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COMPONENT 2A - Project 2A1 PCC development

February 2009

TRAINING COURSE REPORT

Capture, identication and culture techniques of coral reef sh larvae


(French Polynesia)

Photo credit: Eric CLUA

Author: Viliame Pita Waqalevu

The CRISP Coordinating Unit (CCU) was integrated into the Secretariat of the Pacific Community in April 2008 to insure maximum coordination and synergy in work relating to coral reef management in the region.

The CRISP programme is implemented as part of the policy developed by the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme for a contribution to conservation and sustainable development of coral reefs in the Pacific

he Initiative for the Protection and Management of Coral Reefs in the Pacific (CRISP), sponsored by France and prepared by the French Development Agency (AFD) as part of an inter-ministerial project from 2002 onwards, aims to develop a vision for the future of these unique ecosystems and the communities that depend on them and to introduce strategies and projects to conserve their biodiversity, while developing the economic and environmental services that they provide both locally and globally. Also, it is designed as a factor for integration between developed countries (Australia, New Zealand, Japan and USA), French overseas territories and Pacific Island developing countries. The initiative follows a specific approach designed to: - associate network activities and fieldwork projects; - bring together research, management and development endeavours; - combine the contributions of a range of scientific disciplines, including biology, ecology, economics, law and social sciences; - address the various land and marine factors affecting coral reefs (including watershed rehabilitation and management); - avoid setting up any new body but supply financial resources to already operational partners wishing to develop their activities in a spirit of regional cooperation. This is why the initiative was prepared on the basis of a call for proposals to all institutions and networks.

The CRISP Programme comprises three major components, which are: Component 1A: Integrated Coastal Management and Watershed Management - 1A1: Marine biodiversity conservation planning - 1A2: Marine Protected Areas - 1A3: Institutional strengthening and networking - 1A4: Integrated coastal reef zone and watershed management Component 2: Development of Coral Ecosystems - 2A: Knowledge, beneficial use and management of coral ecosytems - 2B: Reef rehabilitation - 2C: Development of active marine substances - 2D: Development of regional data base (ReefBase Pacific) Component 3: Programme Coordination and Development - 3A: Capitalisation, value-adding and dissemination of CRISP results - 3B: Coordination, promotion and development of CRISP activities Support to alternative livelihoods - 3C: - 3D: Vulnerability of ecosystems and species - 3E: Economic task force

CRISP Coordination Unit (CCU) Programme Manager: Eric CLUA SPC - PO Box D5 - 98848 Noumea Cedex New Caledonia Tel./Fax: (687) 26 54 71 E-mail: ericc@spc.int www.crisponline.net

CRISP is funded by the following partners :

Photos credit: Eric Clua (if no specific mention). Printed at SPC Copyright : CRISP

Ambassade de France Fidji

UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH PACIFIC


School of Marine Studies, Laucala Campus, Fiji

Capture, Identification and Culture techniques of coral reef fish larvae (French Polynesia)

By Viliame Pita Waqalevu Training course conducted from the 10th January to 15th February 2009

Supervisors:

David LECCHINI (IRD - UR 128 CoReUs) Christophe BRIE (Tropical Fish Tahiti) Pascal DAYEZ-BURGEON (French Embassy at Fiji Islands)

Institut de recherche pour le dveloppement

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REMERCIEMENTS

Au terme de ces deux mois de recherche, je tiens remercier toutes les personnes qui, de prs ou de loin, scientifiquement, financirement ou moralement, ont contribu l'aboutissement de ce rapport.

Je dsire remercier David Lecchini, Charg de recherche l'Institut de Recherche pour le Dveloppement (UR 128 Coreus) et Christophe Bri (Tropical Fish Tahiti) qui m'ont permis de raliser ce stage. Je leur sais gr de m'avoir fait confiance tout au long de ce travail.

Je dsire aussi remercier Mr. Pascal Dayez-Burgeon, Conseiller de coopration et daction culturelle lAmbassade de France Fidji. Sans son aide, ce stage naura jamais vu le jour. Vinaka

Ce travail a t ralis au Centre de Recherche Insulaire et Observatoire de lEnvironnement Moorea. Je tiens remercier trs chaleureusement Serge Planes, Yannick Chancerelle et Ren Galzin d'avoir entrepris de nombreuses dmarches pour le bon droulement du stage et m'avoir permis de loger au Centre de Recherche. Un immense merci aussi Pascal, Benoit et Franck pour leur aide de tous les jours.

Je tiens enfin remercier mes collgues de Moorea : Eric, Loic, Ccile, Jennifer, Elisabeth, pour avoir mis la bonne ambiance au centre de recherche.

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FINANCEMENT DE L'ETUDE

* Financement par l'ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche) : L'tude a t finance en partie par un financement ANR Jeunes Chercheurs (ANR-06-JCJC-0012-01; D. Lecchini; Coral Reefs; novembre 2006 / octobre 2009).

* Financement par lAmbassade de France Fidji : Mr. Pascal Dayez-Burgeon a financ le voyage de ltudiant Viliame Pita Waqalevu de Fidji Tahiti.

* Financement par le programme CRISP (Coral Reef Initiative in the South Pacific) : L'tude a t finance aussi en partie par un financement CRISP (Composante C2A, R. Galzin & D. Lecchini; janvier 2007 / dcembre 2009). Linitiative pour la protection et la gestion des rcifs coralliens dans le Pacifique, engage par la France et ouverte toutes les contributions, a pour but de dvelopper pour lavenir une vision de ces milieux uniques et des peuples qui en dpendent ; elle se propose de mettre en place des stratgies et des projets visant prserver leur biodiversit et dvelopper les services conomiques et environnementaux quils rendent, tant au niveau local que global. Elle est conue en outre comme un vecteur dintgration rgionale entre tats dvelopps et pays en voie de dveloppement du Pacifique. Le CRISP est un programme mis en uvre dans le cadre de la politique dveloppe par le Programme Rgional Ocanien pour lEnvironnement afin de contribuer la protection et la gestion durable des rcifs coralliens des pays du Pacifique.

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ABSTRACT Fish larvae were sampled daily over 4 weeks using the crest net method on the Island of Moorea in the Society Archipelago, French Polynesia. A total of 71 species were identified with a total abundance of 1204 larvae. Handpicked larvae were then cultured to juvenile stage in an aquarium and 67 fish larvae photographed during larval stage and 16 larvae during juvenile stages, in order to observe the metamorphosis between these two stages in the larvaes life cycle. Larvae were fed three times a day with artemia and artificial pellet feed during the duration of culture and mortality was minimized to <5%. Light traps were also trialed on three different sites on two nights around the new moon on the North Coast of Moorea in order to compare methods of larval capture and to observe which method yielded the higher species richness and abundance. Upon completion of this study all larvae and juveniles were released back into the lagoon.

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1)

INTRODUCTION In coral reef ecosystems, the life cycle of most fish species includes a planktonic larval phase (in

the open ocean), which usually lasts from three to six weeks, followed by a sedentary reef phase (in the lagoon) for the juveniles and adults (for review, see Werner 1988 Fig. 1). During the oceanic phase, the larvae may move far from their native island due to currents and/or their swimming abilities. Then larvae return to the reef (natal or not) to continue their development into juveniles, then to adults. Generally larvae enter the lagoon across the reef crest by night (colonisation phase, Dufour and Galzin 1993). In the hours following this colonisation, larvae undergo metamorphosis and choose suitable habitats (settlement phase) based mainly on the characteristics of coral habitat and the presence or absence of conspecifics (individuals of same species) as well as other species (for review, see Doherty 2002).

Life cycle of coral reef fish


Ocean Lagoon

Larvae Colonisation Settlement Juveniles Oceanic dispersion

Recruitment Reproduction Adults Genital products & eggs

Figure 1: Description of life cycle of coral reef fish

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Thus, most coral reef fishes have a larval oceanic pelagic phase that ultimately ends with settlement onto suitable benthic habitats on the reef. The success of the transition between the two different environments determines the fishs settlement levels (Dufour and Galzin 1993). There is a great need to understand the complexity with which coral reef fish larvae choose an appropriate habitat. Studies of similar scope need to be undertaken with greater enthusiasm as its ramifications greatly affect Pacific Islanders and the natural stock of reef fish. As shown by the study undertaken by the University of the South Pacific and University of Perpignan (PhD student, Julien Grignon), fish larval capture, culture and release can be used as a tool for reef restocking, ornamental and aquarium trade or for food fish, local or live fish exportation.

