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Sjdalsgymnasiet

Please note that you have to try to solve the problems by yourself before checking your solutions against mine. My solutions are just suggested ones. Usually there are more than one methods of solving a given problem. Warning: Just reading the solutions can never replace your own struggle in solving a given problem. By just reading the solutions you may not be able to understand the mathematics of the problem deep enough and therefore, just going through my solutions may not help you to solve a similar problem by yourself. Have Fun! Behzad

Instructions Test period Tools The test 8:15-10:45 Formula sheet, ruler and graphic calculator. For most items a single answer is not enough. It is also expected that you write down what you do that you explain/motivate your reasoning that you draw any necessary illustrations.

After every item is given the maximum mark your solution can receive. [2/3] means that the item can give 2 g-points (Pass level) and 3 vg-points (Pass with distinction level). Items marked with give you a possibility to show MVG-quality (Pass with special distinction

quality). This means that you use generalised methods, models and reasoning, that you analyse your results and account for a clear line of thought in a correct mathematical language. Problem 15 is a larger problem which may take up to 45 minutes to solve completely. It is important that you try to solve this problem. A description of what your teacher will consider when evaluating your work is attached to the problem. This problem is heavily graded. Even in G-level there are a lot of moments of the problem that you can solve. Try all of the problems. It can be relatively easy, even towards the end of the test, to receive some points for partial solutions. A positive evaluation can be given even for unfinished solutions. Mark limits The test gives totally at the most 50 points, out of which 30 vg-points and 7 MVG-pints. To pass the test you must have at least 15 points and to get the test character Pass with distinction (VG) you must have at least 30 points out of which at least 10 points on Pass with distinction level. Excellence (MVG) requires 35 points out of which at least 20 VG points and excellent quality presentation of the solutions . Have fun!

Note: Only those problems checked here will be graded! Problem Solved at Page #: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

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Sjdalsgymnasiet

2 + 3x is not defined? [0/1] cos x + 1 Suggested solutions: Answer: x + 2n n = 0, 1, ,2... 2 + 3x y= is not defined if the denominator of the function is zero, i.e. if cos x + 1 = 0 . cos x + 1 Therefore: cos x + 1 0 cos x 1 x cos1 ( 1) Answer: x + 2n n = 0, 1, ,2...

1. For what values of x the function y = 2. If the point A 5 ,2 is on the terminal side of the angle find the exact values of: a. [0/1] sin cos [0/1] b. tan c. [1/0] Suggested solutions: The radius of the unit circle may be calculated using the information about the coordinates of the point A 5 ,2

r 2 = 5 + 2 2 = 5 + 4 = 9 r = 3 Using the properties of the unit circle that sinus is the ycomponent and cosine is the x-coordinates of the point on the unit circle, we may conclude that: 2 a. Answer: sin = [0/1] 3 5 b. Answer: cos = [0/1] 3 2 sin = c. Answer: tan = cos 5 [1/0] Of course, the value of the tangent could directly be calculated from the information regarding the coordinates of the point on the unit circle.: tangent is simply the ratio of the y-component of the point and that of its x-component:

( )

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Sjdalsgymnasiet

3. In the triangle ABC illustrated blow angle C = 2B . If the relationship between the length of two corresponding sides are 5 : 7 . The figure is not properly scaled a. Find the angles of the triangle. [1/2] A b. If CB = 15.0 m find lengths of the sides of the triangle. [1/1] 5x 7x c. Find the area of the triangle. [1/1] Suggested solutions: sin B sin C 2 = C b c 15.0 m sin sin 2 = 5x 7x / / sin 2 sin cos = 5x 7x / / 1 2 cos = 10 cos = 7 cos = 0.7 = cos 1 (0.7 ) = 45.57 5 7 B = 45.57 , C = 2B = 2 = 2 45.57 = 91.15 , [0/1] A = 180 2 = 180 3 45.57 = 43.28 Use again the sine law to calculate the length of each side of the triangle: sin A sin B sin C = = a b c sin 43.38 sin 45.57 3 sin 45.57 = x= = 3.125 m [0/1] 15 5x sin 43.38 AC = 5 x = 5 3.125 m = 15.625 m AB = 7 x = 21.875 m [1/0] bc sin A The area of the triangle may be calculate using the area formula: Area = 2 bc sin A 5 x 7 x sin 43.28 2 Area = = = 11.998x 2 = 11.998(3.125) m 2 = 117.16 m 2 [1/1] 2 2 Answer: A = 43.3 , B = 45.6 , C = 91.2 , AB = 21.9 m , AC = 15.6 m ,

