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Chemistry A Modern View Book 1

Suggested answers for Class Practice

Contents
PART I INTRODUCING CHEMISTRY
Chapter 1 What is Chemistry? 2
Chapter 2 The fundamentals of chemistry 3

PART II PLANET EARTH


Chapter 3 The atmosphere 4
Chapter 4 Oceans 6
Chapter 5 Rocks and minerals 7

PART III THE MICROSCOPIC WORLD


Chapter 6 Atomic structure 8
Chapter 7 The Periodic Table 10
Chapter 8 Chemical bonding: Ionic bonding 11
Chapter 9 Chemical bonding: Covalent bonding 13
Chapter 10 Structures and properties 15

PART IV METALS
Chapter 11 Occurrence and extraction of metals 16
Chapter 12 Reactivity of metals 17
Chapter 13 Reacting masses 19
Chapter 14 Corrosion of metals and their protection 22

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Chapter 1 What is Chemistry?

A1.1
(a), (b) and (e).

A1.3
(a) Flat-bottomed flask (l) Crucible tongs (w) Reagent bottle
(b) Round-bottomed flask (m) Spatula (x) Gas syringe
(c) Clamp (n) Heat-resistant mat (y) Measuring cylinder
(d) Retort stand (o) Pestle (z) Beaker
(e) Conical flask (p) Mortar (aa) Funnel
(f) Wire gauze (q) Desiccator (bb) Plastic washbottle
(g) Evaporating basin (r) Test tube holder (cc) Teat pipette
(h) Tripod (s) Test tube rack (dd) Thermometer
(i) Crucible (t) Test tube (ee) Watch glass
(j) Pipeclay triangle (u) Boiling tube (ff) Separating funnel
(k) Bunsen burner (v) Dropping bottle (gg) Glass rod

A1.4
(a) Chemical change
(b) Physical change
(c) Physical change
(d) Chemical change
(b) and (c) are physical changes because no new substances are formed. (a) and (d)
are chemical changes because new substances are formed.

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Chapter 2 The fundamentals of chemistry

A2.1
Pollen grains are surrounded by much smaller water particles. The continually moving
water particles hit pollen grains from all directions. A grain is hit more strongly on
one side and then another side, so that it first moves this way and then that way in a
random manner.

A2.2
the same, arrangements

A2.3
In liquid water, the particles are fairly close together. In gaseous state, the particles
become widely separated and thus occupy a much larger volume.

A2.4
Phosphorus and mercury are elements. The others are not.
(Note: A substance with a name consisting of two words (e.g. sodium chloride) is not
an element. A substance with a name of only one word (e.g. ammonia) may or may
not be an element. The only sure way is to check the name against the Periodic Table.)

A2.5
Hydrogen + oxygen → water

A2.6
Sodium - silvery grey solid;
Chlorine - greenish yellow gas;
Sodium chloride - white solid.

A2.7
(a) Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, iron, sulphur
(b) Water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sodium chloride, iron(II) sulphide
(c) Air, sea water, town gas, sodium chloride solution, wine
(Other answers may be given.)

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Chapter 3 What is Chemistry?

A3.1
(a) People in ancient times had little scientific knowledge. In fact, any visible
portion of the Earth appeared more or less flat to the eyes.
(b) Satellite photos clearly show that the Earth is roughly spherical.
(Other answers may be given.)

A3.2
The Earth’s core consists of iron, which is magnetic.

A3.3
(a) No. (7 planets have an atmosphere.)
(b) Yes.

A3.4
There is no air on the Moon.

A3.5
Elements Compounds
nitrogen carbon dioxide
oxygen
helium
neon
argon
krypton
xenon

A3.6
(a)
Helium -269
Neon -246
Nitrogen -196
Argon -186
Oxygen -183
Krypton -153
Xenon -109
Carbon dioxide -78

(b) Neon and helium.

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A3.7
Helium is chemically unreactive while hydrogen is highly flammable.

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Chapter 4 Oceans

A4.1
Both brine and sea water are a concentrated solution of sodium chloride. Brine is
prepared by dissolving rock salt (sodium chloride) in water, so it does not contain
other salts. Sea water is natural. Besides sodium chloride, it contains other dissolved
salts as well. It is more suitable to electrolyse brine in chlor-alkali industry, since the
concentration of sodium chloride can be increased to a high level as desired.

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Chapter5 Rocks and minerals

A5.1
heat
Step 1: calcium carbonate → calcium oxide + carbon dioxide

Step 2: calcium oxide + water → calcium hydroxide


Step 3: calcium hydroxide + water → calcium hydroxide solution (limewater)
Step 4: calcium hydroxide solution (limewater) + carbon dioxide
→ calcium carbonate + water

A5.2
calcium carbonate + nitric acid → calcium nitrate + carbon dioxide + water

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Chapter 6 Atomic structure

A6.1
They are the only two liquid elements.

