Chapter 12 Stabilization and protection measures

Introduction Expenditure of funds for slope stabilization programs is often led because unstable slopes can rarely be tolerated on h Ighways, and because weathering of the rock tends to cause deterioration of slopes with time. This chapter i bes a ternative stabilization methods and the conditions in which they can be used. Design of the stabilization work is carried out by the methods described in Chapters 7 through 10 for the appropriate type of slope failure; references to these design methods are included with each of the stabilization procedures. Note that each design method is particular to the type of slope failure, i.e. planar, wedge, circular or toppling, and it is essential that the type and cause of failure be identified. The first step In planning a stabilization program is to identify potentially hazardous slopes which usually requires accurate observations of slope stability conditions and the maintenance of records over a considerable time period. These records, which can be kept by maintenance personnel, should contain the following information. Location of slope. Weather conditions, particularly during 24 hours preceding failure. of failed material and height of fal I. Time taken to clear rock and stabilize slope. Belays to traffic and damage to highway and vehicles. Stabilization work carried out with time and costs. Warning received of failure from prior falls, or movement monitoring instruments (see Chapter These reports should be supplemented with photographs to record changes in conditions of the slope and the progress of stabilization work. Photographs in stereo pair are particularly useful for planning stabilization work. They can be taken with a regular 35 mm camera by taking two photographs from positions which are separated by a distance equal to about 2 to 5 percent of For more detailed the distance of the camera from the slope. work, or oblique aerial photogrammetry can be used from which contour maps and cross-sections can be drawn up. This information is usually required in making detailed stability studies and calculation of excavation volumes. High altitude aerial photographs rarely provide information sufficiently detailed for rock slope engineering. By relating these records to the geological data contained on discussed previously (see stability assessment u r e 1 . 6 ) . information will soon be developed on the most hazardous areas and the consequences of the failure. This can then be used to schedule stabilization work, keeping in mind that slopes that have already failed are I ikely to be more stable than similar slopes that have not yet failed. I ization method depends The selection of an appropriate costs and the not only on the technical feasibility, but a


For example, t h e l e a s t e x p e n s l v e c o n ease of lnstal struct Ion cost for rock bolt lnstal I at Ion may be to use a crane to put In a few, high anchors. However, If the use of Ic because the shoulder Is too narthe crane the crane, t h e n I t w o u l d b e p r e f e r a b l e t o row to I have men on ropes dr I I I Ing holes for a greater number of anchors because they can work Independently of the Another Is that stablllzatlon work should be over a long and corners should not be cut anchors should be protected to save costs. For and should be control led to ensure the rock In the new face Is not fractured by the of stabll lzatlon work should be out by personnel who can draw on r know ledge of prev lures to such factors as rock and water condltlons. They I also know lzatlon methto the at the ods are best Hlghway personnel englneerlng who are local condltlons should be to both the and tasks so feedConsultants who of back on the In rock slope may also be on to hlghway personnel unusual problems. The per Rock slope stablllzatlon work should usually be out by contractors who have men and appropriate and rock bolt lnstal latlon, equipment equ I . For would Include compressors, hand-held Is, a loafrom the hlghway and assorted ropes, der to clear broken I steel and grout pumps. The men hoses, use ropes to access the face or work off an For larger jobs, operated platform cranes and track-mounted dr I I Is and dozers may be requ I red. men to cl Imb on steep slopes Is hazardRock work that ous when snow and Ice cover the slope so these projects shou Id not be scheduled for the In areas where such cl work uslng heavy condltlons However, rock equlpment can proceed In almost all weathers. The types of contracts are for rock and work are In Chapter 14. STABILIZATION Slope stablllzatlon methods can be as follows: I Methods e.g., reduce or In water pressure three the drlvlng forces, force, e.g.,

Installing rock bolts from a crane and basket.

II Methods Increase the latlon of support.

I I I Methods protect the hlghway from rock fa I Is, or warn of hazardous condltlons, e.g.. rock sheds, warning fences . of this chapter these The followlng methods, and the condltlons In which they are appl able.


I I As




In Chapter 6, groundwater pressures usually have a effect on I Ity. Thl s Is shown by the great lures that occur after heavy I, number of slope Ing snow-melt and durlng the when the face freeI zes and water pressures Increase. Consequently, can often be Improved by water pressures, If by dralnage systems. Furthermore, dralnthey age Is often an method of stablllzatlon. The of dralnage , a s t h e stablllzatlon mebecause thod, should only proceed after careful n that water pressures are the mary cause one must be I A l s o , It can be to produce of dralnage of the slope, and ensure that the dralnage system Is over the full of the slope. To overcome these should flrst be Installed to measure the problems, actual pressure In the slope and calculate Its effect on These can be used In the future to the produced by the dralns. Another problem Is that the water Is contalned In the fractures In the rock so that the dralns only be If Intersect these water f r a c t u r e s . A l s o , the dra Ins may I become Ice or It and the pressures Increase. blocked studles show that dralnage Is the best If the I Izat Ion to use, then there are number of al I ves to select (see Flgure 12.1). Thls Influence of from Is calculated uslng the water pressure on plane charts In 7.31 and can be out for uslng the deslgn charts on page 9.8 shows the method for wedge through 9.13. lures. Surface If water Is flowlng down the slope and Into can be dug along the crest to dlvert tenslon cracks, the water and prevent pond I ng, and the tenslon crack can be If sheets are coverrd cl ay o r sheets. and covered used, they should be as strong as poss I b sand to prevent damage from and vandal Ism. The sldes of can be burlap bags fl I led a sand/ and If It Is suspected that water Is cement from the It could be shotcrete, asphalt, or other d r a l n s : If there Is no surface water to remove, holes to draln the subsurface then, It Is necessary to method Is horlzontal holes Into water. T h e the face to Intercept the water table behlnd the surface, wlth a depth of about of the slope The between holes depends upon the of the rock, wlth closer In less permeable may range from 20 to 100 ft. The of the rock. holes shou I d be chosen so that the max lmum number of water rylng fractures are Intercepted , and they are usually lncl If there Is any danger that the above the horizontal. cave, then they should be wlth a perforated holes plpe the In the so that the I ng water does not erode the face.

