You are on page 1of 4

AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 004 1

Acnatru [gentilicium] add The item acnatrualc is found in CIE 5431 and 5432 identifying the
mother: Acnatrual-c Θanχvilus “and (son) of Thanacvil Acnatru”.
Anaie [gentilicium] add Based on Aneie from CIE 3550 and 5538.
Anaina [gentilicium] modify Changed to Anaiena to better reflect etymology. (See Anaie above.)
Anainaie [gentilicium] modify Changed to Anaienaie to better reflect etymology. (See Anaina
above.)
Antipater [gentilicium] add Borrowed from Greek Αντίπατρος (Antipatros) and seen in CIE
2004.
apacar 'calculator, tallier' add The word apcar is found in TLE 779 inscribed on a gem showing
someone holding an abacus. My understanding is that this is most
likely a loanword from Latin *abacārius (a term based on abacus) to
explain the curious ending in -ar which can't possibly be the animate
plural. The Latin suffix -ārius describes pertinence to something and
hence my suggestion of *abacārius doesn't seem too shabby.
Regardless of my clever idea though, I have yet to verify that this
word ever existed. Alas, woe is me.
apirinśa 'divine will' add The term aprenśaiś is found in TLE 380 and probably related to the
verb apir which I give the value of 'to sanctify'. Since it's so far a
hapax and its exact morphology unknown to me, my translation can
be considered tentative, solely a hunch based on context.
Arazni [female praenomen] modify Changed to Arazna. The -i termination is found on female gentilicia.
Arcumna [gentilicium] add Based on Arcumnal in ET Cl 1.1624 and Arcmnal in ET Vt 1.67
(gen.)
Arcumsina [gentilicium] modify Changed to Arcumisna. The extent forms Arcmsnas [TLE 298] and
Arcmsnei [CIE 1746] are not clear about the original vowel between
'm' and 's' but I justify my change on an etymological suspicion that
there is an Etruscan word *arcum 'bow' (itself a hypothetical
borrowing from Latin) and its diminutive *arcumiś underlying all
this.
Atale [male praenomen] add Borrowed from Greek Άτταλος (Attalos) and attested in CIE 2195.
Atarna [gentilicium] modify Changed to Atranna in connection with the word atran (see atrane
below). The name Atranus is attested in Latin.
atrane 'reign, authority, rule' modify I am currently suspecting that this is in reality a verbal noun atran
which would be built on a verb root like *atra- or *atar- (?) and
using the suffix -an seen in Turan, *usilan (loc. usilane), and alpan.
In that interpretation though, atranes in nac atranes zilacal as it is
written in the Pyrgi Tablets would be declined in a dative ending -iś.
I've tentatively offered the value of 'reign, authority, rule' but I'm not
yet satisfied with the meaning of zilχ in this phrase and in other
contexts where three uses of an inessive (zilcθi [TLE 255], zilcti
[TLE 325], zilcte [TLE 125]) make the status quo value of 'praetor'
seem clumsy and therefore unlikely. I need to ponder more on this.
Carsuna [gentilicium] add Found in CIE 1951and related to the name Carsu.
Cemna [gentilicium] modify Altered to Cemina and either connected with Latin Geminus 'Twin' or
the Greek name Γέμινος (Geminos).
Cemnaie [gentilicium] modify Updated in tandem with the change of Cemna above.
Cemnaχ [deity] modify I've changed the translation to 'Janus Geminus, Bifrons [deity]'
because of its recurring mention in the Liber Linteus as ais Cemnaχ.
No matter how you slice it, Cemnaχ is certainly an individual god , so
an etymological and mythological connection with Janus Geminus
seems to fit best so far.
cenza 'gift' add The item canza-te in TLE 559 is often believed to be part of an
AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 004 2

