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Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast consumes the sugars in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different types of wine. Wines made from other fruits, such as apples and berries, are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example, apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically called fruit wine or country wine. Others, such as barley wine and rice wine (i.e., sake), are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer and spirit more than wine, while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. In these cases, the term "wine" refers to
the higher alcohol content rather than the production process. The commercial use of the English word "wine" is protected by law in many jurisdictions. Wine has a rich history dating back thousands of years, with the earliest known production occurring around 8,000 years ago on the territory of modern-day Georgia. It first appeared in the Balkans at about 4500 BC and was very common in ancient Greece, Thrace and Rome. Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history. The Greek god Dionysus and the Roman equivalent Bacchus represented wine, and the drink is also used in Christian Eucharist ceremonies and the Jewish Kiddush.
INTRODUCTION TO INDIAN WINES
Wine has been made in India for many thousands of years, some say for 5,000. Today India has 123,000 acres of vineyards, but only one per cent of them are used for wine. Today there are eight thousand Indian restaurants in Britain representing 33 per cent of the dining market in spending power, which represents some Stg two milliard per annum.
Restaurants of every other nation offer wines from their own country. The only exception up to now has been India whose restaurants offered their excellent beer and wine from many other countries. Omar Khayam, a methode champagnoise wine has been on the British market for ten years. Now it is possible to find both a red and a white table wine in some shops and restaurants. The technical details of these wines are:Grape varieties: The white wine is called Chhabri and it is made predominately from Chardonnay with Ugni Blanc and Thompson Seedless blended together to round out this quite attractive wine. The red wine is called Anarkali and it is made from mostly Cabernet Sauvignon with a touch of Bangalore Purple which increases the nose and quite firm palate. You might well think you are drinking wine made from Cabernet Franc. Location The east facing one hundred acre vineyard is located in the Sahyadri Valley inland from Bombay. The altitude is 2,475 feet which helps to cool off the region's wonderfully hot, dry climate. Soil Type: Light slightly sandy soil which helps the drainage, neutral in nature with abundant quantities of micro nutrients including trace elements and metals available in the soil.
Red The Anarkali is fermented at a controlled temperature of between 27-29C for 8-10 days in order to effect malolactic fermentation. The lees are removed within two days of the fermentation. No malolactic fermentation is required for the white. with specially cultured yeast. The wine is kept in 350 litre French Oak barrels for between one and two years. Temperature control The winery is air conditioned and kept at a temperature of 12-13C.Presses: Both Hydraulic and Pneumatic presses are used including a positive displacement Pneumatic press with light pressure limiting the recovery to a maximum 55 per cent. for a period of 1821 days. Vineyard temperature range is 33C to 16C in the summer and 25C to 10C in the winter. The wine is put into 225 litre French Oak Barrels for a short period. . The cellar temperature is between 8-10C. FERMENTATION: White The Chhabri is made using controlled temperature fermentation at 15C. Sophisticated Cuno filters are used for the filtration.
This helped to keep up interest and continuity in the wine industry which today is growing up into the 21st century from the quantum leap of its rebirth in 1985.The marriage of Indian wine and food Some people say that wine does not go with curry.P. The Portuguese also introduced Vindaloo to India. Portuguese settlers improved the wine they found in the 16th century when they came to Goa. The very thought gives me a hangover. Beer as we know it did not reach the sub Continent until the early to mid 19th century when brewers made I. Well those of the British Raj used to drink a choata peg (coktail) or two before dinner. With thousands of years experience of drinking wine with curry surely they. the Indians must know which is better beer or wine. Before this period rice beer was made in some areas. The word was originally Vin d'Ail. Otherwise you cannot enjoy the food. The sailors kept their meat in barrels of wine laced with garlic to which they added the spices they found in India. Now we can all enjoy a few glasses of jolly good Indian wine without spoiling either our reputations or the delicious food. -Indian Pale Ale which was specially high in alcohol and well hopped in order to stand the voyage from Britain. Madeira with the curry followed by claret then back on to the choata peg or Scottish wine.A. Try drinking cool light red wine with meat curries. Although Madeira does go with curry one gets legless unless one paces oneself with lots of water. . it is surprisingly refreshing and works well.
Commercial use of the term "Meritage" is allowed only via licensing agreements with an organization called the "Meritage Association". Petit Verdot. market recognition of particular regions is leading to their increased prominence on non-European wine labels. through Vin de Pays and Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de . Some blended wine names are marketing terms. and the use of these names is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws. Willamette Valley in Oregon. and Malbec. For example. with classifications ranging from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom. Pinot Noir and Merlot). and may also include Cabernet Franc. Rioja and Chianti). while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e. Hawke's Bay and Marlborough in New Zealand. however. Vale dos Vinhedos in Brazil.g. Okanagan Valley and Niagara Peninsula in Canada. Central Valley in Chile. Barossa Valley and Hunter Valley in Australia. More and more. European classifications France has various appellation systems based on the concept of terroir. Examples of non-European recognized locales include Napa Valley in California.g. European wines tend to be classified by region (e. Columbia Valley in Washington.CLASSIFICATION Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. Bordeaux.
although their system has not yet achieved the authority of those of the other countries'.980 9 Chile 977.Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS) up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) or similar. depending on the region. pioneered this technique in 1756 with a royal charter that created the "Demarcated Douro Region" and regulated wine production and trade.539.520. Portugal has something similar and.349.000 5 Argentina 1.000 8 South Africa 1.232.410. Greece and Italy have classifications based on a dual system of region of origin and product quality Beyond Europe New World wine—wines from outside of the traditional wine growing regions of Europe tend to be classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin.600 .330 2 Italy 4. although there have been non-official attempts to classify them by quality Production Wine production by country 2006 Country Production Rank (with link to wine article) (tonnes) 1 France 5.483 7 China (People's Republic) 1. Spain. Germany did likewise in 2002.600 6 Australia 1.400.300 3 Spain 3.012. in fact.087 10 Germany 891.963.870 4 United States 2.
