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Accuracy and precision
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Accuracy" redirects here. For the song by The Cure, see Three Imaginary Boys. In the fields of science, engineering, industry and statistics, the accuracy of a measurement system is the degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to that quantity's actual (true) value. The precision of a measurement system, also called reproducibility or repeatability, is the degree to which repeated measurements under unchanged conditions show the same results. Although the two words can be synonymous in colloquial use, they are deliberately contrasted in the context of the scientific method.
This glossary serves to introduce the user to the terminology used by Lee Company engineers in describing out products. These descriptions are proposed to serve as a reference point in product discussions to eliminate problems of definition. While these terms are subjected to different interpretation throughout various fields, it is proposed that these definitions be adhered to aid efficient communication. Accuracy Accuracy is the degree of error between the intended, specified, or nominal property value and actual value. Typically used to define the performance envelope of a production lot of parts about the specified nominal. Normally used to relate single-event performance of multiple parts. Compare to PRECISION. Axial Mixing See FLUSHABILITY Backlash (Mechanical Hysteresis) Backlash is defined as the amount (usually in microliters) of "play" or error in the mechanical drive of the pump assembly. This is only noticable when the motor armature changes direction. The error is the result of the clearance
between the screw and nut portions of the drive. Properly accounted for with drive software, the backlash can be made insignificant to accuracy and precision. Carry-over Volume See CROSSOVER VOLUME Coefficient of Variation (CV) CV is defined as the standard deviation of a distribution of data divided by the mean value. This value, expressed in percent, reflects the degree of spread of data and is used to define the consistency of the performance or of dispensed volumes or other parameter. Crossover Volume (Dead-leg Volume, Carry-over Volume) Crossover Volume is any internal-geometry-dependent volumetric error introduced by the value internal volume between the valving point and the common flow point. Most commonly used in discussions of three-way valves, it refers to the unflushed slug of material between the flowing passage and the closed port seal. Crosstalk (Intra-port Flow) Crosstalk is any response-time-dependent flow or pressure variation between any two valves or two ports of a three-way valve. For example, this term refers to the flow that takes place between the Normally Closed and Normally open ports of the three-way valve in the time between the beginning of actuation and the end of actuation, when both ports are partially open. Dead-leg Volume See CROSSOVER VOLUME Flushability (Axial Mixing) Flushability the degree of dispersion or band-broadening introduced by a component into a flowing stream. Sometimes referred to as axial mixing, it defines the stretching of a slug of sample as it passes through a component. Usually discussed in relative or qualitative terms, as the specific definition of this characteristic is somewhat complex. Response Time This term defines the lag time between the input of a control signal and the resulting response of the system or component being monitored. Typical use of the response time with a passive component could define the time lag between a pressure pulse input to a check valve, and the time to close or open the valve seat in response to that pulse. The more common usage is in reference to a active components, such as solenoid valves. This term then typically defines the time from the beginning of a normal voltage step-input drive signal, and the pneumatic output from the valve port that is opening or closing as a result of
For further discussion of response times. Used in reference to valve response times or dispensed volumes. neither.that signal. binding energy. Intra-port Flow See CROSSTALK Repeatability (Precision) The repeatability of any function means consistency of performance even if the performance is not accurate. precision to the repeatability or reproducibility of the measurement A measurement system can be accurate but not precise. or mean value. The quantity of the former sample still retained inside the component after flushing with some specified volume is defined as dead volume. A measurement system is designated valid if it is both accurate and precise. Eliminating the systematic error improves accuracy but does not change precision. specified. if an experiment contains a systematic error. For example. Dead Volume The actual non-flushable volumes of any component or system flow passages. as many factors come into play to determine the actual dead volume such as miscibility. precise but not accurate. then increasing the sample size generally increases precision but does not improve accuracy. . Used to express the total variability of a single component over multiple events. where a dead-end passageway or cavity could retain materials to contaminate subsequent samples or flow media. Accuracy indicates proximity of measurement results to the true value. The end result would be a consistent yet inaccurate string of results from the flawed experiment. Related terms include bias (non-random or directed effects caused by a factor or factors unrelated to the independent variable) and error (random variability). This value is highly subjective. contact your Lee Sales Engineer. or both. viscosity. etc. Usually specified in terms of the percent tolerance about the nominal.
