or may be subject to
pirate attack. At its launch, the organisers said that Somali-based pirates
now regularly treat hostage seafarers with extreme violence in order to
put pressure on their families and/or employers to expedite their
ransom demands.
This includes phoning family members and making the seafarer
plead for his life while he is abused and threatened with death, filming
this and posting it online for relatives to see.
MPHRP chair Peter Swift explained: “Piracy is reaching an all-time
high: in the number of incidents, in the vast ransoms demanded and,
most of all, in the extreme violence used. The treatment meted out to
the victims now frequently crosses the line from savagery into torture.
“The effects are potentially horrendous. For those, say, who successfully
resisted capture but were nearly burnt alive in the room in which they
barricaded themselves; for the brutalised hostages; and for those who daily
put to sea in fear that it may at any time happen to them. And that’s not to
forget the families, who are now firmly on the pirates’ target list,” he said.
Roy Paul of the ITF Seafarers’ Trust and MPHRP programme
manager, added: “Until now, there has been little co-ordinated help for
those who are suffering. Now that will change. With the help of those in
the industry who want to do their best for those involved, we intend to
build up a network of first responders and get psychosocial help for
affected crews.
“We have already been listening to seafarers and recording their
experiences. Those will lay the foundation for new guides for seafarers,
families and employers, for training in their use and for building the
networks of human and medical help that are now desperately needed,”
he concluded.
The MPHRP partner organisations are: BIMCO, ICMA, ICSW,
IFSMA, IGP&I, IMB, IMEC, IMHA, Intercargo, InterManager,
There is also a grouping of observers, which includes the IMO, ILO
and the NATO Shipping Centre.
As is now well documented, piracy is costing billions of dollars,
endangering people and trade and ruining lives. Today, there are up to
300 seafarers being held hostage by Somali pirates, who apart from
issuing death threats and torturing their captives, are increasingly
forcing kidnapped crews to navigate their vessels so they can be used as
motherships. These have helped to extend the pirates’ operations
thousands of miles from Somalia.
Piracy has never been so far reaching, so savage or so successful, the
MPHRP said. According to monitoring body International Maritime Bureau
(IMB), piracy at sea hit an all-time high in the first three months of this year.
The IMB told the MPHRP that as of 25th September 2011, there were
15 vessels with 277 crew under negotiations (hostage), and a further 19
being held prisoner on land.
Piracy- helping seafarers and their families

October 2011 02
Vol 11 No 1
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ul. Bukowa 11
41-700 Ruda Śląska;
Country type attack Total
Gulf of Aden Attempted 13
Boarded 1
Hijacked 4
Fired upon 14
Total 32
Red Sea Attempted 21
Boarded 3
Fired upon 9
Total 33
Somalia Attempted 38
Boarded 14
Hijacked 20
Fired upon 55
Total 127
Type attack Total
Attempted 94
Boarded 134
Hijacked 35
Fired upon 81
Grand total 344
Source: IMB.
Worldwide figures as of 25th September
p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 09: 38 Page 2
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October 2011 04
lthough these units have been
employed outside the tanker market
on long-term storage contracts for
some time, it does once again put
the spotlight on what impact (if any) the
remaining SHs have in today’s tanker market.
Analysis undertaken by Gibson Research
showed that just 223 single hulls tankers of
over 25,000 dwt remain in the fleet as of the
middle of September, which represented about
5% of the total tanker tonnage.
Only seven flag states had 10 or more SHs
on their respective registers. Excluding Panama
and Liberia, Indonesia has 31 SHs, China (21)
and Brazil (13). Petrobras remains the largest
owner of SH tanker tonnage with 13 vessels.
Closer scrutiny of the accompanying table
shows that of the remaining 33 VLCCs, just
five continue to trade. More significantly, 16
units are employed in long-term projects mostly
storing fuel oil in the Singapore area. A further
seven are laid-up in waters around Labuan.
With the inclusion of the three Ship Finance
vessels (reported sold to Petrobras for possible
conversion to FPSOs), as many as 10 SH VLCCs
are destined for conversion to FPSO/FSOs*.
By comparison, the Suezmax fleet is now 98%
double hull with just eight SH units still afloat.
Again, a few of these are engaged in long-term
storage, or destined for offshore conversion.
Excluding those vessels still trading, it is
most unlikely that any of these units will
return to the tanker market. It is also unlikely
that we will see any further tanker sales for
conversion to dry cargo once those presently
completing are redelivered.
While Gibson’s analysis stops short of a
complete breakdown of the fleet, many of the
smaller tankers are known to have had no
reported movements for several years. Owners
are able to continue to trade these tankers until
the end 2015 and there are several examples
where owners have declared that this is their
On the other hand, several owners have put up
the ‘for sale’ signs with little prospects of finding
a buyer, or indeed even realising a scrap value.
Gibson said that for some time, its view has
been that the remaining SHs have had little or
no impact on the tanker market. However,
swifter removal of the remaining SHs could
provide opportunities for some of the older
double hulls to fill the roles currently held by
their counterparts.
VLCC disaster
Remaining with the VLCC market, Gibson said
that it is rare that the underlying level of trade
can increase by around 10% in less than a year
and at the same time, returns collapse to near
non-existent levels, but this is what has
happened to the Middle East VLCC sector.
Over the past nine months, Middle East
OPEC production has increased by 2 mill
barrels per day (plus 10%) and yet VLCC TCE
earnings on TD3 (at 15 knots) have fallen from
$30,000 per day to sub-zero. Even if vessels
slow-steam, the earnings are only just covering
fixed operating costs of around $11,000 per day.
So, despite more Middle East crude cargoes,
the simple answer is ‘there are far too many
VLCCs’ and worse still, there are a lot more
still to be delivered. However this is portrayed,
it is disastrous for VLCC owners. At the same
time, it is not in charterers long term interests
to see low returns threaten their operations.
There are no easy answers to these
fundamentals, but either demand has to rise
even faster, or somehow owners have to
remove tonnage, Gibson said.
On the demand side, more long haul
MEG/western destinations would help, but with
the US and European economies “looking down
the barrel of a gun” this cannot be relied upon.
This means turning to supply, with slow-
steaming a first step. Although slow-steaming
on the laden leg is limited because any
lengthening of voyage time incurs a cost to
the charterer on the capital tied up, these
constraints are not there when ballasting.
At around nine knots, a VLCC in ballast
consumes less than 30 tonnes per day, compared
with around 55 tonnes per day at 13 knots. In
this case there will be a cost saving of around
$200,000 on a VLCC ballast leg from Japan to
the Middle East, BUT the more important
aspect is that at these super-slow speeds there
will be an effective cut in supply of some 10-
15% and so rates/earnings will be higher.
On paper this is a ‘no-brainer’, but in the
real world this is not quite so easy. There is
always the temptation to chase a cargo from
some way out; also, if an owner operates at
these super-slow speeds it will help everyone
else – even those that don’t engage in the
practice. Nonetheless, if enough owners stick
to slow-steaming it will help their market.
The challenge going forward will be to
resist speeding up in a rising market, thereby
removing the very support created by slow-
steaming. However, in the current market
owners have to do something.
Beyond slow-steaming, there is the option
to lay-up. At the moment it is too early to take
tankers out on a semi-permanent basis, with
the concern about losing approvals and
missing the chance of a market pick-up,
especially in 4Q11 and 1Q12. If there is no
significant market upturn over this winter,
then lay-up will be a much hotter topic in
2Q12. Either way, VLCC oversupply is
something we are likely to be talking about
for some time, Gibson concluded.
* The analysis excludes tankers already
under conversion, as they are deemed to be
already out of the tanker markets.
More single hull
tankers leave the fleet
A few weeks ago, Ship Finance International announced the sale of three single hull
VLCCs, following the early termination of their long-term charters.
Tanker Fleet Hull Profile. Source – Gibson Research.
Single Hull Fleet Still Laid Long Term Unknown/ot
(SH) Trading Up Storage Projects Moving/Other
VLCC - 33 5 7 16 5
Suezmax - 8 3 1 3 1
Aframax - 30 15 6 3 6
VLCC Suezmax Aframax/ Panamax/ MR size
LR2 LR1 (25-55 DWT)
Single Hull Double Hull
p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 09: 38 Page 4
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October 2011 06
Recent pirate activity in the
Mozambique Channel has
prompted Neptune Maritime
Security to issue a notice to
its shipping partners transiting
the area.
The International Maritime Bureau (IMB)
had previously warned of potential activity
in the area and, ironically, on the day of the
first attempted attack (as described by the
IMB’s Piracy Reporting Centre), 21st
September, defence analyst Helmeod-Römer
Heitman told a security seminar in Pretoria
that: “Both sides [of the channel] are not
particularly densely populated, are seriously
under-policed and there is a lot of shipping
going through.”
The two incidents Neptune drew attention
to took place on 21st and 23rd September in
the area of the Glorioso Islands in the
Northern Mozambique Channel, off the coast
of Madagascar.
In the attempted attack on September 21st,
the IMB report said that the crew of a
containership underway at position 12:46.6S-
046:18.5E spotted two skiffs at 0643 UTC,
with three to four people aboard each skiff at
a distance of about 1.5 miles.
The skiffs increased speed to around 18
knots and approached the vessel from
different sides. The vessel carried out evasive
manoeuvres and enforced anti-piracy
measures, which led to the skiffs breaking off
their pursuit after about 25 minutes.
The second attempted attack two days
later, took place at 0850 UTC, when a bulk
carrier underway at position 12:16.1S-
043:19.5E noticed two blue-coloured skiffs at
a distance of around 1 mile.
The Master raised the alarm and alerted
the armed security team on board the bulker.
Although the attempted attacks occurred
around 177 miles apart, two attempts in the
area in a matter of days must raise concerns,
Neptune said.
The move of pirates further South along
the coast of Kenya was reinforced by the
attack on a Greek-owned vessel at 04:47S-
044:35E on 20th September. Whether this
was conducted by the same Pirate Attack
Group (PAG) who then moved further South
is unknown at this time.
Helmoed-Römer Heitman stated during his
presentation that Madagascar, with more than
4,000 km of coastline, had one patrol craft
and one landing craft. While a South African
Navy frigate was heading for Pemba port in
Northern Mozambique to take up her second
anti-piracy patrol in the Northern Channel,
he said that this is a large area to patrol, and
that all precautions should be taken during
transit of the area.
NATO’s Shipping Centre has warned of
the dangers to shipping in the area,
suggesting that there are two or three PAGs
in the area and that they may move towards
the Mozambique Channel as well as
Neptune said that while two attempted
attacks in the region are not statistically
significant, they did occur further South than
many security experts might have predicted,
while their separation in terms of time and
location should be noted by any companies
with vessels in transit in the area.
Pirates reach Mozambique Channel
p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 15: 04 Page 6
October 2011

TANKEROperator 07
P&I club to vet armed maritime security providers
The North P&I club has joined
forces with specialist maritime
intelligence, investigation and
crisis management company
Gray Page to vet armed
maritime security providers on
behalf of it’s members.
In partnership with Gray Page, North’s
aim is to help its members identify
armed maritime security providers
whose governance and operations meet -
at the time the vetting is carried out -
the professional, legal and ethical
standards required by a shipowner,
or operator contemplating the use of
privately contracted armed security
personnel on board a vessel entered
with the club.
“An increasing number of shipowners
and operators are considering the use of
armed guards to defend their vessels and
crew from Somali pirates in the Gulf of
Aden and wider Indian Ocean,” said North
director Mike Salthouse. “Despite recent
IMO guidelines on the appointment of
privately contracted armed guards, this
remains a complex decision”.
On 23rd May 2011, IMO’s maritime
safety committee (MSC) published Interim
guidance to shipowners, ship operators,
and shipmasters on the use of privately
contracted armed security personnel
on board ships in the high risk area
Although not endorsing the use of
privately armed security personnel,
nor addressing all the legal issues that might
be associated with their use on board ships,
the guidance recommends due diligence
when assessing prospective security
contractors, including a review of company
structure, background and training. MSC
published a revised version of the circular
on 16th September
James Wilkes, managing director of Gray
Page, explained, “In the absence of cross-
border statutory regulation governing armed
maritime security providers, and of an
independent industry regulatory authority,
the IMO recommendations underline the
necessity for proper vetting and due
diligence processes to protect customers
employing the services of armed maritime
security providers.
“This is a position supported by industry
stakeholders including lawyers, insurers and
some flag states, so reliable and independent
vetting is central to ensuring that services
are provided safely and lawfully,’ he said.
Salthouse said, ‘Working closely with our
members we have identified the contractors
most frequently used and have now invited
this group of companies to undergo the
vetting programme.
“Although the programme is designed to
assist members to exercise due diligence
when determining the suitability of
prospective security contractors,
complementing rather than replacing their
existing selection criteria, North strongly
endorses the adoption of the shipping
industry’s best management practices for
protection against Somalia based piracy
(BMP4),” he concluded.
p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 15: 04 Page 7

October 2011 08
dopted by the IMO in July, the
EEDI will phase in increasingly
strict energy efficiency demands
on new vessels delivered from
2015. Newbuildings will have to be up to 10%
more fuel efficient than the EEDI baseline and
vessels delivered from 2020 will have to
increase this by a further 10%, with 30% more
efficiency required from 2025.
Industry critics have warned that the EEDI
will only guarantee emissions reductions after
2019, due to a waiver secured by the
developing flag states. This could see a
significant number of new vessels not meeting
the requirements for the next eight years, the
ICS secretary general has said that “no
responsible shipowner” would buy a vessel that
did not comply with the EEDI regulations.
In any case, there will be commercial
implications for those that choose to apply the
waiver: EEDI-compliant vessels will always
be more desirable, as shipowners will want to
avoid ‘yesterday’s model’.
Heralded in the summer as a real step
forward for international shipping, it appears
that the EEDI has met with somewhat inevitable
resistance. As an industry, it is crucial that the
EEDI is supported if we are ever to make
headway in meeting impending emissions
reduction targets. This is more because of what
the EEDI represents than what it does. No one
is under any illusion that it will single-handedly
transform shipping into a sustainable industry.
But the EEDI will open doors for further
discussion of market-based measures, including
an emissions trading scheme (ETS).
ETS is the fairest, most transparent and
effective means of achieving real and
meaningful reductions in emissions. All
evidence from existing schemes points to this.
As with the EEDI, any market based measure
must apply to all vessels regardless of flag.
This is a key precept of the IMO.
An ETS with a decreasing cap is also
essential if shipping is to avoid following the
route taken by the automotive industry. Cars
and trucks have become much more efficient,
but growth in vehicle numbers means actual
volumes of emissions have steadily increased.
Stark warning
The legal challenges to the inclusion of aviation
in the EU ETS are well documented and a stark
warning of the difficulties presented by
attempting regional regulation of an inherently
global transport sector. Any shipping market
based measure must bring in all countries to
avoid this. The IMO provides the historically
proven global platform that all shipping
industry stakeholders should work through.
The sheer volume of newbuild vessels
coming on-stream before EEDI is fully
implemented means there is much to be done
with all vessels that will pre-date the EEDI.
Also, reducing emissions is not just about
design features, but also tackling emissions
from operational inefficiencies.
Basic economics means the search for
profitability is already driving the industry
towards efficiency improvements and shipping
companies are already applying their
operational and engineering expertise to that
end. A growing arsenal of efficiency
technologies and strategies is being
developed: advanced hull coatings, air
lubrication systems, new propeller designs,
just-in-time virtual arrival and waste heat
recovery are just a few examples. These are
becoming increasingly viable as costs fall and
operational experience grows.
So, if there are commercial drivers for clean
technology take-up, why is an ETS necessary?
The reason is that an ETS will deliver carbon
footprint reductions across the sector, while
unregulated commercial drivers, or levy-based
schemes will only result in relative reductions,
such as tonnes of CO2 per tonne mile.
Whichever form regulation takes, clear
targets based on solid data are essential to
solving the problem we are trying to address.
This can only come from actual emissions
data. A design index for newbuild vessels will
do no more than encourage more efficient
designs. Placing a price on carbon can both
deliver more efficient ships and encourage
their more efficient operation.
Criticism of regulatory measures and
industry apathy are both inevitable as we chart
a course through what is certainly a period of
significant change in shipping. The industry’s
transformation will be ensured, however
through a combination of technical
development, commercial drivers, leadership
on sustainability and appropriate regulation.
Our next step is to ensure collaboration to
develop these appropriate regulations. By using
the skills, our engineers and industry innovators,
the future of shipping will be secure, with a
significantly reduced carbon footprint.
*This article was written by John Aitken,
secretary general, SEAaT.
Regulation and
innovation for a
sustainable future
SEAaT’s secretary general John Aitken.
The International Chamber of Shipping’s (ICS) recent statement defending the Energy
Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) against critics who have pointed out a potential weakness
in the standards sends a strong signal that shipping industry’s various stakeholders are
becoming increasingly impatient with those looking to delay regulation*.
p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 09: 43 Page 8
At the 2011 Swedish Shipowners’ Association annual meeting held in Stockholm
on 14th April the Swedish Secretary of State Carl von der Esch from the Ministry
of Industry was told that the association had received no information
on measures to strengthen Swedish shipping’s competitiveness.
The battle for the
future of Swedish
shipping goes on
October 2011

TANKEROperator 09
e replied that he was well
aware of Swedish shipping’s
situation, but shipping was
not on the government’s
timetable anytime soon.
“We can not compete under the Swedish flag
in the very tough tanker market that Swedish
ships are involved in,” said Swedish Shipowners'
Association chairman Lars Höglund.
“The forecast for 2011 is bleak for the
Swedish flag. We will lose another 40 or so
cargo ships this year and then we will have
100 cargo ships remaining under the Swedish
flag,” said CEO Hakan Friberg.
New directors elected at the AGM included
Sirius Shipping’s Jonas Backman, in the
tanker sector.
“We are approaching a disaster for the
Swedish shipping industry, and unless the
framework conditions change, there will be
no cargo ships under the Swedish flag in
three to five years,” warned Friberg at a
subsequent meeting.
“Unfortunately, we have seen a massive
flagging out to Denmark, but also to other
European countries with much better framework
than the Swedish politicians have given us. We
have no tonnage tax, or tax-free possibilities, as
is the case in the Danish registry.
“Although we have a Conservative
government in Sweden, we encounter
absolutely no sympathy for the Swedish
shipping industry’s needs and unfortunately
there is no reason to be optimistic, because the
current government has three years left until
the next election,” said Friberg.
He emphasised that a better deal in itself
will not mean that a lot of ships will return to
the Swedish flag, but it opens up investment.
“Flagging is not only a loss for the shipping
industry, but also a significant loss of
knowledge and technology in the maritime
industry,” he explained.
The Riksdag (Parliament) passed a maritime
policy decision (Government Bill 1996/97:1)
in December 1996, which called for the
government to create sustainability and
reasonable competitive conditions for Swedish
merchant shipping. The decision stipulates the
following objectives for a business-oriented
maritime policy.
The state should take advantage in various
ways of the export opportunities inherent
in shipping as an export business in order
to strengthen the balance of payments.
The Swedish merchant fleet must be
ensured reasonable competitive conditions.
p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 11: 32 Page 9
Through the resolution by the Riksdag taken
in autumn 2001 in response to (Government
Bill 2000/01:127) ‘Maritime Support,’ the
previous support was expanded so that support
corresponded to taxes and all social insurance
fees levied on income earned at sea by seafarers
working on vessels registered in Sweden.
The purpose of this support was to provide
the Swedish shipping business with
competitive conditions equivalent to the
merchant fleets of other EU countries.
The Government appointed a committee of
inquiry on tonnage tax in the shipping sector
on 25th November 2004, whose report was
presented in March 2006. The purpose of
tonnage tax was to support shipping-related
businesses in EU member states and to induce
shipping companies to re-register their vessels
under their national flags.
However, on 1st April, 2009 the Swedish
infrastructure minister announced that no
tonnage tax would be introduced during the
present term of office, which started the
heated debates between the association and
the government.
DNV appointed RO
A couple of months ago, DNV was granted
extended authorisation by the Swedish
Transport Agency to act as a recognised
organisation (RO) providing statutory survey
services to Swedish-flagged vessels engaged
in international trade.
Effective from 1st September 2011, this
move had the strong support of the Swedish
Shipowners’ Association, Sveriges Redare-
Förening, DNV said.
The authority agreement was signed by
DNV Maritime’s technical director, Olav
Nortun, and the Swedish Transport Authority
general director, Staffan Widlert, on 30th
August 2011.
As a result, as well as their own class
certificates, DNV is now able to issue almost
all certificates required for Swedish cargo
ships, including those relating to IMO
conventions and codes and also Swedish
national statutes.
“This increased authorisation is significant
as it breaks with long Swedish flag tradition
and will lead to new synergies for the
shipowners,” said Johan Gärdin, DNV’s
country manager for Sweden.
“Statutory certification has to be factored
into the life-time of each vessel, from initial
certification in connection with delivery,
through annual, intermediate and renewal

October 2011 10
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“DNV’s leadership in risk management
and our holistic approach to best practice and
technology adoption allows for a partnership
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to all facets of business success”
Johan Gärdin, DNV’s country manager for Sweden

p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 11: 32 Page 10
October 2011

