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Russia and its Role in Clines Perceived Power Equation Russia is often seen as a nation of run-down cities, outdated

equipment, and lackluster economic capability, but in reality this is far from the truth. Ray Cline, a former CIA agent, developed a formula for the perceived power of a country, P = (C + E + M) X (S + W) where C is critical mass (a states population, territory, and resources), E is economic capability, M is military capability, S is strategic purpose, and W is willingness to perform national strategy, and with this formula Russia is perceived to be in a role of a great, if not super, power. With a brief comparison to other great powers such as the United States and China, this is more than possible.

Russias critical mass is much greater than that of other states, though it is very unbalanced in its nature. Russia holds the largest amount of land of any state on Earth, yet its population is very small compared to its landmass. Russia has a population of only one hundred forty-two million people yet holds seventeen million square kilometers of land. In comparison to the United States, it has twice the landmass with half the population. Then, if characteristics of critical mass were weighed equally, Russia has an equal critical mass to that of the United States, not including resources. Including resources, however, changes things greatly. While the United States struggles to control fuel reserves in foreign countries, Russia controls the flow of fuel to nearby controls. Russia is effectively the largest fuel power in the Eastern Bloc region, even providing fuel to Turkey, Germany, and even Italy, providing for around twenty per cent of the worlds production of oil and natural gas. Russia also has easy access to nearly every major industrial raw material including tin, tungsten, bauxite for aluminum, iron, and even uranium. However, these resources all move to bolster the economy of Russia.

Since the fall of the Soviet Union and the rise of todays democratic Russia, the economy of Russia has been rising steadily and at an alarming rate. From having only nine hundred billion

international dollars in 1998, Russia now has over twenty-two hundred billion international dollars and possessing the worlds sixth-highest Gross Domestic Product, even greater than that of Great Britain. Russias booming oil export industry has increased its foreign reserves from twelve billion dollars in 1999 to $597 billion in 2008, now holding the third largest foreign exchange reserves in the world only after China and Japan. Russia is also the worlds top producer of rye, barley, buckwheat, oats, and sunflower seed, and also one of the largest producers and exporters of wheat. Russia has the fourth largest area of cultivated land and its production of meat has increased by fifty per cent from 1999 to 2008. Russia is also the third largest energy producer as well as the fourth largest nuclear energy producer in the world. Generally, while Russia is not the dominant country in many respects it is always proving to be climbing the ladder in terms of economic power. However, Russias bolstering economy brings venues for a powerful military, the third component of perceived power.

While Russias military is perceived to be outdated this is completely disproportionate to the resilience of the Russian military industry and its forces. The Russian army is composed of over one million personnel and is currently undergoing a two hundred billion dollar equipment upgrade. Russia possesses the largest nuclear weapon stockpile, second largest fleet of ballistic missile submarines, one of two countries with a modern strategic bomber force, the largest tank force, and one of the largest surface navy and air forces in the world. However, where Russia shines is in its arms industry. Russia has a fully indigenous arms industry, relying on very few imported arms. With Russias large supply of military surplus equipment from the era of the Soviet Union, Russia has been the worlds top supplier of arms since 2001, accounting for over thirty per cent of worldwide weapon sales by exporting weapons to over eighty countries. Russias military spending is third highest in the world, spending over eighty billion dollars on its military. With improving military capability and a resilient arms industry, Russia is an increasing military power in both quantity and quality.

With strong relations to the Western states, Russia also bolsters a strong relation to its former soviet states and geographical neighbors. Russia is in a large number of treaties and organizations, many of them spreading to the Western world while many of them contained with the Europe-Asian region. Of its most important organizations, Russia holds very strong relations with its former Soviet neighbors through the Collective Security Treaty Organization and the Commonwealth of Independent States, and strong relations with China through the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, Russian relations with its geographical neighbors have been increasing at a dramatic rate. However, tensions still remain high with the United States. Russia also bolsters the trade transactions of arms between many countries due to large amounts of military surplus equipment suitable for lowincome countries such as those in Africa. As well, increasing fuel trade with European states is allowing Russia to gain influence in other countries within the European Union. Overall, Russian foreign relations, apart from those with the United States, have been increasing steadily since the fall of the Soviet Union.

Finally, but most demeaning of all, is the lack of national pride within Russia. After the fall of the Soviet Union, many Russians found themselves to be in shame of their government and even of the regime altogether. As well, few former soviet states have developed russophobia in reaction to the oppressive regime of a soviet Russia. As well, Russia has been struggling with Chechen rebellion due to clashing religious groups. However, Russia is moving towards having a populace which is proud of its state. With its increasing economic and military capability, Russian citizens may finally feel pride for their country after the soviet regime.

Ultimately, Russia is a country which supplements Ray Clines equation of perceived power. Apart from its complete lack of national unity, the Russian state is one of steadily growing economic and

military capability, with access to rich resource reserves within its territory. After a long history of soviet oppression and poor economy due to soviet regime, Russia has picked itself from the dirt and aimed itself to the moon and is nearing there quicker than ever before. Soon, Russia will be able to step stones with other great powers such as the United States and China on a scale not seen before.