A6.2
The Earth’s core consists of iron, which is magnetic. Only an element can be
classified as a metal or non-metal. Water is not an element.

A6.3
(a) Mercury. All are metals. Mercury is a liquid, while the others are solids at room
conditions.
(b) Sulphur. Sulphur is a non-metal, while the others are metals.
(c) Iodine. All are non-metals. Iodine is a solid, while the others are gases at room
conditions.
(d) Graphite. All are non-metals. Graphite conducts electricity, while the others are
non-conductors of electricity.

A6.4
(a) (i) Mg (ii) Ag (iii) Na
(b) Ar, He and Ne respectively.
(c) (i) fluorine (ii) bromine (iii) mercury

A6.5
(a) 115
(b) Br
(c) N
(d) The element copper or a copper atom.

A6.6
The commonest type of hydrogen atom.

A6.7
(a) 91 electrons. Number of neutrons cannot be predicted.
(b) It is not an atom. The numbers of protons and electrons are not equal.

A6.8
A magnesium atom would be changed to a chlorine atom.

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A6.9
silver, silver, silver

A6.10
(a) 27Aluminium
(b) 13 Al
(c) (i) 13 (ii) 13 (iii) 27 - 13 = 14

A6.11
(a)16 3
(b) 8O (16O, or oxygen-16)

A6.12
(i) 37 (ii) 35 (iii) 4 (iv) 238
(v) We cannot tell from the given data. (The mass number is not given.)

A6.13
(a) Relative atomic mass of sodium
= mass number of the only type of sodium atom
= 23
(b) Relative atomic mass of neon
= 20 ×90 + 22 ×10 /100
= 20.2

A6.14
(a) 17
(b) (i) 2,8,7 (ii)

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Chapter 7 The Periodic Table

A7.1
(a) Period 7, Group II; alkaline earth metals
(b) Radium
(c) Yes. Radium is a metal (all metals conduct electricity).

A7.2
Element X: Metal
Element Y: Non-metal
Element Z: We cannot tell from the given data as elements in Group IV can be a
metal, non-metal or semi-metal.

A7.3
(a) 2,8,8,2.
(b) Yes, it is a metal.
(c) (ii).

A7.4
(a) Yes. By knowing the chemical properties of familiar elements in the same group
and the group trend, predictions about the unfamiliar element can be made.
(b) Astatine: D; strontium: A

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Chapter 8 Chemical bonding: ionic bonding

A8.1
No. The metal remains chemically unchanged after conduction of electricity.

A8.2
(a) Positively charged copper(II) ions and negatively charged chloride ions.
(b) Solid copper(II) chloride consists of ions which are not mobile, therefore it does
not conduct electricity. In aqueous solution, the ions become mobile and thus the
solution conducts electricity.

A8.3
Sodium chloride and potassium iodide only.

A8.4
(a) Delete the word 'non-metals'.
(b) Delete the word 'metals'.

A8.5
(a) Colourless (b) Purple
(c) Yellow (d) Green

A8.6
(a) The cathode. Potassium ions are positively charged. They are thus attracted
towards the negative electrode (cathode).
(b) No. Potassium ions are colourless.
(c) A green patch would move towards the negative electrode (cathode).
Chromium(III) ions are green in colour and positively charged. They are
attracted towards the negative electrode.

A8.7
(a) (i) Aluminium atom: 2,8,3
aluminium ion: 2,8
(ii) Chlorine atom: 2,8,7
chloride ion: 2,8,8
(b) Charge on aluminium ion = 3+;
charge on chloride ion = 1-

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A8.8
Simple ions: H+, H-, Mn2+
Polyatomic ions: NH4+, NH2-, OH-

A8.9
(a)
Group I II III IV V VI VII 0
Period
2 Li+ Be2+ N3- O2- F-
3 Na+ Mg2+ Al3+ S2- Cl-
4 K+ Ca2+ Br-

(b) (i) Sr2+ (ii) At-

A8.10

(a)

(b)

A8.11
(a) Cu(Cl)2
(b) CaS
(c) Al(OH)3
(d) (NH4)2CO3

A8.12
(a) Mg(OH)2
(b) Na2O
(c) PbSO4
(d) K2Cr2O7

A8.13
(a) Calcium nitrate
(b) Iron(III) chloride
(c) Zinc sulphate-7-water
(d) Copper(II) hydroxide

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Chapter 9 Chemical bonding: covalent bonding