but low accuracy . so it is used as a measure for the relative accuracy with which an arbitrary number can be represented. which is the smallest change in the underlying physical quantity that produces a response in the measurement. In the case of full reproducibility. the word precision has a meaning not related to reproducibility. Contents [hide] 1 Accuracy versus precision: the target analogy 2 Quantifying accuracy and precision 3 Accuracy and precision in binary classification 4 Accuracy and precision in psychometrics and psychophysics 5 Accuracy and precision in logic simulation 6 Accuracy and precision in information systems 7 See also 8 References 9 External links  Accuracy versus precision: the target analogy High accuracy. For example. such as when rounding a number to a representable floating point number. measurements may also have a measurement resolution. but low precision High precision. in the IEEE 754-2008 standard it means the number of bits in the significand. values obtained by a computational procedure from observed data. In addition to accuracy and precision.The terminology is also applied to indirect measurements--that is.
(When only one arrow is shot. In that case. if a large number of arrows are shot. they cannot all be close to the bullseye. though not necessarily accurate. it is not possible to reliably achieve accuracy in individual measurements without precision—if the arrows are not grouped close to one another.  Quantifying accuracy and precision See also: False precision Ideally a measurement device is both accurate and precise. The measurements are precise. the term standard error is properly applied: the precision of the average is equal to the known standard deviation of the process divided by the square root of the number of measurements averaged. precision is the size of the cluster one would expect if this were repeated many times under the same conditions. the central limit theorem shows that the probability distribution of the averaged measurements will be closer to a normal distribution than that of individual measurements. the more accurate the system is considered to be. However. The analogy used here to explain the difference between accuracy and precision is the target comparison. With regard to accuracy we can distinguish: the difference between the mean of the measurements and the reference value. but the individual arrows are inaccurate. the combined effect of that and precision. (Their average position might be an accurate estimation of the bullseye. . To continue the analogy.Accuracy is the degree of veracity while in some contexts precision may mean the degree of reproducibility. Accuracy describes the closeness of arrows to the bullseye at the target center. The accuracy and precision of a measurement process is usually established by repeatedly measuring some traceable reference standard.) See also circular error probable for application of precision to the science of ballistics. This also applies when measurements are repeated and averaged. even if not necessarily near the bullseye. precision would be the size of the arrow cluster.) When all arrows are grouped tightly together. with measurements all close to and tightly clustered around the known value. Such standards are defined in the International System of Units and maintained by national standards organizations such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology. the cluster is considered precise since they all struck close to the same spot. the bias. Further. The closer a system's measurements to the accepted value. In this analogy. Arrows that strike closer to the bullseye are considered more accurate. repeated measurements are compared to arrows that are shot at a target. Establishing and correcting for bias is necessary for calibration.