.645.050.000 2.600 4. just north of the 59th parallel north.000 China (People's Republic) 1. The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel south.600 827.746 Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the equator.711.000 1.380 3. Sweden.300.972 891.Wine production by country 2007 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Country (with link to wine article) France Italy Spain United States Argentina Production (tonnes) 4.450.550. and the northernmost are in Flen.251.000 961.000 South Africa Australia Germany Chile 1.
8% Zealand CONSUMPTION Wine consumption data from a list of countries by alcohol consumption measured in liters of pure ethyl alcohol consumed per capita in a given year.0% 3 Australia 9.5% 8 Portugal 3.793 2 France 1.9% 2 Italy 18.0% South 9 2. according to the most recent data from the World Health Organization.4% Africa New 10 1.337 4 Australia 762 5 Chile* 472 United 6 369 States 7 Germany 316 8 Argentina 302 9 Portugal 286 South 10 272 Africa World** 8.353 2006 export  shares market Market share Rank Country (% of value in US$) 1 France 34.6% States 7 Germany 3. The methodology used by the WHO counted use by persons 15 years of age or older .462 3 Spain* 1.3% United 6 3.Exporting countries Top ten wine exporting countries in 2006 1000 Rank Country tonnes 1 Italy* 1.7% 5 Chile 4.3% 4 Spain 8.
49 3.86 1.38 8.69 3.14 3.31 1.12 1.05 1.33 0.10 4.52 3. etc.12 1.WINE CONSUMPTION Country France Portugal Italy Croatia Andorra Switzerland Slovenia Hungary Moldova Argentina Country Equatorial Guinea Italy France Guatemala São Tomé and Príncipe Uruguay Tonga Greece Argentina Portugal Liters per capita 8.).75 Wine/beer ratio 9.73 2.62 Wine vs.50 3. beer consumption Wine (l) 4.69 5.14 6.97 2.65 Beer (l) 0.57 2.51 4.29 3. .89 2.29 4.62 6.40 3.38 5.77 Types of wine Here is a quick reference to wine varieties and how to pair wine with food. This page describes the different types of wine per district and variety (riesling.45 1. pinot noir.20 2.67 4.92 3.95 2.94 4.10 5. It does not describe the styles of wines by colour.65 6.04 2.80 5.18 6.
sweetness. Please find herebelow basic varietal descriptions and pronunciations. then the wine is called varietal and is named after the grape with a capital initial (Riesling. or fizz. It demands aging in small oak barrels. and the best wines require several years of bottle age to reach their peak. tasting terms. It is often blended with Cabernet Franc and Merlot and its flavor is reminiscent of blackcurrants or cedarwood. etc. MAJOR TYPES OF RED WINES Cabernet Sauvignon Most of the great red win es of Bordeaux and some of the finest wines of the New World are based on Cabernet Sauvignon. Which wine types a cellar could hold is suggested in the buying guide. A varietal wine primarily shows the fruit: the grape variety dominates the flavor. It also shows best with oak maturation. If only variety is mentioned on the bottle label. A variety is the type of grape. Merlot is fragrant and usually softer than Cabernet Sauvignon. Merlot bottled as a varietal is becoming popular in India. It is written here with a lower-case initial. Merlot This variety takes second place to Cabernet Sauvignon in most premium red wine blends.). plus suggestions on pairing the wines with food. . but usually requires less bottle maturation before it is ready to drink. Pinot Noir.
it produces light wines and is most often . Cabernet Franc This variety possesses qualities similar to those of Cabernet Sauvignon. especially when they receive enough oak maturation. Cinsaut (Cinsault) Formerly known as Hermitage in the Western Cape of South Africa. Zinfandel This variety probably originated in Southern Italy as the Primitivo grape.Shiraz This grape is also known as Syrah. It is an important part of blends and is often blended with Cabernet Sauvignon. The quality of wines have been very good. It makes a soft and rich wine often characterized by smoky and chocolaty aromas. It is planted by only a few Indian wineries. There are several clones in pinot noir that show great promise. The Pinot Noir wines in are clean and lively with the flavor of ripe cherries. although they are a little less pronounced in Cabernet Franc. Pinot Noir The grape from which complex and elegant wines are made in Burgundy. It matures faster than cabernet and is sometimes blended with it to speed accessibility.
