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Issues / Problems of Farmers in India

A. Credit related Issues

Delay 1. Adequate and timely credit is not given and there are undue delays in dispensation of Credit (A.P. Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Tripura)) Scales of Finance

2. The scale of finance fixed by District Level Technical Committees, especially the scale

of finance adopted by DCCBs is inadequate as the farm labour has become costly. Moreover, it is not fixed as a range i.e. lower for farmers adopting traditional methods of cultivation and the upper for farmers who use modern methods of cultivation (Tamilnadu). revised considering the specific situation in the islands (Andaman & Nicobar).

3. Scales of finance does not meet the need of cost of cultivation and needs to be
Documentation & Security norms

4. Some of the farmers have expressed unhappinesss about the security norms and
documentation process. (A.P)

5. Cumbersome & time consuming loan procedures and levying of stamp duty on loans for
agriculture & allied activities is impeding farmers access to bank credit. (Haryana)

6. Small artisans/ self employed persons not being able to access bank credit due to
stringent collateral security norms. (Haryana)

7. Inability of non-farmers, who do not own any landed property except small houses, to
offer collateral for taking loan from the formal credit system and their dependence on the finance companies /local money lenders to meet their credit requirements.

8. Non-farmers especially the beneficiaries identified under PMEGY, Swaroj Card Credit
card scheme expressed their demand for hassle free loans without much documentation from the banks. (Gujrat)

timeliness and adequacy of credit, delivery of credit and recovery within easy reach, increased transaction hours and comfort level in dealings are important factors for expanding the coverage of institutional credit. (Odisha)

9. Simplification of procedures/ process of documentation, flexible security norms,

10. Farmers continue to face the problem of obtaining Land Possession Certificates.

11. Farmers insisted that the loans against the mortgage of their agriculture land and
mortgage is indicated on the jamabandi itself. In such cases, No Dues Certificate and the certificate from advocate is not necessary. (Rajasthan)

Lack of awareness of KCC and other schemes

12. Most of the farmers were not aware of the salient features of the KCC scheme General
Credit Card and Swarozgar Credit Card and benefits thereof as also the loan availment procedure. These schemes need to be popularised. (A.P, Haryana,Gujrat, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Odisha) period, repayment schedule, borrowers.(Haryana) amount of instalments etc. was made to the

13. No proper communication of terms and conditions like rate of interest, repayment

14. Some of the farmers advocated for freedom in use of the KCC for other allied activities
like purchasing of milch animals and they wanted that their loan eligibility be assessed for once and provided credit. They want General Credit Card on reduced interest rates on the line of KCC, and simplification in loan documentation so that the more and more clients can be covered under the credit schemes. (Rajasthan) KCC and there should be easiness in mortgage of the land. (Rajasthan)

15. Farmers who are availing loans from Land Development Bank should be provided the 16. KCCs have not been operated in their true spirit - any number of withdrawals and

repayments. Awareness levels on operation of KCC are still at a pathetically low level. Many farmers suggested for a pro farmer approach by banks. (Tamilnadu)

17. Another problem encountered by the farmers is that the cooperative system still continues to insist on lifting of the kind component of the crop loan. This deprives the farmers of the freedom of choice of inputs and defeats the very objective of KCC. (Tamilnadu) 18. Limits fixed by the banks under KCC are arbitrary and not as per their land holdings,
scale of finance, etc., leading to under financing in many cases which inhibits the farmers in pursuing scientific agricultural production. KCC coverage needs to be improved drastically with all farmer households being covered under the scheme. (UP)

Others - Credit related issues

19. In most of the districts, the banks were not financing Raitu Mitra Groups (RMGs.) (A.P)

20. Farmers engaged in allied activities found it difficult to obtain Investment Credit from
Banks and hence, borrowed money from money lenders at exorbitant rates. (A.P, Haryana, Rajasthan) working capital requirement. (A.P, Gujrat)

21. Weavers and Artisans were finding it difficult to get credit from banks for their 22. Non availability of credit to tenant farmers oral lessees was reported.
(Haryana, Gujrat,Tripura)

23. Frequent visits by farmers to get Land Records from the Department of Revenue and
also to get loans from banks (Haryana) sector (Haryana)

24. High interest rates on loans especially on Agriculture Term Loan, service & business

25. Social expenditure on increase; Lack of access by farmers to consumption loans from
the banking system leading to a increase of indebtedness especially to informal sources, to meet consumption needs (Haryana)

26. Banks are not conveying the reasons for rejection of loan applications (Haryana) 27. There are demands from some of the districts for getting educational loans without
cumbersome procedures. (Gujrat, M.P)