TANKEROperator 11
surveys during the operational life of the
vessel. Swedish shipowners can now rely on
DNV for efficient and timely execution of
these services,” said Gärdin.
In addition, DNV is actively involved with
shipowners and research institutions in
Sweden to promote the adoption of new
technologies and environmental performance
best practices.
One project, Research Eco Ship, aims to
optimise selective catalytic reduction
technology for marine applications. The
project is a partnership between Chalmers,
IVL Swedish Environmental Research
Institute, DEC Marine and the Swedish
Maritime Administration.
“Environmental performance is high on the
agenda for Swedish shipowners even though
they are pulling through a year characterised
by extremely competitive market conditions
and political uncertainty about the country’s
shipping policies,” said Gärdin.
“DNV’s leadership in risk management and
our holistic approach to best practice and
technology adoption allows for a partnership
that moves beyond statutory requirements to
all facets of business success,” He claimed.
In Sweden, DNV has offices in Stockholm,
Gothenburg and Malmö.
Anti-piracy debate
Swedish shipping is also addressing the
thorny question of carrying armed guards in
the High Risk areas. In April, the Swedish
Government launched an inquiry into the
use of armed guards on board Swedish
flag vessels.
One of the major Swedish shipowners –
Wallenius – has decided to act and has
employed armed guards on board its vehicle
carriers in and around the Gulf of Aden.
At the time of the announcement, Peter
Jodin, Wallenius’ maritime safety manager
said to local radio; "This is no development
which we would have liked to see, but we
have unfortunately felt forced to act."
The Swedish Shipowners' Association has
expressed its support for Wallenius' action.
"This method is unfortunately the best
available and I fully understand that they have
done so," said Friberg. Friberg added that
security matters are currently a decision for
the shipping lines themselves.
"It's entirely up to the shipping companies
today, they make an assessment based on the
safety of the crew and the security of cargo
owners," he explained.
The association changed position on the
issue last winter following a series of attacks
on vessels passing the coast of Somalia,
choosing to align themselves with companies
wanting to hire armed security forces.
The issue was at the same time placed
under review by the government and
infrastructure minister Catharina Elmsäter-
Svärd described the matter as a priority, but
since then there has been no clarity on the
matter. "We have not received any clear
answers to the questions we have posed so
far," Friberg said.
Another major Swedish-based shipping
company, Stena Bulk, began deploying armed
guards on vessels entering the HRA several
months ago. "We chose early on to do so and
were among the first shipping companies in
the world to take the decision," claimed Stena
Bulk CEO Ulf Ryder.
"The ships are also equipped with barbed
wire and large signs that state 'Armed
Response' in Somali, in other words that we
have weapons on board," Ryder said. TO
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p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 11: 32 Page 11

October 2011 12
Swedish-based tanker
giant continues
expansion programme
Leading Swedish-based tanker operator Stena Bulk has increased its presence in several
sectors this year and surprised the market with the recent purchase of three LGCs.
or example, the company beefed up
its presence in the MR sector by
acquiring 50% of the Danish
shipping company Weco.
This has resulted in Stena Bulk doubling its
fleet in this segment from 15 to 30 tankers. Its
objective over the next couple of years is to
build up an operation with up to 50 vessels
under the new Stena Weco brand.
Weco, which is part of the privately owned
shipping group Dannebrog, concentrates on
the shipment of special-type products, such as
palm oils, edible oils and caustic soda. Before
the change in ownership, Weco operated some
15 vessels with peaks of 30-35 vessels, which
included those on short-term charters.
“This is in line with our new investment in
worldwide MR operation with a greater focus
on cargoes of edible oils. With Weco’s world-
leading position in this segment and our
strength in petroleum products, we will
achieve major synergies in the long term. The
P-MAX tankers (65,000 dwt) with their
shallow draft are highly suitable for this
transport pattern”, said Ulf Ryder, Stena
Bulk’s president and CEO, speaking at the
inauguration of the new company.
In addition to the 10 P-MAXs, Stena Bulk
operates another 15 MR tankers of around
50,000 dwt with an average age of only 5.5
years. All the vessels are fitted with phenolic
epoxy-coated cargo tanks – a prerequisite for
transporting vegetable oils.
“We have nearly 20 years’ experience in the
MR-segment and our earnings are already
well above the average in a fragmented
market. We are now strengthening our
position in the spot market by building up a
large fleet of first-class vessels together with
an outstanding service level for our
customers”, Ryder continued.
Johan Wedell-Wedellsborg, owner of
Dannebrog Rederi, said; “Weco’s strategy for
nearly 10 years of concentrating on edible oils
and caustic sodas, where we now have a
world-leading position in the MR market, has
really paid off when such a large and well-
reputed shipping company as Stena Bulk
chooses to merge with us.
“With the Stena’s strong balance sheet, we
will be able to focus in a completely different
way on winning more and larger freight
contracts in our edible oil and specialty cargo
segments. We will also be able to develop and
increase investments in IMO III tonnage for
the benefit of our joint investment”, Wedell-
Wedellsborg added.
In 2010, the average earnings for Stena
Bulk’s MR tankers were more than $5,000
per day better than the average market. With
its new Danish partner, Stena Bulk said that
it is building up even more muscle. “Stena
Weco will provide advantages of scale as a
result of a more sophisticated charter
network for its refined raw materials, which
will increase the vessels’ earnings potential
by a couple of thousand US dollars per day”,
Ryder explained.
Stena Weco is being co-ordinated through
the two companies’ head offices in
Gothenburg and Rungsted, north of
Copenhagen respectively. In Houston and
Singapore Weco’s personnel have moved into
Stena Bulk’s existing offices.
Wedell-Wedellsborg assumed the position
of chairman of the board of the jointly owned
company while Stena Bulk’s senior vice
president Kim Ullman is managing director
and Weco’s Johnny Schmolker deputy
managing director. Jan Torgersen was
appointed as vice president of Stena Weco and
is located in Houston.
“With offices in Gothenburg, Rungsted,
Houston, Singapore and Rio de Janeiro, our
large and flexible MR fleet will have the 24/7
availability needed to give this customer base,
with its varying requirements, outstanding
service”, said Ryder.
Suezmax pool
Stena Bulk is also active in the Suezmax
market together with Sonangol. Recently, the
The flexible P-MAX series has been a success. Photo credit Copenhagen Malmo Port.
p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 09: 44 Page 12
October 2011

TANKEROperator 13




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first of the new in-house designed Suezmaxes
– Stena Superior – was named at Samsung.
She is the first in a series of seven, most of
which will join the Stena Sonangol Suezmax
Pool. The Pool was formed in 2005 and is
controlled by Stena Bulk and Angolan state-
owned oil company Sonangol.
These new series of Suezmax tankers are
claimed to have dramatically improved energy
efficiency, which will reduce bunker
consumption by up to 15%, compared with
the most efficient, conventional Suezmaxes
currently in operation.
“The Pool has today a total of some 20
Suezmax tankers and there will totally be up
to some 30 modern tankers with an average
age of only 3.5 years, once both Sonangol´s
five newbuildings and ours have been
delivered,” Ryder said.
The next Stena Bulk Suezmax in the series
is the Stena Suède, which is due to be
delivered on 15th November. She will enter
into a long term timecharter with the French
oil giant Total.
LNG market
In a surprise move earlier this year, Stena
Bulk entered the LNG carrier market by
purchasing three LNGCs from Taiwan-based
TMT for $700 mill in total.
The three LNGCs have been renamed
Stena Blue Sky (145,000 cu m/built 2006) plus
the two newly delivered vessels Stena Clear
Sky and Stena Crystal Sky, each of 174,000
cu m capacity.
They are all ice classed. At the time of the
purchase, the Stena Blue Sky was chartered
by Gazprom with 22 months remaining on
its contract.
“We believe this to be a very good
investment. LNG accounts for a significant
part of the growth in the global energy supply
and there is currently a shortage of LNG
tankers. Consequently, we expect the two
newly built vessels to directly command
freight rates in excess of $100,000 per day”,
said Ryder.
Capacity utilisation of the 320 or so large
LNGCs in operation is currently nearly 90%.
In addition, the demand for transportation of
liquid natural gas is expected to rise about
8% per year over the next 10 years, Stena
Bulk said, explaining its move into the
natural gas markets.
“In addition to the shipyards’ full order
books, there is a need for 60–70 new LNG
tankers to satisfy the rising demand up until
2014. LNG tankers are more capital intensive
than normal tankers and are about three times
as expensive. It takes nearly four times
longer to build a LNG tanker than a normal
tanker of the same size. Because of this and
the more complicated operation of an LNG
tanker, there are few players active in the
segment”, said Ryder.
He added: “Having in this situation the
liquidity and operational knowhow to be able
to purchase these three vessels so quickly,
two of which are so new that they have not
even been delivered from the shipyard yet,
gives our LNG investment an excellent
starting point,” he said at the time of the
purchase announcement.
Stena Bulk took delivery of the two
newbuildings in June. They were then fitted
with supplementary equipment and manned
with new crews. Like most Stena vessels,
technical management is being undertaken by
Stena-affiliate Glasgow-based Northern
Marine Management.
Last P-MAX
Stena Bulk’s quoted Swedish partner
Concordia Maritime took delivery of its 10th
and last P-MAX tanker – Stena Premium -
during the second quarter of this year.
A few months earlier, the company started a
The P-MAX Stena Primorsk seen in Stockholm’s archipelago.
p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 09: 44 Page 13

October 2011 14
project to convert at least two of the P-MAXs
to IMO III types. According to Concordia, this
would give the vessels extra market flexibility
by way of being able to quote for vegetable
oil cargoes. A third is expected to follow.
Despite the current malaise in the tanker
market, Concordia was still able to garner an
average of $20,000 per day on its long term
timecharter contracts during the first half of
this year, the company claimed.
In May of this year, Concordia redelivered
the Suezmax Yasa Scorpion to her owner. This
vessel had been chartered together with Stena
Bulk and marked Concordia’s exit from this
sector, leaving the company with large MRs,
until a Suezmax is delivered during the second
quarter of 2012.
The company said in its half year results
presentation that the rest of this year would
remain weak, but next year and 2013 should
see a better market balance in the product
tanker sector. The reason for optimism was
that growth in the world’s product tanker fleet
was forecast to decline during the rest of this
year, Concordia said.
Concordia also has two LR1s, operated in
a joint venture with Neste Shipping. They
transport product for the Finnish energy
Explaining, the company’s relationship
with Stena, Concordia said that it involved
purchasing services from the Stena Sphere
group, including Stena Bulk. Stena and
Concordia do compete for new tanker
business, resulting in an agreement being
signed several years ago whereby new
business is regulated between the two
companies. Under the terms of this
agreement, Concordia has the right to opt
for 0%, 50%, or 100% participation in each
new transaction.
For example, at the beginning of April, as
mentioned in this article, Stena Bulk engaged
in a 50:50 joint venture with Weco and formed
a new company- Stena Weco. Under the
agreement, Concordia is entitled to funds
resulting from vessels being chartered into the
joint venture for more than 12 months, should
Concordia elect to participate in the charters.
Concordia is not involved in any other
transactions, the company said.
Basically, Concordia buys in services from
Stena Teknik for newbuildings, conversions,
R&D and procurement; Stena Bulk for
chartering and commercial operations;
Northern Marine Management for technical
management, operations and manning.
Artist’s impression of
the Suezmax Stena
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p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 09: 44 Page 14
p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 09: 44 Page 15

October 2011 16
owever, despite issuing further
guidance on the subject, the
IMO is sticking to its guns by
reiterating that it is up to the flag
states to decide on the use of armed guards on
board their vessels.
As for the guidance, last month, further
interim guidance on the use of PCASP was
approved by an IMO MSC intersessional
working group.
The MSC’s intersessional maritime security
and piracy working group has approved the
following circulars for dissemination:
MSC.1/Circ.1408 on interim
recommendations for port and coastal
states regarding the use of PCASP in the
MSC.1/Circ.1406/Rev.1 on revised interim
recommendations for flag states regarding
the use of PCASP in the HRA;
MSC.1/Circ.1405/Rev.1 on revised interim
guidance to shipowners, ship operators and
ship masters on the use of PCASP in the
A joint MSC and Facilitation Committee
(FAL) circular on questionnaire on
information on port and coastal state
requirements related to PCASP, which is
aimed at gathering information on current
The circulars provide interim guidance and
recommendations to be taken into account
when considering the use of PCASP if and
when a flag state determines that such a
measure would be lawful and, following a full
risk assessment.
The IMO was at pains to point out that the
interim guidance and recommendations ‘are
not intended to endorse or institutionalise’ the
use of armed guards. Therefore, they do not
represent any fundamental change of policy. It
is for each flag state, individually, to decide
whether, or not PCASP should be authorised
for use on board ships flying their flag. If a
flag state decides to allow this practice, it is
up to that state to determine the conditions
under which authorisation will be granted.
PCASP should not be considered as an
alternative to best management practices
(BMP) and other protective measures. BMP4
has recently been issued by the shipping
industry and will shortly be disseminated
by IMO (as MSC.1/Circ.1339), the
organisation said.
This move has been welcomed by many
other organisations including the Security
Association for the Maritime Industry (SAMI)
and the ICS among others.
Flag state listing
With the assistance of its members, the
International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) in
association with the European Community
Shipowners' Associations (ECSA), has
compiled a reference document collating
the policy and rules of flag states on the
carriage of arms and PCASP on board vessels.
The document, providing tabulated
information on flag states' rules, has been
added to the ICS website. Kiran Khosla, ICS
director of legal affairs and secretary of the
ICS' maritime law and insurance committees,
said: "When the information is compiled
together like this it is interesting to see the
similarities and variations in approach
throughout the international community.
Piracy remains a major cause for concern
among shipowners and the wider shipping
industry and we are not surprised that
members are keen to ensure they are up
to speed with the latest recommendations
and advice.
"The consensus view among ICS national
shipowner associations remains that private
armed guards are a clear second best to
military personnel. However, in view of the
current crisis, ICS has had to acknowledge
that the decision to engage armed guards,
whether military, or private, is a decision to be
made by the ship operator after due
consideration of all the risks and subject to the
approval of the vessel's flag state and insurer,"
she said.
The ICS pointed out that this information is
for general guidance only and is not a
substitute for proper verification with the flag
states concerned. Further information from
flag states to update the listing would be
welcomed, the ICS said.
Crisis highlighted
At its recent annual meeting, the ICS members
agreed to use every opportunity to continue
ICS’ Spyros Polemis.
Industry welcomes
IMO initiative on
armed guards
As the mood swings in the shipping industry in favour of the use of privately contracted
armed guards (PCASP) on vessels transiting pirate infested waters, or so called
High Risk Areas (HRA), the IMO is gradually coming to the party.
p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 09: 44 Page 16
resume after the lull during the monsoon
period and a reduction in scale and operation
of the world’s navies.
Commenting on the first intersessional
meeting of the IMOs Maritime Security and
Piracy Working Group, SAMI director Peter
Cook (who attended the meeting as a
consultant to the Marshall Islands) said, “The
IMO is making great progress towards
providing a structure for the maritime security
industry, importantly the IMO has made
recommendations and provided guidance for
the use of armed security personnel which is a
necessary step towards creating a relevant
structure for the industry to work within.”
There has also been praise for the work
undertaken by the IMO on facilitating the
passage of armed guards and their weapons on
board ships. It is hoped that the IMO’s work
in this regard will remove flag and port state
obstructions, thereby clarifying the procedures
and rules on the embarkation and
disembarkation of armed guards and their
equipment, SAMI concluded.
October 2011

TANKEROperator 17
highlighting the severity of the crisis and the
reality that the international community has
ceded control of the Indian Ocean to criminal
gangs, despite the best efforts and dedication of
military navies in the area.
“The truth about governments’ failure, and
the terrible suffering endured by captured
seafarers, might be unpalatable to many
politicians,” said ICS president Spyros Polemis.
“But our expectation is that the frequency
of attacks against shipping will escalate again
dramatically, once the monsoon season is
over. The current military response – with
only a handful of navy ships available to
provide protection on any given day – has
just been a sticking plaster on a gaping
wound. We have still not yet seen the
political will from governments needed to
develop a comprehensive military strategy
that will have a decisive impact.
“It is ironic that the world has just marked
the anniversary of the tragic events of ‘9/11’,
following which very radical measures were
taken, such as the IMO ISPS Code, to reduce
the possibility that shipping might be used by
terrorists to attack society at large – measures
that have cost the shipping industry billions of
dollars to implement. However, for all the talk
of maritime security during the last 10 years,
governments have so far failed to protect
shipping, and the smooth flow of world trade,
from being literally held to ransom by Somali
criminals,” he concluded.
SAMI endorsement
As mentioned, the Security Association for the
Maritime Industry (SAMI) has welcomed the
IMO’s progress on its revised guidance and
recommendations for the use of privately
contracted armed security on board ships.
Following last month’s intersessional
maritime and piracy working group meeting,
the IMO has released new guidance and
recommendations on the use of privately
contracted armed security personnel.
SAMI believes the new guidance and
recommendations are timely, as violent pirate
attacks are set to reach record levels, as they
An example page of the ICS/ECSA flag state rule table.
“ ...our expectation is that the frequency of attacks against shipping
will escalate again dramatically, once the monsoon season is over.
The current military response – with only a handful of navy ships
available to provide protection on any given day – has just been
a sticking plaster on a gaping wound”
Spyros Polemis, president, ICS

p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 09: 44 Page 17

October 2011 18
any security companies are
based in the UK and the US
and are run by ex military
personnel some of whom have
shipping experience. The vetting and training
of the companies and their anti-piracy teams is
now essential due to the shear scale of the
piracy problem being encountered and the
number of so called ‘security companies’
springing up.
At the recent ICS conference, EU
NAVFOR’s Capt Keith Blount said that 16
vessels were still being held by Somali
pirates, including the VLCC Samho Dream,
as of the middle of September. There were
also still 351 seafarer hostages held. With the
Indian Ocean Monsoon season about to peter
out, the number of attacks could rise again
The number of vessels taken has led to ever
higher ransoms being paid. Capt Blount said
that the highest recorded payment thus far is
$12 mill. He also warned that in the Southern
Red Sea area, there were many Yemeni fishing
boats, most of whose fishermen are armed,
thus sometimes being mistaken for pirates.
One company offering high level training is
relative newcomer Ocean Protection Services
(OPS). This concern recently conducted a
three day Ship Security Officer (SSO) course
with an anti-piracy module attached. The SSO
course is MCA approved and the training was
undertaken by Belfast-based Sentinel Training
Operations (STO).
Once passing the course, participants are
presented with proficiency as SSO certificate.
The first two courses were held near London’s
Heathrow Airport at OPS headquarters, while
a third is planned for Glasgow and another in
Northern Ireland.
All the OPS personnel are SSO qualified
and have undergone in-house anti-piracy
course, plus the appropriate vetting
“Our clients prefer an accredited properly
trained security team, as while undergoing the
training, the recruits can be vetted at the same
time,” OPS operations director Richard
Mcenery told TAKEROperator. Vetting of
personnel applying to become armed guards is
extremely important, as some will claim to
have accomplished tours of duty with armed
services, which soon becomes clear is not
Four courses
At present four courses are offered to would
be maritime security team members- weapons
handling, medical, SSO and an STCW 95
course. For the latter, OPS has teamed up with
Red Ensign, based at Cowes, Isle of Wight, at
whose premises the courses are held.
The STCW 95 basic safety training courses
are also accredited by the MCA and last for
five days covering four areas – elementary
first aid, fire prevention and basic firefighting,
personal survival techniques and personal
safety plus social responsibility. The latter
includes being able to interact properly with
the Master and chief officers of the vessel
being guarded, especially the team leader.
The optimum number of participants in
each course is - eight for weapons handling,
10 for the medi-course and 15 each for the
SSO and STCW courses. Each participant
pays to go through the training but once
certification is achieved, OPS will then
interview the participants with the aim of
adding them to the company’s comprehensive
database of available personnel.
Attached to the SSO course is a half day
anti-piracy training session, which is free of
charge to those attending the SSO course. The
package includes:
Preparing the vessel for transiting using
Best Management Practices Four (BMP4).
Effective reporting and monitoring (to
naval assets and external agencies).
Anti-Piracy emergency response training.
Identifying and preparation of a Citadel.
Up to date threat and intelligence briefs.
Effective bridge team management (under
Mcenery was keen to stress that armed guards
should be used as more of a deterrent, making
themselves visible to approaching craft. All of
OPS’ unarmed and armed personnel operate
within the company’s standard operating
procedures, which comply with -
OPS’ team take preventative measures.
Anti-piracy now
being offered with
SSO courses
With the concept of armed guards sailing on board vessels in pirate infested waters now
becoming accepted by more and more flag states, shipping companies and their insurers,
several security firms have surfaced offering teams of armed guards.
p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 09: 44 Page 18
October 2011

