This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Answer any two from the four questions given below: marks) 1. a. b. c. 2. a. b. c. 3. a. b. c. 4. a. b. c. List the constituents of a good Curriculum Vitae. Mark the primary accent on the proper syllable in the following words: Unique, Prepare Paper, Comment (verb), Together, Congratulation, Engineer. Highlight the significance of phonetic transcription in English language. (7 + 7 + 6 = 20 marks) <Answer> Explain the ‘Grammatical’ and ‘Attitudinal’ functions of Intonation. Write a possible dialogue in a hotel with a customer service representative regarding board and lodging. Detail the advice you will give your friend to improve his pronunciation skills. (7 + 7 + 6 = 20 marks) <Answer> Give the phonetic transcription of the following words: alveolar, velum, plosives, fricatives, vowel, consonant, pulmonic. Give an illustrative list of questions which you will prepare to answer in a job interview. List the general principles to be followed while using audio-visual aids in oral presentations. (7 + 7 + 6 = 20 marks) <Answer> Explain the use of a dictionary in language acquisition, highlighting its types. Detail the advice you will give your friend on following telephone etiquette. Identify ‘high-vowel’ and ‘low-vowel’ sounds in the following words: bread, through, freeze, tax, spoon, hop. (7 + 7 + 6 = 20 marks) <Answer> (2 × 20 = 40
Answer any three from the following, choosing at least one from each part: marks) (3 × 10 = 30
5. 6. Write an illustrative dialogue between you and your friend regarding your recent trip to a hill station. (10 marks) <Answer> Outline the chief constituents and characteristics of a good report giving appropriate examples. (10 marks) <Answer> Draft an illustrative telephone conversation between you and your friend inviting him/her to your marriage. (10 marks) <Answer>
8. List the phonetic symbols of the English vowel sounds, giving one word as an example for each sound. (10 marks) <Answer> 9. Discuss the different ‘Fricatives’ in English language with the help of suitable examples. (10 marks) <Answer> 10. Distinguish with suitable examples between formal and informal varieties of English, focusing on the contexts of their use. (10 marks) <Answer>
11. Answer the following grammar and vocabulary based objective questions. Indicate the correct option in your answer sheet: (1 × 30 = 30 marks)
Choose the right word from among the alternatives to correct the following sentences: (1 × 6 = 6 marks) 1. The unauthorized truth is that all of us have to die one day. a. unanswerable b. unaccountable c. untouchable d. unpalatable 2. The journey through lonely forest at night is flimsy with many unknown dangers. a. fragile b. fraught c. flabby d. fresh 3. A leader should say and do things with full contraction. a. conviction b. contention c. consumption d. convocation 4. If you bite an unripe fruit, you will at once feel its alcoholic taste. a. alkaline b. fragrant c. acrid d. smooth 5. I hate reading scientific books because they are invariably written in insidious prose. a. inactive b. insipid c. incompetent d. inauspicious 6. A house looks incomplete without proper encomiums such as marble flooring and furniture. a. encounters b. engagements c. emblems d. embellishments Choose the correct article that appropriately fills the blanks: (1 × 4 = 4 marks) 1. Mr. Rao has taught in several universities in ____ United States. a. A b. An c. The d. No article 2. I have ___ happy memories of my school days in Mysore. a. An b. The c. A d. No article 3. ___ fall in the production of food grains is inevitable this year because of poor rainfall.