A9.1
Br2, C6H12O6, Ne, NH3

A9.2
(a) Ne (b) H2
(c) Na (d) N2
(e) F2 (f) Mg

A9.3
lose; gain/share

A9.4
(a) (i)

(or )

(ii) 3 bond pairs, 1 lone pair

(b) (i) NCl3 (ii)

A9.5
(a) Phosphorus belongs to Group V.
Each phosphorus atom has to contribute (8 - 5) = 3 electrons for sharing.
3 1

P H P1H3 PH3
The molecular formula is thus PH3.
(b) Silicon belongs to Group IV.
Each silicon atom has to contribute (8 - 4) = 4 electrons for sharing.
4 1

Si Cl Si1Cl4 SiCl4

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The molecular formula is thus SiCl4.

A9.6
Iodine, bromine, chlorine and fluorine have a simple molecular structure and their
molecules are held by weak intermolecular forces called van der Waals' forces. The
larger the molecular size, the greater the van der Waals' forces. The molecular sizes of
the substances are: I2 > Br2 > Cl2 > F2. Therefore, the strength of the van der Waals'
forces are: I2 > Br2 > Cl2 > F2.

A9.7
(a) Molecule (b) Atom or molecule
(c) Ion (d) Atom
(e) Molecule (f) Ion
(g) Molecule (h) Atom

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Chapter 10 Structures and properties

A10.1
(a) Simple molecular structure, giant covalent structure
(b) Simple molecular structure, macromolecules, giant covalent structure

A10.2
(a) Low-melting.
(b) No. They are soft.
(c) No.
(d) (i) No (ii) Yes.

A10.3
(a) (i) No (ii) No
(c) No

A10.4
(a) 2
(b) 2

A10.5
(a) C. It conducts electricity when solid.
(b) B. It does not conduct electricity when solid, but conducts when molten.
(c) A. It does not conduct electricity whether solid or molten; low melting point.
(d) D. It does not conduct electricity whether solid or molten; very high melting
point.
(e) A. Substances with a simple molecular structure are usually soluble in non-
aqueous solvents (such as methylbenzene).

A10.6
(i) The compound formed between a Group II element X (a metal) and a Group VII
element Y (a non-metal) is an ionic compound.
Element X forms X2+ ions;
Element Y forms Y - ions.
The formula of the compound is thus X2+(Y-)2 or XY2.
(ii) It has a giant ionic structure.
(iii) Its physical properties are similar to those mentioned in the answer to Example
10.3, part (a) (iii).

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Chapter 11 Occurrence and extraction of metals

A11.1
Copper, gold, lead, silver, tin and zinc are scarce metals. Gold is the least abundant.

A11.2
(a) Aluminium, iron, zinc, copper, lead, tin, silver, gold.
(b) Iron, lead, zinc, aluminium, copper, tin, silver, gold.
(c) Yes.
(d) The abundance of gold is only about 1/17 that of silver.

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Chapter 12 Reactivity of metals

A12.1
Rubidium hydroxide. As can be seen from Figure 12.11, very reactive metals (e.g. K,
Na, Ca) react with water to form a metal hydroxide and hydrogen; fairly reactive
metals form a metal oxide and hydrogen. Rubidium should be more reactive than
potassium, since it is lower than potassium in Group I. (The reactivity of Group I
elements increases down the group.) Thus rubidium should form rubidium hydroxide,
not rubidium oxide.

A12.2
(a) C, A, D, B
(b) C: potassium; A: calcium;
D: magnesium; B: copper

A12.3
1 molecule of sulphur dioxide gas reacts with 2 formula units of aqueous sodium
hydroxide, to produce 1 formula unit of aqueous sodium sulphite and 1 molecule of
liquid water.

A12.4
(a) (i) 2 (ii) 2
(b) (i) 4 (ii) 4
(c) Yes

A12.5
(a) 2 Cl atoms, 7 O atoms
(b) 2 N atoms, 8 H atoms, 2 Cr atoms, 7 O atoms
(c) 6 Fe atoms, 9 S atoms, 36 O atoms
(d) 6 Na atoms, 3 C atoms,
39 O atoms, 60 H atoms

A12.6
2Pb3O4(s) → 6PbO(s) + O2(g)

A12.7
No. Magnesium is less reactive than calcium. Thus magnesium cannot take oxygen
away from calcium oxide.

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A12.8
(a) Displacement reaction takes place because magnesium is higher than lead in the
reactivity series.
Mg(s) + Pb2+(aq) → Mg2+(aq) + Pb(s)
(b) No reaction occurs; silver is lower than copper in the reactivity series.
(c) Reaction occurs. All metals higher than copper in the reactivity series would
react with dilute hydrochloric acid, liberating hydrogen gas.
Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) → Mg2+(aq) + H2(g)

A12.9
(a) Yes. Magnesium is more reactive than iron.
(b) No. Magnesium is much more expensive than iron.

