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Power System Stability Summer 2000

6 Subsynchronous
Torsional interaction
Mainly thermal plants with long and flexible shafts
Shafts may break
Can be excited by switching in the network
Induction generator effect at subsynchronous frequencies

Known since 1970

Olof Samuelsson 1
Power System Stability Summer 2000

Basic phenomena
Resonance dynamics involved in torsional oscillations:
fnet Network with series compensation: RLàRLC
fshaft Drive shaft of power plant – mass-spring
Torque components
50 Hz–fnet – subsynchronous – negative damping
50 Hz+fnet – supersynchronous – positive damping

Induction generator effect

Synchronous generators are asynchronous to currents
with frequencies other than 50 Hz
Negative slip and resistance can lead to resonance
Less common

Time scale: 10-45 Hz

Olof Samuelsson 2
Power System Stability Summer 2000

Famous disturbance
First event in Mohave, 1970
Second event at the same plant, 1971
The weak shaft to the exciter broken by torsional oscillations
The term subsynchronous resonance defined after this

Olof Samuelsson 3
Power System Stability Summer 2000

Modeling considerations
Network modes
Shaft modes
Rotating masses – multimass representation

Walve Fig. 6.2

Mass-spring model for SSR:

I 0  ∆ ˙   0 I  ∆   0
0 J  ∆ ˙  = K D∆  +  I 
 

Mass-spring model for angle stability:

I 0   ∆ ˙   0 I  ∆ 
= + Bu
0 M ∆ ˙  K D ∆ 

Only difference is if K is tri-diagonal or not

Olof Samuelsson 4
Power System Stability Summer 2000

Analysis methods
Time simulation
Requires simulation tool for electromagnetic
phenomena, even if it is a symmetrical,
electromechanical phenomenon
Matlab Power System Blockset
Frequency scanning
Bode diagram
Modal analysis of linear(ized) model
Mode shape – Machowski Fig. 6.39

Olof Samuelsson 5
Power System Stability Summer 2000

Means for mitigation

New lines instead of reactive series compensation
Appropriate degree of reactive series compensation
Meshed system
SSR relay bypasses series compensation or trips generator
NGH scheme – resistor across series compensation
Damping controllers
Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor

Olof Samuelsson 6
Power System Stability Summer 2000

SSR in Sweden
Nuclear plants
40 m and 3000 rpm
70 m and 1500 rpm
HVDC converter
Long heavily series compensated lines

Meshed transmission system

SSR damper
Baltic Cable HVDC link
TCSC at Stöde

Olof Samuelsson 7
Power System Stability Summer 2000

SSR and Stöde TCSC

Forsmark 3 normally mesh connected
At a fault Forsmark 3 may be radially connected
SSR conditions between Stöde Series Cap and Forsmark 3

Compensation reduction not possible

Instead part of fixed series cap rebuilt to TCSC
Series capacitor inductive at subsynchronous frequencies

Olof Samuelsson 8