Chardonnay generally benefits from oak and is especially complex when it is barrel fermented as well as barrel aged. It is planted in almost every wine producing country and is one of the easiest varieties to grow.oaking has been a common fault of some the first Chardonnays. Previously thought to be early maturing. Cinsaut is one of the parents of Pinotage. It is hardy in the vineyard and generally produces a wine that is full bodied with good fruit flavors and a distinctive spiciness. over. Chenin Blanc . it is now believed that Pinotage benefits from extended maturation.used as a blending wine to increase accessibility at an early age. However. It was developed locally in 1926. Pinotage It is a unique South African grape made from a cross of Pinot Noir and Cinsaut. but often referred to as possessing a "sweetish acetone" flavor. MAJOR TYPES OF WHITE WINES Chardonnay It is currently one of the most popular if not the most popular dry white wine variety in the world.
Pune is given in Table Performance of Prominent European wine varieties at NRCG.696 1. 4. It produces a wide range of wines from sweet to dry. including sparkling and still wines. The Sauvignon Blancs tend to be dry and grassy.60 6. Its plantings have increased though it is a moderate yielder Performance of some prominent European wine varieties at NRC for Grapes . These microclimates in Maharashtra are suited to the growing of this variety.48 3.85 14. l-1 pH -1 ha A.54 23. Cabernet Sauvignon .This grape is the Cape's most popular white variety with about thirty percent of her vineyards producing Chenin Blanc.52 1. Shiraz Merlot Zinfandel Saperavi Carignan 17.10 5.30 3.00 2.007 0. Its dry wines are fresh and fruity and Chenin Blanc's sweet wines and botrytis dessert wines are becoming more fashionable.41 21.37 3.80 5.20 5.20 5.40 3.87 11. 5. Pune.65 15.60 5. 6. Sauvignon Blanc India now can produce international quality wines of Sauvignon Blanc as evidenced at few wineries located in Nashik and Pune district.022 1.197 0.38 16.40 3. 3.34 19.951 1. Juice yield *Average Fruit TSS Acidity Juice Sr.35 22.87 13.42 19.70 3. °Brix g.Red Wines 1. Variety hectoliter Yield tons ha-1.113 20.
28 15.80 4. 9.043 0.84 1.52 18.63 19.80 B.57 18.18 19.75 3.448 0.47 7. 14.67 24.7. 8.65 3.80 3. Sauvignon Blanc 13.75 12. White wines 6.60 3.60 5.413 0.780 1. 16.408 1.62 3. * Average of 2 years on 4th & 5th year-old vineyard.80 3.80 3.50 4.77 3. Grenache Convent Large Black Pinot Noir Chardonnay Chenin Blanc Ugni Blanc(Trebbiano) Clairette Vermantino Garganega 18.48 3.64 20.80 5.00 3. 11.70 5.07 12.25 3.411 0.55 20.10 3.58 20.87 18.00 4.926 19.169 1.72 3.26 16.035 0. 10.37 19. Shiraz Cabernet Sauvignon Merlot Pinot Noir Chenin Blanc Sauvignon Blanc .931 1.63 15.19 22. 15.33 17.52 3.
[Pressing wine after the harvest. 14th century] Through an extensive gene-mapping project in 2006. Tacuinum Sanitatis.100 years ago in Armenia. took place as early as 8. Georgia.000-year-old ceramic storage jars in Shulavari. McGovern and his colleagues analyzed the heritage of more than 110 modern grape cultivars.Chardonnay HISTORY Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine. The same sites also . Dr. Other notable areas of wine production have been discovered in Greece and date back to 4500 BC. These locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera. made by fermenting grapes. where also wine residues were discovered on the inner surfaces of 8. and narrowed their origin to a region in Georgia.000 years ago in Georgia and 6.
On January 11. In Ancient Egypt. which were introduced into China some 6000 years later. but possibly composed even earlier). six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y".000 years ago. included grapes rather than other fruits. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (9th century BC. However. If these beverages. 2011 in one of Armenia's Vayots Dzor province cave was found a wine making press dating to approximately 6. these grapes were of any of the several dozen indigenous wild species of grape in China. Alkman (7th century BC). . other fruits indigenous to the region. The first known mentioning of grape-based wines in India was in the late 4th century BC writings of Chanakya who was the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. rather than from Vitis vinifera.contain the world's earliest evidence of crushed grapes. Henan contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC. Five of these amphoras were designated as from the King's personal estate with the sixth listed as from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang. dating from the second and first millennia BC. cannot be ruled out. In his writings. and others. such as hawthorn. Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of grape wine known as Madhu. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu. a royal chief vintner. which seem to be the precursors of rice wine.
harvesting. First . Training and trellising enable the viticulturalist to control the sun exposure to ensure the grapes ripen evenly. known in the wine industry as terroir. and sunlight). or viticultural practices such as training. the Roman Catholic Church staunchly supported wine. and pruning. and Colchester. these factors include local climate (temperature.One of the lasting legacies of the ancient Roman Empire was the viticulture foundation the Romans laid in the lands that today are world renowned wine regions. aging it in caves. like Bordeaux. and water drainage). the viticulturalist prunes the vines twice a year. the Romans planted vineyards to supply local needs and limit the cost of long distance trading. Grapevines grow best in sandy. Trier. or rocky soils. location of grapevines (altitude and slope) and soil (structure. a grapevine produces the best fruit when the moderate climate provides much sunshine and cool nights without frost or hailstorms and the soil is well drained. In medieval Europe. composition. VITICULTURE PRODUCTION ASPECTS AFFECTING WINE Natural factors make wine from a particular region unique. Grapes harvested when they are not ripe may be low in sugar and may not ferment properly. trellising. A wine's character is strongly affected by vine growing. Tropical vines do not show high dormant. In general. chalky. An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine. since they required it for the Mass. Overly ripe grapes have very high sugar content and produce wine high in alcohol. Areas with Roman garrison towns. rainfall. Monks in France made wine for years.