Colonization of fish involves the settlement of post-flexion larvae upon completion of pelagic phase and the transition into juvenile involves some nature of habitat association within the lagoon. The colonization process was observed to usually occur at night and in higher numbers during new moon periods than in full moon periods (Lecchini et al. 2004). This process concerns mainly post-flexion larval stage and juvenile stage (Dufour and Galzin 1993) as these are the larvae that are able to drift easily and passively over the reef crest (Sale 1991). Therefore, the most suitable method that can be utilized to capture these larvae is the crest net which actively filter larvae that are swimming in the water flowing from the ocean into the lagoon. Crest nets have a number of advantages over other methods (light trap, net either towed or dropped in the water column): (1) fish larvae are caught just before settlement, which would give a suitable measure of larval flux and supply; (2) the high energy and turbulence of the reef crest minimizes net avoidance by larvae; (3) since the net is put up for the night, the larvae cannot see the net thus it is a passive gear for easy larval capture (Dufour et al. 1996). Moreover, in marine organisms that have a relatively sedentary stage and dispersive propagules, the size of adult stocks is set by a dynamic balance between input of propagules (larval colonisation) and their subsequent loss via death.15 In coral reef fish, the mortality of larvae having colonised may eliminate up to 90% of the total population within three first post-colonisation months. The larval supply at colonisation represents a real natural ichthyologic production of a fish adult stock, in number of individuals. As fish larvae stock is numerically more important than adult stock and as catches of aquarium fish are based upon a number of individuals (and less on biomass or size), it is preferable to encourage fishing pressure on larvae stock and rear them with aquaculture methods to increase their survival. Effectively, in the wild, 90% of larvae disappear before adult age. The adult breeding stock would be thus preserved and the colonisation rate would be the exploitable theoretical limit not to be exceeded (over-fishing).

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This study aims to answer 4 questions: [1] How to capture larval fish using the crest net method. [2] How to identify post-flexion fish larvae to the lowest possible taxonomic classification. [3] How to rear larvae in aquarium using artificial feed whilst attempting to minimize mortality. [4] Comparing the effectiveness of crest net to a light trap in larval capture.

The training course is in line with the Research Program of David Lecchini: Effects of alternate coral reef states on the attraction, settlement and subsequent survival of crustacean & fish larvae (French Polynesia, 2006- 2010). The biodiversity is declining, and habitat destruction and degradation are now commonplace. Examples of degradation can be found throughout marine ecosystems, including estuaries, saltmarshes, soft-bottoms, hard-bottoms, and coral reefs. The degradation in coral ecosystems is usually characterized by coral mortality from natural and anthropogenic stressors (e.g., disease, hurricane damage, pollution, temperature-induced bleaching). This decrease of coral cover opens space on most reefs and causes substantial increases in cover and biomass of rapidly growing fleshy and filamentous macroalgae which, in turn, limits the recovery of coral populations and then modify fish and invertebrates communities. Thus, areas experiencing perturbance often exhibit declines in adult populations, leading to a higher rate of extirpation than in pristine habitat, and the persistence of species in the area becomes reliant on the "rescue" effect of recruitment. The potential of the areas population to be supplemented by recruits, however, depends on whether pelagic larvae detect an appropriate habitat in that area and then settle and persist in that habitat. The effect of habitat decline on the potential of the area to attract and sustain the faunal assemblage (i.e., recruitment potential) remains unclear. We do not know if the decline of marine organisms is due to increased mortality of juveniles and adults of reef organisms or due to a decrease in the degraded reefs recruitment potential, which could decline if 1) its properties have changed sufficiently to decrease its inherent attractiveness to planktonic larvae; 2) larval ability to locate preferred microhabitats has declined; or 3) newly settled individuals ability to survive to recruitment has decreased. We will test the hypothesis of effects of alternate reef states on the attraction, settlement, and subsequent survival of crustacean and fish larvae. If the recruitment potential of some coral islands has decreased, these meta-populations of reef organisms will continue their rapid decline, as recruitment will not be able to replace and to sustain the adult populations on the reefs. The research program Effects of alternate coral reef states on the attraction, settlement and subsequent survival of crustacean & fish larvae (French Polynesia, 2006- 2010) is funded by ANR (French Government). Three axes make up the program: Recruitment success of marine larvae according to the alternate coral reef states (axis 1) ; How the alternate reef states influence the settlement rates and microhabitat selection of larval fishes and

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crustacean (axis 2) ; How alternate reef states influence the survival of larval fishes and crustacean (axis 3). My training course is a part of axis 1.

2)

MATERIALS AND METHODS a) Study area Moorea Island is a high volcanic island, located in the Society Archipelago approximately 16 km

from the larger Island of Tahiti. There is a barrier reef that encircles the island which encloses a lagoon 800 to 1300m wide. The reef is intersected by several passes and two deep bays on the North coast (Cook Bay & Opunohu Bay). The circulation of water is such that breaking waves bring oceanic water into the lagoon and water within the barrier reef exists via the pass. The average annual tidal range at Moorea is approximately 0.3 m.

Site suitability is an important aspect of choosing an area to place the crest net. There was only one sampling site and this study site was located on the West coast of Moorea (17317.38S, 1495520.89W) between two Marine Protected Areas of Tetaiuo and Taotaha. This site was chosen as the study site because wave energy is low in this area and there is a deep region immediately behind the reef crest for the nets collector to be placed. The prevailing wind on this side of the island was North Westerly. The nearest pass is Taota pass located south from the sampling area.

Figure 2: Moorea Island, French Polynesia (source: Google Earth)

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b) Methodology Fish larvae were sampled using a technique similar to Dufour and Galzin (1993). The crest net is a technique that is most suitable to capture larvae upon entering the lagoon and just before settlement. The net is 1.5 m wide x 0.75 m high x 5 m long and the mesh was of 1 mm size. Four hinged panels of 0.7 mm enlarged the mouth area of the net to 6 m (Fig. 3). The net was divided into three chambers: 1) the mouth where larvae enter, and the codends which is made of 2 parts; 2) the separator is designed in such a way that fish larvae are allowed to stay in sufficient water even if the water level is extremely low, it decreases mortality due to dessication and low oxygen level greatly; 3) and the collector where the larvae are captured. The whole structure is fastened secured by steel cables which are bolted firmly onto the reef-rock; this is to prevent the net from being swept away during times of strong current. The codend was attached during the evening as larval settlement usually occurs at night (Dufour and Galzin 1993).

Figure 3: Schematic view and photo of crest net used at Moorea

Upon collection of the larvae, the net is put in off mode, where the mouth of the net and its wings are laid down on the reef. The codend is detached from its base attachment and is released from the first chamber. It is important to ensure that no larvae are trapped within the first chamber before releasing the codend. All the contents of the codend are then emptied into a large bucket/cooler where any excess algae or rocks are removed. Oxygen is added at minimal amount in order to minimize stress and mortality. The nets were left on the crest without the codend and with the wing and net placed in off mode during the day. Sorting of fish larvae was undertaken at the laboratory where fish were grouped into similar Genera. Larval identification was undertaken using the meristics and morphology characteristics of the fish with the CRISP larvae identification guide handbook (Galzin et al. 2006) as an aid. Pictures were taken of all the fish larvae caught as this would become an important future aid in identifying larva and juvenile (Annex 1 & 2). Alcohol was not used to kill the fish before taking pictures as it was observed that alcohol removed some colors from the fish, thus, freshwater was used as an alternative method. Some of the larvae were kept alive and moved to a larger more permanent glass tank for the rearing process into juvenile stage. Page|9

Larvae that were to be cultured into juveniles were fed artificial fish-food bought from Ridleys Aquafeed Limited and this consisted of pellets which were crumbled into pieces or sieved into really small particles (Annex 2). This was supplemented with live feed in the form of artemia. The larvae were fed three times a day, first with the pellets and then followed with artemia forty five minutes later, as the fish will not eat the pellets if they are fed first with artemia. It was observed that the fish, at first, did not eat the pellet however, after three weeks they started eating more of the artificial feed.