Area 117 m 2

4. Find the exact value of cos 75 and sin 75 by using the fact that it may be expressed as: cos 75 = cos(30 + 45) . Note: You are not allowed to use a calculator to find the exact value of cos 45 . You may, however, use the trigonometric table in the yellow pages. [1/3] 6 2 6+ 2 Suggested solutions: Answer: cos 75 = , sin 75 = [1/0] 4 4 cos 75 = cos(30 + 45) = cos(30)cos(45) sin (30)sin (45) [0/1]

3 2 1 2 6 2 = 2 2 2 2 4 sin 75 = sin (30 + 45) = sin (30)cos(45) + cos(30)sin (45) cos 75 = sin 75 = 1 2 3 2 6+ 2 + = 2 2 2 2 4

[0/1] [0/1]

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Sjdalsgymnasiet

[1/2]

15

[1/0]

[0/1]

5x = 5x =

3 3

+ 2 n + 2 n

Answer: x =

15

2 n 5 7 2a has a solution. 5

[0/1]

6. Find all values of a for which the equation sin x = Suggested solutions: Answer: 6 a 1 or 1 a 6 Using the fact that 1 sin x 1 7 2a 1 1 5 Multiply all sides by 5: 5 7 2a 5 Subtract 7 to all sides: 5 7 7 7 2a 5 7 12 2a 2 Divide all sides by 2 : Answer: 6 a 1 or 1 a 6

[2/2]

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Sjdalsgymnasiet

sin 2 by the use of 1 + cos 2 a. the properties of the unit circle. [0/2] b. other trigonometric relationships. [0/2] Suggested solutions: a. Using the properties of the unit circle, we may complete the figure by making a normal from the point B to C . The angle BOC is 2 , and using the fact that in the unit circle illustrated below: BC = sin 2 and OC = cos 2 we may write: BC sin 2 = tan = 1 + OC 1 + cos 2 b. Using the following trigonometric relationships: sin 2 = 2 sin cos cos 2 = 2 cos2 1 sin and tan = we may start from the RHS of the cos equation above and derive the formula above:

sin

cos

sin

2 O

cos

cos

/ sin 2 2 sin cos 2 sin cos sin = = = = tan 2 / / / 1 + cos 2 1 + 2 cos 1 2 cos2 cos

QED. 8. Without the aids of a calculator find the exact value of the expression below: x = sin 2 5 + sin 2 10 + sin 2 15 + ... + sin 2 80 + sin 2 85 + sin 2 90 [1/3/] 2 2 2 2 Suggested solutions: Answer: x = sin 5 + sin 10 + ... + sin 85 + sin 90 = 9.5 Using the trigonometric relationships: sin (90 ) = cos( ) , sin 2 + cos2 = 1 , sin 2 90 = 1 ,

2 2 1 sin 45 = 2 = 4 = 2 = 0.5 and coupling the symmetrical terms from both ends, i.e.: sin (90 5) = cos(5) sin (85) = cos(5) , and sin 2 5 + sin 2 85 = sin 2 5 + cos2 5 = 1

2 2

sin (90 15) = cos(15) sin (75) = cos(15) , and sin 2 15 + sin 2 75 = sin 2 15 + cos2 15 = 1

sin (90 10 ) = cos(10 ) sin (80 ) = cos(10 ) , and sin 2 10 + sin 2 80 = sin 2 10 + cos2 10 = 1

sin (90 35) = cos(35) sin (55) = cos(35) , and sin 2 35 + sin 2 55 = sin 2 35 + cos2 35 = 1 2 2 1 sin 45 = 2 = 4 = 2 = 0.5 2 sin 90 = 1 Answer: x = sin 2 5 + sin 2 10 + sin 2 15 + ... + sin 2 80 + sin 2 85 + sin 2 90 = 9.5

2 2

sin (90 30 ) = cos(30 ) sin (60) = cos(30) , and sin 2 30 + sin 2 60 = sin 2 30 + cos2 30 = 1

sin (90 25) = cos(25) sin (65) = cos(25) , and sin 2 25 + sin 2 65 = sin 2 25 + cos2 25 = 1

sin (90 20) = cos(20 ) sin (70 ) = cos(20) , and sin 2 20 + sin 2 70 = sin 2 20 + cos2 70 = 1

sin (90 40) = cos(40 ) sin (50 ) = cos(40) , and sin 2 40 + sin 2 50 = sin 2 40 + cos2 40 = 1