28. There is need to increase per group finance to matured SHGs trained to take up

income generating activities (Farm and Non Farm activities)particularly while extending loan under II and subsequent linkages (repeat finance) (Gujarat) board waiver. (Kerala)

29. Incentives to be extended to those who repay their loan promptly instead of across the 29. The terms of credit are not flexible and a built in mechanism is necessary to defer
dues in case of distress. (Kerala)

31. Banks are charging inspection/service/visit charges, etc. for farm loans. (Kerala) 32. Farmers expect timely and appropriate relief measures during drought conditions.
Banks are expected to have more proactive role in this direction. (M.P)

33. Farmers need banking services at their doorsteps which would help them in availing
the various facilities provided by the banks. Further, proximity would also help the banks to establish 'relationship banking' (M.P).

34. Bank officials are not being sensitised towards farmers expectations. (Maharashtra) 35. Awareness camps for various schemes policies are not being arranged. (Maharashtra) 36. The ongoing subsidy schemes for private irrigation projects as well as other forms of
investments in agriculture and allied sectors, need to be adequately publicised to ensure optimal utilisation of the same. (Odisha)

and cooperatives but the private banks are not lending at 7 per cent as the Interest Subvention Scheme is not extended to them. Hence the farmers avail loan at higher rates of interest from these banks. (Tamilnadu)

37. It was opined that the farmers get loans at 7 per cent from nationalised banks, RRBs

38. Debt waiver/relief measures announced by the government has vitiated the recovery
climate as those farmers who had promptly repaid their loans felt that loan waivers were a disincentive to them. Moreover, rumors in some quarters of another waiver has resulted in even the prompt repayers delay their repayment. (Tamilnadu)

39. Pledge loan facility by the banks in association with godowns wherever feasible need
to be extended. (Tamilnadu)

B. Extension Services related issues

1. Most of the farmers opined that the innovations made at Research Stations/Agricultural Universities were not reaching them. The extension services in the nature of technology to be adopted, type / variety of crops to be grown, potentials need to be disseminated. (Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Haryana, Jharkhand, Manipur, Mizoram, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu) 2. Timely and adequate supply of quality seeds, pesticides, farm implements need to be ensured by Agricultural Department and other extension agencies of State Government. (Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Haryana, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Manipur, Mizoram, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu) 3. Most of the farmers in all the districts felt that the electricity department should ensure uninterrupted supply of electricity atleast for 12 hrs per day without any voltage fluctuations. Energisation of pumpsets should be given top priority by the Electricity Department and pending application should be cleared in a time bound manner. (Andhra Pradesh) 4. Farmers of Guntur District felt that the Irrigation Department should inform the farmers well in advance the probable date and time of release of water from reservoirs to enable them to plan agricultural operations. (Andhra Pradesh) 5. There is a need for Agriculture Department to associate with NGOs and disseminate information on crop husbandry, improved implements, dusters, sprayers etc. by organising demonstration programmes. (Andhra Pradesh) 6. Awareness camps on the various welfare and promotional schemes implemented by State and Central government for farmers and non-farmers need to be organised. (Andhra Pradesh) 7. Farmers are not getting guidance on use of improved variety of seeds and planting material, pest and nutrition management and other improved agriculture practices, for undertaking allied activities like dairy, poultry and other agriculture related operations etc. Frequent and intensive interaction of extension agencies with farmers through forums like Farmer Club is necessary. (Goa) 8. Timely support and guidance from veterinary doctors is not available which results in low success rate in AI.(Goa) 9. Lack of coordination among different extension agencies result in low level technical inputs to the farmers engaged in animal husbandry activity. (Goa) 10. Extension services to be provided are generally decided by the concerned department without taking into account the actual requirement at village level and the outreach is insufficient to meet the need at grass root level.(Haryana) 11. Lack of information on market availability, prices etc.(Haryana) 12. As most of the farmers are not aware of groundwater availability so there is need for awareness creation and training programmes for judicious management of irrigation water, water conservation and recharging of groundwater and also maintenance of soil health, soil conservation at village level. (Haryana) 13. Need for conducting training programmes on existing and emerging activities in allied and non farm sector. (Haryana)

14. Lack of effective co-ordination in the approach/ implementation in various spheres of agriculture viz : profession as agriculture, marketing, extension services, irrigation, electricity, crop insurance. (Haryana) 15. Guidance is needed for adoption of bio fertilizers, organic farming etc. (Haryana) 16. Lack of publicity (Haryana) of Govt. Subsidy schemes among rural poor, particularly illiterate villagers.

