# THERMODYNAMICS

PURPOSE This course provides the basic knowledge about thermodynamic laws and relations, and their application to various processes. INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES Expected to Understand the thermodynamic laws and their applications Know the concept of entropy and availability Know the thermodynamic relations Have clear idea about the properties of steam and the use of steam tables and Mollier chart BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS Macroscopic vs Microscopic aspects - Thermodynamic system and surrounding - Forms of energy Properties of a system - State and equilibrium - Quasi static process - Zeroth law of Thermodynamics Heat - Work - First law of Thermodynamics - Limitations - Application of First law to non - flow system Thermodynamic analysis of control volume - Steady flow energy equation - Applications. SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Kelvin-Planck statement - Clausius statement - Carnot cycle - Cyclic Heat engine - Heat Reservoirs Refrigerator and Heat Pump - Equivalence of Kelvin - Planck and Clausius statements - Reversibility and Irreversibility. ENTROPY AND AVAILABILITY Clausius theorem - Clausius inequality - Entropy principle - Property diagrams involving entropy - Entropy change of Ideal gases - Entropy generation in a closed system - Entropy generation in an open system Third law of Thermodynamics - Introduction to availability in non-flow and flow Process. THERMODYNAMIC RELATIONS Maxwell's equations - Clapeyron equation - General relations for dh, du, ds, Cp and Cv - Joule Thomson coefficient. Gas Mixtures - Dalton's law of partial pressures - P-v-T behaviour of gas mixtures - Property calculations. PROPERTIES OF STEAM Steam formation-Temperature Entropy diagram-Mollier diagram-Specific Properties of Steam-Use of steam tables & Mollier chart-Methods of Heating & Expanding the steam-Constant Volume Heating Constant Pressure Expansion - Isothermal Expansion-Hyperbolic Expansion-Isentropic ExpansionPolytropic Expansion-Throttling process-Dryness fraction measurement. TEXT BOOKS Nag, P. K, Engineering Thermodynamics, 6 th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1995 Yunus, N. J., Cengel, A., and Michael Boles, A., Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach, 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill India, 1994 REFERENCE BOOKS Michael Moran, J., and Howard Shapiro, N., Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000

J. II & Vol. I. National Publishing Co. T. REFERENCE BOOKS Kreyszig. Probability and Statistics for Engineers.Linear Homogeneous partial differential equations of second and higher order with constant coefficients BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS Classification of second order linear partial differential equations .Lagrange's equation .G. A Course in Thermal Engineering.Half range sine and cosine series-Parseval's identity Harmonic analysis. 1996 Holman. Thermodynamics. III (4th revised edition). Prentice Hall.. Manickavachagom Pillay. New York. New Delhi. Advanced Engineering Mathematics. and Ramanaiah. S. 1992 Venkataraman.Vol.Viswanathan Printers and Publishers. John Wiley & Sons.. Engineering Mathematics . B. New Delhi.measures of dispersion (no questions should be asked) Moments .. 2000 Narayanan. Addison Wesley.E. 8th edition. Singapore. Volume II & III (2nd edition).. 5th Edition..Tests based 2 on normal and t distribution for means and difference of means ..Transforms of simple functions .Rayner Joel. 1998 MATHS FOURIER SERIES Dirichlet's conditions .Parseval's identity.Skewness and kurtosis based on moments .General Fourier series ..Convolution theorem . J.. P.R. etal. and Domkundwar.Chand & Co.x test for Goodness of fit. New Delhi. STATISTICS Review of measures of central tendency . New Delhi. Higher Engineering Mathematics.Fourier transform pairs . Advanced Mathematics for Engineering students. and Freund. Dhanpat Rai & Sons. 2002.. S..Fourier Sine and Cosine transforms Properties . Vol. C.Steady state solution of two-dimensional heat equation Fourier series solutions in Cartesian coordinates FOURIER TRANSFORMS Statement of Fourier integral theorem . P. S. 2000 Miller. P. 1998 ... 1998 Kothandaraman. 1995 Kandasamy. Engineering Mathematics. S. E. Khanna Publishers.one-dimensional heat equation . S.Solution of standard types of first order equations .III .A & B (13th edition).Solutions of one-dimensional wave equation .. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS Formation . Basic Engineering Thermodynamics. Chennai... M.K.Linear correlation and regression . 4th Edition Tata McGraw Hill. 36h edition. 5th Edition. TEXT BOOKS Grewal.