a. A b. The c. An d. No Article Rajesh requested for ___ audience with the Principal of his college. a. No article b. An c. A d. The
Choose the correct form of verb that appropriately fills the blanks: (1 × 10 = 10 marks) 1. Gopal _______ widely in Europe including Germany, France and Italy. a. Has traveled b. Had traveled c. Will have been traveling d. Have been traveling 2. Something special ______ for you at dinner tonight. a. Is preparing b. Had been prepared c. Is being prepared d. Will be preparing 3. The poverty of India ______ by the fact that half of the population does not get two square meals a day. a. Will understand b. understood c. has understood d. may be understood 4. We _______ by the rise and fall in our fortunes but remain always happy. a. Should not be swaying b. Should not be swayed c. Will not be swaying d. Did not sway 5. Rahul Singh ____ the profession of journalism even before his father did. a. Had joined b. Was joining c. Has joined d. Will join 6. Mahatma Gandhi _____ goat’s milk because of its nourishment value. a. Will have been drinking b. Should have been drunk c. Used to drink d. Has been drunk 7. Raju _____ because of his past criminal record. a. Had been trusting b. cannot be trusted c. trusts d. trusted 8. A mouth, which ______ different cuisines, is fit to be a ditch for ash. a. do not taste b. did not taste
c. could not be tasting d. does not taste 9. We should get inputs from different sources and then ________ the true from the false. a. sift b. has been sifted c. have been sifted d. are sifting 10. Dr. Iyer ______ in scientific research since 1950. a. Has engaged b. Has been engaging c. Had engaged d. Has been engaged D. Choose the correct meaning of the underlined phrases: (1 × 5 = 5 marks) 1. Geeta is fond of movies and visits the cinema theatre at the drop of a hat. a. Whenever her hat drops onto the ground b. Now and then c. Very often without any reason or need d. Always with her hat on her head 2. Raju lost the tennis match against his archrival and went back home to lick his wounds. a. Apply medicine to wounds he suffered during the match b. Recover from the humiliation of the defeat c. Visit a psychiatrist to undergo counselling d. To avenge the defeat later 3. Imran is very arrogant and someone has to take him down a peg. a. Make him realize that he is not so great as he thinks he is b. Give him a peg of beer c. Teach him ethics d. Tell him that he has to change his behaviour 4. When the wig of the Prime Minister fell down while he was giving a speech in the parliament, the members found it hard to keep a straight face. a. To take their eyes off the Prime Minister b. Ignore the speech c. Look into the eyes of the Prime Minister d. Look serious though they wanted to laugh 5. The police left no stone unturned to find out who was behind the blasts at the market. a. Did reasonable effort b. Did no effort c. Did everything possible d. Failed E. Choose the correct preposition that appropriately fills the blanks: 1. Ramu seems to be infatuated ____ Lata. a. No Preposition b. With c. Of d. By 2. India is small when compared ___ Russia. a. With (1 × 5 = 5 marks)
b. No preposition c. For d. Of The police broke ____ the temple when they got information that a terrorist was hiding in it. a. Into b. Up c. No preposition d. Out
My boss told me to keep ____ the good work I had been doing for the last two years. a. Away b. In c. No preposition d. Up You have to enter ____ the date of birth in the job application form. a. Into b. In c. No Preposition d. On END OF QUESTION PAPER
Suggested Answers English (BC121): July 2007
1. a. A CV reaches the hand of the recruiter before the person does and makes the first impression. It is therefore very important to have an impressive CV. It is a summary of one’s experience and qualifications – a personal inventory that accompanies one’s letter of application. For easy preparation and reading, it is better to try to limit one’s resume to one page, dividing it into the following classes of information in a succinct manner: i. Personal information pertaining to: • • • • • • • ii. Address for correspondence, Contact/ Telephone number/s where you can be contacted with the tentative time when you would be available/ E-mail ID, Marital status, Languages that are known, Hobbies, Job title for which applying and career objective,
Academic qualification and other courses done (especially that are relevant to the job title for which one has applied: presented in descending order, also stating your distinctive performance if any). Work experience in the relevant area: Specification of the number of years of experience in the relevant field, Current work place with a record of places where one worked with details pertaining to the job title, job description, CTC, reasons for quitting, nature of work responsibilities or role etc.,
• Qualities that make you stand apart in the crowd and therefore make you suitable for the job title. References:
• 3 references should be given beginning with the immediate head at the current place and others. A good CV has primarily six heads under which the information should be furnished. It is also important that a good CV is accompanied by a good cover letter to make it more effective. By following these steps one can prepare a coherent resume and coherence is a crucial narrative element as it earns the reader’s trust. The work one has done, and the skills and interests one has developed and revealed will point to a clear and desirable resolution: one’s stated goals. b. • • • • • • c. Unique: u-` nique Prepare: pre-'pare Paper: ` pa-per Comment (verb): com- `ment Together: to- `ge-ther Congratulation: con-gra-tu- `lation
• Engineer: en-gi- `neer English language is an unphonetic language, i.e. there is a mismatch between the symbol and the sound. There are 26 letters and 44 sounds in English. This fact in itself implies that one letter has more than one phonetic realisation. So, in standard orthography, the same letter/s can be used to represent different sounds, which shows that English is an unphonetic language. For example, the letter ‘y’ in sky is realised as /a#I/, in ‘syrup’ as /I/ and in ‘yes’ as /j/. The different combinations of letters can also be used to represent the same sound, for instance, the ‘ee’ of ‘meet’ and the ‘ea’ of ‘seat’. The phonetic realisation of a letter may vary but the phonetic symbol always represents the same sound, and a sound is always represented by the same symbol. This way the transcription helps the user speak the language in the right manner. For the native users of the language, this may not be of immense importance but it is certainly of a great significance to those for whom English comes as a second language.
< TOP >
Grammatical Function : Intonation distinguishes different types of sentences. The difference between the following two pairs of sentences, which are grammatically identical, is only one of intonation. • • • • He is €late. He is ´late. Shut the €door. Shut the ´door. (request) (statement) (question) (Falling Tone) (Rising Tone) (command) (Rising Tone) (Falling Tone)
Intonation also helps the speaker divide longer utterances into smaller, grammatically relevant word groups (tone groups) each carrying a different pattern of pitch changes and indicating for the listener whether a particular tone group is a complete or incomplete utterance. The following example will illustrate this. //when you come here, (incomplete/ I’ll get you what you want (complete). Attitudinal Function : Intonation is perhaps the chief means by which the speaker conveys his attitudes and emotions. The grammar of an utterance does not reveal in any noticeable way whether the speaker’s attitude is one of politeness, assertiveness, concern, incredulity etc. Intonation makes distinctions of attitudinal nuances to which grammar most often gives no structural clues. The following pairs of sentences show how intonation signals the speaker’s attitudes and emotions. a. When can you €come? (neither polite nor impolite) -Falling Tone b. When can you ´come ? (expresses politeness) – Rising tone a. b. a. b. a. He is very €good. (plain statement) - Falling Tone He is very vgood. (reservation on the part of the speaker) – Falling Rising Tone Thank ´you (genuine gratitude) – rising tone Thank €you (casual) –falling tone He’ll € fall (uninterested) – falling tone
He’ll vfall (concern) – falling rising tone
IN A HOTEL Anil: Good evening. Do you have/Are there any rooms free? CSR: Yes, Sir. Do you want a single or a double room? Anil: A single, please, with bathroom attached, and overlooking the Hussain Sagar, if possible. CSR: I think we can manage that. How long will you be staying? Anil: Three nights and four days. CSR: Very good, Sir. You can take Room No. 302. Will you sign the register, please? I’ll have your luggage sent up. Anil: How much do you charge? CSR: Rs. 950/- per person for full board or Rs. 700/- for bed and breakfast. Anil: Does that include service charges? CSR: No, Sir. Service is 10 percent extra. We add it to the bill. Thank you, Sir. The lift is to your left. The steps for improving one’s pronunciation may include: • Buying a good Dictionary, like the one by Daniel Jones: English Pronouncing Dictionary; it may also be noted that every good dictionary gives within brackets after the main entry of the word the pronunciation of the word, too, but most do not spend those few extra seconds to notice the pronunciation. It is useful to remember that those few seconds will radically transform the quality of one’s speech Always keep the dictionary on hand and look up each new/difficult word for its pronunciation Listen carefully to the speech of educated people around and see if there are any identifiable differences in the way you pronounce and the way they do; if there are differences, check up with your dictionary and judge for yourself which is acceptable Listen attentively to the broadcast of news over the Indian radio, then BBC and finally Voice of America (VOA) and also the news telecast over Door Darshan, BBC, and CNN You may write down after each listening what you have comprehended from your listening and try to see if you have understood much of it. If you have the facility to record the newscast, play it back and measure the degree of your listening comprehension After you have listened to adequate number of passages/ news, try to pronounce the words as closely as possible to the model speech and also record them for your check and reference Slowly you may proceed from individual words to larger chunks of speech and assess the improvement in the quality of your speech.
