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nor are hyperbolas all similar to each other.” possibly with additional rotation.. i. all circles are similar to each other. On the other hand. One can be obtained from the other by uniformly “stretching.” Similar Polygons Similar polygons are polygons for which all corresponding angles are congruent and all corresponding sides are proportional.SIMILARITY Definition Two geometrical objects are called similar if one is congruent to the result of a uniform scaling (enlarging or shrinking) of the other. . all squares are similar to each other. y and the measure of angle P. as long as two angles are the same. and all parabolas are similar to each other. since the sum of the interior angles in a triangle is fixed. the so-called “AAA” condition.e. ellipses are not all similar to each other. For example. or additionally the mirror image is taken.. called “AA. i. both have the same shape. all three are. Example: EXAMPLE Problem: Find the value of x. Two triangles are similar if and only if they have the same three angles. However.e. one has the same shape as the mirror image of the other.

5 To find angle P. Special Similarity Rules for Triangles The triangle has a couple of special rules dealing with siilarity. 4 x 4 7 – = – – = – 6 9 6 y 6x = 36 x=6 4y = 42 y = 10. and the angle at C is congruent with the angle at F. then the third angle will also match. write proportions involving corresponding sides. Then use cross products to solve. If this is true. Then. then this relation can be denoted as In order for two triangles to be similar.Solution: To find the value of x and y. it is possible to deduce proportionalities between corresponding sides of the two triangles. then the triangles are similar. given any two similar polygons. Suppose that triangle ABC is similar to triangle DEF in such a way that the angle at vertex A is congruent with the angle at vertex D. note that angle P and angle S are corresponding angles. the angle at B is congruent with the angle at E. the corresponding sides are proportional. once this is known. such as the following: This idea can be extended to similar polygons with any number of sides. since the three angles of a triangle must add up to 180°. it is sufficient for them to have at least two angles that match. By definition of similar polygons. That is. Similar Triangles If triangle ABC is similar to triangle DEF. They are outlined below: Angle-Angle Similarity – if two angles of one triangle are congruent to two angles of another triangle. angle P = angle S 86°. .

Triangle UVS and triangle KLM are similar by Side-Angle-Side. Angle V and angle L are proportional. Side-Angle-Side Similarity – if one angle of a triangle is congruent to one angle of another triangle and the sides that include those angles are proportional. Angle AEB and angle CED are congruent because vertical angles are congruent.EXAMPLE Problem: Prove triangle ABE is similar to triangle CDE. UV 9 3 VW 15 3 ––– = ––– = – ––– = ––– = – KL 12 4 LM 20 4 The sides include angle V and angle L are proportional. Side-Side-Side Similarity – if all pairs of corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional. then the two triangles are similar. EXAMPLE Problem: Are the triangles shown in the figure similar? Solution: Find the ratios of the corresponding sides. . then they are similar. Angle V and angle L are congruent. Solution: Angle A and angle C are congruent. Triangle ABE and triangle CDE are similar by Angle-Angle.

when you put a parallel line in a triangle. you can create similar triangles by drawing a segment parallel to one side of a triangle in the triangle. in a really scary case. Solution: 4 x – = – 7 12 7x = 48 x = 48/7 PT = 48/7 because the sides are divided proportionally when you draw a parallel line to another side cross products PR = 12 + 48/7 = 132/7 . as the theorem above describes. the sides are divided proportionally. only part of the value of a side). then the triangle formed is similar to the original triangle. Also.Parallel Lines and Triangles What do parallel lines and triangles have to do with similar polygons? Well. The theorem that lets us do that says if a segment is parallel to one side of a triangle and intersects the other sides in two points. EXAMPLE Problem: Find PT and PR. This is useful when you have to find the value of a triangle's side (or.

Opposite Side: The side opposite to the angle in consideration is called the opposite side.TRIGONOMETRY Trigonometry is among the earliest applications of Euclidean geometry. is called the base.which deals with figures lying wholly in a single plane Spherical trigonometry .which deals with triangles that are sections of the surface of a sphere It was invented in order to deal with problems in astronomy and has many other uses to the measurement of distance that are difficult or impossible to measure directly. If A is the angle under consideration. Trigonometry is the branch of mathematics that deals with the relationships between the sides and angles of triangles and with the properties and applications of the trigonometric functions of angles. which is one of the arms of the angle under consideration. More recent developments in the study of trigonometric functions enable us to consider problems involving periodic phenomena such as sound waves. The trigonometric functions of angles are the ratios of the various sides of a triangle. if we are considering angle A. Base: The third side of the triangle. • • . then the side AB is the base. • Hypotenuse: The side opposite to the right angle in a triangle is called the hypotenuse. The two branches of trigonometry are: Plane trigonometry . So. then the opposite side is CB. Here the side AC is the hypotenuse.

