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Honors Chemistry

Finals Study Guide 1. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. 2. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter. Weight is a measure of an amount of matter and also the effect of Earths gravitational pull on that matter.
On the moon, your mass would be the same, but your weight would be different because the moon doesnt have the same gravitational pull as the Earth.

3. A scientific method is a systematic approach used in scientific study consisting of questions, observations, hypotheses, experiments, and conclusions. 4. Qualitative data is information describing physical characteristics. Quantitative data is numerical information describing how much, how little, how big, how tall, how fast, etc. 5. A theory is an explanation supported by many experiments; is still subject to new experimental data, can be modified, and is considered successful if it can be used to make predictions that are true. A scientific law describes a relationship in nature that is supported by many experiments. 6. Accuracy refers to how close a measured value is to an accepted value. Precision refers to how close a series of measurements are to one another; precise measurements show little variation over a series of trails but may not be accurate. 7. A physical change is a type of change that alters the physical properties of a substance but does not change its composition. A chemical change is a process involving one or more substances changing into new substances. 8. Gas is a form of matter that flows to conform to the shape of its container, fills the containers entire volume, and is easily compressed. Liquid is a form of matter that flows, has constant volume, and takes the shape of its container. A solid is a form of matter that has its own definite shape and volume, is incompressible, and expands only slightly when heated. 9. The law of conservation of mass states that mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction but is conserved. 10. A mixture is a physical blend of two or more substances in any proportion in which each substance retains its individual properties; can be separated by physical means. A solution is a uniform mixture that may contain solids, liquids, or gases; also called a homogenous mixture. 11. Electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, which is prescribed by three rulesthe aufbau principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, and Hunds rule. A A A A

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J.J. Thomsons plum pudding atomic model proposed that negatively charged electrons were distributed throughout a uniform positive charge. He used cathode ray tubes to determine there were negative particles called electrons in atoms. 13. Ernest Rutherford conduced an experiment to see if alpha particles would be deflected as they passed through a thin foil of gold. As expected, most all of the alpha particles passed straight through the gold foil, without deflection. However, some alpha particles were scattered at small angles and occasionally deflected at very large angles, contradicting Thomsons plum pudding model. He concluded that the strong force of repulsion between the positive nucleus and the positive alpha particles caused the large deflections. 14.

15. Atomic mass is the weighted average mass of the isotopes of that element. Atomic number is the number of protons in an atom. 16. The atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of the element. The positively charged nucleus (composed of protons and neutrons) contains most of the atoms mass. The electron cloud determines the atoms volume.

17. Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. 18. Alpha radiation is radiation that is made up alpha particles; is deflected toward a negatively charged plate when ration from a radioactive source is directed between two electrically charged plates. An alpha particle is a particle with two protons and two neutrons, with a 2+ charge. Beta radiation is radiation that is made up of beta particles; is deflected toward a positively charged plate when radiation from a radioactive source is directed between two electrically charged plates. A beta particle is a high-speed electron with a 1- charge that is emitted during radioactive decay. Gamma rays are high-energy radiation that has no electrical charge and no mass, is not deflected by electric or magnetic fields, usually accompanies alpha and beta radiation, and accounts for most of the energy lost during radioactive decay.

19. The periodic table organizes all known elements into a grid of horizontal rows (periods) and vertical columns (groups or families) arranged by increasing atomic number. The periodic law states that when the elements are arranged by increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their chemical and physical properties. 20. An anion forms when valence electrons are added to the outer energy level to become a negatively charged ion. A cation forms when valence electrons are removed to become a positively charged ion.

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Atomic radius is defined as half of the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are chemically bonded.

Ionization energy is defined as the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom.

The electronegativity of an element indicates the relative ability of its atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond. 22. An ion is an atom or bonded group of atoms with a positive or negative charge. 23.

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25. 26. A covalent bond is a chemical bond that results from the sharing of valence electrons between a nonmetal to a nonmetal. An ionic bond is the electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together in an ionic compound. It is the transfer of electrons from a metal to a nonmetal and forms when anions and cations close to each other attract, forming a crystal lattice. A metallic bond is the attraction of a metallic cation for delocalized electrons between a metal to metal. Metallic bonds are formed when metal cations attract free valence electrons.

27. 28. A polar covalent is a type of bond that forms when electrons are not shared equally.

29. A solute is a substance dissolved in a solution. A solvent is the substance that dissolves a solute to form a solution. A solution is a uniform mixture that may contain solids, liquids, or gases; also called a homogenous mixture. 30. A precipitate is a solid produced during a chemical reaction in a solution. 31. A synthesis reaction is a chemical reaction in which two or more substances react to yield a single product (A + B AB). A single-replacement reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs when the atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element in a compound (A + BC B + AC / A + BC C + BA). A decomposition reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs when a single compound breaks down into two or more elements or new compounds (AB A + B). A double-replacement reaction is a chemical reaction that involves the exchange of positive ions between two compounds and produces a precipitate, a gas, or water (AB + CD CB + AD). A combustion reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs when a substance reacts with oxygen, releasing energy in the form of heat and light, forming water and carbon dioxide. An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction that takes plan when an acid (H+) and base (OH-) react with each other, forming water (HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O).