TANKEROperator 19
Operations@oceanprotectionservices.com Operations - Tlf: 0044 (0) 7585 44 2728 Administration – 0044 (0) 7884364368
Best Management Practices Four (BMP 4).
Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA)
Notice to Mariners (NTM).
United Nations Convention on the Law of
the Sea (UNCLOS).
Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS).
International Flag and Port state regulations.
International Maritime Organisation (IMO)
International Code of Conduct (ICoC).
Due to having operations in strategic
locations, OPS is able to provide a swift
response to shipowners and operators.
Launches can be arranged to rendezvous with
a vessel Outside of Port Limits (OPL) thereby
minimising any deviation and delay to the
vessels schedule. However, this is obviously a
more expensive exercise.
OPS armed personnel can
embark/disembark in many ports and areas
outside the HRA in several countries around
the region. Recently, Madagascar has joined
the group of countries offering easy transits of
armed guards.
Once on board, OPS personnel will use
their skills to train the officers and crew in
defence against a possible pirate attack. A
comprehensive ship security survey will be
undertaken to identify any vulnerable points
and advice given how to ensure the vessel is
as safe as possible.
Early preparation
Mcenery explained that specialised teams are
sent to Singapore with the aim of boarding a
vessel due to transit a HRA and train the crew,
advising them on the setting up of citadels etc,
while the vessel is on passage to the Indian
Ocean area. “We want the vessels and crew to
be prepared before they reach Sri Lanka,”
Mcenery said.
One blow to the security companies is
Egypt’s recent refusal to allow border transits
to armed personnel, thus precluding the
guards from transiting the Suez Canal on
board a vessel southbound.
OPS will usually provide teams consisting
of four consultants to vessels about to transit
the HRA. However, the company said that it
can be flexible but as a minimum, three will
be provided.
The minimum equipment carried by the
team are -
Satellite phone and x1 charger (for
reporting to OPS’ operations room).
Hand held spot tracker device (position is
sent automatically every four hours).
Powerful hand held torches.
Night vision scopes.
Fully licensed UHF handheld marine
Training tools.
Comprehensive medical trauma pack.
Four weapon systems.
Appropriate ammunition and in sufficient
OPS also offers unarmed security teams,
which have acquired experience in over 30
HRA transits per person. They have worked
in the Gulf of Aden and surrounding waters
since 2007 providing unarmed services to
various maritime security companies.
The company claimed that the presence of
an experienced unarmed security team makes
a valuable difference to the morale and
confidence of the crew and also the difference
between vessels being hijacked, or attacks
“Besides having no firearms on board, there
are a number of sophisticated, successful and
proven methods that our consultants will
utilise to harden and defend the vessel from
unwanted attention,” OPS said.
Security grouping
Another initiative recently set up was the
London Maritime Security Group. This is a
grouping of six UK-based security concerns,
which are all members of the Security
Association for the Maritime Industry
(SAMI), have been vetted and have the same
rules of engagement.
The idea is to offer assistance to each other
by way of personnel on the ground and advice
on intelligence etc.
All of the companies have Special Forces,
or Royal Marines as directors.
Mcenery said; “London Maritime Security
Group has had great feedback from shipping
clients as this means they are always
guaranteed to get security by a group of fully
vetted companies.”
Attacks have also been increasing in the
waters around West Africa. To help
counteract this threat, OPS is now providing
armed security guards in the Gulf of Guinea.
“We are also in talks about training the
Ghanean navy in anti-piracy procedures and
the best SOP's for this environment,”
Mcenery explained.
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October 2011 20
Armed maritime
security personnel
–vetting is critical
Imagine if you will, the following statistics being applied, not to crew of ships,
but to the cabin crew and pilots of the world’s airlines*.
ccording to the International
Maritime Bureau (IMB) in July
2011, piracy attacks numbered
266 in the January/June period,
with 163 involving attacks made by Somali
pirates, up 63% from a year earlier.
A total of 29 ships were hijacked and 495
crew taken captive in the six-month period.
Injuries and deaths caused by the attacks rose
to 46 people from 17 a year earlier.
With attacks increasing in number, boldness
and violence, it is perhaps understandable that
momentum is quickening to provide
sometimes ill-informed shipowners/operators
with the guidelines and legal tools, required to
make deployment of armed security personnel
feasible and responsible.
In reaction to growing piracy activity, and
amid the call for support and guidance from
shipowners and operators as to how to deal
with this burgeoning issue, Norway passed
legislation on 1st July 2011, defining a
legal framework for the deployment of
guards. The UK is also preparing to give
formal legal backing to the use of private
armed guards on UK-flagged vessels and it is
increasingly likely that the US will back
similar legislation.
So the question – reassuringly for
shipowners and operators - is no longer
whether armed security teams should be
employed on board ships, but how their
provision can be managed safely and
To provide some guidance on this, the IMO
Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) met at the
IMO’s London Headquarters for its 89th
session from 11th to 20th May 2011. It
approved interim recommendations for flag
states regarding the use of privately contracted
armed security personnel on board ships in the
‘High Risk Area
’ (HRA) (MSC.1/Circ.1406)
and interim guidance to shipowners, ship
operators, and shipmasters on the use of
privately contracted armed security personnel
(PCASP) on board ships in the HRA
Although not endorsing the use of PCASP,
nor addressing all the legal issues that might
be associated with their use on board ships,
the IMO recognised that - with the rapid
escalation in the number of companies
providing such services and lack of
regulation - shipping companies may find it
difficult to identify reliable and professional
private providers. So the recommendations
are intended to assist any shipowner
‘considering the use of PCASP on board
ships to provide additional protection
against piracy’.
In addition to this, the interim
Proper protection is vital in the HRA. Photo credit---Ocean Protection Services.
[1] Defined in the guidance as ‘Areas as defined in
the Best Management Practices to Deter Piracy off
the Coast of Somalia and in the Arabian Sea Area
(BMP) unless otherwise defined by the flag State.’
p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 09: 44 Page 20
recommendations for flag states advise that a
policy should be put in place to determine
whether or not the use of PCASP will be
authorised by flag states and, if so, under
which conditions.
For a shipowner, employing the services of
an armed maritime security provider (AMSP)
is an exceptionally serious proposition; the
logical consequence of putting men with arms
on board a ship is, fundamentally, to
countenance the potential use of lethal force to
defend the vessel (albeit in extreme and
proscribed circumstances).
Not commercial
While the temptation for an industry used to
rationalising costs may be to make a decision
based largely on fees, armed guarding is not a
typical commercial decision and the
paramount factor must be the health and
safety of the crew. With that in mind, key
criteria such as the weaponry, training and
experience of the armed guards, as well as the
financial and procedural standards adhered to
by each AMSP need to be understood,
interpreted and communicated to the
owner/operator in significant detail.
In the absence of cross border statutory
regulation governing AMSP and of an
independent industry regulatory authority, the
recommendations of the IMO go further,
thereby underlining the necessity for proper
vetting and due diligence processes to protect
the customers employing the services of
AMSP, a position supported by lawyers,
insurers and some flag states.
Vetting is a systematic measurement of
evaluating a person, or entity against a set of
criteria. In the context of AMSP, providers
should be assessed against professional, legal
and ethics-based criteria encompassing
corporate probity, financial substance,
regulatory and legislative compliance,
commercial experience, contractual integrity,
operational and logistical capability, weapons
licensing and accountability and the
selection, recruitment and training of security
Crucially, while vetting an AMSP is a
process that an owner may chose to undertake
themselves, it is critical that whoever is
performing the vetting must be able to meet
two fundamental conditions of competency:
independence and experience.
Objective process
Vetting should be an objective process.
Independence preserves objectivity because it
provides a perspective untainted by interests,
which might otherwise conflict with the
outcome of the vetting process. The necessity
for independence is one of the reasons why
AMSPs should be vetted before they are
contracted for the provision of services.
Whatever then the outcome of the vetting
process, it has not been crafted to reinforce
the initial decision to use an already-
contracted AMSP. Moreover, independence is
central to the credibility of the vetting process.
If AMSPs are to agree to being subjected to a
level of scrutiny that, hitherto, they have not
been required to, it is not unreasonable for
AMSPs to expect that they will be evaluated
under a process that is not coloured by
competitive bias.
Experience is, of course, vital. Not only so
that the process is assuredly relevant and
comprehensive, but because competent vetting
October 2011

TANKEROperator 21
p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 03 Page 21
is also inherently empiric. Therefore, vetting is more than simply a
matter of asking the right questions: being able to understand the
answers and what those answers mean in the circumstances, is integral
to the validity of the outcome.
In this regard, if there are points on which shipowners’ own due
diligence might flounder, they are likely to arise out of issues outside
owners’ normal professional competency. For example, the
operational and logistical management of security personnel and their
firearms, Rules for the Use of Force, or weapons licensing and
accountability are not matters in which shipowners are commonly
expected to be versed. Moreover, AMSPs will reasonably expect that
whoever is vetting them understands the operational dynamics of
providing armed security services in the maritime domain and the
nature and practical realities of the Somalia-based piracy threat, at the
very least.
Inevitably, there will be circumstances in which the diligence that a
shipowner took in their evaluation and selection of a chosen AMSP
will, itself, be scrutinised. Scenarios might conceivably include a
negligent discharge of a firearm resulting in damage to a vessel or
cargo, or even the loss of the life of a crew member. And, although no
ship carrying armed security personnel has, to date, been hijacked, it
cannot be taken for granted that this will remain the case, particularly
if the firearms being carried are not effective and proportionate to
the threat.
Many shipowners simply want to know which AMSPs are ‘good’
and which are not. However, the objective of vetting is not to
recommend any particular provider, or indeed determine which
companies are ‘good’, or ‘bad’. The vetting process does not - nor
should it - provide a warranty on the likely performance of a
potential contract. Lists of companies that others have recommended
may, superficially, make the decision easier. But in reality this
should be seen as no more than a useful starting point for
Naturally, recommendations and ‘approval lists’ make the decision
easier, at least superficially. However, vetting is an eminently practical
tool and, in these circumstances, provides a robust foundation for a safe
and lawful working relationship between shipowners and providers of
armed maritime security services.
An intersessional meeting of the Working Group on Maritime
Security and Piracy was due to meet during the week commencing 12th
September 2011 to review the interim guidance to shipowners, ship
operators and masters on the use of PCASP. As the shipping industry
continues to battle the plague of piracy, these current recommendations
are an encouraging step in recognising the role that armed guarding
can perform. However, as the IMO develops its strategies to counter
piracy and flag states review their position, the market for armed
guarding will undoubtedly grow significantly and so too will the need
for independent, robust and informed vetting.
Shipowners and operators should be in no doubt; the deployment
of armed guards on board vessels is far from the panacea. But
taking an informed decision using all available tools will help
shipowners and operators to defend cargoes, vessels, crews, liability
and reputation.
Sadly, there is no magic wand to eradicate piracy. So for now, the
ability to protect vessels safely and lawfully provides the next step
along the road towards the ultimate goal of finding a cure.
*This article was written by Anthony Carroll, head of business
development, Gray Page.

October 2011
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p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 03 Page 22
When the Somali Pirates first
struck, it was big news. We were
all shocked with the reports
coming out of the waters around
the horn of Africa. Kidnappings,
ransoms and lost cargo were
mind boggling*.
However, new terrors, horrors and natural
disasters took over and we now only hear
about the violence and insanity when
something particularly horrible happens, or a
new book is published.
The reality is that piracy in the waters
leading from the Suez Canal is a paying
business and has not stopped. An entire
article could be penned explaining why the
Somali pirates do not have fear of
repercussions. Piracy is a crime that is costing
all of us billions of dollars a year in the higher
cost of goods because of lost time, cargo and
Piracy is terrorism and once ransom
payments are made, more fuel is added to the
fire that allows the terrorism to continue
unabated. An entire generation of Somalis
think that piracy is a valid career choice. At
Armed Piracy Defence (APD), we know that
piracy can be stopped, with investments from
the shipping and insurance companies that are
most affected.
The pirates have become much more
daring. What started as a ragtag team of
untrained and ill-prepared guerrillas looking
for easy money has turned into a well
organised industry, resourceful group of
mercenaries. There is a continuously
growing group of increasingly daring,
tactically savvy, violent men without any
regard for human life.
They now have mother ships with satellite
& Internet-based communications systems
and a highly developed intelligence network
that allows them to track EACH AND
EVERY SHIP and cargo that passes through
the Suez Canal. The pirates lie in wait for
the most lucrative cargoes and vessels.
They attack far out at sea with mother
vessels & multiple skiffs using strategically
planned methods to neutralise vessels as
quickly as possible. They are known to use
captured vessels as mother ships to attack
other vessels.
The United Nations and governments
around the world have placed their priorities
elsewhere and are not able or willing to find a
solution & funds to deal with piracy. In order
to combat this issue, the entire industry must
show a unified front.
To accomplish this, APD is proposing that
shipowners, insurance companies and other
leaders use our knowledge base, first class
security teams, security protocols and
financial resources to invest in a training
centre to better prepare those key officers on
board the targeted vessels to counter the
threats posed by the pirates. There are some
basic strategies that can be used to save lives.
Each voyage must be well planned with an
alert and equipped crew.
If the entire industry that had vessels sailing
within the Red Zone agreed on a specific
safety protocol and each ship and crew was
prepared in the same way to counteract
attacks, the pirates income would shrivel to
nothing and they would not be able to fund
their illegal activities.
In addition to the training centres to prepare
the crews, each ship passing through the Gulf
of Aden, Lagos, Dar es Salaam, Mogadishu,
Somalia, Monrovia (Liberia), Hanish al Kubra
Island (the southern Red Sea, off the Omani
coast), the Arabian Sea, Indonesia,
Bangladesh, the Malacca straits, the south
China Sea, Malaysia, the Philippines,
Vietnam, or the Singapore straits will acquire
Red Zone insurance, which includes a team of
armed guards that have been trained to deal
with the terrorist threat.
The solution is simple. Companies would
set up insurance account. An underwriting
team will be available 24/7 for activation of
the insurance and the deployment of teams
of first class combat trained security guards,
as ships are scheduled to transit within the
Red Zone.
There will be up to 40 types of standard
categorised insurance to choose from, to suit
the needs of the individual shipowner. The
larger the ship, the more guards needed, the
higher the premium. With even the minimum
insurance level, the shipowner will have a first
class security detail to protect its crew, vessel
and cargo.
APD’s armed squads are equipped with top
quality army grade automatic weapons,
including night vision and protective
equipment. All our squads consist of combat
savvy personnel and a medic; we claim that
no other company in the market place can
make that guarantee.
We also claim to be the only company that
maintains ongoing training with our combat
teams, which include simulations of both
night and day attacks by multiple skiffs. APD
is familiar with all weapons used by pirates in
this area, their strategy, mindset, their
equipment and the sea & land routes of supply
that are used by the mother ships and the
skiffs. All of our team members originate from
the same naval combat unit.
The years of working together has created a
coherent combat team that work in complete
synergy. We have the personnel to deploy 20
combat ready teams simultaneously, with
another 15 combat teams ready to be deployed
within 72 hours. As market forces increase,
the number of deployable teams will increase.
Team strategies
APD will take the initiative to ensure that all
armed security forces will have the same
strategies in dealing with the pirates and that
they all have combat grade weapons. We also
create guidelines for essential drills to be
completed by all crews 48 hours before
entering the Red Zone. Also included is a list
of required equipment and ammunition, ‘do’
and ‘don't do’ list and a list of possible
scenarios related to a particular vessel.
In paying ransom to the pirates, insurance
companies are merely adding fuel to
terrorism and are stimulating the pirates to
continue their activities. The ransoms are
very lucrative and are worth the risks that the
pirates make. As a result of the protection
we provide, insurance companies are willing
to decrease the premium by 40%-50% on
their maritime Ransom and Kidnap (R&K)
Piracy will be stopped only if the shipping
industry creates a united front, under one
guide line of a unified standardised single
security protocol, which will provide an
escort for each and every ship sailing in the
Red Zones.
The investment needed to bring safety and
security to the Red Zone is a small price to
pay compared to the millions and millions of
dollars that is paid in ransom each and every
year. With investments dedicated to the
training of key officers, the creation of a state
of the art training facility and control centre
for 400 teams of four people each and the
arming of our security teams with top quality
weapons and equipment, the industry can
supply the economic stability that is needed to
carry us to the future.
*This article was written by Armed-Piracy-
Defence, Inc; Skype Phone ID: Armed-
Piracy-Defence; Email:
Taking the fight to the pirates
October 2011

TANKEROperator 23
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October 2011 24
Following a report filed on 7th
August by the IMB Live Piracy
Reporting Centre, which saw
suspected Somali pirates attempt
to hijack a vessel off the coast of
Eritrea in large numbers, Neptune
Maritime Security has raised
concerns over this apparent
change of tactics.
Unfortunately, it would indeed appear that
pirates in the area have banded together in an
attempt to ‘swarm’ vessels. Another example
occurred on 18th August, the IMB Live Piracy
Reporting Centre listed an attempted hijacking
on a bulk carrier underway around 22 miles
NE of Assab, Eritrea in the Red Sea.
Interestingly, this is approximately 26.19
km North of the attack on 7th August and
could suggest that this large group of pirates
have a specific area of operations.
The report states that seven high-speed
boats suddenly approached the vessel and that
each boat contained three to five men, each
armed with automatic weapons. This mirrors
the previous attack of 7th August, which saw
an estimated 60 pirates mount an unsuccessful
attack on a vessel protected by an armed
security team.
Even underestimating the number of
pirates in the later attack to just 21, it would
still seem to confirm that pirate gangs have
adopted a new tactic of mass attacks in the
waters surrounding Eritrea. Intelligence
sources suggest that this new trend may be a
consequence of the monsoon season, but
without further data, this is difficult to
Since then Neptune Maritime Security has
examined the available data through its
intelligence bank, including material supplied
by intelligence sources and presented the
following report.
In July, pirate activity off Eritrea was limited
to small numbers of pirates mounting similarly
small-scale attacks on shipping. For example,
on 20th July, the Suezmax Front Pride was
attacked by a single skiff containing six pirates
while underway about 27 miles NW of Assab,
Eritrea. Pirates fired an RPG at the vessel, but
the armed security team on board returned fire
and the pirates aborted their attack.
Then, on 21st July, a cargo vessel was fired
upon by a single skiff containing six pirates
while underway in position about 30 miles off
Assab. The location of this second attempted
hijacking is just 3.5 miles from the scene of
the previous day’s incident and it is highly
likely that this was the same pirate group. On
this occasion, the attempt was again deterred
by armed security personnel on board the
cargo vessel.
This incident occurred some 48 miles away
from the first ‘swarm’ attack on 7th August
(see Figure 2, Attack 1), but without further
intelligence, it is impossible to establish
whether this was a small raiding party or a
single pirate group on a scouting mission
operating far from their base of operations.
Indeed, both incidents may be entirely
unrelated to the spate of attempted swarm
attacks in August, although their proximity to
three of the attempted hijackings that month
does suggest that pirates have been driven into
the Red Sea by local monsoon conditions in
the Gulf of Aden and off the Somali coast.
Neptune Maritime Security highlighted the
swarm attack of 7th August (Figure 2, Attack
1), when (according to a report from the
IMB’s Live Piracy Reporting Centre) 12 skiffs
containing between five and eight pirates per
skiff complete with arms and boarding
ladders, attacked a bulk carrier underway
about 20 miles off the coast of Eritrea.
As the pirate skiffs approached to within
300 m of the vessel, the Master ordered the
armed security guards on board to fire
warning shots at the skiffs. While the majority
of pirates aborted their attempt, two skiffs
continued to pursue the vessel for some 30
minutes, returning fire until they, too finally
aborted. If this report is accurate, then this
means that a minimum of 60 pirates attacked
a vessel en masse.
Following this, word reached Neptune
Maritime Security via colleagues at
OCEANUSLive.org of another incident in the
Red Sea on 10th August (Figure 2, Attack 2).
This took place at just under 6.5 miles away
from the 7th August incident. On this occasion,
a Panama-flagged chemical tanker, Golden
Topstar, was pursued while underway by
pirates in 12 skiffs. The vessel evaded the
attack by firing flares and engaging in evasive
manoeuvres. The incident was listed by the
IMO as having been reported via ReCAAP.org.
Two incidents involving 12 skiffs and large
numbers of pirates, less than 6.5 miles apart
cannot be coincidental and is surely cause
for concern.
Third attack
A third attack (Figure 2, Attack 3) occurred on
17th August (initially listed by the Live Piracy
Reporting Centre as 18th August). A bulk
carrier underway, about 22 miles off Assab,
Eritrea, was approached by seven high-speed
boats with each boat containing three to five
men armed with automatic weapons. Again
underestimating the number of attackers to
just 21 still leaves us with a large hostile
force. On this occasion, the attack was
repelled due to the vessel increasing speed and
adopting evasive manoeuvres.
It should also be noted that the site of this
attack is less than 10.2 miles away from the
incident on 10th August.
Further evidence of pirates swarming
vessels occurred on 20th August, at the
mouth of the Red Sea at Bab-el- Mandeb.
The incident involved a bulk carrier and
saw a concerted, lengthy attack by a large
pirate force.
According to the Iranian Navy, who
ultimately came to the vessel’s rescue, the first
attack occurred at around 15:00 local time and
saw four skiffs containing 20 pirates engage
the vessel. The second attack saw eight skiffs
with a force of 40 pirates while the third and
final attempt featured two skiffs with 12
pirates on board.
The final incident that Neptune Maritime
Securities highlighted in the Red Sea occurred
on 24th August and involved another bulk
carrier. The incident took place in the
Southern Red Sea, some 88.5 miles away
from the attack on 17th August.
This attack saw two skiffs approach the
vessel as it was underway at a speed of 12
knots. The Master raised the alarm and as the
skiffs approached the vessel, the armed
security team on board took preventative
measures, repelling the attack. The
‘preventative measures’ mentioned in the
report are not expanded upon.
Given the distance between this attempted
hijacking and the attack on 17th August, it is
entirely possible that these are unrelated.
However, from the data we have examined, it
would seem clear that pirate activity in the
Red Sea area and the new trend of attacking in
large groups are something that all shipping
companies and vessels transiting the area
should be aware of and prepared for.
Pirates adopt ‘swarms’ attacks
Figure 2, attack 3
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p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 03 Page 25

October 2011 26
his has generally required paying
for costly services, such as
machine-to-machine (M2M)
satellite communications to
guarantee a two-way data pipe and deliver
near-guaranteed vessel reporting during the
period when a vessel is in open water. The
problem with this approach is that the typical
vessel spends as much as 20% of the time
near to the shore. Alternatively, fleet
managers can now use multiple
communications modes to significantly
increase fleet reporting while cutting overall
costs by more than 50% as compared to
satellite-only methods.
There are four primary methods for
maintaining fleet communications, each with its
own advantages and disadvantages. The first is
VSAT, an always-on satellite service that
delivers low-bandwidth vessel communications
without imposing incremental new data fees. If
already on board, VSAT supports enhanced
satellite-based vessel reporting. But if it’s not
already being deployed for other uses, it can be
very costly to implement VSAT for this
application alone.
The second method is commercial satellite
providers, such as Iridium or Inmarsat-C,
which use satellite communications for
periodic position reporting, text messaging,
and compliance with International Convention
for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)
requirements, including the Global Maritime
Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) and
other standards. While Inmarsat-C delivers
global satellite-based vessel reporting, its cost
per byte, or character, is very high and it
supports only a few vessel reports per day.
Cellular is the third mode of fleet
communications. It combines high bandwidth
with low cost and can be used when vessels are
near the shore, or in port. The advantages of
cellular communications include its high
reporting frequency with very low data costs,
but it cannot be used for vessel reporting at sea.
The fourth communications method is
Automatic Information System (AIS), which
uses the ship’s collision-avoidance signals for
near-real-time reporting at no cost. AIS users
can implement real-time vessel reporting and
alerting both near shore and, with satellite-
based AIS, on the open water. The
disadvantage of AIS is that it can only be used
for one-way communications and does not
currently support shore-to-ship messaging.
Rather than choosing only one of these four
communications modes, the ideal solution for
fleet owners and operators is to create a
comprehensive vessel reporting solution that
includes a mix. A hybrid solution enables
fleet managers to cost-effectively achieve real-
time (or near-real-time) messaging and
position reporting when vessels are near the
shore, while limiting the use of more
expensive satcom technology to those periods
when vessels are at sea.
This is the approach that Houston-based
PortVision has taken with its TriMode
service. The web-based fleet management
system extends the company’s AIS-based
offering to include two-way cellular and
satellite service for messaging and position
reports. The system then uses ‘least-cost
routing’ (LCR) over all available modes to
direct traffic over the most cost-effective
communications paths. The advantage of
this approach is that higher-cost satellite
communications pipes are only deployed
when lower-cost alternatives are unavailable.
With a multi-mode communications
strategy, fleet owners and logistics personnel
can use low- or no-cost cellular and AIS
communications for near-real-time
information about vessel movements when
ships in the fleet are near port, which is when
logistics complexity is highest and numerous
resources must be managed. This gives
voyage management and back-office
Improving business
visibility and
reducing costs
Fleet owners and operators face an increasingly difficult challenge.
It is critical that they have an ‘always available’ communications channel
for shore-to-ship and ship-to-shore messaging and vessel reporting*.
PortVision data can now be accessed on a laptop, or a Blackberry.
p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 03/ 10/ 2011 13: 18 Page 26
October 2011