we can describe the ratios s. c. t with reference to the acute angle A: s= opposite leg (to A) hypotenuse c= adjacent leg (to A) hypotenuse t= opposite leg (to A) adjacent leg (to A) (1) (2) (3) . since angle A is common to all triangles. B1 B B2 B3 C C3 A C1 C2 The consequent proportions of corresponding sides can be rewritten as follows: BC = B1C1 = B2C2 = B3C3 AB AB1 AB3 AB3 AC = A1C1 = A2C2 = A3C3 AB AB1 AB2 AB3 BC = B1C1 = B2C2 = B3C3 AC AC1 AC2 AC3 =s (1) =c (2) =t (3) Now.The theory of similar triangles will serve as a basis for introducing these definitions.

A = B = 90 ° and that sin A = cos B cos A = sin B We state the property above as follows: If two angles are complementary.00 cm / 7.21 cm = 0. EXAMPLE Problem: Find the values of sin A. hence we can give them names: Define: sine A = opposite leg hypotenuse abbreviated sin A cos A tan A cosine A = adjacent leg hypotenuse tangent A = opposite leg adjacent leg These are the three basic trigonometric functions of angle A. and tan A. Observe that angle A and angle B are complementary.. (2).5548 sin(A) = 0. cos A. Solution: Or simply: sin(A) = opposite / hypotenuse = 4.5548 . then the sine of one equals the cosine of the other. (3) are constant.e. i.This means that for the same acute angle A on any right triangle the ratios (1). This is known as the complementary angle property.

6667 = tan(33. we would say: 0.ka .00 cm = 0.5548 = sin(33.ah". SOH .00 cm / 6.7°) 0. this would mean that: cos(A) = adjacent / hypotenuse = 6.CAH .Using the above measured triangle.21 cm = 0.8322 = cos(33.00 cm / 7.TOA It is pronounced "so .6667 Or simply: tan(A) = 0.7°) Here is an easy way to remember these relationships for trig functions and the right triangle.6667 The angle A in the above triangle is actually very close to 33." The CAH stands for "Cosine of an angle is Adjacent over Hypotenuse. your ears do Fourier series automatically! There are little hairs (cilia) in you ears which vibrate at specific (and different) frequencies.8322 Or simply: cos(A) = 0." The TOA stands for "Tangent of an angle is Opposite over Adjacent.7 degrees.7°) 0. So. In fact.8322 tan(A) = opposite / adjacent = 4." TRIVIA Fourier Ears Only! Writing a function as a sum of sines and cosines is called a Fourier series.toe . you can distinguish sounds of various pitches! . The SOH stands for "Sine of an angle is Opposite over Hypotenuse. When a wave enters your ear. the cilia will vibrate if the wavefunction "contains" any component of the correponding frequency! Because of this.


PERIMETER The perimeter is the distance around a given two-dimensional object.) d stands for the circle's diameter (twice the radius of a circle) (The dot means multiply or times) . The perimeter of this yard is the distance around the outside of the yard. For equilateral polygons. The circumference is the distance around a closed curve. The perimeter of a polygon can always be calculated by adding all the length of the sides together. b and c stand for each side of it.. The amount of fence needed to enclose the backyard (perimeter) is 1-dimensional. r stands for the radius π is the mathematical constant pi (π = 3. however. To help us make this distinction. A polygon is 2dimensional. the equation for the perimeter is: P = a + b + c + d. The equation for circumference is: or • • • • P stands for the perimeter. For quadrilaterals. look at our picture of a rectangular backyard. For circles the circumference is a kind of perimeter. The yard is 2dimensional: it has a length and a width. where a. the formula for triangles is P = a + b + c. where n is the number of sides and a is the side length. The word perimeter is a Greek root meaning measure around. the equation for perimeter is: P = na.. perimeter is 1-dimensional and is measured in linear units. or literally "around measure". So.14159265.