3)

RESULTS

Fish larval capture with crest nets - A total of 1208 larvae belonging to 71 species were collected over four sampling weeks. The number is relatively small due to the fact that big waves and rough weather conditions were encountered often and this prevented the net from being put up and the current strength often broke and separated the codend from the net. So, after 24 days of sampling, the average was 50.3 larval fish per day. The most abundant families were Acanthuridae (11 species) Pomacentridae (8 species) and Chaetodontidae (6 species see Annex 1). Figure 4 shows the colonization species richness of the different larvae that were caught.

Figure 4: Larval species richness at colonization

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The most abundant species were Acanthurus triostegus (total abundance = 325), Stegastes fasciolatus (204), Chromis viridis (71) and Chrysiptera leucopoma (65). The period that when there was the highest species diversity during the new moon, suggesting that species richness was dependent on lunar cycle. It was observed that fish larval colonization was also linked with the lunar cycle (Fig. 5).

Figure 5: Larval colonization and lunar cycle

We observed a colonization peak just before and after the new moon, and another just prior to the first quarter. This general trend of fish larval colonization varied at species level (Fig. 6a,b). For example, Acanthurus triostegus and Stegaste fasciolatus were observed to colonize the reef throughout the 4 different lunar periods and thus had a constant colonization pattern. In contrast, species like Canthigaster solandri, Synodus binotatus, Mulloidichthys flavolineatus, and Parupeneus spp colonized at only certain times during the lunar period (Fig 6a,b). This shows that colonization was done by peak whereby large numbers of larvae enter the lagoon via the reef crest.

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Figure 6a: Most abundant species (ranked 1-5)

Figure 6b: Most abundant species (ranked 6-10)

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Fish larval capture with light traps - Three light traps were used for sampling during two nights around the new moon. Two were placed on the outer reef and one on the reef crest on the north coast of Moorea. We collected 60 larvae belonging to the Families Acanthuridae, Apogonidae, Chaetodontidae, Holocentridae, and Pomacentridae. A total of 13 species were collected (Annex 2). The most abundant species were Neoniphon argenteus and Stegastes fasciolatus.

Fish larval identification - Among 71 species captured at larval stage with crest nets, we were able to identify 67 to the lowest possible taxonomic level (for more details, see Annex 3 & 4).

Fish larval culture - Certain larvae were chosen for rearing in aquaria and these were fed with artemia and artificial food. The mortality rate was low (<5%), showing that the conditions in the aquarium was suitable for the fish to grow into juveniles.

4)

DISCUSSION

Coral reef fish larvae have been sampled with the use of crest nets since 1988 (Dufour and Galzin 1993) and has been proved a successful method of larval capture at the end of the larvas pelagic life stage. Colonization pattern of larvae are dependent on the lunar cycle, as was observed in the results. This pattern also varies at species level, where different species prefer to colonize at different times; this could be due to certain ecological processes (e.g. presence of predator, food, strength of waves, etc). There are a few setbacks to the crest net method of larval capture as was noticed during the study, these include: It is highly dependent on weather conditions, unlike the light trap, this method of capture does not have a high capability to work in rough weather conditions; Site selection of where the crest net is to be placed is very important. Factors such as wave and current direction and strength, tidal range, etc, have to be considered to make this method operate effectively. Therefore, site surveys have to be undertaken impeccably to prevent failures in the future. Crest nets require low tidal range (e.g. 40 cm annually, as in Moorea, Tahiti) to prevent larvae from escaping at extremely high tides and having high mortality at really low tides;

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Since the net is placed on the crest, where energy is the highest on the reef, its design is essential as abrasion on corals is liable to damage the net. The net design also has to be practical in order to make operation (insertion and removal) easy to undertake.

Light traps were put up in order to observe the diversity of larvae caught and to find out which larval capture technique is best for this type of survey. For capture of pre-flexion fish it is best to use light trap, however, there is very little diversity in the fish caught in this method than that which was observed to be caught by the crest net. There were more technical difficulties (e.g. light not working, or fish not getting attracted to the light) that prevented the success of capture with the light trap method. The light trap method is biased to fish that an attracted by light (active gear technique) therefore only fish that are attracted to light will get caught in the net. Larvae that are caught by the crest net are involuntarily carried into the codend by currents flowing over the crest into the lagoon thus making it a passive gear technique.

Fish larvae are brought from the study site to the aquarium in a large icebox with constant oxygen supply to minimize stress for the larvae. Upon arrival at the aquarium, fish were sorted according to the same species or family. Small fish like Pomacentrids and Chaetodons were put in containers whilst larger fish (Mulliods and Priacanthids) were left to swim freely in the tank (Annex 5). It was important to minimize stress throughout this process. Some fish may become stressed and change color. For example, Chenochaetus striatus orange horizontal bands become more pronounced when they are stressed thus making it look more like Acanthurus lineatus.

The larvae that were to be cultured into juveniles were moved into the aquarium for culture. There are several factors that are important in the successful culture of larvae, these include; water quality, water exchange system, practicality and placement of essential components of the aquaria and feed. The aquarium had a flow-through system where water is constantly circulated within the tank. This system is preferred over the closed-system as clean water is always entering the tank, and difficult species like Chaetodontidae require high water quality. Good filtration is lacking, as at times of high rainfall the water quality decreases greatly. It is important, in order to reduce mortality, for a sand filter to placed between the collection tank line and the seawater pump so that water entering the aquaria has reduced silt and sedimentation thus reducing extra effort put into bottom siphoning the tanks. Certain components in the aquaria like, placement of oxygen pipeline and seawater pipeline needs to be rearranged so that it is easier and more practical to work in the aquaria. Feed for the larvae consisted of a combination of artificial pellet food and live feed in the form of artemia (Annex 5). Tank color is also important in fish identification as some fish, in order to camouflage themselves, change color according to the color of the Page|14

aquaria. For example Rhinecanthus aculeatus is a pale yellow larvae with lateral black striations (Annex 4) but when placed in white aquaria, they become white and the black striations are almost incomprehensible. Overall, mortality was low therefore, despite the various technical problems, it can be said that the culture process was a success.

Pictures were taken of the fish larvae and after rearing to juvenile stage, pictures were taken again in order to identify the various changes in meristic characteristics (Annex 3,4). This was undertaken in the Optic laboratory at the CRIOBE station which was highly equipped and suitable for the requirements of this study (Annex 5). Fish that did not require being cultured or having a picture taken were released back into the lagoon on the evening after collection.

To conclude, the crest net method is a good approach in capture of fish larvae just before colonization, which is subsequent to the pelagic stage of the life cycle of reef fish. It is an effective method that requires minimum maintenance and effort in obtaining fish larvae that enter the lagoon via reef crest. There is however, more need to study the morphological and meristical changes that the occur between the larval and juvenile transition.

5) REFERENCE

Allen, G. (2002) A Field Guide for Anglers and Divers: Marine Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Sout-East Asia. Western Australian Museum, Francis Street, Perth, Western Australia. Allen, G., Steene, R., Humann, P., Deloach. (2005) Reef Fish Identification: Tropical Pacific. New World Publications, Inc. Jacksonville, Florida, USA. Odyssey Publishing, Inc. El Cajon, California USA. Bond, CE. (1996) Biology of Fishes: Second Edition. Saunders College Publishing. Doherty PJ (2002) Variable replenishment and the dynamics of reef fish populations. In: Sale PF (ed) Coral reef fishes: dynamics and diversity in a complex ecosystem. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 327-358 Dufour, V. (1994) Comparison of the Colonization of Fish Larvae in Coral Reefs of Two Islands of French Polynesia, the Atoll of Rangiroa (Tuamotu Archipelago) and the High Island of Moorea (Society Archipelago). Atoll research Bulletin No. 399. 12 pp. Dufour, V., Galzin, R. (1993) Colonization Patterns of Reef Fish Larvae to the Lagoon at Moorea Island, French Polynesia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 102, 143-52 Page|15