< TOP >
a. • Alveolar • Velum • Plosives • Fricatives • Vowel • Consonant b. /´Ãlvi:`E#UlE/ /`vi:lEm/ /`plE#UsIvz/ /`frIkEtIvz/ /va#UEl/ /`kÂnsEnEnt/
• Pulmonic /pól`mÂnIk/ The following questions may be expected in any of the usual job interviews: • • • • • • Tell us about yourself. Tell us about your work experience. Are you willing to work abroad/anywhere in India? What are your strengths? What are your weaknesses? How do you rate yourself as a team member?
How do you see yourself after five years?
• What do you know of us? The following general principles should be borne in mind while using audio-visual aids: • • • • • • • • The audio-visual aids should not attract attention to themselves. They should supplement the presentation. They should be properly ordered and timed. The presenter should have an alternative plan ready in case the electricity fails. The audio-video aids should not be too colourful. They should not be too cluttered. ‘One point, one frame’ should be the rough rule. Audio-video aids could also be used for data that should not go in to the direct presentation.
< TOP >
Dictionary is a repository of words in a particular language that are alphabetically arranged to provide access to the users. A typical dictionary entry gives the following information: • • • • • spellings/their variations: e.g. theater (American), theatre (British) pronunciation (with the word accent) grammatical information: whether the word is a noun/verb/ adjective/adverb. different meanings: e.g. leg of a human being/animal, leg of a chair, (last) leg of a run/marathon compound words related to the entry
• phrasal words related to the entry, if it is a verb. In order to effectively refer to the dictionary it is important that one: • • Looks up the introduction to the dictionary first. These prefatory remarks tell one all that is there to find in the dictionary and how to go about it.
Consults the appendices next. These include information about types of English (Australian, American, British), information about grammar/punctuation/major principles of writing, or detailed word-lists about animals, their sounds/their groups/their young ones etc. The different types of dictionary are: • • • • • b. Picture dictionary: Explains a word/ a concept through labelled diagrams Encyclopedic dictionary: Gives the general, detailed information regarding the word Subject dictionary: dictionary of literary terms, dictionary of medicine Multilingual: English to Hindi & Telugu Bilingual: English to Hindi, English to Telugu
• Monolingual: English-English The telephone etiquette is as important to a caller as to a receiver. The caller should be careful of the following: • Think about what time it is, when placing a call. You would not want to call when there is the possibility that person may be asleep. For example, on the morning of a working day before 7:00 a.m. would not be a good time. It is better to avoid calls around the usual period most people will be eating. Courtesy is expected when using the telephone just as if you are talking in person. Give your name when the telephone is answered, before asking for the person you ask the identity of the caller. Dialing too quickly, or in inadequate lighting may be the cause of dialing a ‘wrong number’. Never just hang up. Express your apology, letting them know you have dialed a wrong number. When speaking, think of the way you sound. Make sure that you enunciate your words clearly and precisely. It is embarrassing to be asked to repeat what you are saying. Your voice reflects your courtesy. Since the person on the other end of the line cannot see your facial expressions, your ‘tone of voice’ will need to express this. When making a business call, be sure to first identify yourself and your company. If you’re routed to a receptionist or operator, also include the name of the person you're trying to reach. A simple, “Hello,