4 Surface drain to collect run-off before it can enter the top of open tension cracks. Potent tension crack Horizontal hole to base of tension Potential Subsurface gallery Horizontal hole to drain potential failure surface increase drainage ff iciency of sub-surface gallery.1: Slope drainage and depressuriration measures.12. . This drain be well graded and must be kept clear Potential tension crack Slope surface immediately behind crest should be graded Vertical pumped drainage well7 Collector drain. drain Figure 12./ .

The gallery can be wlthout flc on the hlghway. an Aardvark can be used the Into the hole as It I s d r l l l e d . unless the rock Is than that of a large very soft and support Is The marg In sketch shows the posltlon for a Ion The of by Is that removal of of the slope reduces the materlal from the upper Ing force. The of the cone of produced by the pump Increases as the I Increases and the Is shou I be spaced It Is unl that pumped wells would be a permanent I measure because of the of supplylng power and malntalnlng the pumps. and the cost of may be lower project. or durlng constructlon. When the hole Is complete. T h e of alternatlve measures. Dralnage gal dralnage gal lerles can be the effecbut of a slope. they cou I be used as a porary measure. Thls shows the Importance o f Pumped wells: pumped wells of holes a perforated and about 6 Inches In a pump at the bottom. A l t e r n a t l v e l y .2 can be removed by Involves the use of hand scaling bars. and Loose. no water may be at all If It evaporates as It reaches the face. ters or I lght to remove Isolated of loose Involves the removal of overhanglng and rock. I n t h e c a s e o f s m a l I f a l l u r e s . unstable rock. holes may also be to layers of low rock are lnhlbltlng downward f low of the groundwater Dralnage gal lerles are usually only to large where the forces Involved are so great that It Is to unload the slope by materlal from the crest. the slope or anchors are Installed. t h e Is a loose rock Is removed.5 Drain holes can be a standard track-mounted and holes can be fanned out from one locatlon to save movlng Drill should be thoroughly and settlng up do cleaned from the hole to ensure that these f not dralnage. However.12. In particularly soft ground. overhanglng or protrudlng rock on the face of the slope or (see Flgure 12. . The effecdiameter of gallery can be Increased by fans of holes around the gallery. blt Is dropped off the and the rods are removed from It should be kept In mlnd that the volume of water In the fractures can be very I so that the dralns may be duclng In the slope there a very low In fact. These operatlons are usually Drainage gallery drainage Optimum location for subsurface drainage gallery in a slope.

r o c k scaled Figure 12. ... .. . . .2: Scaling and trimming.. .6 trimmed on new f a c e h a n g t r immed . . Excavated material surface Figure 12... .12..3: Unloading .

12. as shown in Figure 12. by men working from ropes or on cable susponded platforms and. for lower slopes. where the crest of at least dth of the bench t h e s l o p e h a s b e e n r a v e d . . be effective if they have widths of Intermediate benches ft. small rock falls mat do I ate on the benches. In Flgure rock I I form an overhang that I I have to be the All that Is out strength to break the rock and not should be of slope. it is preferable to form a at the toe of me slope. and drllllng. Furthermore. the geology. be constructed along the outside edge to trap rol I Ing rock. stab1 (unloading) the crest to reduce the achieved by The volume of material to be force 12. Ing The frequency of depends upon the rate at f of such factors as use. a berm or sions. Thls requlres the of damage the carefully al Igned. from crane Is used the basket must booms. of all should be Careful out to the rock to be removed and ensure that the new hand of face Is stable. closely spaced holes and the use of for Is of control led charges .3. methods described removed Is determined by t h e m a n u a l . hand-held equlpment can be on the face Is slow and only used. for hlgh slopes. S e e C h a p t e r procedures. The procedure for a back analysis Is earlier The position of the surface Is estimated as from the of the crack. It is the recommendation of the that Intermediate benches on slope faces width to act should be avolded because they rarely have as effective rock areas.7 out. further reduce their dth and eventuwhich project I ing rocks outwards to ally form Cleaning of accumulated rock falls on benches the Is rarely carried out because of the danger of working on high rock faces. For example. but only If the crest stable. If cranes or be tied to the slope to prevent It from away from the and are slow operations because movlng face. Unloading I lure of the slope Is rather than Where can be fal Is of lndivldual blocks of rock. The actual width of wide benches Is usually less than the design width due to loss of to remove rock at the toe of rock along the crest and the upper cut. and Is Impossible if a substantial fall cuts the access on to the bench. vary between 2 and 20 years and the rock weathers and the root growth and traff Ic has created a The trimming operation shown in unlfon slope face benches. The required should be checked on the ditch deslgn chart which shows the required wldth and depth for the slope should If the width is lnsufflclent.3).