Jig boring machine. Gating and Risering.description.simple problems . Operations. Fine Finishing .MT PURPOSE To make the students aware of different manufacturing processes like metal forming. 1996 Rao. Types. THEORY OF METAL CUTTING Orthogonal and oblique cutting . Patterns. Wire Drawing. draw ratio. Stamping. Extrusion . casting. drawing force. Gear generating process .Moulding . Special Casting Process . New Delhi. Honing.Mechanics of orthogonal cutting ... MECHANICAL WORKING OF METALS Hot and Cold Working: Rolling. Types of cutters. Piercing. Allowances . Types. New Delhi.. Special welding . Types.Laser.Embossing and coining. Shearing.. Grinding Wheel . Gear Machining: Forming. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Sheet Metal Operations: Blanking . Tool nomenclature TEXT BOOKS Sharma. A textbook of Production Technology . P.simple problems.Specification. Cores & Core making. Chand & Company Ltd. Bending .blank size calculation. Manufacturing Technology. MACHINE TOOLS Milling Machine . backward and tube extrusion. Shaping. Ultrasonic. Centrifugal Casting.Forward. Friction welding.Machinability .Vol I and II. electrical resistance welding. GEAR MANUFACTURING AND SURFACE FINISHING PROCESS Gear manufacturing processes: Extrusion.Moulding sand. Grinding process. and Powder Metallurgy. dressing and truing.N. Investment. Gear hobbing.types .Tool signature for single point cutting tool . Electron Beam. multipoint . 1998 .Classification of cutting tools: single. Stretch forming. various types of grinding machine.Cutting Fluids . metal cutting processes.C. INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES Study the various ways of working of metals Concept of casting Technology Concept of Machining with lathes and automats Study of Milling machine and Gear manufacturing process Various Surface finishing and Surface hardening processes CASTING AND WELDING Introduction to casting. Trimming.Shell. Specification. Forging.specification.operations. Indexing methods .Simple problems.types . Boring machine . Pattern materials. Planning and Slotting Machine . operations. Work and tool holding Devices. S.Shear angle and its significance .Selection of Cutting speed and work speed.Gear shaping. operations.Bending force calculation. gear manufacturing processes. and Super finishing. Buffing. Vol I & II. Electro slag.Tool wear and tool life . Tube forming . P.Lapping.types . Die casting. Punching. Types of dies: Progressive. Broaching machine . compound and combination dies.Chip formationCutting tool materials .

Voltage divider bias method . Methods of Measurements.Performance of Transistor Amplifier . New Delhi.Half Wave Rectifier . CE. 1988 Kalpakjian. 1988 Jain. Media Publishers. Classification of Instruments and application. SCR. capabilities and limitation of Electronics and instrumentation so that he will be able to use this knowledge effectively. UJT To study the Basic of Measurement To study the use of Primary sensing element and Signal Conditioning Unit SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE Semiconductor diode .MOSFET Working Priniciples..Biasing with feedback resistor . PRIMARY SENSING ELEMENTS AND SIGNAL CONDITIONING Introduction .Transistors Load Line analysis. K.Transducers . MEASUREMENT SYSTEM Measurements and its Significance. I and II. Operating Point . Elements of a Generalized Measurement System. Passive and Active transducers. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of an Instruments. Transistor as an Amplifier in CE arrangement .Equivalent Circuit of Zener Diode Zener Diode as Voltage Stabilizer. Primary and Secondary transducer. MOSFET.Units..Crystal diode as a rectifier .Center tap Full Wave Rectifier . Workshop Technology Vol. Arnold Publisher.CE Circuit . System.Characteristics Comparison of Transistor Connection. Vol II. J.Zener Diode .Application of SCR . Singapore. Elements of Manufacturing Technology. INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES To study the basics of Electronics To study the Characteristics of Semiconductor action and Transistor To study the application of Semiconductor Devices like UJT. K.JFET . &CC . Production Technology. Dimension and standards. S. Ltd. SCR .Triac and Diac characteristics and its applications.Transistor biasing: Methods of transistor Biasing . SCR as a Half wave and full wave rectifier .Advantage of Electric Transducers. R.CB.Equivalent Circuit of a UJT and its Characteristics. K. A.Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Efficiency of Full Wave Rectifier .Base resistor method .Efficiency of Half Wave Rectifier . FET. Addision Wesley Congmen Pvt..Transistor as an Amplifier . and Hajra Choudhary. Errors in Measurement Systems .JFET as an Amplifier and its Output Characteristics . 1998 Hajra Choudhary.Working Principles of JFET .. New Delhi. UJT .Full wave Rectifier . 2000 E&I PURPOSE The aim of this course is to familiarize the student with the principle of operation.Cut Off and Saturation points . Manufacturing Engineering and Technology.JFET Applications . Bombay. Khanna Publishers.Equivalent circuit of a Crystal Diode .Connections . TRANSISTOR & ITS BIASING Transistor Symbols .Equivalent Circuit and V-I Characteristics.REFERENCE BOOKS Chapman W. Analog and Digital . Classification Based upon Principle of Transduction. A. SCR & UJT Types of Field Effect Transistor .