) The second value is more precise. with trailing zeroes and no decimal point. or 843. reliance on this convention can lead to false precision errors when accepting data from sources that do not obey it. giving a margin of 0.5 m.5 m (the last significant digits are the units).0 (though mathematically equal to 8) would mean that the value at the first decimal place was measured and was found to be zero. Thus. a recording of 843. the margin of error is understood to be one-half the value of the last significant place.0 km is equivalent to 8. and over longer time periods.0 m would imply a margin of 0.05 m (the last significant place is the tenths place).000 m. Precision is sometimes stratified into: Repeatability — the variation arising when all efforts are made to keep conditions constant by using the same instrument and operator. while a recording of 8. when not explicitly stated.A common convention in science and engineering is to express accuracy and/or precision implicitly by means of significant figures.05 km (50 m). However. In fact. while precision could be identified as the ability to resolve smaller differences.0 × 103 m. the trailing zeroes may or may not be intended as significant figures.6 m.0 × 103 m indicates that the first zero is significant (hence a margin of 50 m) while 8.  Accuracy and precision in binary classification Accuracy is also used as a statistical measure of how well a binary classification test correctly identifies or excludes a condition.436 m would imply a margin of error of 0. accuracy can be said to be the 'correctness' of a measurement. Condition as determined by Gold standard True Test Positive outcome Negative True positive False negative False False positive True negative → Positive predictive value → Negative predictive . Looking at this in another way. and Reproducibility — the variation arising using the same measurement process among different instruments and operators. and repeating during a short time period. For instance. or 800. is ambiguous. To avoid this ambiguity. Similarly. Neither of the measured values may be accurate (the actual value could be 9. A reading of 8. the number could be represented in scientific notation: 8. it indicates a margin of 0.000 × 103 m indicates that all three zeroes are significant.5 but measured inaccurately as 8 in both instances). Here. (The measuring instrument was able to measure the first decimal place. it is possible to use a multiple of the basic measurement unit: 8. a value of 8 would mean that the measurement has been made with a precision of 1 (the measuring instrument was able to measure only down to 1s place) whereas a value of 8.0 m.
the accuracy is the proportion of true results (both true positives and true negatives) in the population. F-measure may be more appropriate.value ↓ Sensitivity ↓ Specificity Accuracy That is. Also see Sensitivity and specificity. provided Prevalence is known. Reliability is established with a variety of statistical techniques. On the other hand. Precision is a synonym for reliability and variable error. especially in situations with very skewed class imbalance. The validity of a measurement instrument or psychological test is established through experiment or correlation with behavior. the term accuracy is interchangeably used with validity and constant error. Accuracy may be determined from Sensitivity and Specificity. In situations where the minority class is more important. using the equation: accuracy = (sensitivity)(prevalence) + (specificity)(1 − prevalence) The accuracy paradox for predictive analytics states that predictive models with a given level of accuracy may have greater predictive power than models with higher accuracy. It is a parameter of the test. It may be better to avoid the accuracy metric in favor of other metrics such as precision and recall. An alternate performance measure that treats both classes with equal importance is "balanced accuracy":  Accuracy and precision in psychometrics and psychophysics In psychometrics and psychophysics. classically through an internal consistency test like Cronbach's . precision is defined as the proportion of the true positives against all the positive results (both true positives and false positives) An accuracy of 100% means that the measured values are exactly the same as the given values.
Precision is measured with respect to detail and accuracy is measured with respect to reality. page 281-306 . 128–129. ^ John M. Vol 36.alpha to ensure sets of related questions have related responses. in the context of maximum possible disagreement. ^ a b JCGM 200:2008 International vocabulary of metrology — Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM) 2. 1997. The necessary extension of these two concepts on the basis of theory of science suggests that they (as well as data quality and information quality) should be centered on accuracy defined as the closeness to the true value seen as the degree of agreement of readings or of calculated values of one same conceived entity. information systems and their sociotechnical context. pp. a common mistake in evaluation of accurate models is to compare a logic simulation model to a transistor circuit simulation model. University Science Books. and then comparison of those related question between reference and target population. not accuracy.  Accuracy and precision in information systems The concepts of accuracy and precision have also been studied in the context of data bases. This is a comparison of differences in precision. An Introduction to Error Analysis: The Study of Uncertainties in Physical Measurements. Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology. ISBN 0-935702-75-X.  See also Accuracy class ANOVA Gauge R&R ASTM E177 Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods Experimental uncertainty analysis Failure assessment Gain (information retrieval) Precision bias Precision engineering Precision (statistics) Accepted and experimental value  References 1. measured or calculated by different methods.  Accuracy and precision in logic simulation In logic simulation. Acken. ^ John Robert Taylor (1999). 3.