wide and preferably the cut 30 to40 ft. which is reduced by unloading. For this equipment to have sufficient working space. wide. thls work wi I I have to be failure in order to stab1 done with earth-moving equipment except in the case of minor ides. Long hau Is may be expensive.. a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s e s a r e c a r r i e d o u t t o determl ne how much mater 1 al must be un I oaded to i ncrease the factor of safety to an acceptable level. that men and equipment wi I I have tlme to evacuate the slope. Much the a flatter slope same design a n d e x c a v a t i o n m e t h o d s a n d p r e c a u t i o n s are The new slope applicable in both unloading and resloping. can be accommodated. This wi II ensure. i s m o v i n g d u r i n g e x c a v a t i o n . say 30 ft. of instal I ing dowels. movement systems (Chapter should be set up to provide a warning of deteriorating stability conditions. circular and types of slope failures depend upon the slope height. very high . II have to be at least 20 ft. Resloplng This stabilization method is applied in similar conditions to the unloading method when overall slope failure is occurring.8 The type of slope failure and the causes of failure are Identified and a stability analysis is carried out using a factor of safety of 1 . al though there is always the possibility that the material could be used for elsewhere at some cost savings over quarried materlal. vibrations should be kept to a minimum by reducing the charge weight per delay (see Chapter 11 because large vibrations as much as If the slope may be sufficient to cause the slope to fai I. then It would be necessary to excavate the slope at (see Figure 12. However. controlled blasting should be used to minimize rock damage.12. cab I es instal Iing bolts or of Re 1 nf cons sts ncrease ts strength. o r Usually. In both unloading and resloping. If appears doubtful that unloading will achieve long-term I because extensive movement and rock breakage have occurred. Stability of all four planar. Si it may be necessary to unload as much as of the it. additional practical matters to consider are property ownership of the land along the crest and available areas for the disposal of the excavated material. reinforcement Is used for smaller failures where are not great and the tension that can be the forces applied to the anchors Is sufficient to produce a significant increase in the factor of safety. benches should not be incorporated in the slope design unless a significant width. consists support whi the buttresses at the toe of failure. u s i n g t h e s a m e s t r e n g t h p a r a m e t e r s a n d groundwater level. wedge. II REINFORCEMENT AND SUPPORT STABILIZATION METHODS The following is a description of stab1 methods in which the forces resisting fal lure are increased by instal Iing either reinforcement or support. s u f f i c i e n t s p a c e m u s t b e l e f t a t t h e t o e o f t h e slope for equipment to operate which means that a triangular Intermediate shaped excavation (in section) cannot be made. should have a face angle that produces a satisfactory factor of safety based on the strenqth and qroundwater values determined from back analysis: In designing the cut dimensions.O to determine the rock strength parameters. Finally. Then.4). if fal lure were to occur. If blasting is required. failure surface to across the Is.

4: Resloping. (a) Untensioned bolts. Figure 12. Rock bolt installations.5: .9 New slope angle iginal slope angle Excavated material Failure surface Minimum operating width Figure 12.12. T e n s i o n e d a n c h o r s i n s t a l l ed through loose block.

multistrand cables are available to reinforce large rock masses. Thls can be achieved by bolts or cables. for anchor support are given in Chapter 7 (page by John and the Post Tensioning and other Different types of rock anchors are discussed below.12. the relative magnitude forces depend upon the orientation of the bolt with respect of to the plane. long bolts are usually coupled together In 20 ft. Any If there . chor so should be al lowed for the grout to set before I ng off the next blast. to buttresses that provlde support under large unstable blocks. movement of the rock as a result of may overstress the shown In Flgure should be used b o l t . the forces can be Increased by ng the I I ing rock load on the plane. the rock strength is ned. Rock bolts are to improve the steel /grout shear and subsequent elther grouted into the hole wlthou of the rock tenslons the bolt or 12. The because.5). T h e is a of the alternative measures. by minlmizing movement of the rock whenever on the failure planes. partially Installed by f II I ing it with cement or epoxy grout.5 they are tensloned at the time of installation Untensioned bolts (sometimes referred to as dowels) can be stalled from the floor of a bench so that removal of of the rock I I the bench and support provlded by the steel. The surface of the bar is often corrugated. in length. and vibratlons In the relnforced wall should be kept to acceptable levels (see Chapter Tensioned bolts are installed in blocks and slopes are and Immediate support Is already showlng signs of of the rock may decrease the required. steel. Rock Bolts steel rods ranglng In from Rock bolts are Inch to 2 inches in diameter and up to about ft.10 capacity. and a tension (see Figure 12. Anchors can be used to both lndlvidual blocks and slopes ranglng In helght from of methods about 10 ft. to several hundred feet. ranges from dowels to hold small blocks In place. These forces have a much greater Inf on increasing I ity than the shear strength of the steel across the fallure plane. If the bolt was tensloned. and pushlng in anSufflclent it Is grouted ful I length. Rock Bolts and Cables for a block to slide down a plane. sections. anchored in stable rock behlnd the failure surface. Also the cost of Install Ing the bolts is much less than tensioned bolts when the is complete and a Untens bolts are crane would be requlred for a hole to the depth. The reactions the rock to this tension are normal and shear across the fallure plane.