epithet of a deity named Selvans Canzate but this is ad hoc and I see
no connection that *Canzate might have with the rest of history. The
form, as far as I can tell, is a hapax but yet its morphology is clear to
me. We see here a common diminutive -za modifying a pan-Aegean
verb root can 'to bear, to hold, to carry, to bring' and thus quite
evidently refers to some kind of small offering. Hence the full context
of this inscription is Ecn turce Larθi Leθanei. Alpnu Selvansl
canza-te. This should be translated more along the lines of “This gave
Larthia Lethana. A little gift to Selvans with a little offering”. I'm
open to the possibility that cenza refers to a specific type of offering
that is distinct from alpnu or other terms conveying gifts.
Nonetheless, I have no doubt that Selvans Canzate is a modern myth
invented by Etruscologists. (See also Cenzana below.)
Cenzana [gentilicium] add The name is probably based on cenza above (see cenza) and would fit
the general pattern I've notice of Etruscan names built on religious
objects and concepts.
Certu [male praenomen] add Found in CIE 4816, but I just realized this should be Certun because
it's borrowed from Κέρδων. A similar Greek loan, Xarun 'Charon'
also loses -n becoming Xaru.
Clauniu[gentilicium] add Found in CIE 1132.
cul 'entrance' add Reflected in TLE 275 as cvl.
culś 'small entrance' add We can see genitive culsl in TLE 131 and the nomino-accusative
plural culścva in LL 8.v. I presume that the added -ś is the same
diminutive suffix -iś seen elsewhere (as in fler vs. flereś).
Cupariena [gentilicium] add There's Cuprna in CIE 2047.
Fastia [female praenomen] modify Changed to Fastiia due to phonotactics and morphology. The name is
the feminine form of Fasti.
Fulve [gentilicium] modify Changed to Fuluveto better reflect the pre-syncopated form.
Fulvenia [gentilicium] modify Altered to Fuluvena.by influence of my update of Fulve above.
fusil [type of offering] modify Changed to fuśil since this seems to be what's reflected in the
spellings. I only find the word thus far in the Cippus Perusinus (CPer
A.xiii, CPer A.iv). Please keep in mind that it's entirely possible that
the 's' here has merely been palatalized by the following 'i' and that the
underlying root is *fus rather than *fuś (n.b. -il forms many inanimate
deverbal nouns in Etruscan, such as usil).
Hipucrate [male praenomen] add The name is found in the genitive Hipucrates in TLE 155 painted on
an oinochoe from Tarquinia.
imaś 'to doom' add I infer this from imśce in a tabella defixionis or 'curse tablet' (TLE
380). Many may have noticed a curse tablet used by Servilia when she
proceeds to curse Cesar in HBO's series Rome. Normally the word in
question is represented as imśśe which to me looks malformed. I
render the sentence in which it is found as: Θanχvil Velśui, ces zeriś,
imśce and tentatively translate it as “Thanacvil Velsu, by this rite, has
been doomed.”
Lauterie [gentilicium] add Found as Lauteri in CIE 360.
Lautie [gentilicium] add Found as Lauti in CIE 3205.
Lucinaie [gentilicium] modify Modified to Laucienaie based on a connection with the praenomen
Laucie and the added proof of Laucini in CIE 485.
Lutnita [gentilicium] delete TLE 690 reads lutnita : fastia but it appears that lutnita may simply
be a syncopated variant of earlier lautuniθa 'freewoman'. So I've
merged this item with that.
Musclena [gentilicium] add Found in CIE 2481.
AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 004 3

Musni [gentilicium] add It is the name mentioned on a candelabra (TLE 646).


muχ [type of vessel for liquids] add Found in TLE 157: Ei muχ ara, an ei seθasri. I tentatively translate
this as “(If one) lifts the [vessel] here, he shall be struck here.” I
adamantly object to the common but completely ad hoc translation of
ei as a prohibitive meaning “do not!”.
naχ [liquid-bearing vessel] add Found in the plural in the Liber Linteus: naχva [LL 6.vi, 8.xxix]
(na.pl.), naχve [LL 3.xviii] (loc.pl.).
neri [type of offering] add Mentioned in the Liber Linteus in chapter 10 in the nomino-accusative
form neri and its genitive neriś.
Nestur add From ET Vc 7.11.
neθiś 'belly, organ, viscera' modify Altering phonetics to netiś. since this makes better sense if it comes
from Greek νηδύς 'viscera' with a medial -d-. It is also in line with the
attested netśvis in TLE 697 and 978.
neθiśraχ 'haruspical' modify Since this is a derivative of the above, this has also been changed to
netiśraχ (see neθiś).
paχaθu 'bacchante' add Based on paχaθura in TLE 195, under what I'm labelling as an
animate plural adessive. Etruscologists normally label the ending -a 'a
genitive ending' and assume that it is an old variant of -al. This makes
no sense to me at all considering the evidence of the same l-genitive
in a few other Aegean languages like Lemnian. Note Lemnian
Φukiasiale 'for the Phocaean' which can only be possible if the l-
genitive on which this dative in -ale is based (< genitive *-ala plus
locative -i) is at least as old as the parent of both Lemnian and
Etruscan preceding the 6th century BCE!
pesna [type of vessel containing modify Changed translation to '[vessel containing food offerings]'.
offerings of 'pes']
Pesna [gentilicium] modify Changed it to a male praenomen. Whoops, my bad.
pesnaiu [small type of vessel modify [small vessel containing food offerings]
containing offerings of 'pes']
Pisce [male praenomen] add Pisice is found in TLE 609.
Φersipanai [deity] add I'm surprised I didn't have this already in my database which just goes
to show why I'm still in draft mode. There's a lot of data to go through
still. Anyways, this name is found in both CIE 5091 and CIE 5364
and its meaning is uncontroversial. I give the reconstructed
unsyncopated header Φersipanai based on the Greek form that it's
borrowed from: Περσεφόνη (Persephonē).
Φuipa [mythos] add Borrowed from Greek, presumably Doric dialect with -a for the -ē in
standard Φοίβη (Phoibē).
Rutilinaie [gentilicium] add Found in TLE 382 as Rutlnis in the genitive, heavily syncopated by
the 1st c. BCE.
sanχune 'pertaining to oaths' modify Changed to sanχuna. It seems to me that sanχuneta is the nominative
unmarked form sanχuna plus nominative enclitic -ita (*sanχuna-ita
> sanχune-ta). It's assumed by Etruscologists to be a part of an
epithet of Selvans a priori without any secure historical evidence to
back up the claims. In this specific context, an epithet isn't unlikely
but the commonplace treatment of sanχuneta as a single word or
name betrays ignorance of the language and grammar.
Separie [gentilicium] add Based on genitive Sepres in TLE 52.
Sepunie [gentilicium] add Based on genitive Sepunes in ET Cm 2.2.
Śetri [gentilicium] modify Changed to Seθariia and reassigned it the value of '[female
praenomen]'.
AMMENDMENTS TO DRAFT 004 4