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Sjdalsgymnasiet

9. The quadrangle ABCD is circumscribed by a circle as illustrated below. The angle ADC = 90 , the lengths of the sides AB = 4a and A BC = 3a . Find the area of the quadrangle ABCD in 4a terms of a . [2/4/]

B

Suggested solutions: Answer: Area ABCD = 14.74 a 2 270 = 135 The angle ABC = [0/1] D 2 This is due to the fact that the angle ABC stands on the major arc AC and therefore, the angle ABC is subtended by the major arc AC . In the same way the major arc AC subtends the angle ADC = 270 at the center. The angle subtended by an arc at the center of a circle is twice the angle subtended at the circumference by the same angle. The side AC in the triangle ABC may be calculated using the cosine law: 2 2 AC 2 = (3a ) + (4a ) 2(3a )(4a )cos135

3a

[0/1]

AC 2 = 9a 2 + 16a 2 24a 2 cos135 41.97a 2 AC 6.48 a On the other hand in the right-triangle ADC the side AC in terms of the radius of the circle r may be calculated using the Pythagoras theory: AC 2 = r 2 + r 2 AC = r 2 [1/0] 6.48 Therefore AC = r 2 6.48 a r [0/1] a r 4.58a 2 On the other hand the area of the quadrangle ABCD may be expressed as the sum of the areas ADC and ABC r r 3a 4a sin 135 AreaABCD = + = 10.49 a 2 + 4.24 a 2 = 14.74 a 2 [0/1] 2 2 Answer: Area ABCD = 14.74 a 2 [1]

10. Find all values of for which a. the products of the solutions of the following equation is the largest: x 2 3(1 2 cos )x 4 sin 2 = 0 b. the sum of the solutions of the following equation is the largest: x 2 3(1 2 cos )x 4 sin 2 = 0 Suggested solutions: Answer: = 90 + 180 n ; = 36 + 72 n [2/2/]

n = 0, 1, 2,...

The largest value of the product of the solutions of the equation 4 sin 2 is 4 . This is due to the fact that sin is a bounded function, i.e. 1 sin 1 . Therefore, the product of the roots of the equation is maximum if sin 2 = 1 sin = 1 = 90 + 180 n . The largest value of the sum of the solutions of the equation 3(1 2 cos 5 ) is: + 9 . This corresponds to the minimum value of cos which is cos 5 = 1 : 3(1 2 cos 5 ) = 3(1 2( 1)) = 3(3) = 9 cos 5 = 1 5 = 180 + 360 n n = 0, 1, 2,...

=

180 360 + n 5 5 n = 0, 1, 2,... Answer: = 36 + 72 n

n = 0, 1, 2,...

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Sjdalsgymnasiet

11. Show that if 90 < x < 180 : 1 1 [2/2/] 2 + 2 > 9. sin x cos x Suggested solutions: Due to the fact that 90 < x < 180 , i.e. it is in the second quadrant, 0 < sin x < 1 and 1 1 1 > 1 and > 1 . Therefore 2 + 0 > cos x > 1 . Therefore > 3 and sin x sin x cos x 1 1 1 1 1 2 > 3 . Therefore: 2 + 2 > 3 3 or 2 + 2 > 9 QED. sin x cos x cos x sin x cos x Alternative method: 1 1 Expand the LHS of the equation 2 + 2 >9 sin x cos x Due to the fact that 90 < x < 180 , i.e. it is in the second quadrant, 0 < sin x < 1 and 1 1 > 1 and > 1. 0 > cos x > 1 . Therefore sin x cos x

2 2 1 1 + > 4 + 2 + 2 +1 cos x sin x sin x cos x 2 2 1 1 4 + >9 cos x sin x sin x cos x 1 1 QED. 2 + 2 >9 sin x cos x 4

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Sjdalsgymnasiet

12. [Open Solutions Part NPMaDHT97 2/4/] The lower part of a 2.0 m high road sign is situated 4.0 m above the eye-level of the motorist in the figure above. The sign is hard to read from a long distance, as it is from too short a distance. Examine how the sight angle varies when the car is approaching the sign on a straight motorway. At what distance is the sight angle as large as possible? The sign is readable when the sight angle is greater than 1. Find out for how long the sign is readable. When assessing your work your teacher will consider: if the method you have used is reasonable if your calculations are correct what conclusions you have made from your investigation how plain and pronounced your presentation is, and what kind of mathematical knowledge you have shown to possess.