TANKEROperator 27
personnel complete visibility into vessel
interactions with tugs, pilots, line handlers,
docks and a variety of associated marine
service providers. By using integrated cellular
and AIS communications rather than satellite
services for these in- or near-port activities,
fleet management can improve visibility and
tracking while simultaneous lowering the cost
of communication.
A typical application might look like this:
AIS is used for real-time reporting of the fleet
and other AIS-enabled vessels during those
periods when they are near shore or in-port,
with no additional communications costs.
Available more than 75% of the time in many
cases, AIS gives operators visibility not only
into their own vessel activities, but those of
their competitors, as well, and also enables
them to see the availability of critical
resources including docks, locks, anchorages,
pilots and tugs.
Cellular service is then used for high-
performance reporting at a low fixed cost --
up to 12 position reports per hour, plus
unlimited text messaging while a vessel, or
fleet is within the coverage area. Finally,
satellite service is used for guaranteed two-
way text messaging and position reporting
during those periods when the fleet has moved
into open water and is beyond either the low-
cost or cellular or no-cost AIS coverage areas.
Additional methods
There are a number of additional ways to
leverage the power of AIS data in a multi-
mode communications solution. The
technology has been used by shore-side
maritime personnel to enhance business
visibility and operational efficiency since
2005 when it was mandated for use as a
collision-avoidance tool. While some AIS
services do little more than enable fleet
management to view ‘points on a map,’ the
most useful solutions combine real-time
visualisation and historical information with
a variety of management tools. This enables
them to provide a rich and comprehensive
look at all relevant vessel traffic in one
convenient command-and-control display
AIS services provide the greatest benefits
when they enable users to monitor all
activities in user-defined zones and share
real-time information with remote
participants and other operations centres.
With these kinds of capabilities, AIS
services can be used by maritime
professionals for applications ranging from
enhancing safety and efficiency and
streamlining vendor and resource co-
ordination to simplifying traffic scheduling
and dispatch management. Many companies
are also using AIS service to generate
maritime business intelligence, perform
demurrage reporting and analysis, accelerate
and improve incident response and execute
stronger security initiatives.
These applications require access to both
real-time and historical AIS data, which is
generated from the tens of thousands of
merchant ships, worldwide, that carry AIS
Class ‘A’ equipment for transmitting their
location reports. The system broadcasts
information on a fixed schedule, anywhere
from two to 10 seconds to as much as six
minutes apart.
Static data
This information includes static data such as
the ship’s name, call sign, type, length,
beam, antenna location, and its IMO, or
maritime mobile service identity (MMSI)
number. AIS also broadcasts certain types
of voyage-related data, plus a variety of
dynamic data including time and the ship’s
current position, course and ground speed,
its gyro heading and rate of turn, and its
navigational status.
All of these data
points roll up into an
enormous source of
powerful business
information. To
provide an idea of how
much data is available,
PortVision’s AIS data
warehouse adds 40
mill vessel position
reports daily to a five-
year database that
contains more than 15
bill records related to
vessel arrivals,
departures and other
movements. All of
this real-time and
historical data can be
used by AIS-based
business intelligence
systems to improve
fleet visibility and
enhance operational
efficiency, both in real
time and as a historical
playback tool for such
purposes as generating
legal forensic
evidence, reviewing
best practices and
developing training programmes.
Fleet owners and operators face escalating
communications costs. They typically
deploy vessel monitoring and management
services across dozens of vessels. Until
now, they have used costly satellite services
to guarantee an ‘always available’ channel,
even though each vessel typically spends
considerable time within reach of
communications networks that are much less
expensive. By using AIS services that are
enhanced with multi-mode communications
capabilities and LCR technology, fleet
managers can achieve enhanced vessel
reporting while significantly reducing
communications fees as compared to
systems that rely solely on satellite services.
The advent of multi-mode communications
makes comprehensive fleet management
systems more affordable to a broader range of
companies and organisations that can now
take advantage of their operational and
reporting benefits to improve fleet visibility
and enhance safety and efficiency.
* This article was written by Dean
Rosenberg, CEO, PortVision.
Cont act : War sash Mar i t i me Academy, Newt own Road, War sash, Sout hampt on, SO31 9ZL
Vi si t : www. war sashacademy. co. uk
E- mai l : wma@sol ent . ac. uk
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p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 03/ 10/ 2011 13: 18 Page 27

October 2011 28
his provides maritime users with
access to both Ku-band VSAT and
L-band FleetBroadband services in
a bundled package.
Initially available from Ship Equip and
Stratos, Inmarsat’s direct distribution channel,
the new offering will deliver a fully-integrated
managed service for an inclusive monthly
fixed fee. It is intended to be available to all
GX-appointed distributors.
Designed to provide a bridge to Inmarsat’s
Ka-band Global Xpress service, the package
includes a guaranteed free hardware upgrade
when Inmarsat’s new service becomes
available in 2013.
With a suggested retail price of $2,999 per
month for 60 months, it offers:
Ku-band hardware, approved by Inmarsat
as upgradable to Ka-band.
FleetBroadband (FB500) hardware.
Airtime at 512 kpbs/512 kbps, with a
committed information rate (CIR) of
128 kbps.
Inclusive FleetBroadband airtime where
the VSAT service is not available.
The complete range of Ship Equip and
Stratos applications and support products.
Guaranteed free upgrade from the Ku-band
hardware to Ka-band Global Xpress.
Guaranteed double bandwidth upgrade on
Global Xpress: 1 Mbps/1 Mbps and 256
kbps CIR.
“This is an exceptional value proposition. It
gives the maritime industry a clear path to the
true broadband services that Global Xpress
will deliver and removes risk from upgrading
now”, said Frank Coles, senior director of
maritime for Global Xpress, at the pathway’s
“It is currently the only approved Global
Xpress upgrade path. We intend to appoint
further GX distribution partners, who will
also be able to offer this winning proposition.
Combined, Ship Equip and Stratos offer
unprecedented capability, service and support
for both FleetBroadband and Ku-band
VSAT and are ideally placed to bring this
unique value-driven solution to the market,”
Coles claimed.
The announcement follows the introduction
of fixed fee options on FleetBroadband, which
provide very large allowances for commercial
shipping fleets that want the functionality and
reliability of an L-band service with
predictable fixed costs.
Key manufacturer
Last month, an agreement was signed between
Thrane & Thrane and Inmarsat, whereby the
Danish concern will be the key manufacturer
for the forthcoming Global Xpress service.
With Thrane & Thrane now on board,
Global Xpress expects to go live in 2013 with
newly designed SAILOR terminals produced
specifically for use with the new maritime Ka-
band service.
“We are delighted to have reached this
agreement with Thrane & Thrane as it means
our maritime customers will have a wider
choice of terminals for our super-fast
broadband network,” Coles said.
“SAILOR terminals have proven the most
popular for all recent Inmarsat maritime
services and this makes us confident that
Thrane & Thrane’s partnership will be a very
positive asset as we gear up for the launch of
Global Xpress,” he said.
The introduction of state-of-the-art Global
Xpress terminals will expand an already
diverse portfolio, the company said. Thrane
& Thrane has shipped more than 20,000
SAILOR FleetBroadband terminals since the
launch of Inmarsat’s current flagship service
in November 2007 and in late September
2011 the company announced the
commercial availability of its new SAILOR
900 VSAT antenna.
As a Global Xpress launch manufacturer,
Thrane & Thrane claimed that it is uniquely
positioned to offer high quality L-band/Ka-
band combination packages in line with
Inmarsat’s expectations, as well as provide
Global Xpress terminals to shipping
“The higher data speeds and compact
terminals mark Global Xpress as an important
development in the world of maritime
communications,” said Casper Jensen, VP,
maritime business unit, Thrane & Thrane.
“We are keen to use the knowledge and
experience we have acquired as a long-
standing Inmarsat manufacturer to ensure the
new SAILOR terminals capture the promised
speed, reliability and flexibility of the
forthcoming new service,” he said.
Antenna agreement
To enhance the sales and marketing of its new
SAILOR 900 VSAT antenna, Thrane &
Thrane has signed an agreement with Marlink.
Under the terms of the agreement, the
company will add the new Ku-band antenna to
its VSAT portfolio and offer it to its extensive
global customer network.
SAILOR 900 VSAT is claimed to be a
powerful, quick and easy-to-install four-axis
stabilised Ku-band VSAT antenna, featuring
a low-profile and high performance RF
design. It can be easily integrated with all
leading VSAT modem units. The antenna
control unit (ACU) features multiple LAN
and diagnostics ports and built-in test
equipment (BITE).
During the intensive development and
testing of SAILOR 900 VSAT, Thrane &
Thrane’s in-house engineers were supported
by Marlink’s experience as a key global
maritime communication organisation.
“As one of the leading maritime satcoms
service providers, Marlink’s input during the
development of the SAILOR 900 VSAT was
Inmarsat upgrades
pathway to
Global Xpress
In June, Inmarsat launched
a pathway product aimed at
its future Global Xpress
(GX) service.
p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 06 Page 28
October 2011

TANKEROperator 29
invaluable,” said Jensen. “SAILOR 900
VSAT will of course be offered through our
entire global partner network, but we are
delighted to continue our long relationship
with Marlink and co-operate closely as we
gear up to bring an innovative new product
to the VSAT space.”
“By including the new SAILOR 900 VSAT
antenna in our product offerings we continue
to bring flexibility to our customers, offering
choices of hardware and products that suit
their specific needs,” said Tore Morten Olsen,
CEO Marlink. “Shipowners worldwide have
very different communications needs. Adding
the new SAILOR 900 VSAT antenna into our
VSAT portfolio further strengthens Marlink’s
position as the most complete maritime
communications provider in the market.”
To ensure reliability of the SAILOR 900
VSAT on board any vessel type, Thrane &
Thrane built a antenna testing and simulation
facility at its headquarters. The facility
features a multi-axis hydraulic motion testing
and simulation platform that uses real-life
vessel motion and conditions, to test the
SAILOR 900 VSAT while it is connected to a
live satellite. This extra testing ensures that
the SAILOR 900 VSAT is ready for
installation on board vessels of all sizes and
types, the company said.
Marlink’s has also enhanced Inmarsat’s
FleetPhone offering by providing a free
terminal for each 12-month subscription of
Vizada’s Universal Card, a prepaid solution
for private calls and crew data.
FleetPhone service is Inmarsat’s latest
satellite voice, circuit switched data and SMS
messaging system.
As part of the subscription, the system will
also have a free crew handset and call blocker,
which restricts crew to the prepaid traffic.
The Universal Card is claimed to provide
important advantages when attracting new
crew to a vessel, as it gives seafarers only one
card for cost-effective voice calls and allows
complete control over call spending and
budget at pre-defined costs. Shipowners can
stipulate the level of usage on the card and
any number can be ordered to cover the entire
ship’s complement.
The FleetPhone service is available through
two equipment options, both of which are
provided free of charge. The Oceana 400
enables five standard phones, or integration
into a PBX system, while the larger Oceana
800 has integrated Bluetooth, a GPS receiver,
providing tracking and instant message
reporting via SMS, and the 505 emergency
calling feature.
The service is claimed to be simple to
install and use, connecting to existing phone
systems making it easy for the Master or crew
to make calls anytime. Additional tools can be
added for other daily communication and
administration needs.
Stratos buys BOW
As for Inmarsat subsidiary Stratos, earlier this
year it purchased most of the operational
assets of Blue Ocean Wireless (BOW). BOW
was a provider of shipboard GSM services
that enabled seafarers to use their personal
GSM phones to communicate with family and
friends by voice and SMS.
As part of the acquisition, Stratos assumed
responsibility for providing services to most
of BOW’s customers, including many large
commercial shipping companies worldwide.
Since 1st July, Stratos has marketed and
sold BOW’s services to existing and new
customers under the new brand GSM
Stratos offers a variety of crew-welfare
services, including GSM Oceanwide, prepaid
Stratos ChatCards and AmosConnect Crew.
“Today, more than ever, savvy
shipmanagers understand that offering a wide
range of communications options is critical to
attracting and retaining qualified crew
members,” said Stratos president and CEO
Jim Parm. “Each day we work with these
shipmanagers to ensure they can offer
advanced voice, private email and SMS
services that are powerful, easy to use and
available away from the bridge.”
Parm concluded, “Our acquisition of the
BOW assets improves our ability to offer
affordable GSM services to our global
customer base.”
Stratos is the largest supplier of mobile
satellite services to the maritime industry.
with communications to more than 40,000
maritime terminals worldwide.
Chemical Tanker Seminar for Shipping Professionals
- Your choice of course
8-9 February 2012 in Copenhagen
Develop your knowledge of Chemical
Tankers and their cargoes
- IMO reguIations for ChemicaI 7ankers
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p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 06 Page 29

October 2011 30
This hardback takes both
students and tanker professionals
through the various cycles of
tanker operations*.
It is edited by marine author and former large
tanker navigator and deck officer Dr Raymond
Solly in co-operation with Warsash’s Capt
Quentin Cox and John Onslow.
Starting from the early history of the tanker
from the bridge amidship design of the 19th
and early 20th centuries to today’s modern
double hull VLCCs, the first few chapters
outline basic hazards, including the refining
process, to a description of the operating
technicalities of today’s tanker.
Much reference is made to the ISGOTT
guide – the bible of the gas and tanker sectors
– in the various paragraphs and chapters
describing on board operations. Terminals,
both onshore and offshore also get an airing as
does ship-to-ship transfers (STS), which have
been the subject of legislation recently.
Tank cleaning and washing, pollution
prevention, entry into dangerous spaces, cargo
calculations, vetting inspections and responses
to an oil spill are all covered in the 15
The book is also well illustrated with actual
photographs of vessels and equipment, plus
tables and graphics, giving the reader a feel
for the subject being written about. A couple
of errors have crept in to the captions, but
these do not take anything away from the
technical content of the book and its
usefulness as a guide.
It was obviously written before the advent
of EEDI and SEEMP (TEEMP), which will
hopefully be covered in any revision planned.
A well stocked index also acts as a glossary
when referred back to the page in which the
subject is mentioned.
Another book from the same publishers
along similar lines is Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Tanker Practice, by Capt TWV Woolcott. This
142 page illustrated hardback was published
in 2009 and is very relevant today with the
increased interest in these type of vessels.
This book looks at LPG and ammonia cargo
carriers covering fully-pressurised, semi-
pressurised and fully refrigerated vessels. It
looks at cargo preparation, loading,
transportation and discharging.
Special safety precautions are highlighted
due to the dangerous nature of this cargo,
especially fire prevention and response.
*Manual of Oil Tanker Operations by Dr
Raymond Solly, Capt Quentin Cox and John
Onslow, published by Brown, Son &
Ferguson, 193pp, hardback, illustrated.
Manual of Oil Tanker Operations
In the August/September issue of
TAKEROperator on page 12, we
prematurely promoted International
Registries’ John Ramage. His official
position in the administration is Chief
Operating Officer (COO).
John Ramage
The Latest ews is now available on TAKEROperator’s website at www.tankeroperator.com and is updated
weekly. For access to the ews just register by entering your e-mail address in the box provided. You
can also request to receive free e-mail copies of TAKEROperator by filling in the form displayed on the
website. Free trial copies of the printed version are also available from the website. These are limited to
tanker company executives and are distributed at the publisher’s discretion.
p2- 30: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 11: 26 Page 30
October 2011

TANKEROperator 31
ne is the Azipod® propulsion
system, which is an electrically
driven propellers mounted on a
steerable pod and the other is a
new concept for the distribution of electricity
on board using direct current (DC) instead of
the traditional alternative current (AC).
Over the years the Azipod system has not
only gained a reputation for its high
manoeuvrability, quick response and smooth,
quiet operation, but also for its higher efficiency
and lower emissions, the company claimed.
Huge savings in fuel oil of as much as
55,000 litres per week have been made by
ships fitted with ABB’s Azipod system, when
compared with sister ships travelling the same
routes using conventional propulsion systems.
An Azipod even provides between 10% to
15% higher efficiency than conventional
electric shaft line systems, ABB claimed.
However, it should be noted that these claims
mainly relate to cruise vessel operations,
although a few Azipods have been fitted to
tankers and other types of vessels (see table
on the next page).
The pod is fitted to the ship’s hull and rotates
freely along its vertical axis, which means that
thrust can be delivered in any direction,
avoiding the need for a rudder, transverse
thrusters at the stern and long shaft lines inside
the hull. The superior manoeuvrability of the
vessel brings with it improvements in
operational safety, ABB claimed.
ABB is now developing the next Azipod
generation – Azipod XO. The company said
that it was also engaged in pre-studies of an
XI version for ice conditions by looking at
how XO features and technology can be
adapted to vessels regularly sailing in ice.
“We would like to have some operational
experience of Azipod XO first before we start
the XI development programme. We have a
modern Azipod VI series in our product
portfolio, so we can fulfil most of the market
needs with that product,” ABB said.
Although the company has not undertaken
any tests on the XI concept, it has tested the
present ice application design Azipod VI on
many projects, ABB explained.
For example, the Azipod VI has been fitted
to several Arctic tankers and Arctic
containerships. Last year, one of Norilsky
Nickel’s containerships transited the Northern
Sea Route (NSR) between Murmansk and
Shanghai without icebreaker assistance.
More recently, an Azipod VI was fitted to
Norilsky Nickel’s new Arctic tanker Enisey,
which was due to be delivered from Nordic
Yards in September. The 14,800 dwt tanker is
169 m in length and is of Ice Class Arc 7
(Russian Maritime Register). The propulsion
system is based on a single 13 MW Azipod
VI, similar to that fitted on the five Norilsk
Nickel Arctic containerships now in service.
Based on the model tests undertaken at Aker
Arctic, a conventional vessel requires about
1.5-2 times the power of a DAS (double acting
ship) type vessel to fulfil the same ice going
performance. Thus it is not economically
feasible to build large ice going tankers with
conventional propulsion concepts.
Neste’s tankers Tempera and Mastera use
the DAS principle and operate in the Baltic.
Neither has ever needed icebreaker assistance,
although there have been a couple of heavy
winters during which other vessels had
become stuck in ice, ABB explained.
Pod optimisation
Earlier this year, software designer Eniram
signed an agreement with ABB to integrate
it’s pod optimisation technology into the
Azipod propulsion system for newbuilds, as
Propulsion specialist ABB
has pioneered two systems,
which are claimed to be
able to improve vessel
energy efficiency.
Improving energy
p31- 43: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 11 Page 1
well as for retrofit projects.
The dynamic pod optimisation, based on
Eniram’s vessel management system (VMS),
optimises the relation of the pod angles and
enables ship operators using this propulsion
system to make further increases in fuel
savings already realised using traditional
Azipod systems.
Results from a collaborative study carried
out last year by Eniram and ABB exceeded
the originally anticipated fuel savings proving
that the combined technology has the potential
to truly increase vessel efficiency, both
companies claimed.
In order to transfer the Azipod’s energy
savings to the large vessel segment, ABB is
developing a completely new propulsion
concept. It consists of a fixed, non-turning,
electrically driven pod placed just behind the
vessel's fixed–pitch, direct-drive propeller,
with a separate rudder for steering at the rear.
ABB said that the new contra-rotating
system, called RudderpodTM CRP, is
expected to provide an improved propulsion
efficiency of some 7%. In high powered
containerships this means a huge fuel saving
and reduction in exhaust gases. ABB told
TAKEROperator that model tests were
currently being performed, plus other studies.
Once they have been evaluated, the company
will then decide which tanker types will be
most suitable for this concept.
These advantages make electric podded
propulsion an attractive alternative propulsion
system, the company claimed. This
development has spurred ABB to take electric
propulsion one step further by developing a
more efficient direct current (DC) electrical
system, known as ABB’s on board DC system,
to replace the traditional alternating current
(AC) power distribution systems currently
available on ships.
This system is part of a DC revival in
power solutions that uses modern technology
to overcome its earlier limitations, which now
not only makes DC a contender, but a superior
system since it avoids the inefficiencies
inherent with AC power distribution systems
currently found on board ships, ABB said.
The DC system will provide highly efficient
power distribution and electric propulsion for a
wide range of vessels, including coastal
tankers, as it is applicable for vessels fitted with
a low voltage propulsion system with the view
to reducing fuel consumption and emissions by
up to 20%. In traditional electrical propulsion
vessels, multiple DC connections are made
from the AC circuit to thrusters and propulsion
drives, which account for more than 80% of
electrical power consumption.
ABB's on board DC system connects
directly to all DC links and distributes power
through a single 1,000 V DC circuit, which
eliminates the need for large AC switchboards
and heavy-duty transformers. This results in
space and weight savings of up to 30%,
allowing ships to carry more cargo. The
placement of electrical equipment is also more
flexible, allowing the electrical system to be
designed around the vessel functions rather
than the other way around.
One of the biggest advantages of a DC power
system is that the vessel's engines no longer
have to run at a fixed speed, which means that
the engine’s speed can be adjusted to optimise
fuel consumption still further. This improves a
ship's operational efficiency by up to 10%
compared with traditional AC powered systems.
In addition, ABB's on board DC system
will enable supplementary DC energy
sources such as solar panels, fuel cells,
super-capacitors, or batteries to be plugged
into the vessel's DC electrical system
directly, creating further fuel savings.
ABB said that it believed hybrid power
systems will play an increasing part in the
next generation of ship designs, with batteries
or other energy storage devices being
employed to provide short bursts of higher
power when required.
“Our aim is to install the first DC system on
board a ship by mid-2012,” said Jostein
Bogen project leader for ABB's on board DC
systems. “This will be a major step forward in
the development of even more flexible, energy
efficient ships with superior performance.”
For larger tankers, ABB said that the
company believed that a hybrid solution,
including 2-stroke multi-fuel engine in

