# ACI STRUCTURAL JOURNAL

Title no. 86-S58

TECHNICAL PAPER

Determination of Slab Thickness in Suspended Post-Tensioned Floor Systems

\}

f: ,.,

by R. I. Gilbert

A simple expression is presented for the maximum span-to-depth ratio of post-tensioned concrete floor systems. The expression provides an initial estimate of the minimum slab thickness required to limit deflection to some preselected value and forms the basis of a design approach for serviceability. The procedure is an extension of the deemed-to-comply span-to-depth ratios for reinforced concrete slabs that form part of the deflection control provisions in the new Australian Standard for Concrete Structures, AS3600-J988. The procedure described in the paper is illustrated by several numerical examples.

Keywords: building codes; concrete slabs; deflection; flat concrete slabs; posttensioning; prestressed concrete; serviceability; span-depth ratio; structural design; thickness; two-way slabs.

Selection of slab thickness is one of the first decisions to be made in the design of a post-tensioned floor system. The available drape of the tendons depends on the slab thickness, as does the choice of the balanced load and hence the level of prestress. It is common practice, based on experience, to select a span-to-depth ratio lid equal to about 45 for two-way slabs, irrespective of slab type, support conditions, load level, occupancy, concrete properties, exposure conditions, and many other factors that influence the in-service behavior of the structure. The determination of slab thickness in such an inflexible and arbitrary manner may not lead to a satisfactory design. Excessive deflection (or camber) or excessive vibration are not infrequent occurrences in modern post-tensioned floor systems. This is particularly true for slabs supporting relatively large transitory live loads or for slabs not subjected to their full service loads until some considerable time after transfer. Predictions of the in-service behavior of concrete structures are usually less reliable than predictions of strength. Flexural strength depends primarily on the properties of the steel, while serviceability is most affected by the properties of concrete. The nonlinear and inelastic nature of concrete complicates the calculation of deflection, even for line members such as beams. For two-way slab systems, the three-dimensional nature of the structure, the less well-defined influence of crack602

ing and tension stiffening, and the development of biaxial creep and shrinkage strains create additional difficulties. To satisfy the design requirements of serviceability, codes of practice require that the deflection and camber, the extent of cracking, and the vibration frequency and amplitude of a concrete slab be within acceptable limits under the day-to-day service loads. The choice of these acceptable limits depends on the intended function of the floor, the presence of brittle partitions or finishes, and the dynamic nature of the applied load. Some broad guidelines for selecting these limits are outlined in most national building codes. In general, however, little guidance is given as to how to calculate both the short-term and the time-dependent response of the slab to check that behavior is within the selected limits. In practice, deflections of reinforced concrete slabs are usually controlled by the satisfaction of certain minimum depth requirements (or maximum span-todepth ratios). The new Australian Standard for Concrete Structures, AS3600-1988, specifies a maximum span-to-effective depth ratio for certain reinforced concrete slabs. This maximum lid is based on an expression originally developed by Rangan- for reinforced concrete beams and extended to include the cases of two-way edge-supported slabs, flat slabs, and flat plates by the writer. 3 In this paper, the expression for the maximum spanto-depth ratio in AS3600-1988 is discussed and a weakness in the expression is highlighted and corrected. A similar expression for the maximum span-to-depth ratio of post-tensioned two-way slabs is also developed and presented. The expression provides a means for initial selection of slab thickness and proves to be a

I

ACI Structural Journal, V. 86, No.5, September-October 1989. Received May 18, 1988, and reviewed under Institute publication policies. Copyright © 1989, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved, including the making of copies unless permission is obtained from the copyright proprietors. Pertinent discussion will be published in the July-August 1990 ACI Structural Journal if received by Mar. I, 1990.