the anchor in a few minutes and the remainder will set after the bolt has been tens Cement or epoxy grout is usual I used in soft rock where grout Is used tor mechanlcal anchors could slip.11 strength and tensioning the failure surface. and all high capacity. In general. the working bond strength is about to of the compressive strength the rock. a torque wrench can be used tor tensioning. Two component epoxy resins are packaged in the bolt. After al I bolts should be fully grouted to provide protection and to In” the tension. Mechanlcal anchors are usually some form of wedge which is expanded by turning or driving the bolt. but this is likely to be less reliable than using a jack. By plastic tubes and are mixed by rapidly set using resin with different settling times. procedure should be carefully followed. have a greater strength than rlgld bolts of the same diameter and so can be used to large rock . Tensloning is carried out by pulling on the bolt with a hydraulic jack to a load of about 50 percent of the yield and locking in tenslon by tightening the nut. permanent anchors. The working rock/grout interface shear strengths for about 50 psi in weak rock to 200 psi In design varies strong rock. Methods bolts are discussed below: installing Tensioned bolts are made tensile strength steel and have threads on the exposed end for a bearing plate and nut. cables manner to rlgld bolts as above. Both mechanlcal and epoxy grouts allow tensioning to be out soon otter installation which is an advantage If access to the site Is difficult. Cables Cables can be used to relntorce rock slopes in a similar However. cement grout and epoxy grout. Alternatively. Mechanical anchors s h o u l d o n l y b e c o n s i d e r e d t e m p o r a r y m e a n s o f malntalnlng tension because the and creep in the highly stressed rock around the anchor can lead to loss installation The bolt manufacturers’ of load. the required bond length Is calculated from the following equatlon: where T is the applied tenslon and d is the hole diameter. Cement grout should agent added. It is also found that the steel/grout shear strength is usually greater than the rock/grout shear strength. and hi-early strength cement have a should not be used because i t i s b r i t t l e a n d s o m e t i m e s contains reagents that accelerate corrosion. The length of the anchor zone Is us ng the assumption that the shear stress Is along the periphery of the hole.12. The different types of anchors that can be used Include mechanical expansion shells.

corrosion protected cable anchor Detai d where: W of block of plane plane angle support provlded by dowel methods In Chapter 7 can be used to deInclude the effects of and water The velop pressure. A further advantage of cables is that their flexibility allows them to be coiled which facilitates installation where space is limited and rigid bars could only be used if they were coupled together in short lengths. Cables can be either tensioned or untensioned in identical applications to rigid bolts and the same design methods (see are applicable. . Before installation begins. the tension is applied with a hydraulic jack using load/deformation monitoring procedures as specified by the Post Tensionary Institute (298). If the hole cannot be filled with water. When the grout has set. Chapter Because of the high tension on cables. When the grout has set. cement grout anchorage is usually used which must be allowed to set for several days before tensioning. o r the shear strength of the relnforced the to support a block Is concrete. the tension is is applied with a hydraulic jack.000 lb. the hole should be tested to see if fractures have been intersected through which grout cou Id flow out of the hole and prevent fu I I embedment. If greater strengths are required. The number of dowel s calculated as follows (see sketch). I n s t a l l e d a t t h e t o e o f to provlde support (see 12.6). The applied tension is maintained by securing it at the collar with tapered wedges by using a bearing block with a tapered hole through which the cable passes.000 lb. The pair of tapered wedges are fitted around the cable and pushed into the tapered hole so that they grip the cable and hold the tension.12. then bundles of as many as 50 cables can be used.12 masses For example. with attention being paid to ensuring that the head is fully protected corrosion with grout and anti-corrosion agents. or blocks of relnforced unstable blocks concrete. 7-wire strand cable has strength of 40. a 1 inch diameter rigid bolt may have a working tensile strength of 25. Thls support Is provlded by the shear and bend strength of s t e e l . The applied tension is maintained by securing the cables with tapered wedges which are pushed into tapered holes in the bearing plate. Dowels Dowels are lengths of bars. then it should be fi I led with a low slump grout to seal the fractures and re-drilled when the cement is partially set The anchor is formed by pumping grout down a grout I ine so that the hole is filled from the bottom. of the The bearing plate should be sufficient to distribute the load without fracturing the rock under the plate. Dowel installation to support sliding block. while a inch.