17. There are only few Krishi Vikas Kendras in Kashmir region. (Jammu & Kashmir) 18. There is lack of Agri Clinic and Agri Business centres in the State. (Jammu & Kashmir, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura) 19. Vacant posts of technical staff are not being filled. (Maharashtra) 20. Public-Private partnership for providing various extension services (Maharashtra) is not being explored.

21. Rural Libraries with latest information need to be provided in every village. (Maharashtra) 22. Awareness regarding drip & sprinkler irrigation and soil conservation, etc. has not percolated to village level. (Punjab, Rajasthan) 23. Extension agencies are not conducting adequate training on allied and diversified activities and business and service sectors. (Punjab) 24. The concept of dark, grey or white blocks critical or semi critical block was unknown to most of the farmers. (Punjab) 25. A Bio Fertilizer Policy is demanded by farmers inclusive of guidelines on how to do organic farming, the actual quantity of organic inputs required, markets for the products, etc. (Punjab) 26. Most agricultural inputs and pesticides dealers did not display rate lists. (Punjab) 27. Visits of the field staff of the agencies were very few and far between to guide the farmers at the outset of various seasons as also during the season. (Rajasthan) 28. Despite publicity and awareness campaigns through all media the facilities and schemes available under agriculture is not completely reaching the needy and deserving. (Tamil Nadu) 29. Farmers are not being sensitised on cropping pattern based on weather and soil conditions by Agriculture Department. (Tamil Nadu) 30. Timely advice on alternative cropping in the years of deficient rainfall was lacking and a need to sensitise the farmers on the problems of nutrients erosion. (Tamil Nadu) 31. Shortage of adequate manpower with Animal Husbandry Department to provide extension and health cover. (Tamil Nadu) 32. Proper certifying agency on organic inputs is not in place. (Tamil Nadu) 33. The gap between scientific know-how and field level do-how needs to be bridged, both in production and post harvest phases of farming. (Tamil Nadu) 34. Cashew farmers lack awareness about improved agriculture practices like irrigation, pest control measures, application of organic manure to increase yield from the plants. (Goa) 35. Intensive awareness efforts needed on post harvest handling of cashew seeds which include plucking at maturity,sun drying,storage in scientific manner to improve yield from processing. (Goa)

C. Marketing related issues

1. There is a huge difference in the retail price and farm gate price and the same should be plugged through appropriate market intervention. The support prices for various crops are to be announced in the beginning of the season and future trading in agricultural produce is to be encouraged to enable farmers to plan agricultural operations. (Andhra Pradesh) 2. Assured reliable markets for SHG products is the biggest constraint for SHGs in taking up productive activities. The same problem is faced by many of the artisans also. (Andhra Pradesh) 3. Farmers, in general were forced to make distress sale due to inadequate storage facilities and produce loans. (Andhra Pradesh) 4. Weavers felt that there should be an arrangement for marketing of their produce by the concerned Govt. Agencies/Corporation and dues thereof should be settled immediately. (Andhra Pradesh) 5. Most of the Market Yards are non- functional and few functional market yards do not have the necessary infrastructure required for carrying out transactions in a transparent manner. (Andhra Pradesh) 6. There is an urgent need to provide all weather roads for connectivity with market centers for securing agriculture inputs and disposal of farm produce. Due to inadequate marketing arrangements, farmers generally sell their produce to the middle men at very low prices. (Assam) 7. Lack of organized marketing support for horticulture and garden crops result in over dependence on private dealers who exploit the situation. (Goa) 8. Small & marginal farmers need to be encouraged to take up cashew processing on cluster basis with centralized storing arrangement to procure and store seeds during fruiting season which will also facilitate pledge financing by the banks. (Goa) 9. Arecanut growers are seeking support price for their produce in view of lower prices fetched by them from traders in local market. (Goa) 10. The farmers want to experiment with new crops with the provision of assured tie up arrangements with agencies which would buy back their produce.(Gujarat) 11. Minimum Support Price should also be fixed for all the major agriculture produces. (Gujarat) 12. Market stabilisation and intervention should be ensured by Government to encourage the farmers to increase productivity of their farms/crops. (Gujarat) 13. Demand for geographical proximity to facilities viz. Post harvest handling, Storage, Processing, Cold Storage, Pack Houses and Processing Houses along with functional and Modern Market Yards. (Gujarat) 14. The Minimum Support price of various crops is not commensurate with the cost of production. (Haryana, Punjab) 15. Lack of proper processing & organised marketing facilities are major deterrent in taking up diversified farming. Because of this, farmers go for easily marketable crops like wheat & paddy. (Haryana, Punjab) 16. The storage and warehousing charges are very high. (Haryana, Punjab)