sunshine hours .) and the scion cultivars from European species (V. Factors : i) Temperature ii) Solar radiation. V.pruning is carried out during first fortnight of April every year to induce vegetative growth and in this phase fruit bud formations occur in mature canes. fungi. V. such as nematodes. vineyards use the rootstocks from resistant American vines . I .riparia. phylloxera(wasp). V. pruning level is normally kept low between 4-7 buds from the base depending upon varieties. yield and quality of grapes for wine making is greatly influenced by climate & soils. viruses and animals such as birds that eat the sweet grapes. molds. Pruning enables the grower to control the size and shape of the vines. The second pruning of matured canes is done during late September or early October to obtain fruits. vinifera). Climate & Soil Overall performance in terms of growth. Climate – It is the summation of weather conditions throughout the year. Certain soilborne pests. as well as the number of buds that will develop the next year.rupestris and their interspecific hybrids etc. To counter this problem. phytophthora (fungus) etc may destroy the roots of grapevines. bacteria. reducing the quality of the future harvest.(Vitis champini. Too many buds on a vine may stress nutrient availability. As most of the wine varieties have basal fruitfulness of the canes.berlandieri. Grapevines have many natural enemies: insects.
taste and other qualities of individual wines. By contrast hot conditions during ripening period increases the sugar level. Cool. Evaporation etc. Relative humidity iv) Wind. mild temperatures increase the production of acid (malic and tartaric )in the berries. 2750-3000 (Pune. Vitis vinifera grape varieties grow under wide range of climatic conditions. The organic constituents of wine such as alcohol. there are ripening problems and crop losses. Optimum temperature for photosynthesis 25-30o C and . Narayangaon) 3000-4000 (Sangli. The level and balance of these constituents in the musts and wines in turn are largely determined by climate (heat summation). hastens maturity.Degree days that are available during September to March 2200-2750 (Nashik). acids. tannins and aldehydes do have direct bearing on the bouquet. Dry table wines require mild ripening period with average temperatures of 22-28oC and low diurnal variations. High temperatures cause yield loss due to poor fruit set. Growing season length should be sufficiently long to mature moderate to heavy crops of grapes.iii) Rainfall. lowers the acid level of grapes and inhibits pigment formation in red varieties. Each variety requires certain heat summation to bring its fruit from full bloom to maturity or a given brix reading. moisture stress and reduces the rate of photosynthesis. Solapur) normally influences which wine variety to grow and the type of wine to produce. In areas where there is sudden temperature drop and onset of wet weather. increase the sugar acid balance and enhances the colour in the red varieties. Table wine grapes are grown at 2200-2750 degree days. esters. i) Temperature : Diurnal variation with cool nights (15-18o C) and warm days (28-32oC) is essential for successful wine grape production . colour.
The actual and potential evapotranspiration is based . High light intensity with high temperature(>36oC) are not conducive for berry colour development. ii) Solar Radiation : Optimum light intensity for photosynthesis varies between 700-1100 micro molar units (30. Both light intensity and temperature are involved in the formation of fruitful buds during May-August.October for recharging the subsoil with moisture. whereas with moderate temperature (28-32o C) and high light intensity there will be good colour development between veraison and ripening. variety and training systems. vines need at least 75 cm water with good distribution throughout fruiting season.000-50. The number of bunch primordia increase with higher light intensity and the fruitfulness of new buds depends on the daily duration of high light intensity falling on the bud itself rather than on whole plant. whereas slight moisture stress during veraison to ripening enhances the quality of berries.declines rapidly above and falling to zero at 45-50oC and also decreases rapidly below 15oC. vapour pressure and solar radiation which affects plant growth. topography. Avoid water stress during flowering and early berry growth period till veraison. wind. day length.000 lux) depending upon the location. iii) Rain fall & relative humidity: Generally for economical wine production a reasonable rainfall amount of 55-65 cm annually is desirable between June. iv) Evaporation : Evaporation is based on various climatic factors such as temperature. For maximum yield.
Soil chemical properties such as pH is a measure of degree of acidity or alkalinity where vines are tolerant to wide range of pH conditions.vinifera varieties are deep rooted and fully explore the soil to a depth of 6-10 feet or more if the aeration is satisfactory and there is no obstruction to root zone. Soil physical features such as soil colour affects the absorbance of radiant heat. whereas alkaline soils are dominated by calcium. Optimum pH range is 6-6. Soil texture influences water holding capacity. Soil requirements of vines Grapes can adapt to a wide variety of soil types ranging from coarse gravelly sands to heavy clays. magnesium and potassium. The pH gives an indication of nutritional status as it is related to cation exchange capacity(CEC). permeability and aeration. In broad terms acid soils have low CEC broadly dominated by hydrogen. However most V. Best performance is however obtained in deep medium textured soils (loams and sandy loams) which are low in salts and are well drained. II .5 for wine grapes. The quality of wine is related to grape variety. Cultivation Aspects . followed by climatic area and by soil type. shallow to very deep soils and soils of low to high fertility. infiltration rate. the nutrient status.on the amount of available water in the root zone and the evaporative power of the air. Wine Grapes are successfully grown under irrigation on soils that Provide 45-60 cm of root zone.