where: strength of steel of Inert a of bar radius of bar arm of load on dowel shear strength of steel. As noted above. The dowel Is fully grouted Into the hole and a concrete cap can be cast over the and make sure the support dowel to protect It Is In contact the rock. o r t h e d a n g e r t h a t m o r e r o c k h i g h e r u p t h e slope may become unstable. should only be used to support smal I. The tie-backs I I grouted into holes ensure that the buttress does not It outwards if the force applied by the rock is not coincident with the axis of the buttress. poured then a number of dowels Is then encased In concrete dowels are Inch to Inch for thls dowel can be drl bar. T h l s the dowel the face of the block. The of Is between 1 and 2 hand-held ft. dependlng on the of the rock. Isolated blocks where Ing would not produce permanent I and boltlng would be more expenslvr. The concrete buttress shou I d have mass and strength to resist the weight of rock and also be securely tied to the face with reinforcing tie-backs I led In the rock.13 The support provlded by the dowel Is the lesser of bendlng strength or Its shear strength. or beneath overhanging pieces of rock to provide support and resistance to sliding (see Figure Concrete buttresses are used to support overhangs that are difficult to remove because of access problems. then the dowel can be bent agalnst the face after and of dowel support (128) rock slope parameters show that a l-3/8 Inch bar I hold a block a volume of about 5 to 15 cu. If It Is not to drl II the hole at the toe of the block.yd. Is If extra shear can be placed In a group the rock face. Therefore. as follows: Its Shear. The required strength of the buttress is the difference between the component of the weight down the failure plane and the . stronger dowels can be constructed from blocks of relnforced concrete.12. Buttresses and Walls Buttresses and retaining walls are usually reinforced concrete structures constructed at the toe of slopes. and that the bendlng Is decreased by havlng the block load the dowel above the embedthe Importance of ment polnt In the rock. show the support Is Increased by These I ng the of the bar.

12. . Loose block buttress f i g u r e Support at toe of unstable slopes.14 bar dowels Reinforced concret e Figure Dowels to support sliding blocks.

may be necessary to use a nonshr I nklng agent In the last concrete pour to ensure good rock/concrete contact. Care should be taken o f t h e s y s t e m . Methods of type walls are In the and I not be further rock slopes.12. 8 ) . a of concrete I Instead of a tlnuous wall. form of buttress a slldlng lure An Is to place a sufflclent mass at the toe to support the slope (see Thls can often be by of rock. The actual depend upon the type of fal lure. or lng gablons. may provlde sufflclent support and save on the quantlty of concrete Cable Lashlng Isolated blocks of loose rock that cannot be removed. In cases. It Is usually necessary to use tle-backs to prevent overturnlng. In space between the hlghway and the toe of the slope. W h e r e t h e c a b l e I s I n c o n t a c t even? of sudden . can be secured In place cables tensloned across the face of the (see Flgure block and anchored In sound rock on by means of turn. . I . or tures to the thrust of the slope. e . are rock-f I I led baskets that can be together to form walls that are strong and less to construct than relnforced concrete. clamps. Tenslon can be and then cable clamps are used to hold ensure that each component the tenslon. The also be securely attached to sound rock wlth dowels to Increase holes should be let through to slldlng. c a b l e s . be used to I Toe buttresses can usually because the of rock can be requlres space between the of the slope may provlde and the hlghway.buckles or 1 2 . Its the concrete to prevent bul Id-up of water pressures. means of slldlng Retalnlng walls are strucslopes. some space for a toe buttress. They are usually concrete. To prevent bul I d-up of water pressure behlnd the buttress. However. Tle-backs are rock bolts or cables that are anchored In stab rock the lure surface.15 slstence produced by the strength of plane. an used I The top of the buttress must be In the of the block to prevent movement from occurring before the support becomes some cases. A can be damaged by vandals. holes should be let through the concrete. eye-bolts and rock anchors are equally strong and can some Impact the lure. The of the baskets are usually buttress 3 ft. factor of safety applled. An advantage of a cubes Is that the slope can be to of gablons Is that they the crest of the slope. where there here. lengths. The concrete I Is then so that It forms a large block to the Ion of the I I shou Id generated In the anchors.

deep canthe bench for the yon (see Flgure 12. would the thlrd fracture was of the rock on these out of the slope. and were most I to than 1 occur In the spr Ing and fal I dur I ng freeze-thaw cycles when Ice formed In cracks and loosened blocks of rock on the face. of talnlng wal I and a slope that was about ft. . long and In helght 20 ft. It was Intersected by a number of fraclengths of several tens of ture planes f e e t . The rock falls to as much as 10 cu.15). at the center. In road. at end to about 100 f+. depend Ing on how much support Is In cases where economlcal to I the on such factors should be taken ground and no+ EXAMPLE OF a large Is occurrlng. hlgh.24 methods that the impact loads of rock Is and recent work on snow avalanches are not well developed. more. The cost of and a tunnel may be less than the cost of construct Ing a shed. The rock falls were occurrlng because.12. control of blastlng The followlng Is a of a to reduce a rock I hazard on a volves blastlng for a damage and rock Slte The and hlghway are located on benches In a 250 ft. controlled Flgure 12.yds. and of these fractures llty and the slze of the rock fal Is. can be to avalances uslng the of rock Tunnels are the most method of protectlon from rock Is.16 Illustrates that these fractures occur In three sets were such that they formed roughly sets would form the shaped blocks. 40 degree slope above a In 3. A slope had also been excavated for the of the hlghway. It may be more relocate the rather than to try and The feaslbl I of I I depend as property ownershlp and al Ignmen?. although the Intact rock was moderately strong. Thls hazard was acute because the track curvature and tralns dld not have Furtherstop In the event of a rock fal I. and care to ensure that new locatlon Is on an of STABILIZATION PROJECT that was undertaken It Inand hlghway. even a mlnor could cause cars to fal I In slze from less onto the hlghway below. It had been necessary to construct about 100 ft. Is from the A hazard to traff Ic had developed due to rock I work be upper slope and It became necessary that some o u t . The length. Ing the the temperatures can drop to and Ice can the area belng a be a problem as low as 6 Inches annually.000 ft. The two near of blocks.