Dufour, V., Riclet, E., Lo-Yat, A. (1996) Colonization of Reef Fishes at Moorea Island, French Polynesia: Temporal and Spatial Variation of the Larval Flux. Marine & Freshwater Resources, 47, 413-22 Google Earth Pro 4.0 Beta (2006). Google Earth Software. Google . Grignon, J. (2007) Culturing Fish Larvae : A New Tool for Restocking Coral Reefs in Fiji. Melanesian Geo, May-September. Pp 34 35. Helfman, GS., Collete, BB., Facey, DE. (1997) The Diversity of Fishes. Blackwell Science, Inc. USA.\ Lecchini D., Dufour V., Carleton J., Strand S. & R. Galzin, 2004. Study of the fish larval flux at Moorea Island: is the spatial scale significant? Journal of Fish Biology, 65: 1142-1146 Maamaatuaiahutapu, M., Remoissenet, G., Galzin, R. (2006) Guide didentification des larves de poisons rcifaux de Polynsie franaise. Coral Reef Initiative for the South Pacific. ditions Tthys 104p. Myers, RF. (1999) Micronesian Reef Fishes: A Field guide for Divers and Aquarists. Coral Graphics, Territory of Guam. Randall, JE. (2005) Reef and Shore Fishes of the South Pacific: New Caledonia to Tahiti and the Pitcairn Islands. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. Randall, JE., Allen, GR., Steene, RC. (1990) The Complete Divers & Fishermens Guide to Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of HawaiI Press, Honolulu. Sale, PF. (1991) The Ecology of Reef Fishes on Coral Reefs. Academic Press Limited, London. Sale, PF. (2002) Coral Reef Fishes: Dynamics and Diversity in a complex Ecosystem. Academic Press Limited, London. Elsevier Science USA. Werner, E.E. (1988). Size, scaling and the evolution of complex life cycles. In: Ebenman, B., Perssons, L. (Eds.) Size-structured populations. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 61-81.

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ANNEX1: CAPTUREOFFISHLARVAEWITHCRESTNET

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SpeciesList Acanthurustriostegus Stegastesfasciolatus Chromisviridis Chrysipteraleucopoma Apogonidae Canthigastersolandri Synodusbinotatus Ptereleotrismicrolepis Mulloidichthysflavolineatus Chrysipteraglouca Parupeneusmultifasciatus Neoniphonargenteus Pomacentruspavo Ctenochaetusstriatus Siganusargenteus Nasobrevirostris Stegastesnigricans Albulaglossodonta Sargocentronmicrostoma Chaetodoncitrinellus Apogonexostigma Myripristiskuntee Zebrasomascopas Bothusmancus Chaetodonauriga Gymmapogon Priacanthushamrur Acanthuruslineatus Acanthurusolivaceus Nasounicornis Ostohinchusaugustatus Parupeneusbarberinus Acanthurusxanthopterus Chaetodonephippium Nasolituratus Apogonfraenatus Myripristisviolacea Nasoannulatus Nasohexacanthus Pseudobalistesflavimarginatus ABD 325 204 71 65 51 38 35 30 28 25 25 23 22 21 19 15 15 13 13 12 11 10 10 9 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 Page|18

Rhinecanthusaculeatus Valencienneastrigata Aulostomuschinensis Apogonichthysocellatus Canthigasterbennetti Canthigastervalentini Clupeidae Dactyloptenaorientalis Lutjanuskasmira Myripristisbernndti Abudefdufsexfasciatus Arothronhispidus Aulostomuschinensis Balistoidesviridescens Carapushonei Centropygeflavissimus Chaetodonpelewensis Chaetodonulietensis Cheilodipterusquinquelineatus Dascyllusaruanus Fistulariacommersonii Heteropriacanthuscruentatus Lutjanusfulvus Lutjanusmonostigma Monotaxisgrandoculis Myripristisadusta Neoniphonsammara Parupeneuscyclostomus Pseudocheilinusoctotaenia Sargocentronspiniferum Thalassomaamblycephalum

3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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ANNEX2: CAPTUREOFFISHLARVAEWITHLIGHTTRAP

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SPECIESLIST Acanthurustriostegus Acanthurusxanthopterus Apogonfraenatus Apogonidae Chaetodonauriga Chaetodonephppium Dascyllusreticulatus Lutjanusmonostigma M yripristisaugusta M yripristisberndt Neoniphonargenteus Sargocentronmicrostoma Stegastesfasciolatus TOTAL ABD 1 4 2 1 2 1 5 2 1 1 30 1 9 60

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ANNEX3: IDENTIFICATIONGUIDEOFCORALREEFFISH LARVAE

FAMILYACANTHURIDAE (Surgeonfishes)
Surgeonfishes are named for the sharp spine or spines that they possess on the caudal peduncleregion.Thisfamilyisdividedinto3subfamilies: 1. Acanthurinae : Single caudal spine which folds into a horizontal groove on the side of thepeduncle(genera:Acanthurus,Zebrasoma,ParacanthurusandCtenochaetus), 2. Nasinae:Oneortwofixedkeellikespinesoneachsideofthepeduncle(genus:Naso), 3. Prionurinae:Threetosixspinesextendingfrompeduncleregion(genus:Prionurus). Most members of Acanthuridae family are herbivorous and graze or browse on algae, however, a few species (Acanthurus and many Naso) feed on zooplankton. The genus Ctenochaetus are mainly detrivores. Acanthurid fish are diurnal and are often observed to sleepinsmallcavesorcrevicesinthereef(Randleetal,1990). Surgeonfishes,ingeneral,havealongperiodofdevelopmentinthepelagicrealm.Thusasa result,manyspeciesare widelydistributed:9speciesfromIndoPacificregionhave extended their region to the tropical eastern pacific. The postlarval stage of surgeonfish is orbicular, scalelesswithnarrowverticalridgesonthebody,transparentandpossessesasilverycolorover theabdomen(Randall2005).

SubFamilyACANTHURINAE
Acanthurustriostegus(Linnaeus,1758) ConvictSurgeonfish LARVALSTAGE JUVENILESTAGE ADULTSTAGE

STANDARDLENGTH:255mm

SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary LARVALCHARACTERISTICS: Larvaistranslucentbeginningfrompelvic fintocaudalpeduncle,whilstabdominal region and head is silver in color (to conceal the heart and main blood arteries,topreventeasyvisualdetection form predator in open water). Black vertical stripes extending from base of dorsalfintobaseofthepelvicregion. SIMILAR/DIFFERENTCHARACTERISTICS

MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:260mm JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Larvae Loses transparency after metamorphosis into juvenile stage. Changes to white and stripes become more pronounced upon transition from juvenile stage. Juvenile is 40 5 mm in length.

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIES General body shape remains the same. Black vertical stripes are retained (4 stripes including1oncaudalpeduncleand1overtheeye)andaremorepronouncedinadult. DIFFERENCESAdultcolorislightolivaceousgraycolorandlarvaltransparencyislost.Adultpossessesa sharp,forwardpointing,erectilespineoneachsideofcaudalpedunclewhichfoldsdownintoagroove. GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGAcanthurusTriostegusATLARVALSTAGE: *GeneralbodyshapeoflarvaeissimilartoAcanthurusgenus *4verticalstripesontrunk(plus1stripeovertheeyeandcaudalpedunclenotsopronounced) *Abdomenextendingtoheadissilverincolor,whereastrunkistransparent.

Acanthurusolivaceus(Forster,1801) Orangespotsurgeonfish LARVALSTAGE JUVENILESTAGE ADULTSTAGE

A B STANDARDLENGTH:303mm MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:300mm JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Juvenile completely yellow. Juvenile is usually 46 5 mm in length. Develops an orange band with light blue rim extending posteriorly from upper end of gill openingoccurs beforechangefromyellowtobrown. Tip of anal fin is blue in color. Tail develops a lunate shape and caudal spinedevelops.

SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary LARVALCHARACTERISTICS: Transparent posteriorly from abdominal region to caudal peduncle with yellow caudal fin and yellow soft ray fins (pectoral & anal) A. Head and abdominalregionissilverincolor.Upon metamorphosisintojuvenile,itisyellow all over. B shows transition into juvenile stage.

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIESGeneralbodyshaperemainsthesame. DIFFERENCES Larvaearetransparentwithsilverheadand abdominalregion,pectoral,analand caudal finsareyellow.Juvenileisyellowanddevelopsorangebandwithbluerimupontransitionintoadultstage, caudalspineisseeninthisstage.Adultisdarkbrownishgraywithposteriortoupperendofgillopening possessingabrightorangehorizontalband,withadeepblueborder,theheadandanteriorhalfofbody usuallyabruptlypalerthantheposteriorhalf,tailislunate.

GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGAcanthurusolivaceusATLARVALSTAGE: *GeneralbodyshapeoflarvaeissimilartoAcanthurusgenus *Transparentposteriorlyfromabdominalregiontocaudalpeduncle.Abdominalregionissilverwhilst pectoral,analandcaudalfinsareyellow.