). Doctoral dissertation. ^ 1990 Workshop on Logic-Level Modelling for ASICS. and John M. Acken. The infological equation: Essays in honor of Börje Langefors.Guides in metrology . K. Mark Glasser. Gothenburg: Gothenburg University. The University of Stockholm and The Royal Institute of Technology. Number 1. Appendix D. the free dictionary. (1995)..1: Terminology Accuracy and Precision View page ratings Rate this page What's this? Trustworthy Objective Complete Well-written I am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional) Categories: Biostatistics | Statistical theory | Psychometrics | Evaluation | Critical thinking | Qualities of thought | Uncertainty of numbers | Measurement | Summary statistics for contingency tables Log in / create account Article Discussion Read Edit View history .  External links Look up accuracy. (pp. Further details are found in Ivanov.4. "Quality-control of information: On the concept of accuracy of information in data banks and in management information systems".Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) and International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM) "Beyond NIST Traceability: What really creates accuracy" . June 1990 5. Vol 20.Controlled Environments magazine Precision and Accuracy with Three Psychophysical Methods Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results. (1972). of Informatics (ISSN 1101-7422). A subsystem in the design of informatics: Recalling an archetypal engineer. K. or precision in Wiktionary. 287-301). SIGDA Newsletter. Dahlbom (Ed. In B. Rob Mathews. BIPM . ^ Ivanov. Dept.
It does not require us to know the correct or true value. The true meaning of noon is not important because we only care that the clock is giving a repeatable result. However. This statement certainly needs some explanation. so the results are known. The true value has not yet been established and there is no other guide. we then define all the other clocks in that time zone to be correct if they match the central clock. A stopped clock is accurate at least once each day. Their experiments are necessarily repetitions of previous work. Students in science classes are in an artificial situation. Students often are very conscious of error to the point where they assume it happens in every experiment. assume that error is not a consideration. Because of this students learn a poor lesson about science. A clock that read 12:00 would not be accurate at that time. Thus a clock at the Eastern edge of a time zone that reads 11:30 when the sun is overhead would still be accurate since it agrees with the central clock. Of course the scientist is concerned about this. Later research. If they are new. You might raise the possibility that the experiment has a defective component or incorrect assumption so that an error is made.In the case of time zones however clocks measure something slightly more abstract than the location of the sun. But consider what science is about. Precision Precision refers to the repeatability of measurement. Thus it is not possible to discuss our error. this clock is very precise. will hopefully reveal any problems. you must know the true or correct value to discuss your error. Your team has . If each day for several years a clock reads exactly 10:17 AM when the sun is at the zenith. If you want to benefit most from your laboratory experiences. if an error occurs we simply will not know it. We define the clock at the center of the time zone to be correct if it matches the sun. attempts by other scientists to repeat the result. Error Error refers to the disagreement between a measurement and the true or accepted value. As with accuracy. The idea to get used to here is that accuracy only refers to the agreement between the measured value and the expected value and that this may or may not say something about the quality of the measuring instrument. After the experiment has been conducted. This is distracting to the project of becoming a scientist. you will need to do some judicious pretending. It is the only choice available. You may be amazed to discover that error is not that important in the discussion of experimental results. The central objective is to discover new things. The good scientist assumes the experiment is not in error. but the first time around there is no such guide. while you write up the result in your lab report. then we do not know what the true value is ahead of time. Since there are more than thirty million seconds in a year this device is more precise than one part in one million! That is a very fine clock indeed! You should take note here that we do not need to consider the complications of edges of time zones to decide that this is a good clock. Typically there has been much discussion with other scientists and a review of the methods to try to avoid exactly this possibility.