this is Mary Robert from Off the Wall Productions. May I please speak with Mark Grand?”" will do. • Be prepared with a one or two sentence explanation of the purpose of your call. When you are connected with the person, state the purpose of your call and then be sure to ask if you are calling at a convenient time. This is one of the most overlooked areas of phone etiquette, this allows the person you’re calling the opportunity to better address your needs at a later time. Don’t fib about how long your call will take - if you know it will take longer than five minutes, don’t say, “It’ll be quick.” Let the person know what they are getting into at the start of the conversation. If you get diverted to a receptionist and he or she asks why you are calling, give a concise but informative statement that can be easily relayed. Do not, however, assume that your message will be communicated; when you speak directly with the person you are trying to call, repeat your message in your own words. Don’t be insulted if you’re asked to leave a message or call back later - previous engagements do take priority. Bread: low-vowel sound Through: high-vowel sound Freeze: high-vowel sound tax: low-vowel sound spoon: high-vowel sound hop: low-vowel sound
< TOP >
c. • • • • • •
Section B Part I
5. Friend: X: Friend: X: Friend: X: Hey, how was the vacation? Hope you enjoyed it, eh. Oh, yeah. It was really nice. The weather was very pleasant… so cool. In fact, it was so much that we people had to use blankets and quilts. Wow!! Here we people were wilting in this unbearable heat of Hyderabad. Yeah, you know the place is remarkably clean, no pollution of any kind. No unwanted noise, squalor, burgeoning population, traffic, smoke… Compare that with our cities! I have heard that the place is so beautiful that movies have been shot there. Is it truly that beautiful? Yes, certainly, this is another Kashmir, paradise on earth. Very scenic and beautiful. In the lap of verdant virgin nature. Since we had gone there in summer it did not actually snow in Kulu, but at higher places it did. We could see the surrounding snow-capped mountains. The river flowed right next to our place of stay. Initially the loud gurgling sound of the river did not let us sleep, but soon we got used to it. It reminds me of Wordsworth’s River Derwent… which river flows there? Beas. Beas with its clear water sparkling in the sun and green embroidery of grass, hemmed by rocks and tall fir trees was majestic. Its beauty was divine. It sounds like poetry to me. Have you any photographs of the place? Oh, yes. I’ve plenty of photographs of my trip. I’ll show them to you one of these days after I get the reel developed. I’d love to look at them. But there was one unhappy episode too… A killjoy? What happened? When we were returning from Kulu, we witnessed heavy downpour. This caused a landslide and the road got blocked. We were stranded on the wrong side with our journey disrupted. We were trapped in that inclement weather, unknown place, menacing surroundings and mounting hunger. Oh…sad then what happened? Didn’t those travel people make any arrangement for meeting that calamity? They were quite indifferent…in fact, they were very callous, for them these kinds of episodes are very common.. That’s sad…
Friend: X: Friend: X: Friend: X: Friend: X:
Friend: X: Friend:
X: Friend: X: Friend: X: Friend: X: Friend: X:
Friend: X: Friend: X: Friend: X: Friend: X: Friend: X: 6.