October 2011 32
Azipod Yard Vessel Owner Ship Ice Class Azipod Total Frame Vessel o of
Type name type class power power size delivery pods
[MW] [MW] date
Azipod VI KMY HUT Uikku / NEMARC=> Arctic tanker 1 A Super DnV 11.4 11.4 VI2100 1994 1
Varzuga Murmansk
Shipping Co
Azipod VI KMY HUT Lunni / NEMARC=> Arctic tanker 1 A Super DnV 11.4 11.4 VI2100 1995 1
Indiga Murmansk
Shipping Co
Azipod VI Sumitomo Tempera Neste Oil Arctic tanker 1 A Super LRS 16 16 VI2500 2002 1
Azipod VI Sumitomo Mastera Neste Oil Arctic tanker 1 A Super LRS 16 16 VI2500 2003 1
Azipod VI Samsung Vasily Sovcomflot Arctic tanker LU6 ABS / 10 20 VI2300 2008 2
Heavy Ind. Dinkov RMRS
Azipod CO Shanghai Excello Donsötank Ice strengthened 1A DnV 3.2 6.4 2008 2
Edwards tanker
Azipod VI Samsung Kapitan Sovcomflot Arctic tanker LU6 ABS / 10 20 VI2300 2008 2
Heavy Ind. Grotskiy RMRS
Azipod VI Samsung Shturman Sovcomflot Arctic tanker LU6 ABS / 10 20 VI2300 2009 2
Heavy Ind. Albanov RMRS
Azipod VI Admiralty Mikhail Sovcomflot Arctic tanker LU6 LRS/ 8.5 17 VI2300 2010 2
Shipyard Ulyanov RMRS
Azipod VI Admiralty Kirill Lavrov Sovcomflot Arctic tanker LU6 LRS/ 8.5 17 VI2300 2010 2
Shipyard RMRS
Azipod VI Nordic Yards Enisey Norilsk Nickel Arctic tanker Arc 7 RMR 13 13 VI2300 2011 1
Tankers fitted with ABB Azipods
Source: ABB
p31- 43: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 11 Page 2
October 2011

TANKEROperator 33
combination with heat recovery systems and
electric podded propulsion, is feasible in order
to save fuel and emission.
This concept is currently being discussed for
large containerships. For tankers, it might also
be an option if it is within economic range. For
tankers, these types of concepts and solutions
are within the company’s targeted vessel
types/concepts, ABB told TAKEROperator.
ABB added that for smaller tankers, electric
propulsion is even closer to coming to fruition
on a broader scale than for larger tankers,
especially in combination with LNG fuelled
generators. The company said that it is also
promoting electric thrusters (Azipod C) for
these tanker types in order to increase vessel
efficiency and manoeuvrability.
Energy appraisal
ABB has launched a marine energy appraisal
service to help vessels lower their fuel
consumption by reducing their energy use
and improving the environment by cutting
CO2 emissions.
Among the larger energy consumers on
board vessels are seawater cooling pumps,
chilled water pumps and engine room
ventilation fans. These applications are often
over-specified to handle the most extreme
conditions. In addition, they operate at full
capacity even when demand is not high. Any
flow control is often through mechanical
devices, such as bypass valves and air
dampers, which are inefficient and costly
to maintain.
By installing a variable-speed drive to
adjust the speed of these motors according to
demand, the energy consumed can be reduced
by around 50% with payback on equipment
and installation, from fuel savings alone, in
less than a year.
Lowering energy consumption helps to
reduce carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur oxides
(SOx) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions.
“A single seawater cooling pump can save
$29,000 and 117 tonnes of CO2 per year,”
said Stuart Melling, manager for harbour
cranes and merchant vessel service. “When
applied ship-wide and fleet-wide these savings
can be tremendous.
“There is a large potential for retrofitting
existing ships with new fuel-reducing
technologies. For example, only around 2% of
the global fleet is currently equipped with
variable-speed drives for their seawater
cooling pumps, which means that 98% of the
fleet is missing an opportunity for high fuel
savings and environmental rewards,” he said.
ABB’s marine energy appraisal offering
aims to identify the motor-driven applications
that can benefit from the use of variable-speed
drives. Once the applications have been
identified, the energy appraisal is undertaken
and a value proposal for implementing
improvements is presented. If accepted, an
installation site survey is carried out before
the actual engineering and commissioning is
completed. A final report verifies the results
including a return on investment.
“The marine energy appraisal is built on
ABB’s extensive process knowledge
combined with in-depth system competence in
variable-speed drives, motors, pumps and
fans,” said Melling. “We take full
responsibility for complete energy efficiency
retrofit projects, ensuring quick and simple
project execution which saves customers time
and money.”
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SC 30T
Wärtsilä tests new 2-stroke
dual-fuel gas engine
Wärtsilä has tested its new low-speed gas engine
technology in trials conducted at the company's
facilities in Trieste, Italy.
Tests were carried out on 19th September in conjunction with
Wärtsilä's licensees conference in Trieste. Wärtsilä demonstrated that
the engine performance fully complies with the upcoming IMO Tier III
nitrogen oxide (NOx) limits, thereby setting a new benchmark for low-
speed engines running on gas.
The new RTX5 2-stroke test engine is part of Wärtsilä's 2-stroke
dual-fuel gas engine technology development programme. This is an
important part of the company's strategy to lower emissions, increase
efficiency and to develop its low-speed engine portfolio to include
dual-fuel gas engines alongside its medium-speed dual-fuel engines.
"The decision to initiate this project was announced in February
2011, just seven months ago. The fact that we have already conducted
a successful test shows that our gas engine technology is at the
forefront of meeting the future needs of shipping, a future that
stipulates more stringent environmental regulation." said Lars
Anderson, vice president, Wärtsilä Ship Power Merchant.
The tests with the RTX5 engine will continue during the autumn and
winter of this year, and into 2012. More details about the engine
technology and its performance will be announced upon completion of
the programme.
Test running during the company's licensees conference is
significant in that the company's low-speed engines are produced by
specialised engine manufacturing companies under license.
IMO's Tier III regulations, which will come into force in 2016,
stipulate that NOx (nitrogen oxides) emissions must be cut by 80%
compared to the IMO Tier I levels. TO
p31- 43: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 11 Page 3

October 2011 34
he new requirements came into
effect in July 2009, under
California Code of Regulations
(CCR), Section 2299.2, Fuel
Sulfur and Other Operational Requirements
for Ocean Going Vessels within California
Waters and 24 Nautical Miles of the
California Baseline.
The regulations require that vessels burn
either marine gas oil (MGO) with maximum
1.5% sulphur, or marine diesel oil (MDO)
with maximum 0.5% sulphur, in their main
and auxiliary engines.
However, following the implementation of
the regulations, California witnessed a 100%
increase in loss of propulsion (LOP) incidents
within state waters during 2009. In 2010,
California saw 54 LOP incidents compared to
24 in 2008 (the last full year before ARB
regulations took effect).
The LOPs can be loosely categorised into
six groups for ease of discussion.
Group 1
In this group, engine failures resulting in the
LOP are due to the inability of the main
engine, operating with MGO/MDO, to
overcome the forces on the propeller from the
forward momentum of the ship. The engine
may turn over at higher rev/min and initiate
combustion; however, as the engine reduces
speed to come to dead slow, or slow astern,
there is not enough BTUs in the fuel to
maintain engine inertia. The engine stalls with
the subsequent loss of propulsion.
Similarly, ships not getting engine starts
while anchoring when an astern order is given,
typically initiates a ‘Failure to Start’ scenario.
The remedy, due to the lack of BTUs, is to
adjust the fuel rack to allow more fuel into the
cylinder. This procedure cannot be done from
most ship bridges but only from the engine
control room or from the engine side (manual).
Group 2
In Group 2, failures resulting in the LOP are
due to problems with controlling the
temperature of the MGO/MDO. Each engine
has specifications as to the temperature range
required to operate using either heavy fuels or
lighter fuels. For example, the optimal
temperature range for an engine might be 135
deg C for a heavy fuel oil (HFO) and 40 deg
C for the MGO.
Because heavy fuels must be heated (for the
right viscosity to burn) and lighter fuels may
not need to be heated, there are problems
associated during the fuel oil switch over in
both heating and cooling the different fuel oil
systems (since the fuel oil is supplied through
the same auxiliary systems). Heating an
MGO/MDO may cause ‘flashing’ of the
lighter fuel oil to vapour. The fuel injectors
would not work when the fuel flashes causing
a loss of power in that cylinder. Multiple
cylinder flashes could result in LOP.
Group 3
In the third group, failures resulting in a LOP
are associated with the loss of fuel oil pressure
to either the fuel pumps or fuel injectors. The
loss of pressure could be a result of many
factors including wrong control set points, use
of bypass valves, in-operable equipment,
inattention to operating conditions, or
excessive leakage through ‘O’ rings and seals.
The problem lies with physics. Metal
expands when heated and contracts when
cooled. Ships were evolved to burn the
heaviest and cheapest fuel available - HFO. To
utilise the HFO, the fuel is heated to as much
as 150 deg C to get it to flow. In comparison,
MGO/MDO fuel is burned at ambient engine
room temperature or 40 deg C and no heating
is required. Once the cooler MGO is
introduced into the fuel pumps and injectors,
they contract causing a loss of fuel pressure at
the pump with marginal spray pattern and
leaks at the injector.
One of the other issues using MGO in an
engine that has successfully run HFO for some
time is viscosity. Typically, the engine
manufacturer’s recommended minimum
viscosity is 2 cst. Fuel viscosity specifications at
40 deg C temperature for MGO/MDO range
from 1.5 cst to 6.5 cst. The MGO loaded in
California has a viscosity of 2 cst to 3 cst at
40 deg C. When the temperature of the MGO is
increased into an already warm engine that just
operated on HFO, the heat lowers the viscosity
causing the fuel machinery parts to bind or
break. Bearing in mind that the cylinder
temperature is usually maintained at 80 deg C
and this heat migrates into the fuel lines as well.
Unsurprisingly, the introduction of distillate
fuel into the fuel system causes leaks,
sometimes excessive leaks. With MGO/MDO
there is a very real risk of external combustion
or fire. The replacing of ‘O’ rings at the
manufacturer’s recommended intervals has
proved to be inadequate. For example, in the
case of injector ‘O’ rings on a ship, the
manufacturer suggested interval for replacing
fuel injector ‘O’ rings is 10,000 hours. The
vessel’s engineers found an interval of 2,000
hours was more appropriate to change the
rings to prevent potential fire hazards. These
fuel leaks tend to disappear when engines are
switched back to the heavier fuel oil.
Group 4
In the fourth group, failures resulting in LOP
are associated with the loss of fuel oil
pressure, or the loss of flow in sufficient
quantities to maintain operation. Strainers and
filters, or the lack of a strainer and filter,
contribute to clogging or restrictions in the
fuel oil supply system.
The MGO/MDO acts as a solvent causing a
de-coking effect, clogging fuel filters. This is
propulsion loss after
switching fuels
The California Air Resources Board (ARB) has laid down regulations for vessel
emissions’ reductions in California waters, as part of its continued mission to improve
air quality around the state*.
p31- 43: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 11 Page 4
October 2011

TANKEROperator 35
due to burning a lower grade of HFO that has
excessive amounts of asphaltenes. These
asphaltenes adhere to the inside of the fuel
lines and assorted other fuel components.
When MGO is introduced the asphaltenes are
released, collecting in the fuel filters/strainers.
Group 5
In Group 5, failures resulting in the LOP
appear to be associated with problems in
either the starting air system, or the control air
systems. Problems with starting air systems
are not fuel related and only need to be
mentioned as a cause of LOPs.
Group 6
In the final group, failures resulting in the
LOP appear to be associated with mechanical
failure not associated with other groups.
Having defined the groups of LOPs, the
intent of this guide is to reduce LOP incidents
occurring within the state of California
boundaries. The time to deal with problems on
board ship is either miles out at sea, or
alongside the dock. Not in manoeuvring/
pilotage waters!
Many of the LOP incidents that occurred in
2010 involved ships making their first entry
into California waters since July 2009. Since
California sees between one to two first time
callers per week, the Office of Spill
Prevention and Response (OSPR) decided to
provide suggestions for ships working with
low sulphur distillate fuel oil (LSDFO).
For vessels intending to enter the emissions
control area for the first time since July 2009,
it is recommended and California advises the
crew should conduct a trial (actual) fuel
switching within 45 days prior to entering
California waters. Run main and auxiliary
engines no less than four hours on low sulphur
distillate fuel (LSDFO). This will help identify
any specific change over or operational issues
or problems.
If ships perform a trial fuel switch, the
operators will be more prone to avoid
problems that could occur versus learning
underway upon entering California waters and
not knowing the sundry issues. Forty five days
was chosen based upon an understanding of
containership operations where schedule is
everything. Somewhere within that schedule
there is always time to perform a trial
manoeuvre and 45 days should allow the
ship’s personnel to experience the fuel
switchover and document remedial fixes, if
any, mitigating Groups 1,2,3,4.
Repeat and initial entry
Part One-TRAIIG:
Within 45 days prior to entering the waters
of California it is strongly advised ship
engineers should exercise:
A) Operating main engine from the engine
control room.
B) Operating main engine from engine side
Crew should become familiar with ‘Failure
to Start’ procedures while manoeuvring and
establish corrective protocols for ‘Failure
to Start’ incidents.
Following, the “Perfect practice ensures
proper performance” creed, if the bridge and
engineering crew is practiced in the event of a
‘Failure to Start’ scenario, they will perform
satisfactorily when called upon in the event of
a real failure. This is especially important in
manoeuvring/pilotage waters.
The air and fuel in the start sequence can be
adjusted in the engine control room and at
engine side. These items cannot be adjusted
from the bridge on most ships; hence, the
provision of the advisory/guide establishes
protocols for dealing with the ‘Failure to Start’
scenario as outlined in LOP groups 1 and 2.
Too many ships run out of ‘start air’
because they continue to initiate starts from
the bridge where control of the fuel rack and
amount of air for starting cannot be adjusted.
Part Two: While underway after fuel
switching completed (HFO to LSDFO):
Ships should ensure one of the senior
engineering officers is in the engine control
room while the ship is in pilotage waters to
be able:
1. To operate the main engine from the
engine control room.
2. To operate the main engine from engine
side (local).
Special attention should be given to the
STCW rest requirements
While interviewing Chief Engineers (CE),
the author of this guide found that they were
putting in excessive hours. CE’s are not
subject to the STCW rest requirements as they
are non-watchkeepers. However, the CE is
human and subject to fatigue just as junior
officers. It has been proven too many times
that fatigue can cause errors in judgment and
which could contribute to a LOP incident.
Usually the senior engineers consist of the
CE and Second Engineer on internationally
flagged ships, while CE and First Assistant
Engineer (on US flag ships) have the most
experience with the ship engine operation. If
the CE is comfortable with anyone substituting
on duty, it is usually the other senior engineer.
Hopefully, a substitution will allow the CE
some rest. Some ships have the CE down in
the engine room for the fuel switchover, then
the CE retires for rest while assigning the
other senior engineer to standby in the engine
room, mitigating all the groups.
The following Engine Advisory Guidelines
were taken from the US Coast Guard MSA
03-09 with additions and clarifications from
industry partners.
Part Three-engine guidelines:
Consult engine and boiler manufacturers
for fuel switching guidance.
Consult fuel suppliers for proper fuel
selection. Exercise strict control when
possible over the quality of the fuel oils
Consult manufacturers to determine if
system modifications, or additional
safeguards are necessary for intended fuels.
Develop detailed fuel switching
Establish a fuel system inspection and
maintenance schedule.
Ensure system pressure and temperature
alarms, flow indicators, filter differential
pressure transmitters, etc, are all operational.
Ensure system purifiers, filters and
strainers are maintained.
Ensure system seals, gaskets, flanges,
fittings, brackets and supports are maintained.
Ensure that the steam isolation valves on
fuel lines, filters, heaters etc are fully tight
in closed position while running LSDFO.
Ensure that the fuel oil viscosity and
temperature control equipment is accurate
and operational.
Ensure detailed system diagrams are
available and engineers are familiar with
systems and troubleshooting techniques.
Ensure senior engineers know the location
and function of all automation components
associated with starting the main engine.
* This article was written by Capt Jeff
Cowan of the State of California, office of
spill prevention and response.
Loss of propulsion incidents 2004 - 2011 (August)
2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012
Loss of propulsion incidents
2004 - 2011
i. Industry generated categories
ii. From USCG data
p31- 43: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 11 Page 5

October 2011 36
APA for vessel
design and operation
Operational monitoring software has reached a new level of optimisation and integration
ahead of the new regulations soon to be ratified by the IMO.
essel operation monitoring
software has been on the market
for a few years, but with the
deadline fast approaching for
every vessel to comply with the IMO’s Energy
Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and have a
Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan
(SEEMP) on board, owners and operators are
now seriously looking at the options available.
The reason for the ramping up of interested is
that at the IMO’s MEPC 62 meeting last July,
the committee adopted mandatory measures to
reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs)
for parties to MARPOL Annex VI.
At the meeting, it was agreed to set up an
intersessional working group on vessel energy
efficiency measures, scheduled to take place
in February/March 2012.
The working group was tasked with:
Further improving draft guidelines on the
method of EEDI calculation for new ships;
draft guidelines for the development of a
SEEMP; draft guidelines on EEDI survey
and certification; and draft interim
guidelines for determining minimum
propulsion power and speed to enable safe
manoeuvring in adverse weather conditions.
Considering the development of EEDI
frameworks for other ship types and
propulsion systems not covered by the
draft guidelines.
Identifying other guidelines, or supporting
documents for technical and operational
Considering the EEDI reduction rates for
larger tankers and bulk carriers.
Considering the improvement of the Ship
Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator
(EEOI) guidelines.
This means that once everything is in place,
each new vessel over 400 gt ordered from 1st
January, 2013, would require a survey of fuel
efficiency and be issued with an International
Energy Efficiency Certificate. As for SEEMP,
new and existing ships will have to keep on
board a ship-specific energy use management
plan during operation. This will affect around
50,000 vessels.
INTERTANKO has developed a tanker
specific version of SEEMP - TEEMP. It is
based on the organisation’s best practice and it
is thought to be the only vessel type specific
management plan in existence thus far.
One company heavily involved in
developing software programs for operational
efficiency is Helsinki-based NAPA.
The company can trace its history back to
1975 when it was part of leading Finnish
shipbuilder Wartsila’s ship design department,
finally becoming a separate company at the
end of 1989.
At first, due to Wartsila’s interests in cruise
vessel and ferry newbuildings, the company
concentrated on newbuilding design work.
Indeed, developing software systems for ship
design is still very much the cornerstone of the
business. NAPA has contracts with most of the
Chinese, Japanese and South Korean shipyards.
Today, the company claims that around 95% of
the world’s newbuildings from Asian yards
were initially designed using NAPA software.
During the early 1990s, the company started
to develop software for use on board ship. By
this time, NAPA had developed software for
damage stability calculations and other
functions and had launched NAPA Loading
The tanker version of NAPA
Loading Computer covers all
types and offers a number of
important benefits both to
shipowners and shipyards. It
covers crude oil carriers,
product tankers, chemical
tankers, LNG/LPG carriers,
bitumen tankers and FPSOs.
The package offers a superior tool for
stowage planning, cargo operation
monitoring and damage calculation and it
comes with a clear, easy-to-use and
dynamic graphical user interface.
It is completely compatible with the
NAPA ship design software used by most
of the world’s leading shipyards and
classification societies and also with
LR’s and DNV’s emergency response
It can be linked with the shipowner’s
own office applications, which the
company claims saves time and reduces
the threat of human error.
NAPA Loading Computer for tankers
NAPA Office linear layout.
p31- 43: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 11 Page 6
October 2011