17. Levying of VAT on agricultural produce. (Haryana, Punjab) 18. Marketing of crops is mostly through middlemen / commission agents. Rates of commission charged by the Arthiyas and other marketing charges are high. (Haryana, Punjab) 19. Sale price of milk at village level is very low; therefore it is becoming unviable activity. (Haryana) 20. The market/mandis need to be equipped with scientific weighing measuring equipments so that the farmers are not exploited. (Haryana,Punjab) 21. Many units are facing stiff competition from cheaper Chinese goods, which have the market. (Haryana) 22. There is tough competition with organised sector. (Haryana) 23. Marketing of fruit/vegetable crops is the major problem faced by the farmers. (Jammu & Kashmir) 24. Market prices of agri-commodities like pepper, cardamom, tea, coffee etc. are volatile and farmers are demanding for appropriate support price by the State Government to instill confidence in them for cultivation. Due to the delay on the part of the agency in procuring paddy, farmers are forced to sell the produce to private parties at a low price and often on credit. (Kerala) 25. Government arrangement of procurement to be strengthened. (Maharashtra) 26. Both farmers and non-farmers feel that they do not get remunerative price for their produce and that income from one farming activity has to be supplemented, otherwise they could never make ends meet. .(Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram) 27. During the good crop year the produce have to be carried to the main market place due non availabilty of proper storage. The government procurement system and the supporting price (not present for all the major crops) facilities are not much effective or useful at the time of need. (Mizoram) 28. Poor demand/market for items produced out of their inherited skills i.e. handicraft, handlooms, etc. (Punjab, Haryana) 29. Agricultural produce cultivated under Organic Farming is to be marketed in a scientific and organised way by fixing market price for various products. (Tamil Nadu) 30. Tie-up arrangements for marketing horticulture produce are not in place at present. (Tamil Nadu) 31. The Agricultural Marketing Committees are to be strengthened in order to help the farmers in getting remunerative prices, besides providing Godown, marketing and other facilities. (Most of the states) 32. Many farmers view farming to be no longer remunerative and quite a few were found to be unaware about costing their operations also. Farm mechanization knowledge is restricted to tractors and threshers mainly. (Haryana) 33. Many farmers view farming to be no longer remunerative and quite a few were found to be unaware about costing their operations also. (Punjab) flooded

D. Infrastructure related issues

1. Fertilizer testing arrangements are neither available in the districts nor within the State (Goa) 2. Fruit processing activities can be encouraged by setting up exclusive processing zones with infrastructural facilities like food parks, cold storage, ripening chambers, grading and packing facilities, etc. There is need for more value-addition centres and facilities for post-harvest extension services. (Gujarat, Manipur, Goa) 3. Availability of day-old-chicks (DOCs) and Hatchery for promoting poultry activity. (Gujarat) 4. Testing Lab for brackish water prawn samples is not available (Gujarat) 5. Non availability of uninterrupted power supply leads to high cost of irrigation. (Haryana, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, Maharashtra, Manipur, Uttar Pradesh, Kerela, Rajasthan) 6. Though there is good network of veterinary dispensaries and hospitals, the non-availability of vaccines, medicines, diagnostic services and AI facilities is a constraint. (Haryana,Punjab) 7. Insufficient storage capacity for perishable produce results in distress selling by the farmers. Hence they produce these goods mainly for local use. (Goa, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan) 8. Lack of proper roads and communication facilities in almost all the districts (Jammu & Kashmir, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Manipur, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan) 9. Adequate number of pumpsets are not being energised. (Maharashtra) 10. No. of rural haats/ marketing places are not adequate. (Maharashtra) 11. Most of the farmers expressed that soil testing facilities should be locally available. (Mizoram, Tripura) 12. Farmers advocated that if Agriculture marketing board can make arrangements for purchase of farmers produce in the village itself they can get good price without delay.Alternatively mandis may be established in their villages. (Rajasthan) 13. Encourage agriculture graduates to stablish the agriclinic and agri business centers, (Rajasthan) 14. Poor sanitation and hygiene, public health, veterinary care facilities, schools, absence of safe drinking water, public transport facility need to be improved. (Haryana, Punjab, Rajashthan, Tamil Nadu) 15. There is a need for community owned assets like common threshing floor, godowns and community hall. (Tamil Nadu) 16. Hiring facilities of power tiller and other agri equipments was very much inadequate. This caused the farmers to hire the equipments, particularly power tiller at much higher rate than the normal rate.(Tripura) 17. Establishment / Linking of more milk routes and the existing routes to be strengthened. (Tamil Nadu)