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Chapter 13 Reacting masses

A13.1
(a) C H4
12.0 + 1.0 ×4 = 16.0
(b) C2 H6
12.0 ×2 + 1.0 ×6 =30.0
(c) C12 H22 O11
12.0 ×12 + 1.0 ×22 + 16.0 ×11 = 342.0

A13.2
(a) 23.0 + 35.5 = 58.5
(b) 12.0 ×2 + 1.0 ×6 = 30.0
(same as relative molecular mass)
(c) 12.0 + 16.0 ×3 = 60.0
(d) 63.5 + (14.0 + 16.0 ×3) ×2 + 3 ×(1.0 ×2 + 16.0) = 241.5

A13.3
1 mole of silver contains 6.02 ×1023 silver atoms.
∴ Number of moles of silver atoms
= number of atoms/L
= 1.204 ×1023
6.02 ×1023
= 0.200 mol
Molar mass of silver (Ag)
= 108 g mol-1
∴ Mass of pure silver metal to be weighed out (for counting indirectly)
= number of moles ×molar mass
= 0.200 ×108 g
= 21.6 g

A13.4
(a) 55.8 ×2 + (32.1 + 16.0 ×4) ×3
= 399.9
(b) 399.9 g mol-1
(c) 399.9 ×0.2000 = 79.98 g

A13.5

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(a) Molar mass of silver (Ag)
= 108 g mol-1
Number of moles of silver atoms
= mass (g)
molar mass (g mol-1)
= 27.0 mol
108
= 0.250 mol
Number of silver atoms
= number of moles ×L
= 0.250 ×(6.02 ×1023)
= 1.51 ×1023

A13.6
(a) 0.200 ×35.5 = 7.10 g
(b) 0.200 ×(35.5 ×2) = 14.2 g
(c) 1.20 mol of chlorine (Cl2) contains the same number of molecules as 1.20 mol of
water (H2O).
Mass of chlorine
= 1.20 ×(35.5 ×2) g
= 85.2 g

A13.7
(a) Molar mass of sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
= 23.0 + 16.0 + 1.0 g mol-1
= 40.0 g mol-1
Mass of NaOH
= 0.250 ×40.0 = 10.0 g
Number of formula units of NaOH
= 0.250 ×6.02 ×1023
= 1.51 ×1023
(b) Since helium is monoatomic,
molar mass of He = 4.0 g mol-1.
Number of moles of He molecules
= 0.20mol
4.0
= 0.050 mol
Number of He molecules

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= 0.050 ×6.02 ×1023
= 3.0 ×1022
(c) Molar mass of sulphur dioxide (SO2)
= 32.1 + 16.0 ×2 g mol-1
= 64.1 g mol-1
Number of moles of SO2
= 3.01 ×1024 mol
6.02 ×1023
= 5.00 mol
Mass of SO2 = 5.00 ×64.1 g
= 321 g
(d) Number of moles of X
= 3.01 ×1023 mol
6.02 ×1023
= 0.500 mol
-1
Molar mass of X = 23.0 g mol
0.500
= 46.0 g mol-1

A13.8
(a) C4H8
(b) CH2

A13.9
C H
Masses (in g) 0.857 0.143
Number of moles 0.857= 0.071 42 0.143= 0.143

12.0 1.0
Relative number of 0.071 42= 1 0.143 =2
moles
0.071 42 0.071 42

∴ The empirical formula is CH2.

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Chapter 14 Corrosion of metals and their
protection

A14.1
In Tube 1, moisture in air has been absorbed by anhydrous calcium chloride. In Tube
2, dissolved air in water has been driven out by boiling. Besides, the oil layer on top
prevents air from dissolving in water again.
Iron nail is immersed in distilled water in Tube 3, and in sea water in Tube 4. Distilled
water and sea water both contain dissolved air.

A14.2
No; there is no air on the Moon.
(In 3/1998, NASA revealed that there was strong evidence for the existence of a large
quantity of ice at the poles of the Moon. Thus the old idea that there was no water on
the Moon might have to be changed.)

A14.3
Rusting should be faster in Hong Kong, where the humidity is high. In the Sahara
Desert, it is very dry with almost no rainfall all year round. Rusting does not occur
where there is no water.
(Another possible reason: Hong Kong has serious air pollution, the acid rain would
also make rusting faster.)

A14.4
By electrolysis (electroplating).

A14.5
Stainless steel is too expensive to be used in large objects.

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