Śeθrana [gentilicium] modify Updated to Seθarina which is based on the praenomen Seθare. (See
Śeθre below.)
Śeθre [male praenomen] Modified to Seθare, a less syncopated form. The existence of Latin
correlates Setorius (CIL XI 5416, XIV 1614) and Seterius (XV 1447)
suggest the lost internal vowel.
śuθiu 'small grave' modify Keeping the phonotactics in my entry headers regular. So I changed
this word to śuθiiu since it's underlyingly śuθi plus the diminutive
-iu.(as in Alpaniu < Alpan [deity], Turaniu 'Eros' < Turan, and
atiiu < ati 'mother').
Sveia [male praenomen] add Amply attested in various declined forms as Svea [ET Cl 1.2503],
Sveas [ET Cl 1.1766], Sveaś [ET Cl 1.914] and Sveasla [CIE 2251].

Talámunus [gentilicium] modify Changing this name to [mythos] unless I can find the use of this name
by Etruscans elsewhere. I'm also adding -i-. Hence Talámunius to
better reflect its Greek origin (). The sequence -niV- (where V = any
vowel) regularly simplifies to -n- in Neo-Etruscan.
Talénaχa [district name] add Perhaps Tlenaχeiś [TLE 652] and Tlenaces [TLE 735] are referring
to a community around Cortona? This is a suggestion by Pfiffig in
contrast to D'Aversa's suggestion that it's a municipal or tribal
magistrative title. Still, I feel that something's not fitting with any of
these translations. There's room for improvement here.
Talésina [gentilicium] add The genitive Tlesnaś is found in CII 546 and linked to the Roman
name Telesinus.
Tama [male praenomen] add This name is of Greek origin, from Δάμος (Damos). It's found in CIE
2095.
tamera 'vase' modify Changing the word type to ni.(II) from na.(I). I now interpret the form
tameres in the Pyrgi Tablets as a diminutive form with suffix -iś
hence underlyingly tameraiś (n.b. ai regularly changes to e as it has
done in locative nouns and preterite verbs originally with a-stems).
tleχa 'war' modify Modified this word based on phonotactical issues as well as
morphological considerations. It is reflected only in the locative as
tleχe in TLE 890. There appears to me to be a simple preterite in CIE
5439 tele reflecting a verb 'to fight'. Thus taléχa.
tular 'to mark (as a boundary)' modify Modified the translation to more direct words, 'to bound, to
demarcate'.
θapna 'pitcher' modify Changed this to 'lamp, pitcher'. It seems it also refers to oil-holding
lamps in TLE 646.
Uxulnie [male praenomen] add Found as Uχulni in the unmarked nomino-accusative case in TLE 407.
zavena 'kantharos, vase' add Found in ET Cm 2.2. D'Aversa wrote that this was likely a type of
vessel as did Turfa.
zil 'supervision, reign' add Added a noun derived directly from the verb stem zil. Unlike the
widespread belief that an endingless form is somehow an imperative, I
understand these endingless verb forms as similar to English
gerundives. Mandarin and English in fact often treat some verbs such
that there is no difference between them and their respective noun
forms (eg. report/to report, tickle/to tickle, etc). I believe is happening
in Etruscan but when all else fails a translating of 'X-ing' suffices.
zilaχun 'to be leader, to oversee, to modify Changed translation to 'to command' to be less verbose.
govern'
Ziltina [gentilicium] add The genitive Ziltnal is attested in TLE 192.