E. Inputs related issues 1. Getting adequate quantity of the certified seeds, fertilisers and pesticides is a
persisting problem. Agriculture department is not able to meet the demand of seeds, fertilisers and pesticides fully . Further, seeds, fertilisers and pesticides available from private suppliers in the local market often lack guaranteed quality. (Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Kerala) seeds and fertilizer were often in short supply during the period when the farmers require it the most leaving the farmers to exploited in the hands of the private traders. (Chhattisgarh)

2. Quality of Inputs being supplied by various agencies including the Society Certified

3. At the time of scarcity of seed, ferilizer, pesticides, etc., the farmers have to fend for
themselves and needs to meet the requirement by paying higher prices. (Chhattisgarh)

4. In the areas where Padasekhara Samitis (Groups of Farmers) are functioning,

agricultural inputs are purchased in large quantities and distributed among them, thereby reducing the cost of cultivation. A few farmers demanded that quality seeds may be supplied by Krishi Bhavans. Dairy farmers complained about the exhorbitant rise in the price of cattle feed and expressed concern about the financial viability of the activity. (Kerala) long economic blockade on the National Highways, the life line of the State. There is also lack of mechanization for agricultural operations as power tillers/ tractors are not available even for hire, leading to loss of quality time through animal power utilization. (Manipur)

5. There was acute scarcity of fertilizers and the price of the same rises due to month

6. Farmers are not getting inputs like bio-fertiliser, improved seeds, etc., in time mostly because of lack of awareness. They are using bio-fertilizers which are locally produced. Some farmers also use bio-fertilizers brought from the neighbouring district of Darjeeling. The State Government has declared the State as an Organic State. However, necessary inputs like bio-fertiliser, organic seeds/ saplings and other services are not available adequately and in time. (Sikkim)

F. Other issues
1. Commercial orientation is lacking due to non availability of information on latest farm practices. Due to high risk perception and uncertainty of rains and market prices, farmers are generally unwilling to make heavy investment in agriculture for raising commercial/high value crops. (Assam) 2. Proper legislation is demanded by a section of farmers to protect the interests of those who take up contract farming. (Kerala) 3. Farmers are reluctant to adopt contract farming because of absence of suitable legislation. (Haryana, Punjab) 4. Contract farming with buy back guarantee be popularised. (Maharashtra) 5. Low productivity and unremunerative prices affect repayment of institutional loans. (Odisha) 6. Absentee Landlord, fragmented land holding, obsolete land records and disputed legal heirs are the major constraints in availing bank credit. (Goa) 7. Guidance for pest control measure and arrange for front-line demonstrations are lacking. (Goa) 8. Irrigation facility to be provided by way of community ponds/wells with micro irrigation system (Gujarat 9. Sharp decline in water table because of which the farmers have to install submersible pump sets at heavy cost. Legislation on use of ground water for irrigation may be enacted. (Haryana, Punjab) 10. Soil salinity and water logging were cause of concern to the farming community. (Haryana, Punjab) 11. Awareness about small water harvesting structures and minor irrigation system is almost absent in most of the districts. (Jammu & Kashmir) 12. Intrusion of sea water/floods which lead to massive crop loss, high cost/non-availability of labour, money saving farm implements, irrigation, storage, etc., are the major constraint in Farm Mechanisation activities. Although scheme for sprinkler and drip are available with subsidy support from department of Agriculture, coffee crop has not been covered under the scheme. In the realm of support/extension services, absence of a proactive approach by the line departments, failure to provide the farmers with quality seeds, adequate fertilizers, marketing support, etc., lack of storage facilities, inadequate/high cost of crop insurance, inability to catch up with latest technology, etc., are some of the major deterrents. There should be a system to purchase the produce immediately after it is harvested and to ensure that the farmers get the sale proceeds with out any delay. (Kerala) 13. Priority needs to be given for construction of check dams / bundhs.(Maharashtra, Kerala, Rajasthan) 14. Desilting and strengthening/proper maintenance of irrigation tanks, canal system, water structures and continuous pollution caused to canals/rivers. (Tamil Nadu)

15. Ground water irrigation was negligible. Rabi cultivation was minimum for want of
irrigation since most of the water sources i.e. local cherra/streams/ponds etc, are not perennial. (Tripura)