ACI Structural

Journal

I September-October

1989

Rangan' proposed simple expressions for k.4 of AS3600-I988.e. A is the long-term deflection multiplication factor and is specified in the Australian Code as [2 . d is the effective depth to the tensile steel.7 + 0.0 for a one-way or two-way edge-supported slab 0.e. and the shorter effective span of a two-way edge-supported slab 1.
1. the sum of the dead load and the permanent live load.I As)] ~ 0. the sum of the dead load and the live load for shortterm serviceability calculations.4•5 AS3600-I988 suggests that k.1 is the deflection on the column line) 1.
603
I September-October
. is the effective moment of inertia of the beam and may be expressed as
(2)
where
. (3) was developed by Gilbert" to control deflections in reinforced concrete slabs. (2) into Eq. b. in psi.0035 ~ p < 0.6 for an interior span of a continuous slab
For two-way edge-supported slabs. the ratio of the longer to the shorter span of any two adjacent spans does not exceed 1.3 bJb)l for T. Gilbert is a member of various subcommittees of the Standards Association of Australia and has been actively engaged in the development of the new Australian Concrete Code.05 for a flat slab with drop panels
where b is the effective width of the compressive face or flange of the beam.
SPAN·TO·DEPTH IN AS3600·1988 Reinforced concrete beams MAXIMUM RATIOS
The total deflection of a uniformly loaded reinforced concrete beam can be expressed as
(1)
An equation similar to Eq. the longer effective span of a flat slab or flat plate.4. Gilbert is a senior lecturer in the School of Civil Engineering at the University of New South Wales. {3 is the deflection coefficient that depends on the support conditions.and L-sections. may be taken to be 0. and for a propped cantilever. depends on the reinforcement quantities. The procedure is illustrated by numerical examples.045 for beams of rectangular section and 0.8.2 (A. and the ratio of the effective depth to the overall depth diD. Ws is the sustained service load per unit length. I.01. (4) becomes 144] effective span of a one-way slab. A nonlinear finite element model was used for this calibration. ' If . For continuous slabs. whichever is smaller). (3) was first developed by Rangan. Dr.95 for a flat slab without drop panels (.and is contained (with some notation changes) in Section 8.2 in AS3600-1988). (1) and rearranging gives
Le = [k. the constant 1000 in the numerator within the brackets in Eq.01. Australia.
Reinforced concrete slabs
useful means for the control of deflection in a structural system that may be prone to serviceability problems. Thickness is essentially uniform throughout.4) in the following form
(4)
where w is the total service load per unit length. The stiffness of the equivalent strip was adjusted so that its deflection was equal to the deflection of the slab panel. and k.n
(3) 1989
According to AS3600-1988. d.045 (0. Load is uniformly distributed. Sydney. {3 = 5/384. respectively [if wand Ws are expressed in psf and E. Substituting Eq. is the effective span (defined in AS3600-1988 as the clear span plus slab thickness or the center-to-center distance between supports. {3 = 1/185. For example.1. is taken from Table 1 (which is a reproduction of Table 9.1
wand
Ws
Le
total deflection limit total and sustained service loads per unit area (in kPa).5. k.1 for an end span of a continuous slab 2. Eq. (4) may only be applied to slabs that satisfy the following requirements: a.
Eq. for a fixed-ended beam.1 is the maximum total deflection limit selected in design.. but is quite reasonable for rectangular sections with steel quantities within the range 0. I. This equation for the limiting Lid for slabs has been altered slightly and included in AS3600-1988 (Section 9. i. c. an equivalent one-way slab strip of unit width was defined. {3 = 1/384. This approximation may be very conservative for beams containing tensile reinforcement ratios (p=A/bd) greater than about 0. i.ACI member R. His research interests are in serviceability of concrete structures and he is the author of a recently published book on time effects in concrete structures.3. (MLe) bEe d {3 (w + A Ws) ACI Structural Journal
For one-way slabs and flat slabs
k.6 for simply supported spans 2. which are in close agreement with Branson's equation for le.
Discussion
J.. Live load does not exceed the dead load. for a simply supported member. (3) can be used to obtain an estimate of the corresponding minimum depth of the beam. L..2 and no end span is longer than an interior span. Eq.3. the ratio of the cracking moment to the maximum in-service moment. For each slab type.