ods are have been Sample at the toe of slopes are an means of rock and they can often be excavated at low The requlred cost compared to the cost of I and depth of a depends upon +he angle and helght of the chart In Flgure shows the slope. Is also Important that water and Ice pressures do not up by the shotcrete. by pre-moi i zi ng dry-m ix shotcrete to per cent to 6 per cent moisture before it reaches the about nozzle. the shotcrete has set to check Another Is to and samples for probe the shotcrete before It sets. H o w e v e r .18 zones shou Id be deepened so +hat there Is some to the shotcrete can adhere.e. Dralnage can be h o l e s I n t o cracks In the rock. can be pumped further than wet mix shotcrete. or nomlcal to protect the from rock falls. and belng less expenslve to and repalr. can be damaged by vandalism. A gablon advantages over a concrete wall of belng better able to stand the Impact of fal rock because of Its f lexlbl I Ity. and speclf Detal Is of shotcrete drawn up by the Concrete Iflcatlons are provlded In Chapter 14. a dralnplpe In +he hole and ?he shotcrete around +he plpe. A number of different methbelow. the water added at the nozzle. i. The maximum distance that shotcrete can be pumped Is about 500 ft. or by careful I has the a concrete or gablon wall. .12. and the The chart shows tlonshlp between four the are where the slope angle Is steep because rocks tend to fall rather than bounce outwards off the face The of the Is also Improved by havlng a rather than Thls can be by rounded slope on +he hlghway of slope If +he rock Is competent. measures could also be used where It Is permanent stablllzatlon and I be qulred In the future. horizontally and 100 ft. and the amount of rebound reduced. Dry-mix shotcrete. III PROTECTION Condltlons may where stablllzatlon of a slope Is elther to that It Is more so expenslve. Probably the sure the area of the face covered and the volume used and ensure the Is belng evenly keeplng In mlnd the of rebound may vary 50 and 100 Some a small may be out after and cement/rock bond. Is dlfflcult on Irregular rock Control of shotcrete control method to surfaces. vertically depending upon the equipment available. nsu I dral ns can seepage water beh nd the shotcrete lt a and sound rock on elther row The strength of the shotcrete is improved.

Slope Height Figure 12. .12.19 o f a Free rock fall radient f 100 Overall slope degrees Figure Ditch design chart.10(b): Rock falls on slopes.

I Ike chain-I Ink mesh. the base of should be covered loose gravel or sand to reduce the the tendency of rocks to bounce. fall and a more structure Is requlred. across. The mesh can slope of 9 or gauge Ink mesh or gablon Ion mesh has the advantage that It has a doub I e mesh. access shou Id be left for equipment to clean fallen rock that has accumulated In the and reduced Its The An Important aspect of deslgn Is to ensure at the toe of the slope for the does not oversteepen the slope and cause It to fal I.12. On slopes rocks tend to accelerate as they steeper than th I s. annular space Mesh Wlre mesh suspended down the face of a slope I I Intercept fal rock and It Into a or catchment area. . corrugated steel sheathlng the rock. the Impact of rol I Ing boulders may be to break the mesh. In dlameter.12). Fences of thl s type are unl y to stop larger than about 1 ft. Some of these pl les are from the Impact of I rock by 18 ft. eventua I I y these rocks the mesh and have suff to may accumulate break It. bou Fences have been used extenslvely on slopes above rallroads In To stop boulders less than about 3 ft. are sunk Into the slope and Inch dlameter steep cables The helght of the between the plles. Fences can also be used In narrow gul lles where the path of the fal I Ing rock Is Fences can of mesh or Inter I aced wlre rope suspended from cables anchored to plns or posts In the rock face. be left open so that Mesh Is not where +he boulder Is greater than and the slope Is steeper than about 40 deabout 1 ft. hexagonal weave does not unravel. The fence should be so that It can absorb the Impact of rock. talus slopes. are strung fence Is about 10 ft. the slope and very strong mesh Is placed between the pl les. when It Is broken. It suspended from plns and cables on the crest of the Is usual draped the face (see Flgure 12. (see Flgure To stop larger boulrelnforced concrete les are cast Into ders 10 ft. Thls can be overcome by the larger boulders rock bolts and mesh to plns so that rocks are prevented from the face momentum when they come loose.20 depth of the can be Increased by along the edge rather than from the base of the Where posslble. Al so. and have the bottom open so that rocks do not accumulate In It. On these slopes. Fences Fences can be used to Intercept rocks down slopes angles less than about 40 degrees. However. The bottom of the mesh blanket should rock does not catch In the mesh.

P h o t o g r a p h c o u r t a a y of Railway. Figure 12.12.21 Figure 12.12: Wire mesh on slope to trap falling rock.11: Fence to catch rolling rock.13: Rock slide protection fence . Figure 12.