1999 REFERENCE BOOKS Salivahanan. Dhanpat Rai & Sons.. New Delhi.. Sureshkumar. Transfer and output Characteristics and its application. Characteristics of Operational Amplifier. S. Khanna Publishers. Tata McGraw . 2nd Edtion. Electronic devices and Circuits. 2004 E&I LAB PURPOSE To study various Basic Circuits of Electronics and Measurements. Principles of Electronics. Pearson Education.. Tata McGraw Hill International Edition. M. and Vallavaraj. A Course in Electrical and Electronic Measurement and Instrumentation. A. 2000 Ernest O. Electronic Devices and Circuits. and Halkias. Solid State Electronic Devices. 1994 Mithal. S. and Rohit Metha. 1980 Millman. S. Basic Filters. G.. Measurement Systems . New Delhi. Doebelin. New Delhi.Physics and Technology. Attenuator. Simple Types TEXT BOOKS Sawhney. LIST OF EXPERIMENTS Characteristics of Semiconductor Diode and Zener diode Characteristics of Transistor under Common Emitter Configuration Characteristics of Transistor Under Common Base Configuration Characteristics of Transistor Under Common Collector Configuration Characteristics of UJT and FET Characteristics of SCR. John Wiley & Sons. Streetman and Sanjay Banerjee. K.... New Delhi. A. 1998 Sze.K. Semiconductor Devices . 2002 Ben G. Transducers and inverse transducers and examples for each. Mehta. N. Electronic Devices and Circuits. Characteristics and Choice of transducers.Hill. K. Operational Amplifier. DIAC and TRIAC Characteristics of RTD Characteristics of Thermistor Characteristics of Thermocouple Strain Gauge and Load Cell Characteristics REFERENCE Electronic Devices and Measurement Manual . A/D Converters. New York.transducers. Input. Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation. First Edition.Application and Design.chand & Company Ltd. 1999 V. Tata McGraw-Hill..

simple problems) Gear hobbing-Helical gear Drilling. A. Twist drill nomenclature. and Hajra Choudhary. reaming. counter boring Planning/ Capstan lathe/ Burnishing process (Planner Mechanism. and Different types of taper turning operations) External threading-Single start (Including Thread cutting mechanism-simple problems) Eccentric turning-Single axis Shaping-V-Block (Including Shaper quick return mechanism) Grinding-Cylindrical/ Surface/ Tool & cutter Slotting-Keyways (Including Broaching tool nomenclature and Slotter mechanism) Milling-Polygon/ Spur gear (Including Milling mechanism. REFERENCE BOOKS Chapman W. simple problems) Taper turning-compound rest/ offset method & Drilling using lathe (Including Drilling feed mechanism. S. plain turning. grinding machines. K. Milling. Step turning & grooving (Including lathe mechanisms. Media Publishers.lathe machine. Anodizing. Elements of Manufacturing Technology Vol II. Shaper. Arnold Publisher. J. Galvanizing. A.. 1986 Laboratory Manual .MP LAB PURPOSE To expose hands-on training to the students on various machines like lathe. I and II. Super finishing. Metal spraying. Electroplating. INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES Study of various types of lathe operations To Produce flat surface and contour shapes on the given component To know the various methods of making gears To get an idea for making good quality products with good surface finish Application oriented mini projects LIST OF EXPERIMENTS Introduction . Gear hobbing. K. Description of capstan and turret lathe) Mini Project work . Workshop Technology Vol. Slotter. 1996 Hajra Choudhary. Introduction to non-traditional machining process..Application oriented products using above experiments Note:The following topics also should be covered during this practical course.