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ANNEX1 INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Copy the lesson on your science notebook. 2. Solve the worksheet and paste it on your notebook.

3. Read the article to get more information about this important system. You will have an activity according to this test. (you can print it to work in class)

EXCRETORY SYSTEM (lesson)


The excretory system is very important to your body and only has a few parts. In a similar way to removing solid waste from your body, you must also get rid of fluids. You know the results of the excretory system as urine. Urine is the result of the excretory system balancing the amount of water and salts in your body. We said the system is small. Your kidneys are the core organs involved in the excretory system. Related body parts include the ureters, bladder, and urethra. Once the urine passes through your urethra, that's it, it's out of your body.

WHAT DOES THIS SYSTEM DO?


The regulation process of body fluids and salt levels is also called osmoregulation. The kidneys act as a filter. Eventually all of the blood in your body passes through the kidneys and they are able to do their filtering magic. The kidneys pull harmful molecules out of your bloodstream and leave the ones that are good for you. The kidneys are also key players in the hydration (water) levels for your body. Chemical signals are sent to your kidneys to reabsorb as much water as possible. The result is less urine creation and your body loses less water. A normal day has you creating about one and a half liters of fluid.

INTERACTING WITH OTHER SYSTEMS


The excretory system is a close partner with both the circulatory and endocrine system. The circulatory system connection is obvious. Blood that circulates through the body passes through one of the two kidneys. Urea, uric acid, and water are removed from the blood and most of the water is put back into the system. The endocrine system is the major controller of the excretory system. As levels of compounds and fluids are monitored, kidney function must be constantly altered to provide the best internal environment for your cells. If you drink too much water, hormones are released that allow for more urine production. If you are dehydrated, less urine will be produced. The kidneys are also tied to the endocrine system with the adrenal gland position on the top of each kidney. The adrenals release adrenaline into your body.

READ THE ARTICLE Excretory System: Poison Protection


If you knew there was poison hidden in your house, you would surely do everything possible to find and remove that poison. If you didn't, you and your family would slowly die. How would you find it? How would you remove it? You would probably figure out a system of searching and removing. That would be an excretory system. Your body does the same thing every day. Hidden throughout your body are dangerous poisons that must be removed in order for it to survive. The process of excretion involves finding and removing waste materials produced by the body. The primary organs of excretion are the lungs, kidneys, and skin. Waste gases are carried by blood traveling through the veins to the lungs where respiration takes place. Dead cells and sweat are removed from the body through the skin which is part of the integumentary system. Liquid waste is removed from the body through the kidneys. Located beside the spine in your back within your ribcage, the kidneys are small (about 10 centimeters long) reddish-brown organs that are shaped like beans. During circulation, blood passes through the kidneys in order to deposit used and unwanted water, minerals, and a nitrogen-rich molecule called urea. The kidneys filter the wastes from the blood, forming a liquid called urine. The kidneys funnel the urine into the bladder along two separate tubes called ureters. The bladder stores the urine until muscular contractions force the urine out of the body through the urethra. Each day, your kidneys produce about 1.5 liters of urine. All of it needs to be removed from your system. This occurs through urination. If your kidneys are diseased and not working properly, the buildup of waste in your system will eventually lead to death. Some kidney diseases can be treated with medication. Severe kidney diseases require more intense treatment. One treatment is called dialysis. The patient's blood is pumped through a dialysis machine which filters the waste from the blood and returns the clean blood. A dialysis patient has to spend nearly sixty hours each week attached to the machine. The most radical treatment for kidney disease is a kidney transplant. Healthy people can live comfortably with only one kidney. Therefore, their other kidney can be donated to a person with kidney disease. The donor and patient must have very similar genetic structures in order for the patient to accept the new kidney without complications. The patient also receives anti-rejection drugs. During a kidney transplant operation, the healthy kidney is placed in the abdomen of the patient and attached to the blood vessels and bladder. The patient's original kidneys are not removed.

Integumentary System: Cutting Dead Cells


The body's integumentary system supports the excretory system in the removal of waste. Skin, hair, fingernails and toenails make up the system by which surface level wastes are removed. The skin protects the body and also provides for the removal of dead cells and sweat, which contains waste products. Hair, fingernails and toenails are actually accumulations of dead epidermal cells. As more cells die and need to be removed, the hair and nails grow.