The cona layer of gravel. Warn Ilghts on fences are often used on I roads where the are Incorporated Into t h e system.12. O v e r h e a d are supported on members levered out from the top of the pole. or relocate the hlghway Into a crete shed over 12. I+ may be posslble off overcome these the locatlon and of the to problems by c o n d l t l o n s . stop highway. The frequency of s shou Id nfal I and dur Ing the spr ng and be Increased after heavy I I loosen rocks on the fal I In climates where frost face. costs these are to be Concrete sheds should be deslgned wlth roof so rocks roll across the shed mlnlmum Impact.22 Warning Fences cost of Is very hlgh and rock falls are warnlng fences can be constructed. Whl constructlon cost of both tunnel measures can be slgnlflcant. due to dlsrupt mlnor rock falls or vandalism. Is to use rock along dangerous have the of and I Ity frequency can be adjusted the demands of and weather condltlons. Rock Sheds and Tunnels In cases where the hazard from rock Is Is hlgh and Is no+ It may be necessary to construct a conhlghway. The fences cons Is+ of a row of poles a+ the toe of the between +hem at a slope of between 1 and 2 ft. and The should have some means of removlng rock wlth crews In the falls and have event of a large fal I. 100 I nu Ing cost of the patrol s and +he requ there Is to flnd personnel who are to work In Isolated hazardous condltlons. fal Is on+o the hlghway. Where of fences are +hat false alarms.14).13). are often where face Is steep and close the rlght-of-way (see Flgure 12. c a n Also In cold and mlnor snow can set w a r n l n g I l g h t s . Another problem Is that rock fa I Is sul? can occur after a car has passed stop I so the obtaln no of the fal Rock Patrols Another can be used where the of I s h i g h . O n s t e e p It to found columns on sound rock In may be case It may be necessary to slnk pl lnstal I or. crete should also be protected If slope Is so steep that rocks can land I be taken In the colon r o o f . Al so. If no adequate foundatlons to construct a walls often be about the portals ered shed. do have the they cannot glve coverage and fal Is can occur between patrol s. These fences contain when broken by a rock fal I. to . Much of the Impact load umns on s de of the shed.

14: Rock sheds and tunnels.23 Rock sheds.12. Photographs courtesy of Canadian National Railway Figure 12. .

control of blastlng The followlng Is a of a to reduce a rock I hazard on a volves blastlng for a damage and rock Slte The and hlghway are located on benches In a 250 ft.15). even a mlnor could cause cars to fal I In slze from less onto the hlghway below. 40 degree slope above a In 3. deep canthe bench for the yon (see Flgure 12.yds. would the thlrd fracture was of the rock on these out of the slope. It may be more relocate the rather than to try and The feaslbl I of I I depend as property ownershlp and al Ignmen?. long and In helght 20 ft. Thls hazard was acute because the track curvature and tralns dld not have Furtherstop In the event of a rock fal I. A slope had also been excavated for the of the hlghway.24 methods that the impact loads of rock Is and recent work on snow avalanches are not well developed. Is from the A hazard to traff Ic had developed due to rock I work be upper slope and It became necessary that some o u t . Ing the the temperatures can drop to and Ice can the area belng a be a problem as low as 6 Inches annually. at the center. can be to avalances uslng the of rock Tunnels are the most method of protectlon from rock Is. of talnlng wal I and a slope that was about ft. and of these fractures llty and the slze of the rock fal Is. In road. The rock falls to as much as 10 cu.16 Illustrates that these fractures occur In three sets were such that they formed roughly sets would form the shaped blocks. more. The cost of and a tunnel may be less than the cost of construct Ing a shed. The rock falls were occurrlng because. It was Intersected by a number of fraclengths of several tens of ture planes f e e t . controlled Flgure 12. at end to about 100 f+. .000 ft. hlgh. It had been necessary to construct about 100 ft. and care to ensure that new locatlon Is on an of STABILIZATION PROJECT that was undertaken It Inand hlghway. although the Intact rock was moderately strong. The length. depend Ing on how much support Is In cases where economlcal to I the on such factors should be taken ground and no+ EXAMPLE OF a large Is occurrlng.12. and were most I to than 1 occur In the spr Ing and fal I dur I ng freeze-thaw cycles when Ice formed In cracks and loosened blocks of rock on the face. The two near of blocks.

15: Cross-section showing railroad. highway and dimensions of ditch excavation. set of fractures Figure 12.16: Unstable wedge formed by intersecting fractures. .25 Original slope ditch slope Figure 12.12.

The I I to form a of would be unstable rock. t h e I n t a c t r o c k I t s e l f w a s sufflclently strong that It dld not usually break up on Impact the track. Relocate the In a behlnd the face. although care should be taken does not over. Thus the 20 ft.12. the of deslgnlng an Thls dlagram shows that are In Flgure are If the slope the dlmenslons of an Is cut as steep as posslble. secure potential The major of this work would be restrlcted to lnterruptlons to both day to . and cause It The between the requlred dlmenslons and the helght and angle of the slope are shown In Thls was used to deslgn a the dlmenslons of vary along the slope as the slope helght Increased from end to 100 ft. Alternative methods The flrst method used to to control the rock Is was Ing and to remove the looses+ to use hand rock from the face. and snow removal In through-cuts tends to be dlfflcult. It wou Id rock bolts sufflclently have been expenslve to long to ensure that they were anchored In sound rock. H o w e v e r . alternatlve was rejected because and It was bel leved that frost act of the rock behlnd the face wou I d soon cause the shotcrete deter Furthermore. the were that the volume of excavated the slope rock would be would have approached 200 ft. at the center. The followlng were consldered: a) Install rock bolts on a regular pattern to relnforce cover the face w Ire mesh and the rock. Th Is wou Id have the advantages of be I ng ab I e to excavate slopes In less weathered rock. as requlred. However. Rock bolts led.26 faces. f r o s t on the to produce I rock fal Is and It was slope that a extenslve and longer term stablllzatlon program. a+ program adopted was to excavate rock at the toe of s I ope that wou d be to catch rock fal Is. and secure other ly loose rocks In place t h e r o c k b o l t s .steepen the slope to ensure that the fal I. was a few hours a rall and design I I be The requlred depth and wldth of a In rock falls depends upon both the and angle of the slope. and to work uously wlth lnterruptlon to However. Of course a steep slope also the volume. and root growth had accelerated Ioosenlng of the blocks. than and was requlred. and app I y shotcrete to reduce the rate at wh I ch the rock was weather Ing.