Suggested solutions: We may label the vertices of the triangles as below. In the triangle ABC : 4 4 tan = = tan 1 x x In the triangle ABD : 6 6 tan( + ) = + = tan 1 x x 6 = tan 1 x 6 4 = tan 1 tan 1 x x We may plot this function:

2 m

4 m

x m

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Sjdalsgymnasiet

12

10 angle degree 8 6 4 2 0 0 25 50 75 xm

x m

0,21 4,90 114,36

100

125

150

Using a graphic calculator we may plot the function and find its maximum point graphically. Answer: The maximum value of the angle is = 11.54 11.5 and it occurs at x = 4.9 m 5 m . The sign is not readable at distances larger than 114 meter from the sign. At this distance the angle drops below its lower limit and sign therefore can not be seen clearly.

D

Second Method: Lindas method In the right triangle ABC : AC 2 = 4 2 + x 2 Similarly the right triangle ABD : AD 2 = 6 2 + x 2 Using the cosine law: a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos A in the triangle ABC 2 2 = AC 2 + AD 2 2 AC AD cos

2 (6 2 + x 2

2 m

4 m

x m

4 = 4 2 + x 2 + 6 2 + x 2 2 6 2 + x 2 4 2 + x 2 cos

2 2 2

) ( ) ( )(4 + x ) cos = 2 x

x 2 + 24

2

)(

+ 16 + 36 4 = 2 x 2 + 48

12

)

cos =

1

(6

+x

2

)(4

+x

)

)

10 8

x

= cos

= cos 1

(6

x 2 + 24 + x 2 42 + x 2

(6

x 2 + 24

2

+x

)(4

+x

)(

6 4 2 0 0 25

50

75

100

125

150

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Sjdalsgymnasiet

Third Method: Analytical method, using approximations to find the upper and lower limits. Maximum value can not be calculated using this method: When rad tan rad rad = 1 = 180 180 180

2 m

tan =

4 m

x m

4 tan + rad + rad 6 180 x 180 tan + rad = = 4 180 x 1 tan rad 1 rad x 180 180 6 4 6 6 2 6 2 6 4 1 x 180 rad = x + 180 rad 6 x 45 = 4 x + 180 x 180 x 2 x + 45 = 0 x

180 24 x1 = 0.21 m and x2 = 114 m Answer: The road sign will not be readable when the driver is further than x2 = 114 m or closer than x1 = 0.21 m to it.

x2 360 x + 24 = 0 x =

180

Fourth method: Analytical method to find the maximum value of the angle. Later on, in the next chapter, we will find out that the differential of the function A f ( x ) = A tan 1 x with respect to x is f ( x ) = 1+ x2 df df dy Aa Aa = = = f ( x ) = A tan 1 (ax ) f ( x ) A tan 1 ( y ) f ( x ) = 2 2 dx dy dx 1 + y 1 + (ax ) Aa f ( x ) = A tan 1 (ax ) f (x ) = 2 1 + (ax ) 6 4 Earlier, in the first method, we found out that = tan 1 tan 1 x x Using the differentiation law above, we may therefore write: 1 Lets make a change of variable and define a new variable such that y = x 1 . If we x dy differentiate it with respect to x , it will result in: = x 2 . dx = tan 1 (6 y ) tan 1 (4 y ) d d dy dy dy 6 4 6 4 = = = ( x 2 ) ( x 2 ) 2 2 2 2 dx dy dx 1 + 36 y dx 1 + 16 y dx 1 + 36 y 1 + 16 y 2 2 6 x 1 d 6 1 1 4 x 1 4 6 4 / / 2+ 2 = 2 2+ 2 2 = 2 2 = 16 36 x dx x + 36 x x + 16 x x + 16 x + 36 / / 1+ 2 x 1+ 2 x x

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Sjdalsgymnasiet

d = 0. dx Therefore, we may equate the equation above to zero, solve the equation for x , put the value in the equation and verify that the point is actually the maximum and not the minimum:

d 4 6 = 2 2 dx x + 16 x + 36

The maximum value of the angle is associated with those x values such that

4 6 2 =0 x + 16 x + 36 2 3 = 2 2 x + 16 x + 36 2 x 2 + 36 = 3 x 2 + 16 2 x 2 + 72 = 3 x 2 + 48 x 2 = 72 48 = 24 x = 24 m x = 24 m 4.9 m .

2

) (

x =1 m

d 4 6 = 2 2 dx x + 16 x + 36 6 4 = tan 1 tan 1 x x

Positive: +

x = 24 m 4.9 m d =0 dx

x = 10 m

Negative: -

12

10 angle degree 8 6 4 2 0 0 25 50 75 xm

x m

0,21 4,90 114,36

100

125

150

11/11

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