and on the other hand we people were shivering with cold and fear. We had heard of tales of bears attacking the people. Our bus was stranded in a place surrounded by dense forest… Then what happened? All of us were making frantic calls to the travel agency. Finally they sent a relief van, providing some stuff to meet our immediate urgent requirements. Hmmmm Then they arranged for a lodge in the vicinity. Good, atleast some good sense dawned on them, what if it is late. What good sense? You will be disappointed to hear the following part of the story. Really? We were very happy that we will be able to stretch ourselves for a while in the lodge, but when we reached, we realised that it was some cheap rest-house without basic amenities. There was no facility for hot water; there was no decent loo either… Hahahaaaaaa, that’s why you are still stinking….. hahaaaa (in a hurt tone) Now, I will not tell you. Hey, that was just a joke. I did not mean it seriously. I understand how difficult it must have been for you. The beds were full of termites; rain had made many snails intrude into the privacy of our room and crawling on the floor… Was it that bad? Really sad. To compound, the food that they provided was only non-vegetarian. Then what did you do? You take strictly vegetarian… I had to rely only on dry fruits, peaches and plums that I had purchased before leaving. Nutritious solution. Haa haaa, yes.
< TOP >
A report is an official record on the findings after an investigation is conducted on a particular subject or topic. It is unique in nature and has a clear defined yet varied reader profile. Or in other words several readers or varied types of readers access reports and hence reports must be clear, concise and cater to the varying objects of numerous readers. Reports are written for various purposes and are of different kinds- academic reports (sciences, humanities, applied sciences), fact-finding reports, science reports, law reports, and other official reports. Reports have to focussed and very orderly and hence have to follow the required format. In order to lend credibility, they have to be objective, evaluative but non-judgmental. As they are a written communication that is made of factual information and/or data, it has to be supported by irrefutable data. Therefore the report writer must first clearly determine the purpose of the report. Next, it is necessary to state a clear theme statement. Once the preliminary research work is through, the writer should structure the presentation that provides to the reader the hypothesis through identifiable topics and sub-topics. The outline should clearly have an introductory unit, a concluding unit and a summary. If a summary brings together all your points, the concluding unit can chart out the new directions you may possibly foresee. The length of your report should be neither too brief (appears very casual) nor too long. The report should directly come to the point as the reader – an official, an academic or a bureaucrat – may not have the time or the patience to go through it. So precision is imperative. Reports must be appended with visual aids, wherever necessary. The layout arrangement, the headers/ footers, numbering, constructing of title (underlining/bolding it), placement of titles, use of illustrations (line charts or computer graphics) make your visual aids which should never attract attention to themselves. In brief, the report should succinctly and clearly give a neat picture of the activities/the field it encompasses. Any report should be arranged in the following three parts, maintain most reference books. These three parts are: 1) Front matter 2) Main body 3) Back matter. Front matter Main body Back matter Introduction * Appendices * Cover (title, number, date, * whether confidential) * Discussion/Analysis * References * Title page (author’s name, * Conclusions * Bibliography designation) * Recommendations * Glossary
* * * * * *
Copyright notice Forwarding letter Preface Acknowledgements Table of contents List of illustrations Abstract
The format of the report-cum-review is as follows: Sender’s address Date For the attention of: Sub: Review of ………. Contents: i. The report ii. Critical comments iii. Recommendations Signature and designation of the sender As the reader may not have much time, the important points are to be put in a bold font. Water Conservation Strategies Progress Review Aims Increasing ground water level Storing monsoon water Plans as stated in report Awareness raising Central Government Funding Limitations Appears expensive Lacks popular support Recommendations and suggestions NGO participation necessary Thus, a good report should identify the problem, its causes, the relative importance of each, and the possible solutions along with your opinions and recommendations.
< TOP >
Friend: Self: Friend: Self: Friend: Self: Friend: Self: Friend: Self: Friend: Self: Friend: Self: Friend: Self: Friend:
Hello… Hi, Lata. Ohhh, you Vrinda. It has been ages since I heard your voice. Yeah.. Hey lata, there is a surprise news for you. I am getting married next Monday… My God, so early! You mean this 19th? Yeah… couldn’t help it. The situation was such….. Wait a moment, first I must congratulate you. I forgot, taken in by the news and its promptness. Congratulations…. Finally the bird has agreed. Yes, thank you. I am a little nervous in the fast pace. Hmmm There is no time to get the cards printed. We are therefore inviting only people of close circle, that too telephonically… I am privileged to be in your close circle….hmm Please bear with me, Lata. I am not sending you formal invitation. That is alright. I will come. But first tell me, who is the groom? Thank you for your gesture. I think you know him. Remember our classmate, whom we met for our Diploma Course…. Mr. x. Hey, he… Wow that is interesting. You never told me about the ‘entanglement’. When did you get so close to him??? Rest all your speculations. It is all arranged. It was a pure coincidence that the match was known to me in advance. ohhhh, but it is interesting to note. He was quite handsome and a prolific writer… Many had an eye on him, including me… hahahaha…..