in part because you do not have complete knowledge of the manufacture of the measuring device. In the worst case we might say the desk is not shorter than zero meters and not longer than four meters (because it would not fit the room). and because you cannot see microscopically to confirm that the edge of the table exactly matches the marks on the device. However it is quite easy to imagine that you could be certain that the desk was not more than ten centimeters (~ five inches) different than your measurement. is the important term to the working scientist. It is in the first place embarrassing. The scientist would write L = 1.15 m. it is rarely the source of experimental problems. The skill comes in getting the confidence intervals (the uncertainty) to be as small as possible. This uncertainty interval is assigned by the experimenter following established principles of uncertainty estimation.95 m. In a sort of miraculous way uncertainty allows the scientist to make completely certain statements. If you do not have this confidence. and in our experience as faculty members. with a ruler or tape measure.) Uncertainty Uncertainty of a measured value is an interval around that value such that any repetition of the measurement will produce a new result that lies within this interval. Suppose you measured the length of your desk. By stating the uncertainty to be 0. Uncertainty. (Well over half of problems producing bad laboratory results are due to analysis errors in the report! Look here first. Let us say that your classmate has measured the width of a standard piece of notebook paper and states the result as 8.20 m. Do not write "human error" as any part of your lab report.08 inches your classmate is claiming with confidence that every reasonable measurement of this piece of paper by other experimenters will produce a value not less than 8. rather than error. This measurement may be nearly useless.53 0. you are sure that your tape measure could not be stretched out by five inches compared to its proper length.61 inches.20 m). but it is completely certain! By stating a confidence interval for a measurement the scientist makes statements that any reasonable scientist must agree with. Here is an example to see how this works." Notice that it is always possible to construct a completely certain sentence. You may have experience with tape measures. .done the best it can have done in the lab and you must account for the results on that basis. Nevertheless you would not say with absolute certainty that L = 1. After measuring you might say "This desk is not longer than 1.08 inches." You could make this statement with complete confidence. One of the goals of this document is to help you become proficient at assigning and working with uncertainty intervals. And based on that experience. Thus you cannot discuss error in this case. perhaps ten inches or a foot would make you confident.35 m and not shorter than 0. and the result was one meter and twenty centimeters (L = 1.45 inches and not greater than 8.20 0. The format is "value plus or minus uncertainty. Now the true length is not known here.
A metal rod about 4 inches long has been passed around to several groups of students. 68% of the time your new measurement will fall in this interval.6 10.227 12.011 12. Student Group Group A Group B Group C Group D Group E Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4 Student 5 10.15 8. In this case the measured value has the stated probability to lie within the confidence interval.18 10. here is the definition of uncertainty. You should then assign this uncertainty to the measurement at the time that you record the data. Uncertainty: Having presented the example.17 10. Each group has five students and each student independently measures the rod and records his or her result. Uncertainties may also be stated along with a probability.82 11 9.135 12. Each group is asked to measure the length of the rod.4 10.201 12.9 10. Accepted values Check your understanding of these terms by working through the example below. Every measurement you make should be considered along with a confidence interval.14 10. A particularly common example is one standard deviation (SD) for the average of a random sample. The format "value 1 SD" means that if you repeat the measurement. True values vs.01 10 9.05 10 10.1 10. The uncertainty in a stated measurement is the interval of confidence around the measured value such that the measured value is certain not to lie outside this stated interval.14 11.77 10 A B Which group has the most accurate measurement? A B Which group has the most precise measurement? .8 10.5 10 10.This is your task in the laboratory.155 12.
(4.000 inches = 10. This very reputable firm certifies the rod to be 4 inches long to the nearest thousandths of an inch.C D E Which group has the greatest error? C D E Which group has the greatest uncertainty? A B C D E A B C D E We now recieve a report from the machine shop where the rod was manufactured. Note that the questions are slightly different. Answer the questions below given this new information.160 cm) Which group has the least Which group has the least precise accurate measurement? measurement? A A B C D E Which group has the smallest error? B C D E Which group has the smallest uncertainty? A B C A B C .