75 3.70 2.25 3. For uniformly loaded post-tensioned slabs. for a reinforced two-way edge-supported slab'
Deflection 1.0 2.0 edges continuous short edge discontinuous long edge discontinuous short edges discontinuous long edges discontinuous adjacent edges discontinuous short + I long edge discontinuous 2 long + I short edge discon4 edges discontinuous 4 I I 2 2 2 2 4.30 2. at the balanced load stage.4 for an interior span of a continuous slab
SLABS
slabs. Excessive camber after transfer. it is difficult to imagine why these upper limits are necessary.40 2. the slab is essentially flat (with no curvature) and is subjected only to the effects of the prestressing forces applied at the anchorages.00 3. (4). and the limited amount of cracking in prestressed slabs. little guidance is given for the maximum span-to-depth ratio (calculated using the shorter panel dimension) but the limits just stated may usually be conservatively used. If {3 is taken as 1. for a one-way slab and a flat slab is modified to
k. respectively. No consideration is made of the magnitude of the applied load. However.05. as those for reinforced concrete 604
In recommendations for design of flat slabs in posttensioned concrete. and amplitude are acceptable. 2. if the service load behavior is acceptable. strength requirements. the coefficient k. the time-dependent interaction between concrete and steel and the resulting changes in slab deformation are quite complex and the concrete stress distribution will not remain uniform with time. If it is assumed that all the sustained load is balanced.15 1. ACI Structural Journal I September-October 1989
.50 l. For interior spans of continuous members.3/185 for an end span (as suggested by Rangan' and Gilbert'). the sustained concrete stress may be assumed to be uniform over the slab depth. Bonded reinforcement provides restraint to both creep and shrinkage. Remember that the magnitude of the balanced load varies gradually with time as the time-dependent loss of prestress occurs.80 2. With the state of the slab under the balanced load confidently known. the longer panel dimension is used in the determination of the span-to-depth ratio. Of course. each tendon providing resistance to its share of the applied load. the span-to-depth ratio should not generally exceed 42 for floors and 48 for roofs. and {3 terms in Eq.25 3. the short-term and time-dependent deflection caused by the unbalanced service load needs to be limited to acceptably small values. and hence time-dependent deflections.) These limits may be increased to 48 and 52. of course. load balancing allows the determination of the prestressing force required to produce zero deflection in a slab panel under the selected balanced load. because in most cases.10 1.00 2.95 3.75 2. is not correct.95 for an end span of a continuous slab 2. or prone to inaccuracy. In addition to providing the basis to establish the best tendon profile.55 2.40 3. time-dependent curvatures. (In flat slabs.75 2. hence. The concept of utilizing the transverse forces resulting from the curvature of the draped tendons to balance a selected portion of the applied load is useful from the point of view of controlling deflections.
1. prestressed slabs are essentially uncracked at service loads.65 1. = I/bd3 is taken to be 0.75 1. The parameter k.10 3.55 3. which will continue to increase with time due to creep.65 2.20 2. which greatly affects in-service behavior. and 1.6 for a simply supported span 1. must also be considered. To minimize deflection problems.00 3. and causes a change of curvature with time if the reinforcement is eccentric. term in Eq. Such calculations are usually not as complicated. prestressing tendons are usually placed in two directions parallel to the panel edges. The values for k.35 2. An interior span may deflect appreciably more than an equivalent fixed-ended member.75 2.90 2. Problems can arise if a relatively heavy dead load is to be applied at some time after stressing. Due to unequal adjacent spans and pattern loading. However. may cause problems prior to the application of the full-balanced load. {3 is taken to be 11384. the external load to be balanced is usually a significant portion of the sustained or permanent part of the total service load.25 2. are usually small due to the relatively small steel quantities. a better initial estimate of slab thickness can be made using a limiting span-to-depth ratio.55 3. such as punching shear. only the deflection due to the unbalanced portion of the load needs to be calculated.25 2. and to be 11185 for end spans.4/384 for an interior span. the relatively small time-dependent losses of prestress. significant slope may exist at a continuous support.10
concrete
k. given in the preceding are therefore not conservative. The transverse load on the slab produced by the curvature of the tendons in one direction adds to (or subtracts from) the transverse load imparted by the tendons in the orthogonal direction.75 3. The FIP limits on the span-to-depth ratio are generally conservative but do not always insure serviceability.00 2. A continuous span is not fixed-ended.90
Ratio of long span to short span
unuous
The k.15 2. little long-term load-dependent curvature or deflection. A slab of uniform thickness is subjected only to uniform compression P / A in the directions of the orthogonal tendons.
Initial sizing
APPLICATION TO POST-TENSIONED Balanced load stage
In a post-tensioned two-way slab. At the balanced load. A uniform compressive stress distribution produces uniform creep strain and.50 2. camber and vibration frequency. For two-way edge-supported slabs. similar to that specified for reinforced concrete slabs in AS3600-1988.70
constant I. This. (3) are incorporated in the k. FIp6 suggests that for solid slabs continuous over two or more spans in each direction. Of course.S 3.Values of k. if the calculated deflections.Table 1 . To control deflections in two-way post-tensioned slabs.