Self: Friend: Self: Friend: Self: Friend: Self: Friend: Self: Friend: Self: Friend: Self: Friend:
Ok, ok. Now I have got him. Right. Surrender, no more ogling now. So, you are coming, fine. Promise that you will be present on the occasion. Yes, for sure. How can I absent myself? But where should I come? You are yet to give me the details pertaining the location, muhurtam etc. Yes, sorry, sorry… The venue is Imperial Gardens at 9:30 p.m. on Monday, the 19th of this month. Alright. It will be a simple marriage performed in the temple. Yes, yes. I am so excited at the prospect of meeting you all. So, you are coming, right. With your family including your parents, brother and sister, Rini. O.k I am once again sorry, for not being able to send you the card. Forget it. I am not interested in the card, but in the marraiage. I am happy that you are getting a very handsome, intelligent and sensitive groom. Congrats once again. We all will come. Thank you so much. Hey, before you disconnect…. You can freely ask us for any kind of help… Thank you dear, thank you dear. I am overwhelmed. I know I can bank upon you. I will whenever I feel so…. Thank you. Bye… Bye…
< TOP >
8. The English language has 44 sounds. The sounds that are produced when the air stream moves out freely and continuously without any obstruction are termed vowels. There are 20 vowel sounds in English. 12 of them are called monophthongs or pure vowels where the tongue takes a single position to produce them. The other eight are called diphthongs or vowel glides. These are produced when the tongue shifts positions. The tongue takes two positions in order to produce these sounds. The sounds that are produced when the air stream that is moving out of the lungs is obstructed at some point or the other before being released to the exterior are called consonants. There are 24 consonant sounds in the English language. The phonetic symbols suggested by the International Phonetic Association are used to represent the sounds of speech. ENGLISH PHONETIC SYMBOLS FOR VOWEL SOUNDS Vowels – Monophthongs
/i:/ as in bean /e/ as in pet /u:/ as in boon /O:/ as in born /A:/ as in barn /ã:/ as in burn /I/ as in pit /Ã/ as in pat /U/ as in put /Â/ as in pot /ó/ as in but /E/ as in another
Vowels - Diphthongs
/eI/ as in bay /a#I/ as in buy /O#I/ as in boy
/IE/ /UE/ /eE/ /EU/ /a#U/
as in peer as in poor as in pair as in no as in now
< TOP >
There are nine fricative sounds in the English language. In the production of these sounds the air stream comes out of the system with an audible friction. (voiceless) (voiced) /f/ /v / Labio-dental fricatives (lower lip is brought very close to the upper teeth.) /ß/ / ð/ Dental fricatives (tip of the tongue makes a light contact with the upper teeth) /s / /z/ Alveolar fricatives (tip and blade of the tongue - brought close to the alveolar ridge.) /S / /G / Palato-alveolar fricatives (tip and blade of the tongue- brought close to the hard palate) / h/ Glottal fricative / f /, / ß /, /s /, /S / and / h / are voiceless and strong. / v /, / ð /, /z / & / G/ are voiced & weak. Labio-dental fricatives /f/ and / v/ are articulated when the lower lip is brought very close of the edge of the upper teeth making light contact with it. /f/ Face, Fool, Food /v / Van, vain, vein Dental fricatives / ß /and /ð / are produced when the tip of the tongue is brought very near the edge of the upper teeth. / ß / Thin, Thought, Think / ð / That, Then, Those Alveolar fricatives /s / and /z / are produced by bringing the tip & blade of the tongue very close to the teeth ridge. / s / Center, Serious, Supper / z / Zoo, Zinc, Zoology Palato-alveolar fricatives /S/ and /G /are articulated by bringing the tip & blade of the tongue very close to the teeth ridge & the front of the tongue is also raised towards the hard palate. / S / Machine, Shade, Shine /G / Measure, Pleasure, Treasure Glottal fricative /h / is produced by the air coming through a narrow glottis with audible friction. / h / Hat, Hill, Halt