The first half doses should be mixed with 40 tons FYM just prior to pruning. For this recuts.0 M apart and oriented towards north-south direction.0 M between rows and 1. Copius watering of the trench to get weathering & decay of the organic matter at least 15 days in advance before planting. 110 R. etc which are salt tolerant. Soil prepartion . 140 Ru. SO-4. 75 kg magnesium sulphate should be given in 3 doses after foundation pruning. DogRidge. double cordon and trellis system are mainly followed. Planting : Only Vitis vinifera varieties shall be used for new plantations. Graft the desirable scion variety in situ on rootstock during September and October. Training systems such as Kniffin. primary arms and cordons require proper training system. Pendal system which is common for table grape is not recommended for wine varieties. 250 kg superphospate and 250 kg sulphate of potash .i). iv). Drip irrigation / fertigation facilities will compliment quick establishment of the vineyard. Manuring & fertilizer application : For one hectare vineyard 250 kg sulphate of ammonia. These varieties should be grafted on the recommended rootstocks for wine varieties such as Salt creek. second quarter dose should be given 30 days .5 tons /ha Superphosphate along with 50 tons /ha of FYM. Apply 2.8 M3. Plant the rootstocks in the month of Feb-March in enriched soil along the trenches. ii). Normally recommended spacing for most wine varieties is 2. drought and nematode tolerant. All types of soil require deep trench spaced 1. topping . iii). pinching and tipping are followed. 99R. 1103 P.Training of young grafts/plants : Frame work establishment with single main stem.25 M between plants accommodating 4000 plants per hectare.
S-0. Optimum petiole concentrations of yielding wine grape varieties in general.0. Fe.981%. v).after pruning and next quarter dose after 60 days of pruning.632 %. either spur pruning or short cane pruning are adopted.6 %.4 %. Subsequent nutrient doses should be guided by soil and petiole analysis.25% and K-0. P-0. Mg – 0.Cu-8 ppm. Fore pruning : Early September is ideal for most of the wine varieties as they take longer period for maturity and harvest.75 ppm and B30 ppm. Ca . should have for N-0. Zn-20 ppm.1%. Most of the wine varieties have basal fruitfulness hence the level of pruning is normally kept low. Mn – 25 ppm. .
[Different training systems for wine grape varieties] It is desirable to have trellis system among the various training systems for most of the wine varieties grown in tropical climate with bright sunlight that may get sun damaged on kniffin. . Whereas bower system tends to delay the ripening process and often fruits become highly acidic with poor colour development.
During fermentation. and other steps of the process. and minerals. acids. . This includes picking grapes at the right time. sugars.Wine Manufacturing Process Raw Materials As mentioned the wine grape itself contains all the necessary ingredients for wine: pulp. removing the must at the right time. and storing the wine long enough. These advances include a variety of mechanical harvesters. temperature-controlled tanks. some manufacturers add yeast to increase strength and cane or beet sugar to increase alcoholic content. grape crushers. small wineries still use hand operated presses and store wine in musty wine cellars. The Manufacturing Process The process of wine production has remained much the same throughout the ages. a subject of debate. Recipes for certain types of wine require the winemaker (the vintner) to monitor and regulate the amount of yeast. monitoring and regulating fermentation. and centrifuges. juice. tannins. While the manufacturing process is highly automated in mediumto large-sized wineries. however. the fermentation process. A universal factor in the production of fine wine is timing. but new sophisticated machinery and technology have helped streamline and increase the output of wine. winemakers also usually add sulfur dioxide to control the growth of wild yeasts. The procedures involved in creating wine are often times dictated by the grape and the amount and type of wine being produced. Whether such advances have enhanced the quality of wine is. However.
eliminating the need for crushing at the winery. Some crusher-stemmer machines are hydraulic while others are driven by air pressure. Harvesting and crushing grapes 1 Vineyardists inspect sample clusters of wine grapes with a refractometer to determine if the grapes are ready to be picked. The result is that vineyards can deliver newly crushed grapes. The refractometer is a small. and packaging. robots. to wineries. fresh. thereby eliminating the need for hand-picking. or. allowing vineyard workers to gather grapes and press them at the same time. fermenting must. . This also prevents oxidization of the juice through tears or splits in the grapes' skins. 2 If the grapes are ready for picking. 3 The field hoppers are transported to the winery where they are unloaded into a crusher-stemmer machine. are now used in most medium to large vineyards. The harvesters have also allowed grapes to be gathered at night when they are cool. or mobile storage container. Mechanical harvesters. First used in California vineyards in 1968. hand-held device (the size of a miniature telescope) that allows the vineyardist to accurately check the amount of sugar in the grapes. ageing the wine. called must. Some mechanical harvesters have grape crushers mounted on the machinery. and ripe. a mechanical harvester (usually a suction picker) gathers and funnels the grapes into a field hopper. in some cases. mechanical harvesters have significantly decreased the time it takes to gather grapes.The wine-making process can be divided into four distinct steps: harvesting and crushing grapes.