I(a). The long-term deflection multiplier A for an uncracked prestressed member is significantly higher than for a cracked reinforced concrete member. (5) should not be taken to be less than 3.: =::. finite element model. [ (AI L. This stiffness adjustment has been made in the following procedure by means of a slab system factor K. rather than the deflection on the column line. the aspect ratio of the panel. The ratio of the time-dependent. is in psi. ]'/i
(7)
The loads Wu and Wus are in kPa. the deflection at the center of the panel may be calculated from the equivalent slab strip through the center of the panel in the short direction. the procedure for estimating the overall depth of the slab is relatively simple. Eq.
[ (M L. To avoid dynamic problems. as shown in Fig. and the initial curvature on an uncracked cross section containing only small amounts of bonded reinforcement is similar in magnitude to the creep coefficient. and is therefore significantly greater than the corresponding ratio for a cracked cross section.) b Ec ] YI D = 12 {3 (wu + A wus)
(6)
(5) where Wu is the unbalanced service load per unit length and Wus is the sustained part of the unbalanced load per unit length. (6) can be re-expressed as follows
-~K
L. the deflection at the midpoint of the long-span on the column line is found by analyzing the strip of unit width located on the column line. For concrete floors subjected to normal loading conditions that do not possess any special vibration requirements. the value of A in Eq. a maximum limit should be placed on the span-to-depth ratio. 1 Slab types and equivalent slab strips L.=-::
II II
II II
II
(c) Edge-supported slab Fig. For each slab
ACI Structural
Journal
I September-October
1989
605
. I. .::= =~::. The stiffness of the equivalent strip must be adjusted for each slab type. then the constant 1000 in Eq.. This work forms the basis of the upper limits on LID specified in Eq. For the flat slab. as shown in Fig. This is to insure that Eq. the stiffness of the slab strip must be reduced significantly if the maximum deflection at the center of the panel is to be controlled. For the edge-supported slab. For prestressed concrete slabs. [If the loads are in psf and E. For a one-way slab. prestressed members. a lower limit to the frequency of the fundamental mode of the slab of about 5 cycles per sec is sufficient to avoid excessive vertical acceleration that may cause discomfort to occupants. In design. an estimate of the required minimum slab thickness may be obtained by applying Eq.] The long-term deflection multiplier A is taken as 3. which is most often the case. is in MPa.If it is assumed that a prestressed concrete slab is essentially uncracked at service loads. A small long-term deflection is inevitable. 1 for each slab type. a flat-slab. and the torsional stiffness of the slab. The term K is a slab system factor that accounts for the support conditions of the slab panel. For uncracked." upper limits of the span-to-depth ratio for slabs were recommended to avoid vibration problems due to pedestrian traffic. (7) should be replaced by 144. In a recent investigation. (5) predicts at least a small long-term deflection.8 The total deflection of an uncracked prestressed beam caused by unbalanced uniformly distributed service loads is
equivalent strip
(a) One-way slab
(b) Flat slab
=-=~::. By substituting bIY/12 for I and rearranging Eq. creep-induced curvature. the maximum span-to-depth ratio for the beam may be obtained from Eq. 1 shows typical interior panels of a one-way slab. the midspan deflection is found by analyzing the strip of unit width shown in Fig. (6). For a flat slab. l(b). Equivalent one-way slab strips are also defined in Fig. Wus should not be taken less than 25 percent of the self-weight of the member. E. an expression can be obtained for the minimum slab depth required to satisfy any specified deflection limit. even for the case when an attempt is made to balance the entire sustained load by prestress. By rearranging the equation for the midspan deflection of the equivalent strip. (5). and an edge-supported slab. Fig. I(c). the following expression may be obtained for an uncracked beam of rectangular section and overall depth
D
I f A is the deflection limit selected in design.) 1000 D Wu + 3 Wus ~ 50 for one-way slabs and flat slabs ~ 55 for two-way edge-supported slabs
e. (7). so that the deflection of the beam is similar to the deflection of the two-way slab. (6) to the slab strips of Fig. 7. which was originally calibrated using a nonlinear.