< TOP >
The language can be of formal or informal variety. Let us look at the possibility of such usage in the context of a simple situation when a person is introducing himself to the other: Introducing self Self Introduction Formal Informal May I introduce myself? Hi, I am Praveen. I am Praveen Rao. I come from Medak. I am from Medak. I am from the software field and right now I I am a software engineer am working with the ICFAI. I work with the ICFAI. While using the informal variety of language many a time the user can resort to the usage of conversation fillers like ah, ah, eh, well, um in connected speech. Such items are best avoided in formal speech. It is most advisable to
keep such deviations to the minimum. When we use a language to communicate effectively, we should use not only the accurate language, but the appropriate expressions as well. In fact, current research maintains that accuracy of the expression is not as important as its being appropriate. Some of the major qualities of the formal language: • • • • Formal language (written) does not use short forms/abbreviations such as `don’t’, `hasn’t’, `isn’t’ et al. Formal language (spoken) does not use hesitation fillers such as `um’, `er’, `ah’, `eh’. It is more impersonal in nature. It hence avoids `I’, `you’, the personal pronouns. Instead it prefers the formal `one’.
It is not familiar. Let us look at an example. We cannot write in the term paper on the “Discovery of America”, `Columbus found out America’. Appropriate usage in such a context has to be formal. So we cannot use the phrasal verb `find out’. The appropriate sentence has to be `Columbus discovered America’. Similarly, in the scientific context, it is inappropriate to informally remark `Galileo looked into the solar system.’ The informal verb `look into’ is inappropriate here. The following two letters help one understand how formality and/or informality and appropriate language are closely related. The first letter is an informal letter addressed to a close friend. The second is a formal letter addressed to a senior colleague. They show different ways of rejecting the invitation. Letter No.1 My Dear Shashank, Thanks a ton for your invitation. I’m afraid, eh, I won’t be able to make it as I have my blessed exams the next day. See you soon, and wish me all the best. With all my best wishes for a gala party, Yours, Tina Letter No.2 Dear Mr. Hyder, It is indeed very kind of you to invite me for the dinner. I, however, regret my inability to attend the function, as I have to prepare for the semester end examination scheduled for tomorrow. I hereby thank you for the invitation and hope that I may have an opportunity of meeting you again in the near future. Yours truly, Ismail Gaddar The factors that guide the choice of variety are the age of the participants concerned, nature of relationship, situation etc. For instance, in talking to the boss one has to choose formal variety, while for a friend it can be informal. Formal language is usually very precise, with short crisp sentences, certain structures like “May I” etc are used without fail. They are meant to show more respect and emphasize the distance between the two. The informal language liberally uses fillers and is also personal. Contrary to formal language, informal variety of language rests on the usage of run-on sentences and there are no fixed formulae. It is very important to note the difference between the two, for its misuse and confusion can make the user run the hazards of creating confusion or leading to hilarious situations, when sobriety is the need of the hour.
< TOP >
11. A. 1. 2. 3. 4. d b a c
5. 6. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. C. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. D. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. E. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
b d c d a b a c d b a c b d a d c b a d c
b a a d c
< TOP >
< TOP OF THE DOCUMENT >
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.