x = 18 cm ÷ 6 x = 3 cm Problem 6: What is the circumference of a circle having a diameter of 7.8 cm when rounded to the nearest tenth of a cm. Thus we get: P = 4(2 in) = 8 in Problem 4: Find the perimeter of an equilateral triangle with each side measuring 4 centimeters. and the fact that the circumference of a circle is times the diameter of the circle.9 =3. each with a length of 2 inches. Find the perimeter. A regular hexagon has 6 sides.EXAMPLES Problem 1: Find the perimeter of a triangle with sides measuring 5 centimeters. to the nearest tenth of a cm? Solution: Using an approximation of 3. so we can divide the perimeter by 6 to get the length of one side (x). Solution: P = 5 cm + 9 cm + 11 cm = 25 cm Problem 2: A rectangle has a length of 8 centimeters and a width of 3 centimeters.9 = 24. which equals 24.14159 × 7. 9 centimeters and 11 centimeters. Solution 1: P = 4 cm + 4 cm + 4 cm = 12 cm Solution 2: This regular polygon has 3 sides. the circumference of the circle is C = Pi × 7. Solution 1: P = 8 cm + 8cm + 3 cm + 3 cm = 22 cm Solution 2: P = 2(8 cm) + 2(3 cm) = 16 cm + 6 cm = 22 cm Problem 3: Find the perimeter of a square with each side measuring 2 inches. Thus we get: P = 3(4 cm) = 12 cm Problem 5: The perimeter of a regular hexagon is 18 centimeters.9 cm.14159 for . Solution 1: P = 2 in + 2 in + 2 in + 2 in = 8 in Solution 2: This regular polygon has 4 sides. each with a length of 4 centimeters.81…cm. How long is one side? Solution: P = 18 cm Let x represent the length of one side. .

An interior angle of the triangle is measured by the magnitude of the angle formed by the tangents to the two side of the common vertex. shown in Figure d. It is based on the work of Henry Poincare (1854-1912) and as described as: C A R Q C R B T (b) a C L P S (c) M N C P O P S (a) (d) Consider a fixed circle C with center O. The area of a triangle is determined by the sum of its angles. more than one line (RS and TW) can be drawn parallel to line a” Non-intersecting lines are said to be parallel. In the figure above.NON-EUCLEDIAN GEOMETRY “One geometry cannot be more true than another. Hyperbolic Geometry One model for hyperbolic geometry is the disc model H which makes use of a system of circles of a Euclidian plane. MN and angles at points L. it can only be more convenient”.B. The hyperbolic points of H are the points interior to or inside circle C. Theorems in hyperbolic geometry that differ significantly from than of Euclid’s: 1. In Figure b. particularly his fifth postulate P5. those congruence of triangles. All Euclid’s axioms for plane geometry are satisfied in H except the axioms of parallels. The sum of the angles of a triangle is always less than 180o 2. 4. Poincaré A non-Euclidian geometry is described as a geometry satisfying a system of axioms in which one or more are contrary to Euclid’s. and N. with sides LM. vertical angles are equal. A and B not hyperbolic points? Arc RS and diameter AB are infinite hyperbolic lines since points A. LN. P. if P is a point not on line 1. S. hyperbolic lines RS and T intersect at point P and both are parallel to hyperbolic line a. M. Theorems that hold for both Euclidian and hyperbolic geometries are. . particularly the bigger the triangle is the closer the sum of its angles is to zero. No quadrilateral is a rectangle. OP is a line segment. called the fundamental circle. This illustrates the P5: “Through point P not on line a. Q and O are hyperbolic points.R and S are excluded. Why are R. In Figure c. and an exterior angle of a triangle is bigger than either remote interior angles. only one line can be drawn through P perpendicular to 1. Similar triangles are congruent. whereas. 3. The hyperbolic lines of H are the circular arcs orthogonal (or perpendicular) to C and the diameters of C. a triangle LMN.

1. A great circle on a sphere is any circle whose diameter is equal to the diameter of the sphere. An elliptic line is a great circle. It means further that in a given model all elliptical lines have the same length. They can even approach each other in an asymptotically fashion. The great circles perpendicular to the equator are the lines of longitude. two points like north and south poles lie on infinitely many great circles. although it is of finite length (approximately 24. the fifth postulate of Euclid is replaced by the statement that the two elliptical or Riemmanian lines are parallel. Below are some of these theorems. One can travel around it without having to stop to a particular point. Otherwise. This refers to the surface of the earth which will be used to illustrate and interpret the Riemmanian axioms and theorems.1 All lines perpendicular to a given line meet at a point NP Equator Let the equator be a line. Elliptic Geometry As in Poincare’s model for hyperbolic geometry which utilized Euclidian circles on the plane. theorems that differ from their Euclidian counterparts have evolved. Antipodal points are diametrically opposite on the surface of the earth are regarded as “identical” points in order that Euclid’s postulate stating that “two points determine a straight line” will hold. Since all lines of longitude meet at the North Pole.In hyperbolic geometries. we shall “construct” the model for plane elliptic geometry on the basis of Euclidian solid geometry. all perpendiculars to the equator meet at a point. With the changes in Euclid’s postulates 2 and 5. . Q b a p Points P and Q in the figure above are known as antipodal points. the parallel lines don’t seem straight in the conventional sense. we merely can assume that parallel lines carry only the restriction that they don’t intersect. Furthermore. Riemann’s version of Postulate 2 is interpreted in terms of a great circle which is indefinite or is bounded. Now on the subject of parallelism.000 miles for the earth).