Acanthuruslineatus(Linnaeus,1758) LinedSurgeonfish LARVALSTAGE JUVENILESTAGE ADULTSTAGE

JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Transition from larvae to juvenile involves the body becoming whiter in color and loosing larval transparency and translucency. Horizontal striations remain the same in color (alternate yellow and blue) as in larval stage however, striation pattern becomes more pronounced on the head of juvenile MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:300mm

STANDARDLENGTH:433mm

SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary LARVALCHARACTERISITCS: Translucent brown extending posteriorly from abdomen to caudal region. Abdominal region and head silver in color. Alternate orange and dark blue striations longitudinally posteriorly from operculum.Tailislunate.

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIESGeneralbodyshaperemainsthesame. DIFFERENCESUpperthreequarterportionofadultheadandbodyalternatelyhorizontallybandedyellow andblackedgedblue.Lowerquarterofadultbodyislavendertopaleblue.Caudalspineisverylong,this isabsentinlarvae. GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGAcanthuruslineatusATLARVALSTAGE: *GeneralbodyshapeoflarvaeissimilartoAcanthurusgenus *Alternatebandsofyellowanddarkblue.Oftenwhenunderstress,bluebandbecomesmore prominent *Anal,dorsalandcaudalfinshavesmalltingeoforangeoryellow.

Acanthurusxanthopterus(Valenciennes,1835) YellowfinSurgeonfish LARVALSTAGE JUVENILESTAGE ADULTSTAGE

STANDARDLENGTH:294mm

SEASONOFCAPTURE:January February LARVALCHARACTERISITCS: Transparentposteriorlyfromabdomen tocaudalpeduncle.Abdomenandhead issilver.Darkregionjustabovetheeyes onforehead.

JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Larvae can be easily mistaken for Acanthurus nigricauda, however, upon metamorphosis to juvenile there is a stark difference. Pectoral finis yellowat thetipandbrownish greyatthebase.Dorsalandanalfins contain several light blue bands alternating with dull yellow. Distinct whitishbadoncaudalpeduncle.

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIES General body shape remains the same and bands observed in juvenile stage are also presentinadult.Paleyellowbandaroundeyeisalsopresentbutmoredistinctinadultstage. DIFFERENCESAdultcolorpatterncanchangequicklyfromuniformpurplishgraytoonewithalternating, very irregular, lengthwise bands of dark yellowish grey and light blue grey. There is a prominent broad yellow band extending anteriorly to eye and one irregularly posteriorly to eye and extending to upper portionofoperculum.Paleblueareaaroundcaudalpedunclenearcaudalspine. GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGAcanthurusxanthopteraATLARVALSTAGE: *GeneralbodyshapeoflarvaeissimilartoAcanthurusgenus *Transparentposteriorlyfromabdomentocaudalpeduncle *Abdomenandheadisstrikingsilverincolor.Onforehead,inbetweeneyesisadarkregion *TopreventconfusionwithAcanthurusnigricaudaatlarvalstage,thesizeoflarvaeshouldbewithin21 30mm,ifitislargerthanthisrange,itisnotA.xanthoptera.

Zebrasomascopas(Cuvier,1829) BrushtailTang LARVALSTAGE JUVENILESTAGE ADULTSTAGE STANDARDLENGTH:267mm SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary LARVALCHARACTERISITCS: Generalbodyshapeoflarvaeissimilarto Zebrasoma genus. Transparent posteriorly from abdomen. Vertical pale black striations on body extending to dorsalandanalfins.Abdomenandhead issilver.Transparentextendinganteriorly fromtheeyeuptomouthwithirregular pale black striations following the contours of themouth. Dark area above theeyeonforehead. JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Forebody pale brown with gold/yellow spots on head. Rear body is dark brown to purple. Thin alternate paired vertical yellow and bluish grey bars on lower three quarter of body. Abdomen region haswhitetinge.Whitetailspine. MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:200mm

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIESGeneralbodyshaperemainsthesame.Tailspinewhiteasinjuvenile.

DIFFERENCES Larval transparency is lost. Alternate vertical striations during larval and juvenile stage becomedarkbrushlikepatchofbristlesinfrontofcaudalspineandtinyhorizontalpalebluedotsorlines onheadandbodyduringadultstage. GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGZebrasomascopasATLARVALSTAGE: *GeneralbodyshapeoflarvaeissimilartoZebrasomagenus *Transparentposteriorlyfromabdomenwithalternateverticalblackstriationsextendingintodorsaland analfins *Abdomenissilver,darkareaaboveeyeonforeheadandmouthistransparentwithirregularblack striations.

Ctenochaetusstriatus(Qouy&Gaimard,1825) LinedBristletooth LARVALSTAGE JUVENILESTAGE ADULTSTAGE

STANDARDLENGTH:303mm SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary LARVALCHARACTERISITCS: Abdomen and head is silver. Body is translucent with alternate horizontal orange and black banded striations. Dorsal, anal and caudal fins are translucent grey. Black spot located above and below caudal peduncle on posteriorbaseofdorsalandanalfin. MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:260mm JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Horizontal striations become pronouncedandposteriormosttips of caudal fin is yellow. Two yellow stripes located across the eye. Head region pale grayish brown in color. Posteriortipsofcaudalfinorange.

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIESGeneralbodyshaperemainsthesame.Striationpatternsimilarthroughoutlifecycle(i.e.) horizontalpatternonthetrunkextendingfromtheoperculumtocaudalregion.Darkspotlocatedonthe baseofdorsalfinisretainedinadult. DIFFERENCESAdultcanbedarkbrowntoblackwithnarroworangestripesandblackdorsal,anal,and caudalfin.Palespotsalsofoundonheadandaroundtheeye.Palealternatestriationscanbefoundon thebodyandextendingtofins. GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGCtenochaetusstriatusATLARVALSTAGE: *Alternateorangeandblackhorizontalstriationsonthebody. *Silverabdomenandhead *InordertopreventconfusionbetweenC.striatusandAcanthuruslineatus,lookforblackspotlocated onposteriorbaseofdorsalandanalfinandC.striatusissignificantlysmallerthanA.lineatus.

SubFamilyNASINAE Nasoannulatus(Qouy&Gaimard,1825) WhitemarginUnicornfish LARVALSTAGE



PELVICSPINE

ADULTSTAGE

MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:1000mm

STANDARDLENGTH:322mm SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary LARVALCHARACTERISITCS: Abdomen and head is silver in color. Translucentposteriorlyfromabdomento caudal region. Long first dorsal and anal spine and decreasing in height posteriorly.Twosharpspinesatthebase oftheabdomen.

JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: White ring between caudal spines around caudal peduncle. Shiny rear flank develops after 6 months into juvenilestage.

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIESGeneralbodyshapesimilarbetweenlarvaeandjuvenilestage. gray. White lips, caudal fin with blackish submarginal band with white posterior border. Long tapering hornonforehead.Adulthaslessbodydepthtolengthratiocomparedtolarvae.

DIFFERENCESAdultisolivaceousbrownwithnodarkmarkingsbutcanrapidlychangecolortopalebluish GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGNasoannulatusATLARVALSTAGE: *GeneralbodyshapeissimilartoNasogenus *Abdomenandheadsilverwithbodyneartransparent *Firstdorsalandanalspineislonganddecreasesposteriorly *Twosharpspinesatthebaseofabdomen *Usuallywithalengthof3034mmrange,ifbigger,itismostlikelyN.brevirostris.

Nasobrevirostris(Valenciennes,1835) SpottedUnicornfish LARVALSTAGE JUVENILESTAGE ADULTSTAGE

STANDARDLENGTH:403mm SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary LARVALCHARACTERISITCS:

MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:600mm

JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Greyishbrown,darkeronupperhalf of body and lighter close to base of abdomen. Juveniles of about 10cm develop horn which appears as a bump on forehead. Caudal fin slightlyroundedandwhiteexcepton thebase.