TANKEROperator 37
Computer starting with ferry operations.
Tanker installation
By 1994, the company was marketing NAPA
for Operations to other vessels types and
during that year Neste Shipping fitted a
loading calculation system on board the tanker
Uikku. Since then NAPA for Operations has
developed to encompass many other shipboard
operations, including those aimed at
improving operating efficiency, thus reducing
fuel consumption and with it – emissions.
Strategic partnerships are currently being
set up with both shipyards and shipowners
worldwide aimed at installing software on
both newbuildings and on operating vessels.
One example of this was the forming of a
strategic partnership between NAPA and
Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering
(DSME) to develop the NAPA-DSME
Power® software for DSME-designed vessels.
Earlier this year, came news of the first order
for the joint venture. This was for software to
be installed on six newbuilding Aframaxes,
plus six options, contracted by Sovcomflot
subsidiary Novoship at DSME. The first of the
company’s ship operations optimisation
package will be installed in a Novoship-
operated tanker during the first quarter of 2012.
Following the contract, the company said that
NAPA-DSME Power® is fast becoming an
integral part of DSME's ‘Green Ship’ concept.
“This will present DSME's customers with the
unique advantage of adopting a solution that
already today covers not only all present
recommendations but also the highly anticipated
future regulatory requirements for energy-
efficient ship operations something no other
software package on the market can claim to
accomplish,” the company said in a statement.
Among other benefits that Novoship can
expect to gain from using NAPA-DSME
Power® are reductions in emissions,
operational costs, and fuel consumption. Prior
use of the software package has indicated the
annual savings potential on fuel costs alone to
be about 3-5%.
In the case of a single VLCC this would
equal to approximately $250,000 - $400,000
per annum depending on, for example, the
number of operating days and propulsion
power. Moreover, the decreased fuel
consumption would also directly result in a
significant emission reduction corresponding
to 1,200 – 2,000 tonnes of CO2 .
NAPA-DSME Power® software optimises,
monitors and follows up fleet-wide fuel
consumption and ship performance. Shipowners
and operators can realise considerable savings
through making ship operations more effective
and environment-friendly. By using the
software, the most optimal trim, route, speed
profile and engine configuration can be
obtained for any given voyage.
NAPA’s software is used by shipyards,
owners, designers, classification societies
and authorities. Napa has over 350 user
organisations – 52 in China alone – for
design application and 1,100 installations
on board. For the newbuilding software,
operational feedback as to a vessel’s design
is often used by a shipyard to benefit the next
generation of newbuildings. Conceptual
design work is also undertaken.
Operationally, sister vessels from the same
yard can be completely different hence a
SEEMP, or TEEMP, must be available on
every vessel. SEEMP is basically a vessel
specific efficiency awareness plan.
Through ‘NAPA for Operations’ software suite,
the information gathered can be collected on a
web portal and the operations of each vessel in
a fleet compared, enabling the owner/operator
to compare similar vessels and masters’
performance. A vessel whose efficiency
performance is lower than say a sister vessel can
be quickly assessed to see where the problem is.
NAPA for Operations total optimised
package includes a loading computer. This can
assess a vessel’s ballast and trim, which then
can be optimised if needed to produce lower
fuel consumption figures. “If the loading is
planned, then it is possible to change the
vessel’s configuration to make it more
efficient,” Esa Henttinen, vice president of
business development, explained.
All of the vessel’s data can be stored and
used for future reference to make
improvements in design and operations, as
both technical and operational data is stored.
NAPA has been undertaking vessel
performance analysis for a number of years
and has accumulated a wealth of data and can
filter the information needed in order to make
recommendations to gain further operating
efficiency. The data can also be offered to
organisations undertaking large vessel
operating efficiency studies.
NAPA’s software is interfacing and can be
integrated with other systems on board,
Brand summary.
NAPA Office for follow up and data
NAPA Voyage Optimisation for
voyage optimisation and route planning.
NAPA Electronic Logbook and
Voyage Reporting for collecting
and recording data.
NAPA Loading Computer/
NAPA OptiFloat for optimum
floating position planning.
NAPA Real Time Monitoring
for monitoring various types of data on
board a vessel.
NAPA Performance Analysis
service for analysing the hull and
propeller condition.
NAPA for
Operations concept
p31- 43: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 11 Page 7

October 2011 38
including with various OEMs’ equipment. The
company tends to prefer the partnership
approach with clients, especially with SEEMP
on the horizon. The software is claimed to be
easy to understand as the company has strived
to make it as simple as possible to use. For
example, simple indicators are used, such as
traffic lights on board.
Henttinen said that NAPA was constantly
looking to improve the package, for example,
for vessels operating in ice conditions, the
vessel’s stability can be checked in the loading
computer. He saw a market in hull
performance, propeller polishing and
underwater hull cleaning analyses, especially
on the wide expanse of a tanker’s wetted
surface. Henttinen thought that these functions
were vital components in keeping a vessel
operating to its maximum efficiency, although
he recognised that there are restrictions in place
as to where a vessel can be cleaned afloat.
He said that he also saw a market in helping
coatings manufacturers find the optimum
solution in terms of vessel efficiency, especially
with the US banning copper in coatings.
Another piece of the jigsaw is NAPA’s
electronic logbook. This software has now
been approved by at least 15 flag states.
“Electronic logbooks are coming,” Henttinen
said. Information can be sent over XML files
by email, so an operator does not necessarily
need a wide bandwidth connection.
Due to its high operational input, about
60% of NAPA’s employees are naval
architects and master mariners. The company
has six offices worldwide and internal software
concerns in Romania and India. Elsewhere,
partners are used in hubs, such as Fujairah and
Singapore. As for servicing the software,
more and more can be achieved remotely.
Henttinen said that NAPA has ambitious
expansion plans both organically and by going
down the mergers and acquisitions road
should a likely candidate appear.
For example, as part of the company’s
ongoing expansion, Juha Heikinheimo was
recently appointed president of the NAPA
Group with former president Matti Salo taking
over the growing Onboard-NAPA Ltd’s
business operation.
According to the company, Salo will now
focus his attention on customers and
boosting the growth of the NAPA’s vessel
operations business.
Heikinheimo has extensive experience of
the shipbuilding industry. Most recently, he
has served as president of STX Finland. He
started his career as a naval architect at
Rauma Shipyard in 1983.
Salo said of his move, “We are witnessing
remarkable growth in software solutions
markets for ship operations. Our intention is
to work actively to grow our share of these
markets. NAPA is committed to developing
and delivering solutions and services that will
improve the performance of our customers.
“Energy efficiency and safety together with
environment-friendly and sustainable solutions
will become ever more important, not least
due to new, stricter regulations and legislation.
NAPA can already provide fully compliant
solutions for its customers,” he concluded. TO
Latest propulsion developments
from Hamburg-based SAM
Electronics comprise the
Platinum series of control
systems covering bridge
manoeuvring, engine governor
and safety assemblies.
These have been approved by main engine
manufacturers, such as MAN Diesel and
Wartsila, as well as major classification
societies. System architecture is based on
individual products either as stand-alone
variants, or as part of integrated assemblies.
All feature extensive alarm facilities,
redundant LAN networks or fieldbuses for
long range applications, simple or complex
set-point facilities including third-party set-
points and a selection of telegraph options,
including electric shaft.
When combined with wider Platinum
monitoring and control assemblies,
networked units provide significant benefits.
These include, for example, extended
operator interfaces via PC screens and
graphical process overviews for sequence
monitoring, start/stop operations and load
regulators. The Platinum series complements
SAM’s established ranges of diesel-electric
propulsion systems, all of which can be
controlled automatically by advanced
navigation and command units or manually
from any control console.
Converter-fed systems feature four-
quadrant operation with reversal of torque
and direction of rotation with feedback of
reverse power to mains alternators as well as
the mains. Continuous speed control from
0 to 100% of rated speed is also possible.
Platinum systems also complement SAM’s
widely adopted series of shaft alternators,
over 400 of which have been installed on
board vessels of all types and sizes.
Designed for supply of mains power via
ship’s engine, the series provide significantly
improved rates of power generation at
lower cost.
With a PWM converter based on latest
IGBT (integrated gate bipolar transistor)
technology, systems feature a reduced
number of components, less cabling, lower
cost and no requirement for a synchronous
compensator. The convertor itself ensures
continuity of mains power under all load
conditions without additional support.
Supported by fully digitised control
facilities, which can also be used for
monitoring, testing and simulation of all
operating functions, systems are additionally
capable of reducing fuel consumption costs,
as well as those affecting maintenance of
installed diesel generator sets.
The estimated return on capital outlay for
an installation can typically be between two
and four years, depending on system power
SAM introduces new control systems
Platinum covers bridge manoeuvring, engine governor and safety systems.
p31- 43: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 11 Page 8

TEL: +82 2 2051 1188
p31- 43: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 11 Page 9

October 2011 40
he company said that it believed in
the philosophy that customers
want global quality, locally
available, at a locally competitive
price. In addition to adding many more
geographical locations (now more than 250) in
the last six months, the scope of this network
has been expanded to include offshore diving
partners and a growing number of specialist
engineering suppliers.
Although a challenging management task to
maintain such an extensive and growing
network, it meets a clear customer demand for
a one stop, affordable solution for afloat
maintenance and repair, UMC said.
One new area for UMC is the afloat
replacement of tunnel thruster units. Working
closely with key OEMs over the last six
months, the company said that it had
established a suite of procedures and
dedicated containerised equipment to support
the afloat replacement of tunnel thruster units.
These are predominantly fitted to shuttle
tankers and are also widely used in the
offshore vessel market.
This trend is set to continue as UMC
penetrates further into this market. Using the
benefits of its global network and almost 40
years of experience as an underwater
engineering service provider has resulted in
UMC being able to offer this service very
competitively, the company claimed.
Project management
During the past year and particularly in the
last six months, UMC has been involved in
more complex and involved engineering and
diving projects, offering customers more
substantial costs and time saving from afloat
repair and maintenance.
These projects have typically involved
FPSOs, as well as jack-up rigs and semi-
submersibles and often undertaken in close co-
operation with UMC sister companies in the V
Ships Technical Services group - SeaTec
Engineering and Seatec Repair Services. UMC
International is now part of the V Ships group.
The company is an autonomous organisation
within V Ship’s Marine Services division.
Managing these much more complex
projects has required investment in developing
project management skills and the hiring of
additional staff. This investment has already
paid dividends and provides the foundation for
UMC to win contracts for further large, turnkey
afloat repair projects, the company said.
Another area of interest for the company is
jetty repairs. For example, earlier this year,
UMC was awarded a contract to reinstate the
structural strength of a large jetty in the
Persian Gulf. Between April and June of this
year, UMC deployed a team of engineers,
divers and welders - based in the Middle East,
UK and US - to undertake a complex pier
plate replacement repair.
This involved a combination of extensive
underwater overhead welding, NDT, coating
application and confined space working. The
work was completed successfully in early
June and fully accepted by the customer.
In northern Europe, there has been a steady
stream of rudder repairs undertaken so far this
year and this trend looks set to continue.
Projects have included Becker rudder repairs
(see page 43), pintle bearing repairs and
replacements, plus substantial rudder plate
repairs and replacements.
An example last year was the repair
undertaken to an LPG carrier’s rudder. As the
LPG vessel was sailing towards the Dutch port
of Terneuzen, she suddenly experienced
problems with its steering capability and
needed some quick thinking and a fast solution.
Thus, UMC was asked to attend the vessel
and carry out rudder repairs as per class
approved procedures. The location of Flushing,
strategically located between the Scheldt River
and the North Sea was the ideal spot during a
cold January to carry out the repair.
Jean-Paul Engels, general manager of
UMC’s European network said, “As soon as
the vessel came alongside its lay-by berth our
divers were ready to carry out a pre-repair
survey and noted that the flap of the Becker
rudder was hanging in a 5 deg angle due to
the upper pintle being broken off. The flap
was first re-located in its original position and
UMC staff than started with making
measurements for the final repair.
“We were able to bring in our experienced
underwater repair staff and coded welders to first
remove the entire flap link pin assembly and
than weld six 1,000 x 150 x 20 mm stiffeners
onto the rudder flap and rudder, both port and
starboard sides, in order to create ‘one solid
UMC continues to
extend global reach
UMC has continued its
programme of global
network development of
diving partners.
Cofferdam used in a tanker repair.
p31- 43: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 11 Page 10
October 2011

TANKEROperator 41
rudder, without flap’ capability,” he explained.
The most challenging conditions were the
strong tides and weather conditions that
caused zero visibility at times. However,
despite the delays encountered due to
underwater conditions, the repair was
completed within the time frame available and
thus, the vessel could regain the charterer’s
schedule as planned after the attending
Lloyd’s Register surveyor had approved the
repairs as carried out.
Although not specifically applicable to
tankers, UMC has also been asked to inspect,
and replace, stabiliser glanding packing,
bearings and fins afloat. These projects are
similar to afloat thruster replacements and
demand a high degree of co-ordination,
planning and engineering to ensure tight
project timelines are reliably met.
Tanker repair
One tanker repair was highlighted last year.
UMC was contacted to assist with permanent
insert repairs to a 95,371 dwt tanker lying at
Portland inner anchorage, UK.
An experienced UMC team was quickly on
site to carry out an immediate underwater
inspection of the damage, in conjunction with
a Testbank afloat repair team and a DNV
The inspection uncovered the need for
extensive repairs with a total of seven shell-
plating inserts to be carried out. A repair
procedure was devised and project managed
by UMC marine engineers with the
underwater placement of steel cofferdams to
allow defective sections of shell plate to be
removed and replaced.
UMC cofferdams, including a 500 kg, 3 m
x 600 mm cofferdam that could efficiently
cover three of the cracks, were specially
designed and fabricated.
Once in situ and confirmed to be a dry
habitat by the UMC dive team, the internal
repair crew cut away the longitudinal stiffeners
and the defective sections of shell plating.
Testbank welders repaired the cracks utilising a
single sided weld procedure with ceramic
backing strips on the outside of the hull. The
new inserts were then welded in position
utilising constant flux core MIG welding.
After allowing a 12-hour cool down period
an NDT inspection of the welds was carried
out utilising MPI and UT and following a
DNV inspection, all inserts were found to be
free from faults.
On completion of successful NDT, divers
removed the cofferdams and carried out a
CCTV inspection of the external weld cap.
They then applied an underwater epoxy paint
over the entire insert plate and weld cap.
UMC engineering director, Dave Richards
said, “These types of afloat insert repair
procedures allows the vessel to sail in good time
and help reduce repairs at their next drydocking.
“We have project managed and completed
many insert repairs from our operational hubs
around the world and designed a variety of
hefty cofferdams, some weighing over 10
tonnes,” he added.
In 2008, UMC and Portland Port entered
into a partnership agreement whereby the
huge natural harbour, a former UK naval base,
could be marketed for vessel maintenance and
afloat repairs.
Another partnership agreement was signed
the following year when UMC and Cathelco
joined together in an alliance. This enabled
UMC’s specialist diving services to be used
for the installation and maintenance of
corrosion protection systems supplied by
Cathelco. To accommodate the new service,
UMC has devised specialised techniques for
handling anodes underwater.
Tanker dockings boost A&P
The product tanker Sinbad left
Tyneside recently after
undergoing a major refurbishment
at the A&P Tyne yard at Hebburn.
The 183 m long Admanthos-managed vessel
was at the Hebburn yard for 14 days during
August while undergoing extensive repairs
and a complete repaint.
A team of 100 men worked around-the-
clock on the 45,000 dwt vessel to successfully
complete a tight work schedule.
A&P Tyne project manager Paul Baker said
the work involved steel repairs, pipe renewals,
grit-blasting the hull, electrical repairs and
installations, main engine repairs and
refurbishing the anchors.
In addition, the A&P group has successfully
carried out work on a number of tankers in
recent months.
The group’s Falmouth facility has a number
of tanker projects throughout September and
October. Three Eships oil and chemical
tankers Agamid, Quest and Barracuda were
all scheduled to drydock.
The three 127 m sisterships will undergo
underwater survey and repairs over an eight-day
The work includes blasting and
painting, steel repairs to various tanks, shell
steel repairs, hand rail repairs, stern tube
seal replacement, windlass overhauls,
exhaust gas boiler surveys, various pipe
renewals, electrical circuit breaker
cleaning/overhaul, fuel oil tank
modifications and polishing of main
propeller and bow thrusters blades.
Falmouth welcomes back a long-term
customer this month, with the arrival of the
Belgravia from Komaya Shipping.
The 125 m LPG carrier will drydock for an
eight day docking period. The vessel will
undergo an underwater survey and class
certification. Major works include installation
of new mooring bits, a tail shaft survey, steel
repairs, piping repairs, main engine overhaul,
hull preparation and painting.
Sinbad seen in A&P’s Hebburn drydock.
p31- 43: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 11: 30 Page 11

October 2011 42
Fast underwater vessel hull repairs saves time and money
On-site hull repair services
undertaking by Belgian-based
Hydrex include the renewal of
both small and large areas of
damaged hull plating.
These repairs can be carried out above or
below water, according to the circumstances,
with tailor-made mobdocks. Normal
commercial activities can therefore continue
without disruption. These operations follow
the company’s procedure for welding cracks
in the vessel's shell plating, which are
approved by the major classification societies.
In most cases the damaged area can be
replaced with a permanent insert and no
condition of class is imposed. On the rare
occasions where the damage does not allow
such a repair, a temporary doubler plate is
installed over the affected area. This allows
the owners to keep their vessels on schedule
and have permanent repairs carried out during
the next drydocking period.
These types of repair work can only be
undertaken successfully by trained
divers/technicians who are familiar with
underwater repairs and who have the relevant
knowhow to resolve the technical difficulties
encountered during underwater operations. To
gain the knowledge needed, Hydrex technical
staff from every location undergo stringent
training after which they are able to perform a
wide range of operations.
To offer the quickest possible service to
customers, Hydrex offices have fast response
centres where an extensive range of state-of-
the-art tools and diving support equipment is
available at all times for the repair teams.
These fast response centres enable Hydrex to
mobilise diver/technician teams immediately,
the company claimed.
The following case studies give an account
of some of the more important hull repairs
performed by Hydrex recently on tankers.
When a survey, undertaken in Hong Kong,
revealed damage to the flat bottom shell
plating of a 182 m long tanker, Hydrex was
contacted to perform insert repairs with the
use of a cofferdam.
The inspection was performed by a member
of the Hydrex worldwide network of local
support bases who informed the shipowner
that the damage could be permanently
repaired and that the company had the
experience and equipment to perform such
an operation.
Mobdock installed
The repair started with the underwater
installation of a Hydrex mobdock on the hull.
Next, part of the bulkhead and the piping that
was located over the affected area was
removed. Once this was accomplished, a
plate measuring 550 x 550 mm was cut out
of the bottom plating and the edges of the
opening were ground smooth. A new insert
plate was then fitted into the hole and full
penetration welding was executed, after
which the bulkhead and piping were
Thanks to the excellent communication
between the Hydrex technical department
and the local support base in Hong Kong,
several phases of the preparation for the
repair were handled simultaneously and the
repair work itself was performed in less than
two days.
Another example of a tanker afloat repair
came when Hydrex was asked to perform an
insert repair combined with a presale
inspection and propeller polishing on a 230 m
long tanker while the vessel was at anchor in
Cap Lopes Bay, Port Gentil. A
diver/technician team was mobilised from the
local Hydrex office.
The operation was performed using two
work barges, one on which housed all the
equipment needed for the insert repair while
the other had a monitoring station installed,
which was used for the underwater hull
inspection. This enabled the team to split up
and perform the two parts of the operation
The repair operation started with the
installation of scaffolding on both sides of
the hull to give the team access to the
affected area on the vessel’s side shell
plating. Next, both an on board and an out
board inspection of the damage was
performed. This revealed that an area of
2,255 mm x 1,760 mm needed to be cut away
and replaced with a new insert plate.
While the new insert was fabricated to the
exact measurements, the affected shell plating
was cut away together with several frames that
were also damaged. New frames were then
installed and the edges of the hole were
prepared for the installation of the insert, which
was subsequently positioned and secured with a
deep penetration weld according to the class
approved Hydrex procedures.
When the insert plate was fully welded,
ultrasonic testing was carried out with positive
results. The full penetration weld was also
inspected from the outside, found to be in
good condition and authorised by class. This
allowed the new owner to sail the vessel with
a permanently repaired hull.
Crack repair
In another incident, a Hydrex diver-technician
team performed a crack repair on the pintle
area of the rudder of a 181 m long tanker,
which was lying alongside in Ghent, Belgium.
In addition, following a detailed inspection
of the vessel’s stern tube seal assembly, the
team replaced the worn seals and installed a
spacer ring, thus creating a new running area
for the seals.
Prior to the operation the vessel was
all sizes and diameters directly available from our large stock in Rotterdam
p31- 43: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 12 Page 12
October 2011

TANKEROperator 43
More and more shipowners are
turning to rudder upgrades and
conversions on operational
vessels to improve
manoeuvrability and fuel
consumption figures.
This has benefited companies, such as Becker
Marine Systems, whose after sales team has
been refurbishing the company’s patented
rudder systems for many years.
In the case of a general overhaul, Becker’s
specialists turn old rudders into what they
claim to be “good-as-new” rudders by
exchanging all warn and damaged parts and
completely refurbishing the rudder.
The after sales team said that it has also
seen increased demand for conversions of
non-Becker rudders.
In the tanker sector, Becker replaced a
semi-balanced rudder with a Becker Flap
Rudder (FKSR) on the 51,000 dwt products
tanker Minerva Julie.
Another example was a conversion carried
out on Gearbulk’s multi-purpose cargo ship
Jaeger Arrow. The vessel was built in 2001
with a semi-spade Schilling® Mariner Rudder.
Within three weeks in June, the Becker
team had cut out the tarnished semi-spade
rudder and replaced it with a new full-spade
Schilling® Monovec Rudder.
As is mostly the case when performing a
rudder conversion, the engineers were able to
fit the new rudder to the existing steering gear.
Jaeger Arrows’ crew took the opportunity of
a manoeuvring training course offered by
Becker Marine Systems to experience the new
and improved stability of their vessel.
Other conversions have been undertaken
on cruise vessels and ropaxes.
Increased demand for rudder conversions
trimmed by the head as much as possible. The
Hydrex team then put up scaffolding around
the rudder pintle and the stern tube seal
assembly. Next they removed the rope guard
and the damaged areas of the outer plating of
the rudder. This allowed them to perform an
inspection of the stern tube seal assembly and
start the repair in the rudder.
While the team prepared a first insert plate
on shore, the inspection of the seal assembly
revealed that the seals were worn and
needed replacement. They then installed the
first insert and secured it while the second
plate was prepared.
Simultaneously, other members of the team
opened the stern tube seal assembly and it
became clear that they also needed to renew
the running area of the seals. The team did
this by installing a new spacer ring on the
stern tube flange, after which they replaced
and bonded the three seals.
By this time the second insert on the rudder
had also been fitted and welded according to
the approved procedures. Independent
ultrasonic testing confirmed that the insert
repair was successful.
The only thing the team needed to do to
conclude the rudder repair was grinding away
a small crack located on the other side of the
rudder. By then the rest of the team had closed
the stern tube seal assembly and an oil test
had been performed, verifying the seal repair
had been carried out with satisfactory results.
Hydrex performed all operations under
DNV requirements, which were verified by an
attending surveyor. The diver/technician team
rotated in shifts to finish both repairs in the
shortest possible time and so avoid any
unnecessary delays for the vessel.
ƒ Custom built and series product
ƒ Technically reliable
ƒ Well proven designs
ƒ Continuous technical development
ƒ Dependable partner
ƒ Customer oriented approach