4 2.80 and 1. Edge-supported two-way slabs-For an edge-supported slab.3 2.1 2.4 2.75/384 and
K
=
2. therefore.1 1. I(b) is to accurately represent the deflection of the real slab on the column-line. Values of K depend on the aspect ratio and the support conditions at all edges of the panel and are given in Table 2.6 2.3 times the slab thickness beyond the drops.10
(8c)
For an interior span of a continuous member. the deflection coefficient {j equals 5/384.2 2. (6)
K = (1/12{j)'h
(8a)
For continuous slabs. All parameters required for input into Eq.5 2.8 2.90. the preceding values for K may be increased by 10 percent.1 2.
{j =
(9b)
2. No estimate of selfweight is needed since self-weight is almost always part of the balanced load.4 2. It is suggested that
ACI Structural Journal I September-October 1989
606
.05
For a slab containing drop panels that extend at least type.0 2.6{j)'h 3. Usually most of the unbalanced load is transitory.5 2. If the designer selects the load to be balanced and the deflection limit. Restraint to creep and shrinkage caused by the eccentric bonded steel will also cause some time-dependent deflection. respectively. Therefore
K = 2. the magnitude of the sustained unbalanced load varies with time and cannot remain zero.
Discussion
For a fully loaded end span of a slab that is continuous over more than three equal spans and with the adjacent interior span unloaded. For this reason. the values of K just given must be modified to account for the variation of curvature across the panel width. selection of a slab depth somewhat greater than that indicated by Eq.3 2. Deflections at various stages in the slab history may still have to be calculated. If the maximum deflection at the center of the panel is to be limited (rather than the deflection on the long-span column-line).way edge-supported slab
Ratio 1.0 2. This involves an understanding of the derivation of the equation and its limitations.75/384.2 2.2 2.9 2.Table 2 . The moments. and therefore pattern loading must be considered.85
(8b)
terline and have an overall depth not less than 1. a greater than average share of the total load on the slab must be assigned to the column strip (of which the equivalent strip forms a part).3 1. If the deflection of the equivalent slab strip in Fig. and hence curvatures. In such cases. A previous study of span-to-depth ratios for reinforced concrete slabs used a nonlinear finite element model to quantify these effects.3 2. If it is assumed that 65 percent of the total load on the slab is carried by the column strips. particularly if the unbalanced load causes significant cracking or if an unusual load history is expected. For a simply supported span.0 4 edges continuous I short edge discontinuous I long edge discontinuous 2 short edges discontinuous 2 long edges discontinuous 2 adjacent edges discontinuous 2 short + 1 long edge discontinuous 2 long + I short edge 4 edges discontinuous
discontinuous
0f
quired to limit the deflection on the column-line of a flat slab becomes
K
=
Values of K long span to short span 1. From Eq.4
3. values of K must be modified to account for the fact that only a portion of the total load is carried in the short span direction and the fact that torsional stiffness and even compressive membrane action increase the overall slab stiffness. the values of K in Eq. values of K are developed and discussed in the following. are greater close to the column line than near the midpanel of the slab in the middle strip region.5 2. then the value of K re-
Eq.1 2. (9b) and (9c) should be reduced to 1. (7).
Slab system factor K L/6 in each direction on each side of the support cen-
One-way slabs-For a one-way slab. the deflection of the slab on the column line will be greater than the deflection of a oneway slab of similar span and continuity.6 2. {j must be determined for the distribution of unbalanced load that produces the maximum deflection in each span.' The results of that investigation have been used in the calibration of K for the post-tensioned slabs considered here. serviceability problems can be minimized by a careful choice of Dusing Eq. with
{j =
K = 1. an estimate of slab depth can readily be made. since a large percentage of the sustained external load and self-weight is balanced by the prestress.25
(8d)
Flat slabs-For flat slabs. (8a)
K = 1.90
For an interior span. (7) forms the basis of a useful approach to the design of prestressed concrete slabs.9
(l/J5.3 2.0 2. (j may be taken as 2. a designer wishes to minimize deflection by balancing the entire sustained load.9 1.5/384
(9a)
2.0 2. of course.3 2. (7) would be prudent. (7). {j is calculated from an elastic analysis and may be conservatively taken to be 3. with adjacent spans unloaded. it would be unwise to set the sustained part of the unbalanced load w'" to zero in Eq. and (9c)
K = 2.25 1.4 2.5/384.2 2.2 2. However.6 2.3 2. K depends on the support conditions and the most critical pattern of unbalanced loads.4 2. If.3
For an end span. In the real slab. from Eq.8 2.Values of K for an uncracked two. for example. (7) are usually known at the beginning of the design.