wine needs to be stored. The amount of time the skins are left in the tank or vat determines how dark or light the color will be.The grapes are crushed and the stems are removed. For rose. The winemaker will use a handheld hydrometer to measure the sugar content in the tank or vat. Many wineries still store wine in damp. and properly aged.) 5 During the fermentation process. cane or beet sugar may be added to increase the alcoholic content. In some instances. To add strength. the wine must also be blended with other alcohol. filtered. The wine must ferments in the tank or vat for approximately seven to fourteen days. Fermenting the must 4 For white wine. (The pigment in the grape skins give red wine its color. the whole crushed grape. goes into the fermentation tank or vat. Adding sugar is call chaptalization. all the grape skins are separated from the "must" by filters or centrifuges before the must undergoes fermentation. For red wine. Usually chaptalization is done because the grapes have not received enough sun prior to harvesting. Ageing the wine 6 After crushing and fermentation. depending on the type of wine being produced. the skins only stay in the tank or vat for a short time before they are filtered out. In addition. wild yeast are fed into the tank or vat to turn the sugar in the must into alcohol. varying degrees of yeast may be added. . including the skin. leaving liquid must that flows either into a stainless steel fermentation tank or a wooden vat (for fine wines).
This is done not only to extend the wine's shelf life but also to ensure clarity and color stability. but larger wineries now store wine above ground in epoxylined and stainless steel tanks. 7 After the initial settling (racking) process. etc. After fermentation. and 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 degrees Celsius) for white wine.) settle to the bottom of the tank and are eliminated when the wine is pumped into another tank. certain wines (mainly red wine) will be crushed again and pumped into another fermentation tank where the wine will ferment again for approximately three to seven days. The settling process creates smoother wine. certain wines are pumped into another settling tank or vat where the wine remains for another two to three months. The wine is then pumped into settling ("racking") tanks or vats.subterranean wine cellars to keep the wine cool. During settling the weighty unwanted debris (remaining stem pieces. 8 After the settling process. The tanks are temperature-controlled by water that circulates inside the lining of the tank shell. . racking is done at 50 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit (10 to 16 degrees Celsius) for red wine. Typically. The wine will remain in the tank for one to two months. Additional settling may be necessary for certain wines. the wine passes through a number of filters or centrifuges where the wine is stored at low temperatures or where clarifying substances trickle through the wine. Other similar tanks are used instead of the old redwood and concrete vats when wine is temporarily stored during the settling process.
the temperature and timing during both fermentation and ageing. corked. the wine is aged in stainless steel tanks or wooden vats. while smaller wineries may still store their wine in wooden barrels in damp wine cellars. Packaging 11 Most medium. or far less than a year. Wine is usually shipped in wooden crates. and most moderately priced and expensive wine bottles have corks made of a special oak. and the amount of sulfur dioxide added during fermentation all have a tremendous impact on the quality of the finished wine. The corks are covered with a peel-off aluminum foil or plastic seal. Most large wineries age their wine in large temperaturecontrolled stainless steel tanks that are above ground. crated. Such variables as the speed with which harvested grapes are crushed. . 9 After various filtering processes. labeled. and shipped to distributors. The corks and screw caps keep the air from spoiling the wine. White and rose wines may age for a year to four years. Quality Control All facets of wine production must be carefully controlled to create a quality wine. Cheaper wines have an aluminum screw-off cap or plastic stopper. sealed. The wine is now ready to be bottled. though cheaper wines may be packaged in cardboard. the percent of sugar and acid in the harvested grapes.to large-sized wineries I now use automated bottling machines. 10 The wine is then filtered one last time to remove unwanted sediment. Red wines may age for seven to ten years.
vacuumized bottling plants and water softeners are the major machineries required in wine Industry. Grotto Derfanceschi etc are commonly seen in Indian wineries (Photo). Companies like M/s Winetech Engineers and Datacone Wine machineries Pvt. press and screw pump are the machineries which handle grapes when arrive at winery and prepare must for fermentation. Maharashtra is the only state in the country given impetus to develop wine industry and leads in winery machine manufacturers in India. crusher. press and screw pumps are integrated and the unit works on digitally programmed & sophisticated software. pneumatic/ hydraulic press. like destemmer. Krishna wine park at Palus in Sangli district lends out such units . crusher. Many of them have developed prototypes of full range machineries suited to variable sizes of wineries. Ltd. But making appropriate and good quality wine out of good grapes is more of a skill of a wine-maker than pure science. fermentation tanks with cooling jackets/ cooling system. Most wineries in India. Such skill can be better executed by the wine maker consistently and hygienically. screw pumps. These machineries play very important role in deciding wine quality and involve lots of sophistication. have displayed their prototypes with specifications on their websites. However. Velo. have not opted to go for Indian machineries for preparing must for fermentation and use imported units where destemmer. if the winery has good machineries. Makes of Della Toffola. Destemmer. were imported from European countries especially Italy. Most of these machineries in large old wineries. filters & insulated tanks for cold stabilization of the wine.Machineries and Accessories and other inputs for wineries The quality of the wine is decided in vineyards. crusher.