P.O. Box 7 phone +31 (0)511 46 72 22 info@damen-bergum.nl
9250 AA Bergu fax +31 (0)511 46 42 59 www.damen-bergum.nl m
The Netherlands

Becker is benefiting from an increase in rudder conversions.
p31- 43: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 12 Page 13

October 2011 44
peaking at the world’s first Marine
Accident Prevention &
Investigation conference in
London, the union’s senior
national secretary Allan Graveson said
accident investigation in the shipping industry
is very much in its infancy and the resources
deployed are limited at best and often non-
existent – despite a well-established
framework of international regulation.
As a consequence, there are many shipping
accidents where no independent investigation
ever takes place, reports are never published,
trends never identified, and lessons never
learned. “What an atrocious state of affairs,
and no wonder this is an industry that labours
under an image problem,” he said.
In a hard hitting speech, Graveson said that
some countries are running registries in what
is little more than an offshore bank.
“Some flag states will argue that they do
not have the resources for adequate
“In such cases should states be allowed to
register ships? I think not. If you are a flag
state you have to discharge the responsibilities
that come with the often very attractive
income that registration generates. Those that
fail to discharge these responsibilities must be
named and shamed and ultimately stripped of
their status as a flag states,” he said.
Even the best flag states sometime fall short
in delivering accident investigation reports
that redress long-standing and fundamental
safety failings, Graveson argued. Examples of
this include the continuing deaths and injuries
involving lifeboat drills and enclosed spaces,
as well as the large number of fatigue-related
“There is a need for investigations to go
beyond the immediate causes of an incident
and wide-ranging recommendations that not
only prevent the same incident but similar
incidents where associated factors have a
potential adverse influence.
“Above all, there should be decisive
regulatory action. The latter is difficult to
achieve in an international environment where
some flag states are dependent upon revenues
from shipping and are reluctant to be seen as
pressing for what are frequently referred to as
‘burdens’ on the industry for fear of scaring
away shipowners from their registry,” he said.
Graveson said Nautilus is concerned at a
growing number of cases in which there has
been no post mortem to establish the cause of
death of seafarers at sea.
He concluded: “In many countries accident
investigation, criminal and regulatory
investigations are not independent. This has
serious potential adverse effects for the
seafarer, but more so for the accident
investigator who is less likely to get to the truth.
“As a consequence we all suffer – seafarers
without doubt, passengers and cargo owners in
not preventing reoccurrence and the national
economy and the environment through
possible pollution. Despite the sterling efforts
of the rapidly developing accident
investigation industry, prompted by new
regulatory measures, there is still a
considerable way to go in an industry that has
and continues to accept, a rate of losses and
fatalities that other sectors of industry would
find intolerable,” he concluded.
ETV decision attacked
Nautilus has also attacked the UK
Government’s decision to disband the
emergency towing vessels (ETVs)
strategically positioned around the UIK
UK Ministers recently signalled their
intention to go ahead with proposals to end
the contract for ETVs at key points around the
UK coast and to scrap the Marine Incident
Response Group (MIRG), which provides
specialist fire-fighting, chemical and rescue
emergency support for ships around the UK.
Nautilus general secretary Mark Dickinson
described the decision – confirmed in a House
of Commons transport committee report – as
shocking. “We are utterly appalled by the way
in which ministers have so casually and
recklessly dismissed the evidence and the
concerns of the transport committee, seafarers,
fire-fighters and independent experts,” he said.
ETVs were introduced in 1994 following
the official report into the Sea Empress and
Braer oil spills in Wales and Scotland
respectively and they have since become a
model for other countries.
On average, they are called out around 180
times per year and the number of recent
Union hits out over
accident investigation
Flag states that fail to properly investigate maritime accidents should not be allowed
to operate ship registries, Anglo-Dutch maritime professionals’ union
autilus International told a conference recently.
Despite efforts ...there is still a considerable
way to go in an industry that continues to accept
a rate of losses and fatalities that other sectors
of industry would find intolerable
Allan Graveson, senior national secretary, Nautilus International

p44- 56: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 18 Page 1
Survitec acquired the marine division of
Cosalt plc for £31 mill.
Cosalt’s marine business supplies a range
of marine safety equipment, including
liferafts, lifejackets and immersion suits and
also provides a number of associated services
to customers serving the marine industry
from a network of locations in the UK and
mainland Europe.
It has a turnover in excess of £57 mill. The
business operates across 21 locations
in the UK and continental Europe, including
19 service and distribution centres, adding
to Survitec’s existing portfolio of 17
owned and over 400 sub-contracted service
Cosalt Marine is a key distributor and
service agent for Survitec’s branded liferafts
worldwide. The newly acquired business will
be rebranded Survitec Service and
Last year, Survitec also acquired two other
marine business; Seaweather Marine in the
UK, and also the commercial marine business
of US-based Revere.
October 2011

TANKEROperator 45
incidents and near-misses in the Channel
alone demonstrates the value of these vessels,
Nautilus argued.
“Nothing has changed since the disasters
that resulted in the establishment of the ETV
and MIRG services and the government is
turning the clock back in a deeply damaging
way,” Dickinson said. “Current provisions
exist because the market has failed to provide
in the past and the ministers are deluded
if they seriously believe it can provide in
the future.
“The costs of any future oil spill disaster
could far outstrip the entire £80 mill the
government intends to save through these
proposals. Indeed, the Sea Empress disaster
alone cost more than £140 mill to clean up
and the economic and environmental costs of
a similar disaster today could run to £1 bill
or more.
“But it’s not just money we’re talking
about: it is the safety of life at sea –
passengers and crew – and the wellbeing of
the marine environment,” he said.
Nautilus said that it was “deeply disturbed”
at the potential loss of the MIRG, which was
launched in 2006 following long-running
concerns over the decline in the number of
fire brigades capable of delivering emergency
support at sea.
“With ships getting bigger, carrying more
passengers, or hazardous cargoes, and
alongside significantly reduced crewing
levels, the support offered by the service
remains of critical importance,” Dickinson
added. “Scrapping MIRG will save the
Department for Transport just £340,000 a year
– so what price safety at sea?
“Scrapping these vital safety services is
like cancelling your home insurance because
you haven’t been burgled in the past year and
it is essential that we retain the ability to cope
with maritime emergencies not if, but when
they do occur.
“These cuts seriously threaten the safety of
all those who use the sea, and as an island
nation, this could seriously impact on every
single one of us,” he warned. TO
Survitec on the acquisition trail
In September, the Survitec Group,
completed its acquisition of the
Zodiac® commercial SOLAS
liferaft business from Zodiac
Marine & Pool.
This comprises Zodiac SOLAS in
Chevanceaux, France and its Vancouver based
sister company, DBC Marine Safety Systems
in Canada.
The Zodiac® brand was established in 1909
and has become one of the leading
manufactures of liferafts for vessels. This
acquisition of Zodiac’s SOLAS business
enhances Survitec’s existing marine safety
product range, the company said.
In particular, the addition of Zodiac liferafts
& marine evacuation systems to Survitec’s
existing portfolio creates a broader group of
complementary products, as well as extending
its market into France, Spain, South America,
the Middle East and Asia.
Survitec Group CEO Doug Baxter said of
the transaction; “Bringing the Zodiac®
commercial liferaft business into the Survitec
group is an extremely complementary
acquisition that reinforces our position in the
marine safety sector. Both companies have a
history of technical innovation in the
manufacture and supply of high quality
products. Together we can build on this to
ensure our continued growth in the marine
The businesses will be integrated into the
Survitec Group under the brand Survitec-
Zodiac®, joining the other established brands
of RFD, DSB, EV Beaufort, Crewsaver and
Survitec was acquired by global private
equity firm Warburg Pincus in 2010. With the
backing of its new shareholders, Survitec is
pursuing its global expansion strategy and
strengthening its position in the marine and
other safety markets by growing organically
and through acquisitions both within existing
and new territories.
In addition, Survitec recently completed
the acquisition of the marine division of
Cosalt, incorporating Crewsaver, a
manufacturer of commercial and leisure
marine products.
Man overboard safety and rescue is our concern and speciality
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Tel: +354 5651375
Fax: +354 5651376
Main partners:

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p44- 56: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 18 Page 2

October 2011 46
his brings the company’s Asian
operations up to the same
standards for workplace
environment that are common
practice in Viking, the company said.
Viking Thailand has worked in compliance
with the ISO standards since the production
facilities in Thailand were established in 2002.
The aim of the internationally recognised
OHSAS 18001 certification is to help
organisations to control occupational health
and safety risks. It was developed in response
to widespread demand for a recognised
standard against which to be certified and
Viking said that achieving and maintaining
OHSAS 18001 certification is no easy task. It
demands continuous improvement, policies
and targets for work environment and safety,
carefully mapped work stations and
procedures to improve work environment and
safety, the extended use of safety equipment,
etc. The certification also requires the
commitment of top management.
Contrary to popular belief, Thailand’s
workplace safety legislation is among the
world’s most stringent. In fact, Thai
legislation is even stricter than that of
Scandinavian countries in a number of
aspects. Government support is also provided
in the form of paid consultant assistance.
For Viking executive vice president Allan
Østergaard, the OHSAS 18001 certification
for the company’s Thai facility is a natural
part of the company’s way of doing business.
“All Viking production facilities around
the world must live up to the same,
consistent safety standards. As a global
organisation, our people need to feel secure
and confident about their own workplaces
and those they visit in other regions as part
of their work,” he said.
Beyond benefits for worker health and job
satisfaction, Østergaard also pointed out the
business advantages of such global policies,
where broad standardisation of equipment and
procedures can reduce training, speed up
workflows and ensure consistent quality of
“Viking is a modern employer, founded
upon human values, so disregarding
workplace safety or quality standards when
outsourcing to the Far East would be
unthinkable for us,” he explained.
US rules change
In the US, according to new US Coast Guard
regulations, vessels carrying life floats, or
rigid buoyant apparatus must remove them
from the vessel and replace them with other
approved survival craft by no later than 1st
January, 2015.
Viking has urged those who will be affected
to plan ahead by securing new inflatable life-
saving appliances.
The company said that it is already prepared
to provide a range of life-saving appliances.
Special pricing is available and potential
customers can schedule now for a fixed price
on advance orders.
Viking also offers service agreements for
ease of maintenance. The company can keep
track of a customer's, or installation's
servicing requirements and renewal dates,
automatically arranging for certified servicing
when needed.
Viking Thailand gains
safety certification
Thailand’s workplace safety legislation is among the world’s most stringent.
Danish-based marine and fire safety equipment supplier Viking’s
Laem Chabang, Thailand production facilities were recently OHSAS
(Occupation Health and Safety Assessment Series) 18001-certified.
p44- 56: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 18 Page 3
October 2011

TANKEROperator 47
Tel: +47 56 32 68 50
Fax: +47 56 32 68 60
Email: sales@sotra.net
Web: www.sotra.net Vindenes, 5363 Aagotnes, Norway
Sotra Anchor & Chain is known as one of the largest
stockist of anchors and chains in the World!
We have at all time 10 000 ton of both brand new and
secondhand anchors and chains in our yards.
Our locations:
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By the middle of this year,
Wilhelmsen Ships Service (WSS)
had opened eight new liferaft
servicing stations since January.
These stations are a vital component of the
liferaft rental and exchange concept (LRE),
providing ready-serviced liferafts to vessels
that have signed up to the scheme, the
company said.
WSS claimed that the LRE concept had
been a great success since its launch with over
12,000 liferafts now operating. However, it
has not been without its challenges.
To enable the scheme to work effectively,
WSS has strategically placed 42 service
stations covering 900 ports worldwide,
equipped with service and liferaft exchange
stocks to meet customer demands.
The company stressed that it was essential
that all the participating service stations have
the right approvals from the manufacturers
and local authorities in place, as well as
enough liferafts of the right sizes. The liferaft
stocks are managed by due-date monitoring
systems in order to meet the individual needs
of customers.
Over the last six months, WSS has added
the ports of Antwerp (Belgium), Gothenburg
(Sweden), Istanbul (Turkey), Kaohsiung
(Taiwan), Valparaiso (Chile), Bintulu
(Malaysia), Darwin (Australia), Singapore and
New York to the network.
In most cases, the liferaft stations involved
in the programme can service vessels in a
number of nearby ports, as well as providing
other FRS (Fire Rescue and Safety) services.
The LRE solution was developed as a result
of consultation with WSS customers and
facilitates the exchange of service-due liferafts
for operational ones, enabling the vessel
owner to take better control of costs and thus
reducing the occurrence of unreliable service
dates and weak links in the supply chain.
LRE was launched worldwide two years
ago and recently WSS said that the concept
is thriving in the Eastern Mediterranean
(including Greece, Cyprus and Lebanon) as
an example.
New markets
When the concept was introduced, WSS’s
sales, customer service and supply teams
found the Eastern Mediterranean market
to be extremely positive and in the last
two years, 122 local shipping companies
have placed rented liferafts on more than
1,000 vessels.
Nicos Shiakallis, WSS area director Eastern
Mediterranean said, “The growth in liferaft
rental is an example of the snowball effect.
After the initial companies changed to liferaft
rental, their enthusiasm for the concept spread
to other companies in the region.“
“In addition, once these vessel operators
saw how effectively the global network
managed the exchanges, they started looking
at other ways in which we could work
together. Many of these customers have now
signed fleet agreements to enable WSS to
provide other products and safety services to
their vessels worldwide,” he said.
Basically, the LRE scheme enables vessels
to rent newly-serviced Unitor liferafts on an
annual basis, thus avoiding the difficulties
associated with arranging and carrying out
servicing on owned liferafts.
Servicing liferafts can cause problems for
ship operators, as a vessel’s short stay in port
allows little time for the annual liferaft
service. They no longer have time to send life-
saving appliances back to suppliers’ service
centres and wait for them to be inspected and
repaired before setting sail.
The operational budget is tight and cost
control is vital. Liferafts may be condemned,
and there is a risk of having to pay whatever
price is asked, WSS said.
Polish station
In September, WSS opened a new FRS
service station in Gdansk, Poland, to serve
vessels in the Baltic Sea.
It is located in Gdansk and has the capacity
to serve all vessels in the port of Gdansk and
Gdynia, as well as in the local repair yards.
Roger Gundermann, WSS technical
manager for Europe, said, “A large new
workshop has been purpose-built and includes
impressive modern equipment. The workshop
and equipment is suitable for the wider range
of WSS’ safety services, and three new
employed technicians have been hired to
provide services within their dedicated fields
of expertise.”
In addition to having approvals from DNV,
LR and RMRS for the global WSS service
network, this station has also been approved
by the Polish Maritime Authority.
This new FRS service station in Gdansk,
together with the company’s liferaft service
station in Szczecin, enables WSS to offer a
full range of safety services and liferaft
exchange to vessels in the Baltic region, the
company claimed.
Liferaft exchange programme expands worldwide
Fixed annual price.
Due-date monitoring through
customer services.
Approved liferafts.
Annual inspection.
Official certificate of
Quick turnarounds.
LRE advantages
p44- 56: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 18 Page 4
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p44- 56: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 18 Page 5
October 2011

TANKEROperator 49
In an article published last year, I discussed the impact of the design of
modern tankers on their ability to change from dirty to clean cargoes
(See TAKEROperator, August/September, 2010, page 61).*
From dirty to clean -
How far do we
need to go?
noted that the primary objective for
most operators is always to carry out
these operations in the shortest possible
time frame, using the smallest volume
of cleaning chemicals or materials.
Indeed, the need to carry out any tank
cleaning operation in the most time efficient
manner, utilising the minimum volume of
cleaning chemicals, also fits the developing
‘environmentally aware’ footprint that many
shipowning/chartering companies are
following, by saving fuel and reducing the
volume of disposal of detergent based
cleaning materials into the seas.
Another challenge facing operators in this
trade pattern seems to be the reluctance of the
clean cargo charterers to accept a vessel with
dirty as last cargo, irrespective of the design of
the vessel, or the extent of the tank cleaning.
The reason for this is quite obvious;
residues of the dirty cargo that may be
retained on the vessel after the tank cleaning
operation is completed, have the potential to
discolour the clean cargo and as there is no
apparent method of accurately estimating the
extent of this discolouration, the natural reflex
is to prevent rather than invite a potentially
very costly claim.
Having said that, many vessels do switch
from dirty to clean, so there are clearly cases
where vessels successfully load a clean cargo
when the previous cargo was dirty. In some
of these cases the charter party agreement
may incorporate a ‘colour-drop’ clause,
which allows for some discolouration of the
fully loaded clean cargo, within acceptable
limits. But, accurately defining these limits is
not a precise science and there will always be
some risk for the charterers and of course the
owners of the vessel, who ultimately take
responsibility for the final (export) quality
of the loaded cargo.
As I concluded in my last discussion, if the
owners of a vessel cleaning from dirty to
clean are willing to take that responsibility for
ensuring the clean cargo will meet the
charterers quality specifications based on their
own experiences, research and knowledge of
the capabilities of their fleet, surely this will
ultimately lead to greater flexibility both for
the owners and charterers of such vessels?
Marinvest Shipping
Marinvest Shipping of Gothenburg recognises
and accepts responsibility when company
vessels change from dirty to clean. Indeed, all
of the modern fleet of tankers trading in this
p44- 56: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 19 Page 6

October 2011 50
Test Sample ASTM Colour Absorbance
0.5 CPP 0.5 0.175
0.5 CPP / 0.01% (w/v) black oil closest to 0.5 0.210
0.5 CPP / 0.02% (w/v) black oil Equally between 0.5 - 1.0 0.240
0.5 CPP / 0.05% (w/v) black oil closest to 1.0 0.345
0.5 CPP / 0.1% (w/v) black oil closest to 1.5 0.520
0.5 CPP / 0.2% (w/v) black oil closest to 2.5 0.860
0.5 CPP / 1% (w/v) black oil > 2.5 Off scale
Starting with clean oil having a given colour of 0.5 ASTM (termed 0.5 CPP):
Test Sample ASTM Colour Absorbance
1.0 CPP 1.0 0.450
1.0 CPP / 0.01% (w/v) black oil closest to 1.0 0.495
1.0 CPP / 0.02% (w/v) black oil Equally between 1.0 - 1.5 0.525
1.0 CPP / 0.05% (w/v) black oil closest to 1.5 0.630
1.0 CPP / 0.1% (w/v) black oil closest to 2.0 0.810
Starting with clean oil having a given colour of 1.0 ASTM (termed 1.0 CPP):
area were specifically designed with the DNV
classified Easy Tank Cleaning (ETC) notation
in mind, because it was understood that the
corrugated bulkhead design of the cargo tanks,
in particular, would minimise the clingage of
previous cargo residues.
With reduced clingage and optimised tank
cleaning capability, the challenge of switching
from dirty to clean would not only become
more manageable, it would also become a far
more realistic proposition for charterers of
such tonnage.
Marinvest also realised that having the most
appropriate choice of vessel was only part of
the challenge. A greater understanding of the
mechanism of what happens when a black oil
cargo is discharged would allow a more
accurate calculation of the expected
discolouration of any clean cargo, which in
turn would encourage the development of new
and innovative approaches to tank cleaning
from dirty to clean cargoes in the future.
The most critical points were considered
to be:
1) The amount/extent of residual black oil
remaining on board after discharging and
tank cleaning.
2) How quickly and to what extent white oils
become discoloured with black oils.
3) Is the discolouration process linear or
logarithmic? (It has to be expected that
there will always be a finite amount of
black oil remaining on board a vessel after
tank cleaning, but of course this black oil
will become extremely well diluted in the
clean oil during loading. If this dilution
process is linear, it becomes far more
straightforward to calculate the expected
discolouration of the clean oil when all
cargo tanks are fully loaded).
4) Quantification of the extent of the
discolouration. (The main issue that needs
to be overcome surrounds the quantification
of the colour of the ‘pure’ black oil and
the fact that it does not actually have a
defined value. If black oil had an arbitrary
colour value of say 1,000, and it was
known that this colour diluted linearly, it
would be easy to calculate the maximum
volume of black oil that could be absorbed
into the clean oil and still maintain the
export specifications of the clean oil. But
of course, black oil does not have a colour
value and that is what makes this problem
so challenging).
One of the less obvious benefits of the DNV
ETC notation is that the cargo tanks have a
relatively low surface area to volume ratio
(typically 0.4 – 0.6). Essentially this means
that any residual black oil remaining on the
surface of the cargo tanks after tank cleaning
will be diluted to a much greater extent when
that tank is fully loaded with clean oil.
Furthermore, a lower surface area
physically reduces the volume of residual
black oil in the cargo tank after cleaning. So
overall, there is less residual black oil and
greater dilution, both of which are clearly
advantageous for the process of switching
from dirty to clean.
Marinvest also employed the services of
L&I Maritime (UK) Ltd, to set up a laboratory
based project to investigate the discolouration
potential of clean oil with black oil, in
accordance with points 2), 3) and 4) above.
In summary, this project looked at the
discolouration of two samples of clean oil
with different colours, with varying amounts
of black oil. The discolouration of the clean
oil was measured on the ASTM colour scale
using a portable colour comparator (in
accordance with ASTM D 1500).
The discoloured clean oil samples were also
analysed using a visible spectrophotometer
measuring absorbance at a fixed light
wavelength over a path length of 25 mm, but
it was understood, that the clarity of these
samples (or lack of it), would directly impact
the absorbance readings and these results
would most likely not be definitive.
The following results were noted:
The results proved to be very interesting
and showed a clear indication that the
discolouration of the clean oil with the black
oil appeared to be more linear than
logarithmic, for both the visual comparison
and the light absorbance readings.
It is very difficult to define the trend further
than this, because it is known (and therefore
has to be accepted) that the ASTM colour
standard does not represent precise colours;
rather, each ASTM colour represents a small
range, such that it is quite possible for two
samples with visibly different colours, to both
have the same ASTM colour reading.
But knowing the discolouration is linear is
extremely important because it provides more
confidence when dilutions of discoloured
clean oil are being calculated.
Furthermore, the results of the laboratory
work also indicated that each addition of
0.05% by volume of black oil to the clean oil
resulted in an increase in colour (colour drop)
of approximately 0.5 ASTM colour units. This
information on its own is extremely useful to
calculate the theoretical colour drop for any
clean cargo, loaded directly after a dirty cargo.
Marinvest believed that a better
understanding of how clean cargoes become
discoloured provides far greater knowledge to
monitor the discolouration during the loading
process. Typically when a vessel loads a clean
oil cargo directly after a black oil cargo, first
foot loaded samples will be drawn and
analysed. These samples are very often
discoloured, but the extent of this
discolouration should be far easier to relate
to the export specifications of the clean oil
p44- 56: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 19 Page 7
October 2011