75 in. R. 51-56. I. Eq.9 [D ~ x 9800
CONCLUSIONS An expression is developed to estimate the maximum span-to-depth ratio of post-tensioned concrete floor systems. 10th Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials.5 kPa (31. (9b). sound engineering judgment is required. No. Rangan. Detroit. R. Therefore
Wu Wus
5. Therefore
Wu
and 12 m (29. only the self-weight is to be balanced by prestress. then L. 1985. With an aspect ratio of 1. Sydney. 4. Mickleborough. the slab system factor is obtained from Table 2. Aug.3J
=
4 kPa (83." American Concrete Institute.." Federation Internationale de la Precontrainte/Cement and Concrete Association.5 kPa (114." (AS3600-1988). All columns are 400 by 400 mm (15. The expression is simple.5 psf)
and
Wur
=
2 kPa (41. and ideal for use in routine structural design and forms the basis of a convenient approach to the design for serviceability.5. May 1980. The slab is continuously supported on all four edges by stiff beams and is discontinuous on one long edge only.7. pp.25 times the self-weight of the slab.
=
10. 79. Alabama Highway Department. "Australian Standard for Concrete Structures. 9.). 108 pp. 1988.7 psf) (of which 1 kPa is sustained or permanent). Sept. AS36oo-1988. 8. 3. K = 1. Sydney. (7) gives 1. Part I. 215-230.5 psf) [of which I kPa (20. From Eq. in this case. rational. i.000 . 7. University of Adelaide.3 psf) (plus selfweight) and a service live load of 4 kPa (83. No. K = 2." HPR Report No. 82. From Eq.000 4+3x2
(1/250)
]Y'
46. Proceedings V.9 psf) is sustained]. pp. "Time-Dependent Analysis of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Slabs. Vijaya. University of New South Wales." ACI JOURNAL.33.000 5. Bureau of Public Roads. Branson. respectively. Drop panels extending span/6 in each direction are located over each interior column.8J
386 [
D ~1.75 by 15.06 x 1()6psi).
607
.400
+
200
=
9800 mm (386 in. Gilbert.8 D ~ 210 mm (8. (7) gives 9800 [D
~ 1. Once again. = 28. Take E. July 1979. "FIP Recommendations for the Design of Flat Slabs in PostTensioned Concrete (Using Unbonded Tendons).e. (7) 9000 [ D~2.
l
x 1.8 J 83.)
]Y'
=
46. B.22 pp.9 psf) (in addition to self-weight) and a service live load of 3 kPa (62. 