90o and 160o respectively. The Philippines are South of Florida so it is not apparent why flying North to Alaska would be shorter. Ghana and the North Pole.e corresponding angles are equal) Elliptical geometry is useful especially to pilots and ship captains as they navigate around the spherical Earth.1. which is more than 180o.2 The sum of the angles of a triangle is always greater than 180o. B and C gives 90o. and C. and the Philippines are collinear locations in elliptical geometry. As it increases in size. Thus. For example. Parallel lines in three spaces which are not parallel to the drawing plane must be drawn to converge at their vanishing points. . Idealized directions are referred to as points at infinity. 1. 1. The sum of the three angles of the triangle is 340o. while idealized horizons are referred to as lines at infinity. two parallel lines will meet on a horizon in virtue of their possessing the same direction. the shortest flying distance from Florida to the Philippine Islands is a path across Alaska. the area of the small triangle. Alaska. A triangle is thus formed by points A. If the triangles are very small relative to the earth’s surface. A and B lie on the equator and the great circle passing through the North Pole and Ghana is the 0o line of longitude (Ghana is aligned with Greenwich. like the survey of a triangular farm. Properties: Points are mapped to points and lines to lines.3 Any two triangles with the same angle sum have the same area and the area of a triangle is completely determined by the sum of the angles of a triangle. respectively. a triangle would have arcs of great circle as sides. the sides of the triangle would look like straight lines and the sum of the angles of the triangle is almost 180o.4 A true test for congruent triangles is AAA (i. From the adjoining figure. Computing the angles at A. As a matter of fact. their sizes are curves (or arcs) and the sum of its angles becomes increasingly larger than 180o. C A B equator Since any two points on the earth lie on a great circle. and in which a "horizon" of directions corresponding to coplanar lines is regarded as a "line".B and C be locations of Christmas Island. From the world map. England) while Christmas Island is on the 160o line of longitude. Projective Geometry Projective geometry deals with the formalization of one of the central principles of perspective art: that parallel lines meet at infinity and therefore are to be drawn that way. B. A projective geometry may be thought of as an extension of Euclidean geometry in which the "direction" of each line is subsumed within the line as an extra "point". let points A. relative to the surface of the earth is almost zero. They able to know the shortest travel done. The answer is that Florida.

{O. C. A'}. If we treat a. if the three pairs of corresponding sides meet in three points which lie on one straight line. Conversely. and planes A line can be represented in space by the equation ax + by + c = 0. If they are projectively related from the point O. A subspace always goes through zero. A.1 as the column vector then the equation above can be written in matrix form as: or Or using vector notation or sweeps out a plane that goes through zero in ray goes through zero). The plane and ray are subspaces in Ideal points and sweeps out a ray ( a . physics is largely founded upon the constructs of Euclidean geometry but was turned upside-down with Einstein's non-Euclidean "Theory of Relativity" (1915). B'} and {O. Then the points of intersections of the corresponding sides AB and A'B'. based upon Euclidean geometry. It provides the description of the body of knowledge for the large scale spatial structure of the actual universe .) Points. AC and A'C' and BC and B'C' (or their prolongations) are collinear. C'} are all collinear. y. For example. the triples {O. Also. b and c as the column vector and x. specifically when dealing with astronomical distances. a non-Euclidian Geometry especially elliptic geometry is applied to navigation and aviation. and that this constituted for major errors in the equations of planetary motion and gravity. Newtonian physics. then the lines joining corresponding vertices meet at one point (are projectively related. lines. that is.Desargues’ Theorem of Homologous Triangles Theorem. B. failed to consider the curvature of space. rays. Applications of non-Euclidean Geometries: Non-Euclidean geometries began to replace the use of Euclidean geometries in many contexts. Suppose there is a point O and triangles ABC and A'B'C' in the plane or three space.

Sin.wikipedia. Non-Eucledian Geometry. http://www. 2006. 1998.wikipedia. Date Accessed 2007 July pp. Date Accessed: 2007 July 22. Notes in Mathematics for General Education. Date Accessed: 2007 July 21. <http:// introduction/rightTriangle/trigRightTriangle. Accessed July 21. http:/library. GLOSSER. http://en. G.REFERENCES: CASTILLO et al.html#T2. UP Diliman GE Mathematics Committee. Similarity. Microsoft ® Encarta ®. Date Accessed: 2007 July 22. Perimeter. http://en. Design Science. 2007. Inc.mind. Trigonometry and right triangles. Similarity. http://en.wikipedia. http://en. 15-20. Circumference of a circle. 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation©.syvum.geocities. Date Accessed: July> Date accessed 2007 July cos and tan functions. http://www. Trigonometry. 2007 Projective Geometry.html. Date Accessed: 2007 July Math symbols created with MathType.

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