Abdomenandheadissilver.Darksports (pigmentation) on body and around the head.Firstdorsaland anal spineislong. Two sharp spines at the base of the abdomen. GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGNasoannulatusATLARVALSTAGE: *GeneralbodyshapeissimilartoNasogenus *Abdomenandheadsilverwithbodyneartransparent *Firstdorsalandanalspineislonganddecreasesposteriorly *Twosharpspinesatthebaseofabdomen

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIESFirstdorsalandanalspinesarelonginlarvalandjuvenilestages. DIFFERENCESAdultisolivaceousbrowntogreywithsmalldarkspotsonheadandverticalrowsofspots andlinesonflank.Caudalfiniswhitewithsmallduskyspotatthebaseandistruncatetoslightlyrounded. Twopeduncleplatesoneachsideofcaudalregion.Abroadbasedtaperinghornonforeheadmorethan halfaheadlengthinfrontofmouth.

*Usuallywithalengthof3743mmrange,ifsmaller,itismostlikelyN.anulatus.

Nasohexacanthus(Bleeker,1855) SleekUnicornfish LARVALSTAGE STANDARDLENGTH:443mm SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary LARVALCHARACTERISITCS: Abdomen and head is silver. Body is translucent grey. Dark circular sports (pigmentation)onupperportionofbody. Dark line over the eye. First dorsal and anal spine is long. Caudal fin is emarginate. Two sharp spines at the baseoftheabdomen. JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Caudal fin is emarginate. General body shape is maintained but with lesserbodydepthtolengthration. MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:750mm ADULTSTAGE

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIESFirstdorsalandanalspinesarelongandcaudalfinemarginateinlarvalandjuvenilestages. DIFFERENCESAdultsarebrowntobluishgreydorsallyandshadingventrallytoyellowish.Iscapableof changingcolorrapidlytopaleblue.Marginofoperculumandpreopercleoftendarkbrown.Palewhiteline extendinghorizontallyacrosstheforeheadandendingattheeye.Twopeduncleplateswithlargeknife likespines.Caudalfintruncate. GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGNasohexacanthusATLARVALSTAGE: *GeneralbodyshapeissimilartoNasogenus *Abdomenandheadsilverwithbodytranslucentgrey *Firstdorsalandanalspineislonganddecreasesposteriorly(twosharpspinesatthebaseofabdomen) *Darkcirculardots(pigmentation)ontheupperportionofthebodyanddarklineovertheeye *Usuallylargeinsize40+mm.

Nasolituratus(Forster,1801) OrangespineUnicornfish LARVALSTAGE JUVENILESTAGE ADULTSTAGE

STANDARDLENGTH:653mm SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary LARVALCHARACTERISITCS: Abdomen is silver with body translucent grey. Pale yellow blotch above eye and on mouth. Flank is shiny. Circular black dotslocatedintheupperportionofbody closer to head. White dots randomly cover flank and extending to dorsal fin. Longfirstdorsalandanalfin.2spinesat thebaseoftheabdomen.Caudalfinwith pale yellow posterior border. Base of anal fin pale yellow with dark posterior border.

MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:300mm

JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Yellowedged black area extending fromforeheadandborderingmouth. Black dorsal fin with white posterior border. Yellow anal fin. Peduncle plates are yellow and juvenile developcaudalspinesat56months.

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIES First dorsal and anal spines are long in larval and juvenile stages. Narrow yellow edged blackareaextendingfromtheeyetothemouthpresentinbothjuvenileand(morepronounced)inadult. DIFFERENCES Adults are brownish gray with a yellowish nape. Peduncular plates bright orange. Lips orangeyellow. Dorsal fin black basally, white posteriorly, with a blue margin and narrow blue band at base.Caudalfinwithasubmarginalyellowbandposteriorly. GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGNasolituratusATLARVALSTAGE: *GeneralbodyshapeissimilartoNasogenus *Abdomenandheadsilverwithbodydarktranslucentgrey(flankisshiny) *Pale yellow blotch above the eye, circular black dots located in the upper portion of body closer to headandwhitedotsrandomlycoverflankandextendingtodorsalfin.

Nasounicornis(Forsskl,1775) BluespineUnicornfish LARVALSTAGE JUVENILESTAGE ADULTSTAGE

STANDARDLENGTH:651mm SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary LARVALCHARACTERISITCS: Abdomen is silver. Midupper portion of body is yellowish brown and lower half ofthebodyistranslucent.Flankisshiny. Circular black dots located in the upper middorsal portion of body. Long first dorsal and anal fin. Caudal fin transparent with two black dots on caudalpeduncle.

MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:700mm

JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Juvenileisnearuniformlyolivaceous brown.Twopeduncleplatesareblue with caudal spines developing at around 4 months. Caudal fin emarginate.

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIESFirstdorsalandanalspinesarelonginlarvalandjuvenilestages.Peduncularplatesareblue asinadults. DIFFERENCESAdultsareolivaceousgray.Relativelyshorthornwhichdoesnotprojectpastthemouth. Dorsal and anal fins are yellowish with narrow blue stripes. Well developed forward pointing caudal spines.Caudalfintruncatewithfilamentouslobes. GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGNasounicornisATLARVALSTAGE: *GeneralbodyshapeissimilartoNasogenus *Abdomenandheaddullsilverwithupperportionofbodyyellowishbrownandlowerhalftransparent (flankisshiny) *Circularblackdotslocatedintheuppermiddorsalportionofbody *Twoblackdotsoncaudalpeduncle.

FAMILYCHAETODONTIDAAE (Butterflyfishes)
Butterflyfisharebestknownfortheintricatepatternsandstrikingcolorsthatmakethema popular choice for aquarists and snorkelers on reef ecosystems. This family contains 116 speciesallofwhichoccurmainlyintropicalseasaroundcoralreefs(Randalletal,1990). Butterflyfish lack the spine at the corner of the preopercle which is what makes them differentfromAngelfishes.Theyhavescalyaxillaryprocessatthebaseofthepelvicfinswhich isabsentinAngelfishes(Randall,2005).Theyhavedeepandhighlycompressedbodiescovered with moderately small ctenoid scales extending onto median fins. They possess small protractile mouths that have a band or rows of tiny brushlike teeth in the jaws. Butterflyfish have a single continuous dorsal fin with the anteriormost interspinous membranes deeply incisedandroundedtoaslightlyemarginatedtail(Myers,1999).Chaetodonspossessaunique postlarvalstagecalledthetholichthyslarva,whichhaslargebonyplatesontheheadandon theanteriorofthebody(Randalletal,1990). Butterfly fish are highly diurnal and many species feed on live coral polyps whilst others consume small invertebrates, tubeworms, algae or zooplankton (Helfman et al, 1997). Most butterflyfish are solitary or maybefound in monogamous pairs that are mostoften a lifelong partnership.Althoughmostspeciesinhabitcoralrichreefs,someChaetodonsarefoundtobe associatedwithsiltycoastalareas,whilesomeothersgatherinhugeshoalshighabovethereef tofeedondriftingplankton(Allen,etal,2003).

Chaetodonauriga(Forsskl,1775) ThreadfinButterflyfish LARVALSTAGE JUVENILESTAGE ADULTSTAGE

STANDARDLENGTH:191mm SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary

MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:180mm

LARVALCHARACTERISTICS:

JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Body is white and fading to yellow at caudal region. Dark band over the eye. Chevronpatternonside.Blackspoton posterior end of dorsal fin. Caudal fin yellow.

Larva is silver and fading to yellow at


caudalregion.Oneblackverticalstriation over the eye. Pelvic, and caudal fins transparent. Dorsal fin transparent at first quarter and becoming yellow posteriorly.Darkspotonposteriorendof dorsalfin.

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT

SIMILARITIESBlackbaroneye.Blackspotonposteriorendofdorsalfin. DIFFERENCES Adult is white overall with bright yellow on posterior part of the body and caudal fin. Chevronpatternonflank.Mouthofadultsiselongatedcomparedtolarvalandjuvenile.
GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGChaetodonaurigaATLARVALSTAGE:

*Blackspotonposteriorendofdorsalfin *Silverheadandfadingtoyellowposteriorly *Blackbandovereye.

Chaetodoncitrinellus(Cuvier,1831) SpeckledButterflyfish LARVALSTAGE JUVENILESTAGE ADULTSTAGE

MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:120mm STANDARDLENGTH:274mm SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary

LARVALCHARACTERISTICS: Larva is silver and fading to yellow at caudal region. One black vertical band overtheeye.Smallobliquetohorizontal dark spots on flank. Caudal fin transparent. First dorsal spine is black and dorsal fin is yellow posteriorly. Anal fin transparent at the base with black margin.

JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Juvenile is pale yellow, head still silver. Prominent black band over the eye. Oblique to horizontal black spots on flank. Anal fin pale yellow at the base withblackmargin.