0. 0. amplification The movement of a measuring instrument's contact points in relation to the amount of readout on the needle or scale. accurate standard to eliminate any variation in the device being checked. the accuracy of the complete gauge is 0. calibration The comparison of a device with unknown accuracy to a device with a known. The repeatability coefficient is a precision measure which represents the value below which the absolute difference between two repeated test results may be expected to lie with a probability of 95%. You can find this value with different spelling: 0. coordinate measuring machine A sophisticated measuring instrument with a flat polished table and a suspended probe that measures parts in three-dimensional space. the other pair measures internal features. You can either add the .1%. This value is generally diffined as a purcentage of the capacity of the sensor or instrument in the unit of measurement.D E D E The accuracy is the degree of closeness of the measured value to its "true" value. According to the Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results. on our Centor Easy force gauge withinternal sensor. bias The predicted difference on average between the measurement and the true value.1lb. the accuracy is 0.1% FS. used under the same conditions the same location repetition over a short period of time. Repeatability methods were developed by Bland and Altman (1986). correction factor The amount of deviation in a measurement that is accounted for in the calibration process. repeatability conditions include: the same measurement procedure the same observer the same measuring instrument. The standard deviation under repeatability conditions is part of precision and accuracy.1% of 100lb = 0. accuracy The difference between a measurement reading and the true value of that measurement. For example. or 0.1% FS (FS: Full scale). It means that if you have a sensor with a capacity of 100lb.1lb Repeatability or test-retest reliability is the variation in measurements taken by a single person or instrument on the same item and under the same conditions. One pair of jaws measures external features. Bias is also known as accuracy.1% of the full scale. caliper A measuring instrument with two pairs of jaws on one end and a long beam containing a marked scale of unit divisions. A measurement may be said to be repeatable when this variation is smaller than some agreed limit.
graph A diagram that represents the variation of one variable compared to another. Linearity is also the amount of deviation from an instrument's ideal straight-line performance. Micrometers are available in numerous types for measuring assorted dimensions and features. Dial indicators have graduations that are available for reading different measurement values. variation A difference between two or more similar things. Measuring instruments have thermally stable characteristics so that they are not affected by temperature increases. Granite is often used for inspection surfaces. However. drift The actual change in the measurement value when the same characteristic is measured under the same conditions. slots. granite A dense. Hysteresis is the amount of error that results when this action occurs. systematic error An error that is not determined by chance but is introduced by an inaccuracy in the system. standard A recognized true value. a beam that is at a right angle to the base. hysteresis The delay between the action and reaction of a measuring instrument. rule of ten The inspection guideline stating that a measuring instrument must be ten times more precise than the acceptable tolerance of the inspected part feature. test. discrimination The distance between two lines on a scale or the fineness of an instrument's divisions of measurement units. gage A device that determines whether or not a part feature is within specified limits. measuring instruments are also sometimes called gages. slope The angle of a line that appears when comparing two variables on a graph. . stability The ability of a measuring instrument to retain its calibration over a long period of time. thermal characteristic The way a material behaves due to changes in heat. The dimension being measured must fit inside this range. height gage A type of measuring instrument with a precision finished base. Drift indicates how often a measurement needs recalibration. precision The degree to which an instrument will repeat the same measurement over a period of time. micrometer A U-shaped measuring instrument with a threaded spindle that slowly advances toward a small anvil. at different points in time. measuring instrument A device used to inspect. depth gage A type of measuring instrument that measures the depth of holes. error The amount of deviation from a standard or specification. tolerance The unwanted but acceptable deviation from a desired dimension. specified range of measurement The limit of measurement values that an instrument is capable of reading. cylindrical gage used to inspect the size of a hole. Errors should be eliminated in the measuring process. Resolution is also known as sensitivity. repeatability The ability to obtain consistent results when measuring the same part with the same measuring instrument. error of measurement The actual difference between a measurement value and the known standard value. resolution The smallest change in a measured value that the instrument can detect. or examine parts in order to determine compliance with required specifications. and an indicator. Stability determines an instrument's consistency over time. Plug gages are available in standardized diameters. Calibration must compare measurement values to a known standard. or recesses. wear-resistant material that is capable of excellent flatness. Systematic errors are predictable and expected. measure. dial indicator A measuring instrument with a contact point attached to a spindle and gears that moves a pointer on the dial. Most gages do not provide an actual measurement value. linearity The amount of error change throughout an instrument's measurement range.correction factor to the measured value or adjust the measuring instrument. same operator. plug gage A hardened.