TANKEROperator 51
and this will provide greater confidence to
decide whether it is possible to continue
loading or not. In the future, there is no reason
why vessels will not be able to carry out on
board testing of cargo samples (using the
same portable comparative colour measuring
device used in this investigation) in order to
monitor the discolouration of the clean cargo
during loading.
The model
So if it is theoretically possible to calculate
the extent of the discolouration of a clean oil
cargo with black oil residues, it should be
possible to modify this approach by
quantifying the volume of black oil residues
that are retained on board a vessel after
cleaning and predicting the extent of the
discolouration of the clean oil cargo, before
any cargo is loaded onto the vessel.
This model could allow a vessel to stop
cleaning earlier than would normally be
anticipated and could also impact the choice
and volume of cleaning chemicals used.
Indeed, this is one of the approaches that
Marinvest investigated, using one of the
75,000 dwt tankers with DNV ETC notation
as a target vessel.
Typically, when cleaning from black oil to a
clean oil cargo, the following cleaning
operation would be expected:
A) All cargo tanks and lines well drained and
stripped back to an ROT (or similar),
adjusting ballast to ensure optimum trim
and list where appropriate.
B) Six hours seawater washing with two
fixed and two portable tank cleaning
machines per tank. Start the washing at 50
deg C and continue heating up to 70 deg C.
C) Clean through all cargo lines and
D) Eight hours hot seawater washing with
two fixed and two portable tank cleaning
machines per tank. After approximately
one hour, start injecting an IMO approved
solvent based emulsifying cleaning
chemical over a period of an hour, but
typically 1 x 200 litre drum per tank.
E) Drain all lines and drops back to the tank
and clean for another two hours with hot
F) Gas free and visual inspection. If the tank
is not clean, steps D) and E) can be
repeated, alternatively manual spot
cleaning with an IMO approved emulsifier
or degreaser may be sufficient.
G) Freshwater rinsing to remove the seawater
If the cleaning is successful and no steps have
to be repeated, this process would normally
take seven days and consume approximately
3,000 litres of cleaning chemicals, assuming
the vessel has 12 cargo tanks and two cargo
tanks can be cleaned simultaneously.
The cost of this cleaning can be estimated
as follows:
Time: Seven days at $15,000 per day =
Cleaning Chemicals: 3,000 litres at $3.50 per
litre = $10,500.
Bunkers: Each pair of cargo tanks is cleaned
for approximately 16 hours with hot seawater,
during which time the boiler is being run to
produce the steam to heat the water. Auxiliary
engines (A/E) provide the power for the tank
cleaning machines.
The boiler and A/E both run on HFO and
the consumption is based on 16 x 6 hours = 96
hours to clean the entire vessel.
The A/E consume approximately 1.5 tonnes
HFO per day = 6 tonnes.
The boiler consumes approximately 10
tonnes per day (depending on seawater
temperature) = 40 tonnes.
46 tonnes of HFO at $680 per tonne =
With these figures in mind, it quickly
becomes apparent why more efficient tank
cleaning procedures are continuously being
sought and why unnecessary tank
cleaning/over-cleaning is so damaging to
tanker owners and operators.
If it is now considered that the vast
majority of the ROB black oil is removed by
the temperature and pressure of the washing
water during the first hot washing cycles
(and this can be visually monitored) it could
be assumed that the use of cleaning
chemicals is not actually necessary and is
primarily undertaken to make the cargo tanks
looks visually cleaner, without actually
removing significant additional black oil
Marinvest believed that the largest and most
significant risk to the clean oil cargo is from
liquid black oil ROB, not surface
discolouration. Therefore, if all liquid black
oil ROB can be removed from the cargo tanks
during the first round of hot seawater
washing, it is really only the cargo lines that
pose the greatest risk of contaminating the
fully loaded clean oil cargo.
It is known that after the first hot washing
cycles, the cargo tanks will become free of
liquid ROB (as the picture above indicates) so
the contamination potential from the cargo
tanks will be restricted to the surface
discolouration only, and it is possible to
quantify this contamination based on the
surface area of the cargo tanks.
As already noted, one of the characteristics
of a vessel holding the DNV ETC notation is
a relatively low surface area to volume ratio
(typically 0.5). If it is then assumed that less
than 25% of the internal surfaces of the cargo
tank are discoloured by a layer of 1 mm of
black oil (and from experience this is probably
well in excess of what is actually observed,
because it is really only the horizontal plates
and lower sloping hopper sides that are most
After the first hot washing cycles, the cargo tanks will become free of liquid ROB.
p44- 56: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 19 Page 8
at risk from clingage), it is fair to assume that
this layer reflects the clingage of the black oil
after the hot washing is complete. This
clingage can be converted into a volume of
black oil that will be completely diluted into
the fully loaded cargo of clean oil.
Experience also suggests that there will be a
maximum of 0.5 cu m of liquid oil remaining
in each line after hot washing, with the
crossovers free from any liquid oil.
If the volume of black oil associated with
the clingage (after hot washing only) and the
maximum expected volume of black oil in the
lines are added together and this volume of
black oil is assumed to be in the tank at the
start of loading the clean oil cargo, the
expected discolouration of the clean oil can
be calculated.
Table 1 om the right refers to a typical
75,000 dwt tanker with DNV ETC notation
and shows the 98% loaded capacities, surface
areas (assuming a surface area to volume
dilution of 0.5) and theoretical volume of
black oil retained on the surface of each tank
that is representative of the 1mm layer of oil
that is assumed to be remaining on 25% of the
surface after hot washing:
Now if the volume of black oil representing
clingage is added to the (maximum) volume
of oil that can be expected to be trapped in the
cargo lines and this total volume of black oil
is assumed to be fully absorbed into the clean
oil cargo, the following discolouration
calculations can be made on the first foot and
fully loaded volumes (see Table 2).
In all cargo tanks, if the assumptions are
correct, there will be approximately 0.02% of
black oil fully diluted into the clean oil cargo
after loading to 98% capacity.
In other words and in accordance with the
generated laboratory data, the expected
colour drop of the clean oil cargo will be
approximately 0.2 ASTM colour units, if the
cargo tanks are cleaned just by using hot
water. This colour drop is theoretical,
because the ASTM colour scale is measured
in intervals of 0.5 colour units, so what does
become apparent is that cleaning with hot
water alone may actually result in no
reported colour drop, because of the size
of the ASTM colour scale.
The cost of the cleaning process is also
significantly reduced:
Time: Four days at $15,000 per day
= $60,000.
Cleaning chemicals: 0 litre at $3.50 per litre
= Zero.
Bunkers:Each pair of cargo tanks is cleaned
for approximately 16 hours with hot seawater,
during which time the boiler is being run to
produce the steam to heat the water. Auxiliary
engines (A/E) provide the power for the tank
cleaning machines.
The boiler and A/E both run on HFO and
the consumption is based on 8 x 6 hours = 48
hours to clean the entire vessel.
The A/E consume approximately 1.5 tonnes
HFO per day = 3 tonnes.
The boiler consumes approximately 10
tonnes per day (depending on seawater
temperature) = 20 tonnes.
23 tonnes of HFO at $680 per tonne =
Moving forward
It is accepted that a large part of this
discussion is theoretical and the actual
results achieved on board a vessel may be
different. But the theory is based on a
scientific approach and the assumptions of
how much liquid black oil ROB will be
retained on board are purposely worst
case scenarios.
With this in mind, it is the opinion of
Marinvest and L&I Maritime that it will
be possible to develop and carry out
tank cleaning operations in the future
that consume less fuel, less cleaning
chemicals and less time and still meet the
demanding quality specifications of the
shipped cargoes.
The key to the success of such a project is
an understanding that most vessels switching
from dirty to clean massively over-clean in
order to ensure the quality of the clean cargo
meets the required specifications; yet

October 2011 52
Cargo 98% loaded Approx surface Volume of black oil in
tank capacity (cu m) Area (sq m) residual layer (cu m)
1p 5479.7 2739.9 0.7
1s 5482.7 2741.4 0.7
2p 7078.9 3539.5 0.9
2s 7082.0 3541.0 0.9
3p 7095.0 3547.5 0.9
3s 7098.0 3549.0 0.9
4p 7095.0 3547.5 0.9
4s 7098.0 3549.0 0.9
5p 7095.0 3547.5 0.9
5s 7098.0 3549.0 0.9
6p 7001.1 3500.6 0.9
6s 7004.2 3502.1 0.9
Table 1
Cargo Total First foot % black oil 98% loaded % black oil
tank volume of loaded volume in first foot volume in the fully
black oil volume (cu m) volume (cu m) loaded
1P 1.2 50 2.4 5479.7 0.02
1S 1.2 50 2.4 5482.7 0.02
2P 1.4 80 1.8 7078.9 0.02
2S 1.4 80 1.8 7082.0 0.02
3P 1.4 85 1.6 7095.0 0.02
3S 1.4 85 1.6 7098.0 0.02
4P 1.4 85 1.6 7095.0 0.02
4S 1.4 85 1.6 7098.0 0.02
5P 1.4 85 1.6 7095.0 0.02
5S 1.4 85 1.6 7098.0 0.02
6P 1.4 75 1.9 7001.1 0.02
6S 1.4 75 1.9 7004.2 0.02
Table 2
p44- 56: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 19 Page 9
October 2011

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seemingly the use of cleaning chemicals is cosmetic rather than
essential to the success of the operation.
Perhaps, a far better approach would be to accept that the clean
oil will become discoloured during the early stages of the cleaning
operation, but accurate monitoring of this discolouration (knowing
that the dilution of the discolouration is linear and how much black
oil can be absorbed) will provide the necessary assurances that the
fully loaded clean cargo will be within the required quality
Furthermore, the ETC notation specifies that vessels should be
able to maintain washing water at a temperature of 85 deg C and it
is firmly believed that increasing the temperature of the hot washing
from 70 deg C to 80/85 deg C will remove even more liquid black
oil ROB, thus reducing the volume of black oil that will ultimately
be absorbed into the fully loaded next cargo of clean oil. This can
only reduce the discolouration potential of the clean oil cargo.
The reality would seem to be that switching from dirty to clean
in a vessel designed to meet the DNV ETC notation, is now a far
more realistic proposition than it was before the ETC notation
was introduced. It should be accepted that the first clean cargo
after a dirty history will be gas oil, and it should also be
absolutely possible to expect that the discolouration of this gas
oil cargo will be so slight that it may not even register on the
ASTM colour scale.
Furthermore, once the vessel has loaded and discharged this first
gas oil cargo, there is absolutely no reason why the vessel cannot be
treated as completely clean, rather than having to carry two more
cargoes of gas oil, before other (water white) CPP cargoes can be
loaded. Bearing in mind the requirement to load three intermediate
gas oil cargoes before a water white cargo can be loaded was
introduced a long time before vessels were specifically designed
to meet the ETC notation.
So surely, as the operational performance of the vessels continues
to improve, the requirements governing these vessels should evolve
at the same pace? Always considering that the final responsibility
for the quality of the fully loaded cargo lies with the owners of
the vessel anyway.
*This article was written by Guy Johnson, director L&I Maritime
The above photograph was taken from a Marinvest vessel and
shows samples of condensate loaded onto the vessel directly after
a dirty cargo. The middle sample is taken from the vessel’s
manifold at the start of loading and the samples on the left side
and right side represent the first foot samples drawn from the
vessel’s slop tanks, which would be expected to show the greatest
level of discolouration. Clearly the discolouration of the first foot
samples is negligible (if at all) and the vessel went on to
successfully load the full condensate cargo, without any reported
deterioration in the quality.
p44- 56: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 19 Page 10
ith depleting fossil fuels and
increased emissions taking a
constant toll on the ecological
balance, it’s imperative for
key market players to allocate an optimum
amount of their technological capital to
address these issues.
Spearheading the going green move in the
shipping industry; Blue Water, a Dehradun
(India) based marine consulting firm, has
implemented what it claims is a unique
approach for optimising the cargo heating
operations on board tankers by proper
planning and monitoring using the company’s
Cargo Heating Management Service.
This is a tool specifically developed for
tankers by harnessing the experience of Blue
Water’s expertise taken from diverse
industries. “Since inception of cargo heating
management service in October 2008, we
have helped our client’s in achieving around
16,000 tonnes of fuel savings to June 2011
when compared with their historical
benchmark figures,” claimed Anurag Datta,
Blue Water Trade Winds’ manager (technical
& business development). He further added
that corresponding emission reductions of
around 48,000 tonnes (CO2: 45,909 tonnes,
Sox: 896 tonnes, NOx: 1,195 tonnes) were
achieved during the same reporting period.
Cargo Heating Management Service
optimises the shipboard fuel oil consumption
required for cargo heating along with
estimating the cargo temperature trend over a
specified voyage. Comprehensive data is
compiled for the operational losses by
theoretical calculation and statistical record
analysis of a number of heated cargo voyages
on various ship models.
Along with reducing overall fuel oil
consumption costs on board ship, the system
also significantly reduces the direct costs and
man hours incurred in the running and
maintenance of auxiliary machineries, such as
boilers and its other ancillaries that are used in
the process of heating the cargo.
By optimising fuel consumption, the service
not only enables the ship to save fossil fuel
but also helps it to reduce harmful emissions,
thus contributing towards a cleaner and
greener planet.
There are three stages of working:
1) Data collection
The first stage of developing the service for a
particular vessel is the collection of relevant
inputs from the ship, such as the vessel
particulars, performance data of its steam
generation system and other factors that
directly affect the overall efficiency of the
cargo heating system on board. The inputs
received from the vessel are covered in the
initial report and can be classified under two
separate categories.
a) Static factors
The static factors of a vessel have a significant
impact on the cargo heating system and
remain constant for each vessel irrespective of
the changing voyage plans, grades of cargo
and fuel oil being used on board.
These factors include the plans of the ship,
giving insight into the vessel’s constructional
details, such as whether the vessel is single or
double hull, the total cargo carrying capacity
and the number of cargo tanks and their layout
on board the vessel.
The constant factors also include details and
past performance reports of the vessels
existing cargo heating steam systems and

October 2011 54
Cargo heating
management - a
green initiative
Over recent years, environmental sustainable solutions have gained enough awareness
and environmental conservation has become an important issue, which needs due
attention at the forefront of existing and upcoming operational practices.
p44- 56: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 19 Page 11
equipment, such as details of the boiler, the
boiler performance curves, the burner nozzle
characteristics along with design details of the
waste heat recovery system of the ship.
b) Variable factors
The variable factors need to be continuously
monitored, as they change depending upon the
cargo and fuel oil quality, stowage and voyage
plans of the vessel.
Those affecting the cargo heating operations
are the grade and chemical qualities of the
cargo oil and the fuel oil being used for each
specific voyage. The initial report takes into
consideration the vessel’s stowage plan and
ballast plan for the particular voyage to
calculate estimated daily heat losses.
Depending upon the voyage plan, the
heating requirements in the expected climatic
conditions for the particular oceanic region are
decided. During the voyage the cargo heating
service ensures a daily reporting system from
the vessel to shore to enable the analysts to
monitor all variable parameters and suggest
corrective actions in-case of finding any
deviations from the set values.
2) Data processing
The inputs received in the vessel’s initial
report are then exhaustively processed by
specialised analysers. During the processing
of data, the performance and characteristics
curves of the boiler and burner are digitised
and the optimum operational parameters to
improve overall heating efficiency of the
system are calculated.
Based upon past statistical records, fuel oil
report analysis, cargo oil data sheets and
mathematical calculations heating schedules
and fuel oil consumption for cargo oil heating
is estimated. The processing and analysis for
the service also takes into consideration the
effect of the vessel’s stowage plan and the
weather during the voyage by referring to
naval hydrographs.
3) Heating plan, reporting and feedback
Once all the data received from the vessel has
been processed, a comprehensive cargo
heating plan is developed and sent back to the
ship’s staff. The plan covers all minute details
required to attain an optimum cargo heating
management service on board the ship.
The plan gives an estimation of the number
of heating days and the heating schedules to
be followed for a particular voyage along with
the estimated daily fuel consumption figures
in the process.
It also gives the optimum boiler load,
condensate temperatures and feed water
temperatures to be maintained to maximise
heating efficiency and fuel savings. The plan
comprises of a daily reporting and feedback
system that facilitates consistent
recommendations and trouble shooting from
the analysts throughout the voyage. At the end
of the voyage a post voyage summary along
with other optional reports are devised for
performance monitoring of the cargo heating
First step
The initial report is the first step towards the
service implementation on board ship and
must be sent by the vessel’s staff before each
voyage to the analysts in the designed format.
The report consists of the all the vessel and
cargo particulars (variable and static factors)
required to process the voyage specific cargo
heating plan.
Based on the initial report obtained from a
particular ship, a comprehensive voyage
specific cargo heating plan is prepared using
special software, which takes into account
voyage data received from the vessel and
October 2011

TANKEROperator 55
Projected total
Year heated cargo
world-wide (MT)
2011 64072000
Projected voyages
Year using Cargo Heating
Management Service (nos)
2011 960
p44- 56: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 19 Page 12
various other factors, such as heat losses,
expected drop in cargo temperature in the
prevailing weather, climatic, regional and
seasonal conditions, cargo and fuel
characteristics, vessel type and freeboard,
which have significant impact on fuel
consumption and time required for heating.
The plan is sent on board along with
guidelines for further implementation by the
vessel’s crew.
A daily heating telegram is exclusively used
as a means of communication between the
ship and Blue Water to monitor the cargo
heating performance on daily basis. It is a
daily report sent by the vessel to the Blue
Water analysts covering details and values of
the parameters of the cargo heating system
along with all the variable factors that can
affect the system’s efficiency. This enables the
analysts to continuously monitor progress and
initiate timely actions in case of any
discrepancy is found, or expected.
After each voyage is completed, a complete
analysis of the service is sent to the vessel and
vessel’s managers along with comprehensive
graphs that compare the projected cargo
heating hours and fuel oil consumption for the
heating operation to the actual heating hours
and fuel oil consumption during the voyage.
The analysis also contains the actual fuel oil
consumption in cargo heating operations along
with trends, general observations and
necessary recommendations to further
improve efficiency of the system.
“Our recent market study shows projected
fuel-savings and GHG (Green House Gases)
reductions of around 222,777 tonnes &
668,331 tonnes respectively, if cargo heating
management service is implemented on 4,976
voyages, totaling around 332,102,428 tonnes
of heated cargo transported worldwide, over
the next five-years period”, explained Capt
Sanjay Singh, GM (operations) at Blue Water.
Versatility of the service can be further
judged by its quick acceptance by leading
tanker owners and charterers within a short
time frame, the company claimed.
“Lacking over past three years was an
external validation of the service by a
scientific research organisation”, said Capt
Kumaresh Gupta, Blue Water Trade Winds
founder. Despite having an ISO 9001 approval
from DNV, Capt Gupta welcomed feedback
on the service, both technically and
commercially, to improve it further.
Many researchers have shown interest in the
underlying presumptions made and it has also
attracted the attention of leading research
universities in recent years, reports Nikhil
Mahendra, an MBA student at University of
Toronto, whose statistical research of the
‘Cargo Heating Management Service Model’
reflects a promising outcome further
validating the consistency prediction model
used by Blue Water.
Mahendra and his team have carried out
analysis on voyage data from over 100
consecutive voyages in order to verify the
appropriateness and accuracy of the service’s
prediction model.
Blue Water Trade Winds was formed to
provide dynamic professional marine services
& solutions for the shipping Industry. Its
strength lies in its diversified experience in
shipping, information technology, research
and design-engineering fields, the company
The company’s personnel has a mix of
sailing and shore-based experience. Blue
Water is a DNV accredited ISO 9001-2008
organisation and has been serving major flags
states since 2006.

October 2011 56
Projected Tanker owners
Year fuel-oil savings using
Cargo Heating
Management Service (MT)
2011 42980
Projected GHG (Green
Year House Gases) reduction
for next 5-years (MT)
2011 128940
p44- 56: p2- 7. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 19 Page 13
Organisers: Posidonia Exhibitions SA, e-mail: posidonia@posidonia-events.com
4-8 June 2012, Metropolitan Expo, Athens Greece
The I nternational Shi ppi ng Exhi bi tion
A unique blend of
business and social interactions
at the heart of Shipping
Be part of the great Posidonia experience
at a state of the art new venue
I BC: OBC. qxd 30/ 09/ 2011 10: 23 Page 1

BOOTH 3118
8 - 11 NOV.
OBC: OBC. qx d 30/ 09/ 2011 14: 48 Page 1

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