1986. "Control of Concrete Floor Slab Vibration by LID Limits.90 for an end span and may be increased by 10 percent to account for the stiffening effect of the drop panels. The slab must carry a dead load of 1. = 28. The slab supports a dead load of 1 kPa (20.1 = 30 mm (1. The deflection in the exterior or end slab panel will control the slab thickness. C. "Time-Dependent Behaviour of Structural Concrete Slabs.3 ft) centers in the orthogonal direction. N. WORKED EXAMPLES Example 1 A preliminary estimate is required of the thickness of a post-tensioned.18 in." Proceedings. University of New South Wales.. As with the rest of the design process.. Gilbert. D ~ 194 mm (7. If D is initially assumed to be about 200 mm (7.-Oct. "Instantaneous and Time-Dependent Deflections of Simple and Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams.9 psf) = 2. If the slab supports brittle partitions and the deflection limit is taken to be span/5oo. 5." PhD thesis.000 MPa (4..in no case should Wus be taken as less than 0..)
The elastic modulus for concrete is E.6 in. D ~ 264 mm (10. The expression provides an initial estimate of the minimum slab thickness required to limit deflection to some preselected maximum value. 2.1
b. Jan.8 psf)
The effective longer span is clear span + D.1J 4+3x2 . "Deflection Control of Slabs Using Allowable Span to Depth Ratios.9
x
(1/250) x 144 x 4. pp. The supporting columns are regularly spaced at 10 m (32.1 x 1000 x 28. 6.06 x 106 psi). 1982.5 kPa (52.. 3rd International Conference in Australia on Finite Elements Methods.) + drop panels
l
x 1. Proceedings V." ACI JOURNAL.000 MPa (4. I.8 ft) centers in one direction and 8 m (26.9 in. Eq. Wexham Springs. a. I.4 ft).25 in.9
x
x 1000 x 28. Mar." Proceedings. The procedure is an extension of the deemed-to-comply span-to-depth ratios for reinforced concrete slabs that form part of the deflection control provisions in the new Australian Standard for Concrete Structures.000]'11 = 37. 67·72. 1983.2 psf)
=
and
The maximum mid panel deflection is limited to . "Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-83).5 + 3 x 41..). ACI Committee 318. 1979.. R. Sydney. I. It is decided to balance the self-weight of the slab only.361 pp. 372-377.4. Dan E.06 x 1()6]'h = 46.1
(1/500)
Standards Association of Australia.4 x [(30/9000) x 1000 x 28.5 and 39. "Control of Beam Deflections by Allowable Span-Depth Ratios. pp. R.40 in. 1963. The maximum deflection on the column-line in the long-span direction is to be limited to spanl250.5 :. and Gilbert. I. Gilbert. III pp. REFERENCES
1.) + drop panels Example The slab thickness is required for an edge-panel of a two-way slab with short and long effective spans of 9 ACI Structural Journal I September-October 1989
l
x 1.78 pp.5 + 3 x 2.) in plan. flat slab floor for an office.-Feb.