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIESBlackbaroneye.Obliquetohorizontaldarkspotsonflank.Paleyellowincolor.

DIFFERENCESAdulthasgreaterbodydepthtolengthratio.Analfinpaleyellowatthebasefollowedby whitewithblackedging.

GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGChaetodoncitrinellusATLARVALSTAGE:

*Obliquetohorizontaldarkspotsonflank *Darkbandovertheeye.Silverandfadingtoyellowposteriorly *Caudalfintransparent.Firstdorsalspineislong.

Chaetodonephippium(Cuvier,1831) SaddledButterflyfish LARVALSTAGE


STANDARDLENGTH:274mm SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:220mm

ADULTSTAGE

LARVALCHARACTERISTICS: Larva is silver and body is bordered by yellow. Oneblack vertical band overthe eye. Anal fin transparent. Dark area posteriorlyonbody.

JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Juvenile is white with mouth, dorsal fin, pectoral fin and anal fin yellow in color. Prominent black band over the eye. Black area posteriorly on back and adjacent dorsal fin. Black band with whiteedgingoncaudalpeduncle.Caudal fintransparent(at2months).

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT
SIMILARITIESPelvicfinisyellow.Shortnarrowblackbarovertheeyeinadult.

DIFFERENCESAdultisbluishgreywithwavybluelinesonlowerbody.Largewhiteborderedblackpatch on upperrear body. Orangeareafrom snouttoventralfins.Filamentextendingposteriorlyfrom upper partofsoftportionofdorsalfin.

GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGChaetodonephippiumATLARVALSTAGE: *Larvaissilverandbodyisborderedyellow *Oneverticalblackbandovertheeye. *Darkareanearposteriorendofthebody.

Chaetodonpelewensis(Kner,1868) DotDashButterflyfish LARVALSTAGE JUVENILESTAGE ADULTSTAGE

STANDARDLENGTH:303mm SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary

MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:220mm

LARVALCHARACTERISTICS: Larva is silver. One black vertical band over the eye. First four dorsal spines extremelylong.Tipsofdorsalspinesare yellow. Oblique dark striations on upper posterior end of body. Caudal fin transparent.

JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Juvenileispaletanwithobliquerowsof dark spots. Caudal region orange in color.Blackstripeovertheeye.

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIESObliquedarkspotsonupperendofposterior.Caudalregionisorange. DIFFERENCES Adult is pale tan. Dark spots becoming solid bands on upper half of body. Dark orange bandovertheeye.

GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGChaetodonpelewensisATLARVALSTAGE: *Larvaissilverwithblackverticallineovertheeye *Tipofdorsalfinspinesyellow *Firstfourdorsalspinesarelong *Paleobliquedarkstriationsonupperposteriorendofbody.

Chaetodontrifascialis(Quoy&Gaimard,1825) ChevronButterflyfish LARVALSTAGE


STANDARDLENGTH:102mm SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary

ADULTSTAGE

LARVALCHARACTERISTICS: Larva is white with mouth and caudal region yellow. One black vertical band over the eye and one vertical black striation over posterior of body. Yellow band over caudal peduncle. Midsection of body is white and caudal fin is transparent.

JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Juvenileiswhitewithyellowmouthand forehead, pectoral fin and caudal fin. Black band over the eye and oon posterior end of body. Pale chevron patternonmidsectionofbody.

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIESVerticalblackbandovertheeye.Chevronpatternonbody.

DIFFERENCESBodyiswhitewithdorsalandanalfinyellow.Caudalfinisblackwithyellowmargin.

GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGChaetodonpelewensisATLARVALSTAGE: *Larvaiswhitewithblackverticallineovertheeyeandposteriorendofbody *Mouth,lowerabdomenanddorsalfinyellow *Yellowbandovercaudalpeduncle. *Largeeyes.

Chaetodonulientensis(Cuvier,1831) PacificDoubleSaddle/DoubleBarredButterflyfish LARVALSTAGE


STANDARDLENGTH:181mm SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:150mm

ADULTSTAGE

LARVALCHARACTERISTICS:
Larva is silver anteriorly and fading posteriorly to gold. One black vertical striation over the eye and two pale vertical striations across the body (i.e. one thin band after the operculm and another thicker band before the caudal peduncle). Pelvic, and dorsal fins are transparent.

JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Body is white and fading to yellow at caudal region with alternate thin black striations (more pronounced than in larvae3 stripes, 1 dark band over the eye, 1 after operculum and 1 before caudalpeduncle).Secondandthirdband donotreachthebaseofthebody.There is a black spot on the caudal peduncle. Dorsalandanalfintipsyellow.

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT
SIMILARITIES Three black bars on body. Black spot on caudal peduncle present in juvenile and adult stages. DIFFERENCESAdultiswhiteoverallwithbrightyellowonposteriorpartofthebodyandcaudalfin.Series of blackish vertical lines on its sides overlaid by two broad, blackish bars. Mouth of adults is elongated comparedtolarvalandjuvenile.Bodydepthtolengthratioisgreaterinadult.

GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGChaetodonulietensisATLARVALSTAGE: *Larvaeissmallandsilveroverallincoloroverlaidwithonedarkandtwopaleblackstripes. *Threeverticalblackbarsonthebody.Darkerbarlocatedovertheeye.

FAMILYPOMACENTRIDAE (Damselfishes)
Damselfishareamongthehardiestofaquariumfish,buttheiraggressiveterritorialnatureof manyspeciesdoesnotmakethemapopularchoiceforsmallscaleaquariums.Thisfamilyis dividedinto4subfamilies: 1. Amphiprioninae:TheseincludetheAnemonefisheswhichliveincloseassociationwith largeseaanemones(genus:Amphiprion,Premnas). 2. Chrominae:Primarilyplanktivoresthatarecloselytiedtoaparticularpatchofcoral (genera:Chromis,Dascyllus). 3. Lepidozyginae:ThissmallelongateDamseloccursinaggregations,oftenwithanthiases, ontheupperedgesofcurrentsweptseawardreefs.(genus:Lepidozygus) 4. Pomacentrinae:Containsthebulkofthisfamily.(genera:Abudefduf,Amblyglyphidodon, Cheiloprion,Chrysiptera,Dischistodus,Hemiglyphidodon,Neoglyphidodon, Neopomacentrus,Plectroglyphidodon,Plectroglyphidodon,Pomacentrus,Pomachromis, Stegastes) Thereareapproximately28generaand321speciesofDamselfishesthatoccurworldwide,and thismakesthemoneofthemostabundantgroupsofcoralreeffish(Randall,2003).Damsels areelongatetoorbicularwithcompressedbodiesandasinglecontinuousdorsalfin.The majorityofthespeciesdwellinshallowcoralreefareasorrockysubstratesofthetropics,some thougharefoundintemperatewaters. SomeDamselfishfeedprimarilyoncoralpolyps,mostotherDamselsareomnivorous,feeding onalgaeandmanydifferentsmallbenthicinvertebrates.Theyarehighlydiurnalandfind shelterinthecrevicesofreefs.

SubFamilyCHROMINAE
Chromisviridis(Cuvier,1830) BluegreenChromis LARVALSTAGE JUVENILESTAGE ADULTSTAGE

STANDARDLENGTH:92mm MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:90mm

SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary LARVALCHARACTERISTICS: Larva is transparent beginning from pelvic fin to caudal peduncle, whilst abdominal region and head is silver in color.Headispaleblue. JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Larva loses transparency after metamorphosis. Changes to iridescent lightbluetogreencoloronupperhalfof body and fading to white ventrally. Juvenilehaslargeeyes.

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIES General body shape remains the same. Iridescent light blue to green color is found throughoutalllifestages. DIFFERENCESAdulthasafaintduskyspotattheupperbaseofitspectoralfin. GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGChromisviridisATLARVALSTAGE: *Larvaeissmall(57mm) *Upperportionofheadispaleblueincolor *TopreventconfusionwithPomacentruspavo,C.viridishasashorterabdomentotaillengthcompared toP.pavo *Bodyproceedingposteriorlyfromabdomenistransparent.