Hence small barrels are used by some big wineries in temperature controlled rooms to mature high value wines (Photo). Use of large vats is difficult due to high temperatures in tropical region. Oak wood vats and barrels are required to mature good wines. It is also hoped that other Indian made machineries like filtering units and bottling plants will be used especially by small & newly established Indian wineries. labels and silver foils are also imported from outside India . Sparkling wines are prepared by only big wineries so far. Fermentation tanks with cooling jackets and cooling system in most new wineries are made in India. Wine bottles. which are of international standards. Special kind of bottles sustaining high pressure of trapped gas and special device to gradually tilt the bottles during secondary fermentation are imported. This is a very expensive input for any winery since such material can only be imported from European continent and other countries. Even old wineries are now opting for Indian made fermentation tanks and cooling systems. The tanks are normally made by using medical grade stainless steel (SS-316L/304) and have mirror finish from inside surface.to the smaller wineries on hire. corks.
personal appreciation Tasting stages The results of the four recognized stages to wine tasting: appearance "in glass" the aroma of the wine "in mouth" sensations "finish" (aftertaste) – are combined in order to establish the following properties of a wine: . Modern. While the practice of wine tasting is as ancient as its production. a more formalized methodology has slowly become established from the 14th century onwards. recreational tasting may use similar terminology. aromas and general characteristics of a wine.WINE TASTING Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. usually involving a much less analytical process for a more general. More informal. professional wine tasters (such as sommeliers or buyers for retailers) use a constantly evolving formal terminology which is used to describe the range of perceived flavors.
in what are known as tasting "flights". expressiveness . to better compare vineyard and vintages. both with respect to other wines in its price range and according to known factors pertaining to the region or vintage. a taster must look for clarity. savor. swirl. follows further careful description and comparison with recognized standards. smell. . complexity and character potential (suitability for aging or drinking) possible faults A wine's overall quality assessment. if it uses certain wine-making techniques. integration. Whereas wines are regularly tasted in isolation. complexity. based on this examination. and savor. Alternatively. to rule out any prejudicial awareness of either vintage or winery Process There are five basic steps in tasting wine: color. sniff. in order to promote an unbiased analysis. During this process. if it is typical of the region or diverges in style. sip. varietal character. swirl. such as barrel fermentation or malolactic fermentation.These are also known as the "five S" steps: see. bottles and even glasses may be disguised in a "blind" tasting. a wine's quality assessment is more objective when performed alongside several other wines. respectively. or any other remarkable or unusual characteristics. taste. Wines may be deliberately selected for their vintage ("horizontal" tasting) or proceed from a single winery ("vertical" tasting).
Red port . A wine's color is better judged by putting it against a white background. This will bring the wine down to the desired temperature in about twenty minutes. Light. and whether the wine was aged in wood. are best served a little cool.and connectedness. dessert wine. room temperature is ideal. like Beaujolais. it does the wine no favors. For most reds. For whites. If you're pushed for time. a couple of hours in the fridge will do just fine. of course. Champagne. most sherry and rosé should be treated as white. but here are a couple of things that may help the wine show its best: Temperature: In general. especially on a warm summer day. Colors can give the taster clues to the grape variety. We've all had warm red wine served to us in restaurants and. then put the bottle in an ice bucket filled half with ice and half with cold water. SERVING WINE There's really no mystery to serving wine as most of us can manage to get the wine out of the bottle and into our glass without too much trouble. The wine glass is put at an angle in order to see the colors. unless the room is a balmy 80°F. white wines should be served chilled and red wine at room temperature. fruity reds. frankly.
It is frequently done with vintage port or older red wines that have spent many years in a bottle. Heavy. Breathing: If a wine has spent many years locked up in a bottle. cut glass makes The it difficult to see the wine properly. You can test this by tasting a wine immediately after opening it and then see how your second glass tastes some twenty minutes later. simply pour the wine slowly into a glass decanter or jug keeping an eye on the neck of the bottle. it's time to stop. The vast majority of wines do not need to be decanted at all. whites generally don't need to be opened ahead of time. Glassware: The best glasses for appreciating wine are made of plain. clear glass.should be served at room temperature but tawny port can be chilled. Decanting can also help the wine "breathe". but if you do need to do it. That's also why. glass . When you see sediment in the neck. On the other hand. thin. Decanting: This is the process of pouring off any sediment that has been deposited in the bottle over time to create 'clean wine'. This can take place in the glass or in a decanter and twenty to thirty minutes should suffice. away from the air. if you're opening several reds. while you are enjoying the current one. as the goal is usually to retain their freshness. it will benefit from a little breathing time. You give your next bottle a chance to breathe. Even young wines can benefit from a little breathing time as it allows the wine to open up and really show what it's made of. open them all at once. There's often quite a difference.
the longer it will keep. which will buy you another day or two. Today there are many specialty glasses designed to be used with different grape varieties. Champagne should be served in tall flutes or tall. keeping the air out. This allows room for swirling the wine around in the glass to release its aromas without splashing it all over the table. Fill level: The glass should never be filled more than about half full. You can even buy vacuum pumps in wine shops to remove the air altogether. If you don't finish the bottle. enhance the attributes of the different wines.should have a wide bowl tapering to a narrow opening. most wines will keep quite happily for a couple of days with the cork stuck back in the bottle. quick circles with the base. but in general the higher quality the wine. It's impossible to say exactly how long a wine will keep once open because each wine is different. in other words. Wine type Examples Temperature Temperature . they really aren't necessary. thin tulip-shaped glasses. is a simple. a tulip shape. While these may. hold the stem at the base and make small. This allows room for the wine to be swirled in the glass while concentrating the aromas at the rim. all purpose glass like Riedel's "Ouverture" series red and white wine glass. elegant solution for about $7/glass. A good. Try it! Always taste the wine yourself before serving it to guests in case it's faulty. indeed. A good way to achieve this is to leave the glass on the table . Whites are better off in the fridge and reds left out at room temperature.
