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562-564)

Please refer to Example 11.1 in the Text and in your notes. We

computed the mean (460.38) and standard deviation (38.827) for

50 workers.

505

400

499

415

418

467

551

444

481

429

480

466

477

445

413

537

484

418

465

496

487

373

416

424

471

427

509

410

515

435

482

442

465

449

523

488

508

432

405

440

409

501

440

444

485

475

470

485

469

450

**Find the probabilities associated with a set of intervals: e.g., 6
**

intervals given by the 2k ≥ n rule, where k is the number of

categories.

Max = 551; Min = 373; Range = 178; Range/k = 178/6 = 29.667

⇑

Class width

Frequencies per class:

≤ 402.67

402.67 – 432.33

432.33 – 462.00

462.00 – 491.66

491.66 – 521.33

≥ 521.33

l1

111111111111

111111111

11111111111111111

1111111

111

2

12

9

17

7

3

=======

50

38)/38.827] < [(X .38)/38.18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 How like the standard normal curve is the frequency distribution? What would be the case if the normal distribution applied? P(X ≤ 402.486 ⇒ 0.00-460.38)/38.2750 .5 – 0.33-460.33) = P{[(402. z2 = -1.µ )/σ ] ≤ [(402.38)/38.0681 z1 = -∞.4319 = 0.2802 z1 = -0.486.2802 P(462.4319 .00-460.33-460.722.827] = 0.042 ⇒ 0.00) = P{[(432.67-460.33 < X ≤ 462.827] < [(X .38)/38.827] = 0.38)/38.0.2642 + 0. z2 = 0.827] = 0.2642 = 0.µ )/σ ] ≤ [(432.827] < [(X .38)/38.66-460.1677 z1 = -1.1677 P(432.µ )/σ ] ≤ [(462.00 < X ≤ 491.827] = 0.0681 P(402.µ )/σ ] ≤ [(491.67 < X ≤ 432.0160 = 0.722 ⇒ 0.67) = P{[(X . z2 = -0.66) = P{[(462.67-460.

µ )/σ ] ≤ [(521.33) = P{[(X .827] = 0.38)/38.5 – 0.0582 z1 = 0.1508 z1 = 0.33-460.570 ⇒ 0.4418.806.827] = 0.33) = P{[(491.0582 Expected Value in Class Observed Frequencies 3.0160 = 0.38)/38.2910 .0582 Probability per Class 0.01 13.806 ⇒ 0. z2 = 0.91 2 12 9 17 7 3 How different are the expected and the observed frequencies? .385 14.1508 P(X > 521.4418 = 0.2802 0. z2 = ∞ ⇒ 0.66-460.38)/38.4418 .µ )/σ ] ≤ [(521.0.0.z1 = 0.405 8.2910 = 0.33-460.042.2750 P(491.1508 0. z2 = 1.66 < X ≤ 521.1677 0.827] < [(X .275 0.0681 0.54 2.75 7.

3 = 7.579743025 1.05.k-3 =χ 2 0.55852415 1.002783505 χ 2 4.739490821 = The rejection region: χ 2 > χ 2 α .18 16 14 12 10 Expected Observed 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 The Chi-Square Statistic: 6 χ 2 Σ {(fi – ei)2 / ei} = i=1 {(fi – ei)2 / ei} 0.03867374 0.81473 From Table 5.768181818 0. B-10 .791584582 0.

we assume that we know the mean and the standard deviation of the population.815 there is no evidence to conclude that these data are not normally distributed.739 < χ 2critical = 7. Study the procedure in the Text. we did violate one of the classic requirements for the Chi Square test: The Rule of Five: The test statistic has an approximate chi-squared distribution. 613-616) The Lilliefors Test is a nonparametric test for normality that can be applied to any number of observations. we commonly require that the expected frequency of each cell be at least 5.Since χ 2 = 4.55) and above (More than 499. That is frequently unrealistic. An alternative test is called the Kolmogorov-Smirnow test where. There is no evidence here either to conclude that these data are not normally distributed. just as we approximated the discrete binomial distribution by using the normal distribution.6 in Text: pp. and then two open-ended classes below (Less than 421. THE LILLIEFORS TEST FOR NORMALITY (16. the four classes used in your Text (pp. if the expected cell frequencies are small. however. however.21) those two classes. 562-564) is safer!! The authors use the ‘Mean – One Standard Deviation’ and ‘Mean + One Standard Deviation’ as two central categories. The actual distribution of the test statistic is discrete. . but can be approximated conveniently by a continuous chi-squared distribution when the sample size is large. HOWEVER. So. This approximation may be poor. As a consequence.

0.0398 = 0. H0: The data are normally distributed HA: The data are not normally distributed ..1148 0.5+0.3.0247 0.1293 = 0.1.1406 = 0.7324 0.5+0.3707 0.5 0.6 0.0633 0.5+0. 89.9 1 S(x) x .0594 0.5+0.The example in your book goes as follows: x 110 89 102 80 93 121 108 97 105 103 p(x<=80) = p(x<=89) = p(x<=93) = p(x<=97) = p(x<=102) = p(x<=103) = p(x<=105) = p(x<=108) = p(x<=110) = p(x<=121) = Sorted in ascending order 80 89 93 97 102 103 105 108 110 121 < or = each x 0.4633 = 0..62 0. ….3 0.5-0.02 -0.7 0.0409 S(x) is the proportion of values of x that are less than or equal to 80. 93.10 0.0367 0.4591 = Z score Prob.6406 0.36 0.5+0.9591 F(x) 0.0398 0.0293 0.1539 0.2852 = 0.4 0.5-0.0461 0.5-0.79 -1.2.67 -0.1 0.2486 = 0.5-0.3461 = 0. ….7852 0.mean st. 2/10 = 0.8 0.0753 = 0. 1/10 = 0.5753 0.0486 0.2324 = 0. 3/10 = 0.0676 0.5398 0.19 0.79 1.2 0. dev -1.5+0.74 |F(x)-S(x)| 0.33 0.2514 0.

Table 10 (B21) Look up the sample size (in our case 10) and an appropriate α .We estimate µ and σ from the sample statistics: Mean Standard Deviation 100. We define the test statistic D as the largest absolute difference between S(x) and F(x): D = max|F(x)-S(x)| In our case this value is: 0. If the null hypothesis is false we expect S(x) and F(x) to differ for at least some of the values of x. Dmax = 0.258 ⇒ we do not reject H0 and conclude that there is not enough evidence to infer that the data are nonnormally distributed ⇒ use parametric tests.05: 0. here 0.8 11.62181856 F(x) is the cumulative distribution function: [(x-µ ) / σ ] If the null hypothesis is true the sample and normal cumulative probabilities should be similar.1148 < 0. .258 which is the critical value.1148 D is then compared with the critical values in the Lilliefors table: Appendix B.

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