For optimum system performance. test apparatus. Reproducibility relates to the agreement of test results with different operators. All measurements are made within the test unit’s allowed range and operating conditions. it is not considered necessary to establish the scientific validity of a theory. hysteresis. by someone else working independently. Reproducibility is different from repeatability. possibly conducted by the same experimenters. In determining system error budgets. which measures the success rate in successive experiments. and laboratory locations. While repeatability of scientific experiments is desirable. It is often reported as a standard deviation. each individual system element needs an acceptable error allocation. Repeatability is often low in protosciences. For example. Extensive Definition Reproducibility is one of the main principles of the scientific method. One failed cloning does not mean that the theory is wrong or unscientific. . and repeatability. (b) Reproducibility includes drift (repeated measurements over any length of time). Note reproducibility includes repeatability. the cloning of animals is difficult to repeat. and is a well established research domain.Equally important to the dollar budget is the error budget. but has been reproduced by various teams working independently. The accepted definition of "reproducibility" is the closeness of agreement among a number of repeated measurements of outputs for the same input where this input is approached from any direction and these measurements are made over a period of time. The subtle difference between "repeatability" and "reproducibility" is as follows. or replicated. The accepted definition of "repeatability" is the closeness of agreement among a number of consecutive measurements of outputs for the same input where this input is approached from the same direction after a transversal of input across the full-scale span. "repeatability" is often confused with "reproducibility". which is often overlooked or determined de facto by cost constraints. and refers to the ability of a test or experiment to be accurately reproduced. (a) Repeatability includes neither drift errors (since consecutive measurements over a period of time are too short for drift to be a factor) nor hysteresis.
although the effect is not considered fully repeatable. He developed instruments to detect and harness this energy that he said could be used to treat illness or control the weather. . The basic idea can be seen in Aristotle's dictum that there is no scientific knowledge of the individual. Nikola Tesla claimed as early as 1899 to have used a high frequency current to light gasfilled lamps from over away without using wires. Thus all knowledge. In 1904 he built Wardenclyffe Tower on Long Island to demonstrate means to send and receive power without connecting wires. successful replications by independent teams were reported in peer reviewed scientific journals. but he disagreed on the interpretation of the results.The results of an experiment performed by a particular researcher or group of researchers are generally evaluated by other independent researchers by reproducing the original experiment. Tesla's experiments have never been replicated. the field eventually gained some scientific recognition. But Martin Gardner's book. all science. The news media reported on the experiments widely. and cold fusion was dismissed as pseudoscience. At the end of May the US Energy Research Advisory Board found the evidence to be unconvincing. In 2001. The report was astounding given the simplicity of the equipment: it was essentially an electrolysis cell containing heavy water and a palladium cathode which rapidly absorbed the deuterium produced during electrolysis." and which he said existed in the atmosphere and in all living matter. His views were not accepted by the mainstream scientific community. in fact. Later on. University of Utah chemists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann reported the production of excess heat that could only be explained by a nuclear process. based on the original experimental description. Turner). he was vilified for his claims. and. In the 1930's the Austrian scientist Wilhelm Reich claimed to have discovered a physical energy he called "orgone. Over the next several months others tried to replicate the experiment. The facility was never fully operational and was not completed. which Einstein did. where the word used for individual in Greek had the connotation of the idiosyncratic. or wholly isolated occurrence. and it was a front-page item on many newspapers around the world. supposedly due to economic problems. and see if their experiment gives similar results to those reported by the original group. Canadian researchers Paulo Correa and Alexandra Correa claimed to have successfully reproduced the experiment. The result values are said to be commensurate if they are obtained (in distinct experimental trials) according to the same reproducible experimental description and procedure. but were unsuccessful. Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science debunks orgone energy. They repeat the same experiment themselves. necessarily involves the formation of general concepts and the invocation of their corresponding symbols in language (cf. Famous problems In March 1989. In the early 1940's Reich encouraged Albert Einstein to test an orgone accumulator.
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