Dascyllusaruanus(Linnaeus,1758) HumbugDascyllus LARVALSTAGE JUVENILESTAGE ADULTSTAGE STANDARDLENGTH:71mm MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:80mm

SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary LARVALCHARACTERISTICS: JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS:

Larva is transparent. Two pale black Juvenile is white overlayed with 3 verticalbandsoverabdominalregionand prominent black vertical striations on posterior end of body. Circular and extendingtodorsalandanalfins(1over shiny blue dots over abdominal region. the eye, 1 over midsection and 1 over Black Dots on forehead, between the caudal region). Caudal peduncle white eyes. andcaudalfintransparent. SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIESGeneralbodyshapeismaintained.Whiteoverlaidwithblackverticalstriations. DIFFERENCESAdulthasalargewhitespotbetweentheeyes. GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGDascyllusaruanusATLARVALSTAGE: *Larvaeissmall(67mm) *2thickpaleblackstriationsoverbody *Bluedotsoverabdomenandblackdotsbetweentheeyes *Bodyistransparent

SubFamilyPOMACENTRINAE
Abudefdufsexfasciatus(Lacepde,1801) ScissortailSergeant LARVALSTAGE JUVENILESTAGE ADULTSTAGE

LARVALCHARACTERISTICS: Larva is blueblack in color. Abdomen is shiny. Mouth is translucent. Anal, dorsal andcaudalfinsaretransparent.Paleand STANDARDLENGTH:91mm nondistinctverticalstriationsonflank.

MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:170mm JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Juvenileispalebluegreenincolor.Dark vertical striations on body, first band beginning behind operculum and last band on caudal peduncle. 5 bands in total. Anal, dorsal and caudal fins transparent.

SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIESBodyispalebluegreencoloroverlaidwith5blackbars. DIFFERENCESInadult,3blackbarsextendontodorsalfinand1extendsontoanalfin.Caudalfingrey withablackbandineachlobe,upperbandconnectsdorsallywithcaudlepedunclebar. GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGDascyllusaruanusATLARVALSTAGE: *Larvaeissmall(89mm) *Bluishblackcolor *Abdomenshiny(pearllike),*Mouth,dorsal,analandcaudalfinsaretransparent.

Chrysipteraleucopoma(Cuvier) SynonymsC.amabilis(DeVis),C.brownriggii(Bennett,1828) SurgeDamselfish LARVALSTAGE JUVENILESTAGE ADULTSTAGE

STANDARDLENGTH:91mm

MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:80mm

SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary LARVALCHARACTERISTICS: 2 types of larvae: 1) yellow body with brighthorizontalbluebarextendingfrom forehead to posterior end of dorsal fin. Dorsal fin is bright orange. 2) brown body with white vertical band in midsection of body, blue horizontal bar notpronounced. JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Juvenile is either: 1) yellow with bright horizontal bar extending from forehead to posterior end of dorsal fin with two blackspotsatthebaseofthedorsalfin, or, 2) brown with two vertical white bands, 1 on midsection and second on caudal peduncle. Two dark spots on the baseofdorsalfin.

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIES General bod shape is maintained. Similar pattern observed throughout life stages (regardlessofwhetheryelloworbrown),habitatshiftmaycausecolorationtochange.Blackdotonthe baseofcaudalpeduncle. DIFFERENCES In adult, the horizontal blue band (in the yellow C. leucopoma) is thicker and there is countershadingfromlightbluetoyellowventrally. GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGDascyllusaruanusATLARVALSTAGE: * Yellow body with bright horizontal blue line extending from forehead to posterior end of dorsal fin/brownbodywithwhiteverticalbandinmidsection.Sometimesthereisacombinationofbothtypes asseenintheabovepicture *Dorsalfinisbrightorange *Tinyblackdotatthebaseofthedorsalfin.

Pomacentruspavo(Bloch,1787) PeacockDamselfish LARVALSTAGE JUVENILESTAGE ADULTSTAGE MAXIMUMTOTALLENGTH:80mm

STANDARDLENGTH:173mm

SEASONOFCAPTURE:JanuaryFebruary LARVALCHARACTERISTICS: Larvae are transparent. Abdomen and headaresilverwithaslighttingeofpale blue. Caudal region and fins are pale yellow. JUVENILECHARACTERISTICS: Juvenile is blue with a slightly silver abdomen. Dark shiny blue dots on head and over body. Posterior end of dorsal and anal fin are yellow. Caudal region andcaudalfinisyellow.

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCESBETWEENLARVAEJUVENILEANDADULT SIMILARITIESBluebodywithyellowcaudalfin. DIFFERENCES Inadult,there isaline or rowofpale greendots oneachscale.Irregularbluetobluish greenlinesonheadandoperculum GUIDETOIDENTIFYINGPomacentruspavoATLARVALSTAGE: *Transparentbodywithyellowcaudalfin *Abdomenandheadissilverwithatingeofblue *Topreventconfusionwithchromisviridis,thisspecieshasabodywhichismoreelongatedcompared totheBluegreendamsel.

ANNEX4: PHOTOGRAPHOFCORALREEFFISHLARVAE

Abudedufsexfasciatus9mm

Acanthuruslineatus43mm

Acanthurusolivaceaus30mm

Acanthurustriostegus27mm

Acanthurusxanthopterus29mm

Antennariuscommersonii20mm

Apogonexostigma30mm

Apogonichthysocellatus17mm

Apogonidae9mm

Arothronhispidus10mm

Aulostomouschinensis155mm

Bothusmancus38mm

Canthigasterbennetti28mm

Canthigastersolandri16mm

Carapushonei110mm

Cephalopholisargus21mm

Chaetodonauriga19mm

Chaetodoncitrinellus27mm

Chaetodonephippium16mm

Chaetodonpelewensis30mm

Chaetodontrifascialis10mm

Chaetodonulientensis18mm

Chromisviridis9mm

Chrysipteraglauca14mm

Chrysipteraleucopoma15mm

Chrysipteraleucopoma16mm

Ctenochaetusstriatus34mm

Dactyloptenaorientalis42mm

Dactyloptenaorientalis42mm

Fistulariacommersonii155mm

Gymmapogon8mm

Gymmapogon11mm

Gymmapogon21mm

Lutjanusfulvus27mm

Lutjanuskasmira21mm

Mulloidichthysflavolineatus78mm

Myripristisberndti60mm

Myripristiskuntee63mm

Nasoannulatus32mm

Nasobrevirostris40mm

Nasohexacanthus44mm

Nasolituratus65mm

Nasounicornis65mm

Neoniphonargentus33mm

Ostorhinchusaugustatus16mm

Parupeneusbarberinus44mm

Parupeneuscylostomous67mm

Pomacentruspavo17mm

Priacanthushamrur84mm

Parupeneusmutifasciatus57mm
Pseudobalistesflavimarginatus28mm

Ptereleotrismicrolepis23mm

Rhinecanthusaculeatus25mm

Sargocentronmicrostoma60mm

Scorpaenodesguamensis9mm

Siganusargenteus40mm

Stegastesfasciolatus13mm

Stegastesnigricans10mm

Synodusbinotatus43mm Valenciennastrigata25mm

Zebrasomascopas22mm

ANNEX5: PHOTOGRAPHSOFTHETRAININGCOURSE


Figure1:Settingupthecrestnetforthenight Figure2:Attachingthecodendssecurely

Figure3:Sortingoffishlarvae Figure4:Fishputintotanks

Figure5:Artificialhabitat

Sortingprocessinvolvessortingoflarvae,puttingsimilarspeciesinthesametanksandcreatingartificial habitatsforlarvae

Figure6:CRIOBEaquarium

Figure7:Larvaesortingshelf

Figure8:Aquariummaintenance

Aftercollectionoflarvaefromthestudysite,thelarvaearebroughttotheaquariumforsortingand culture.


Figure9:Photographyapparatus Figure10:Microscopephotographyapparatus

Uponidentification,certainspeciesarephotographedandstandardlengthrecorded.Somelarvaewere donatedfortheBioCodeproject.

Figure11:Dustpelletfeed

Figure12:Crumblepelletfeed Figure13:Artemiafeed

Fishlarvalfeedconsistingofartificialpelletfood,sievedintodustforsmallfishandfishthathavesmall mouthsandcrumbleforthelargerlarvae.Livefoodintheformofartemiaarefedtothefish,45 minutesaftertheyarefedwithpellets.Larvae/juvenilearefedthreetimesaday.

Figure14:Releasingthejuveniles ThejuvenileswerereleasedbackintothelagoonatPapetoai,Moorea,uponcompletionofthetraining workshop.