Sauvignon blanc Sparkling Shiraz. Nebbiolo based wines 10–12°C 50–54°F 12–16°C 54–61°F 14–17°C 57–63°F 15–18°C 59–64°F Conclusions . Provence rosé Oaked Chardonnay. Semillon 8–12°C Champagne 6–10°C Trockenbeerenauslese. some frizzante Lambrusco Chablis. light bodied white Red sparkling wines Medium bodied whites Full bodied dessert wines Light bodied red wines Full bodied white wines Medium bodied red wines Full bodied red wines Riesling.(Celsius) Light bodied sweet dessert wines White sparkling wines Aromatic. Rhone whites Grand Cru Burgundy. Sauternes (Fahrenheit) 6–10°C 43–50°F 43–50°F 46–54°F 10–12°C 50–54°F 10–12°C 50–54°F Oloroso Sherry. Sangiovese Cabernet Sauvignon. Madeira 8–12°C 46–54°F Beaujolais.
The growers will have to reorient themselves for wine grapes cultivation.Presently Indian wine industry is in a nascent stage. The wine in fact is a social and health drink. The Indian wine makers should learn from new world’s ( Australia and Chile ) wine makers and strictly adhere to international quality standards so that exports of wines will be their prime target. . though it has kick started only from Maharashtra much remains to be seen at the national level. Indians will have to go generously and in celebrating manners for wine consumptions and be able to descriminate wines with other alcoholic liqueurs. each wine producing country is able to provide a unique and distinctive strategy to position their wines in the global market. subsequently there exists a huge scope for expansion in area and production of wine grapes in our country The industry of wines has been considered as one of the most sought after industry in the global market. Having been realizing such aspects. its consumption has to be promoted through various media campaigns and wine festivals. Many people are now trying to include wines as part of their daily living. The initiative of these countries adheres to the needs of the customers for a high quality and satisfying wines. We hope.
Today there are many specialty glasses designed to be used with different grape varieties. they really aren't necessary. keeping the air out. quick circles with the base. It's impossible to say exactly how long a .words. thin tulip-shaped glasses. If you don't finish the bottle. Champagne should be served in tall flutes or tall. A good way to achieve this is to leave the glass on the table . This allows room for swirling the wine around its in the glass to release aromas without splashing it all over the table. which will buy you another day or two. all purpose glass like Riedel's "Ouverture" series red and white wine glass. Try it! Always taste the wine yourself before serving it to guests in case it's faulty. elegant solution for about $7/glass. While these may. indeed. This allows room for the wine to be swirled in the glass while concentrating the aromas at the rim. most wines will keep quite happily for a couple of days with the cork stuck back in the bottle. is a simple. enhance the attributes of the different wines. Fill level: The glass should never be filled more than about half full. Whites are better off in the fridge and reds left out at room temperature. You can even buy vacuum pumps in wine shops to remove the air altogether. A good. hold the stem at the base and make small.
wine will keep once open because each wine is different. Madeira 8–12°C 46–54°F wines Light bodied Beaujolais. some frizzante Lambrusco 8–12°C 46–54°F 10–12°C 50–54°F Chablis. Semillon 10–12°C 50–54°F Oloroso Sherry. but in general the higher quality the wine. Sauvignon blanc Sparkling Shiraz. Sangiovese 10–12°C 12–16°C 14–17°C 50–54°F 54–61°F 57–63°F . light bodied white Red sparkling wines Medium bodied whites Full bodied dessert Examples Trockenbeerenauslese. Temperatur e (Celsius) Temperatur e (Fahrenheit) Wine type Light bodied sweet dessert wines White sparkling wines Aromatic. Sauternes 6–10°C 43–50°F Champagne 6–10°C 43–50°F Riesling. the longer it will keep. Rhone whites Grand Cru Burgundy. Provence red wines Full bodied white wines Medium bodied red rosé Oaked Chardonnay.
each wine producing country is able to provide a unique and distinctive strategy to position their wines in the global market. The growers will have to reorient themselves for wine grapes cultivation. Indians will have to go generously and in celebrating manners for wine consumptions and be able to descriminate wines with other alcoholic liqueurs. The wine in fact is a social and health drink. though it has kick started only from Maharashtra much remains to be seen at the national level. The Indian wine makers should learn from new world’s ( Australia and Chile ) wine makers and strictly adhere to international quality standards so that exports of wines will be their prime target. subsequently there exists a huge scope for expansion in area and production of wine grapes in our country The industry of wines has been considered as one of the most sought after industry in the global market. . Having been realizing such aspects.wines Full bodied red wines Cabernet Sauvignon. The initiative of these countries adheres to the needs of the customers for a high quality and satisfying wines. We hope. Nebbiolo based wines 15–18°C 59–64°F Conclusions Presently Indian wine industry is in a nascent stage. its consumption has to be promoted through various media campaigns and wine festivals. Many people are now trying to include wines as part of their daily living.
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