deep and 23 ft. Ion The two Important of the program had to be by the contractor were as follows: Steep slopes had be cut In moderately weathered the use of very carefully controlrock. wide bench was cut to allow developed along the length of the slope just below the Thls access bench was developed by a face slope at ends of the cut. was then to excavate the benches In 15 ft. holes parallel to the face tank and alr-track drl I Is. The ditch was too narrow at the top of the access. uslng each bench and drl I I lng h o l e s . This to ensure the loads were led just strong enough to break the rock but not damage the rock the face. By the back row of holes 4 ft. In order to thls depth. An advantage of Is a box shaped. Is that It formed a face helps to prevent rock from rol I out of the and the track. hlgh gablon edge of the Thls saved of an ft.12. basket led the gab I on. hour The method adopted by the was as fol lows. wide. a The of the were by offsets from the of the track at 20 ft. It found that the design was to excavate a to a 4 ft. There had to be to both on the hlghway and the Thls requlred the use would not damage the of a blasting method the walls. and 4 ft. o f r e j e c t b a l l a s t . and would also the amount of rock thrown onto the I road and hlghway The so that clean-up would be closure schedule that was drawn up al lowed a f I hour closure on the and a 45 closure In every the hlghway. the blasted rock onto the track. Once the top bench had been developed across the ful I length of the slope.27 and depth were 13 ft. the center. of rock over full 23 ft. an overall slope angle of about 75 degrees was . loose rock. and survey control dur were by from a of survey on the of the From plan and cross-sections were these photographs. The plans for the I gn. T h e g a b l o n I s a l s o f l e x i b l e s o t h a t I t c a n stand Impact from I rock and can be read I repaired If It Is also less expens to construct than a condamaged. depth and along the of the then erect a 3 ft. the had be 7 ft. Intervals along the slope. crete wall. A dozer then pushed Prior to each blast. length of track under blast was protected with about a 4 ft. so a 20 ft. from the toe of the prevlous bench.

o r t o t h e r e t a l n l n g w a l l s o u t s l d e t h e t r a c k . depth was Flgure 12. the vlbratlons was no damage had to be control led to ensure that the structure. The flnal adopted as follows: Productlon Holes hole pattern hole dlameter exploslve hole load x 5 Inches = 9 lb/hole.04 5 Holes on face Wooden spacers 18 Inches long were used between 5 Inch long ploslve to the load evenly In rock. rock boltlng out where natural fractures were or to form unstable blocks. By the Ion was completed these keeplng the Is. Also the blast vlbratlons may have damaged the around the bolts. 0. measurements were detonated per delay. s q u a r e g a b l o n .17 shows the completed slope face to to break. When the was had been completed. and to protect the bolt from The flnal step In the program was to construct a f t . or 14 ft. because use of the for boltlng would have slowed the prowagon gram.5 = 2 3 lb/hole.28 A number of blasts were requlred to determine the optlmum pattern and load requlred to mlnlmlze damage to the rock behlnd the face.000 bolts Ibs. 0. drl I I Ing In progress for the of the Control of blast damage As the approached track level. each row The delay sequence was set up the face so as to mlnlmlze the volume of rock was thrown onto the track. and fully grouted to both lock In the tenslon. has shown that masonry retalnlng walls such as ones a+ slte were to be damaged If the peak The of these does not exceed 4 Inches per second.12. The and bolt was out In a basket suspended from a crane located Thls method was adapted Instead of Installing bolts the from each bench as the proceeded. a number of taken for the blast and these measurements a blast Thls chart recontrol chart was drawn up (see Flgure lates the o f t h e blas to the maxlmum charge welght that can be detonated on a slngle delay.19 shows a photograph of thls gablon and the completed . The row of closely spaced holes along the bench last ln sequence to ensure they had a face was 12. long on the outslde edge of the where a 7 ft. 5 0 0 f t . The bolts used were 1 Inch diameter hollow ft. long. Each was tensloned to 25. detonated per vlbratlons depends upon the maxlmum charge what of could be In order to delay. Damage to structures from blast vlbratlons Is related to the peak of these vlbratlons.

29 L i m i t f o r Rock 6 Figure L i m i t f o r Walls 4 Completed slope with drilling in progress for ditch excavation.12. Figure 12.19: Ditch after construction o f . Distance Figure blast feet Blast damage control chart.

The fee or profit to the contractor was quoted separately in tender and could be adjusted to reflect the difference in the Final and Original Target Estimates. for changes in quantities or work type. but later disagreements arose over the tlon of rock that was to be paid for in the lump sum It is payment.30 Contracts A target type contract was used for this project to give the contractor incentive to control costs. if it were less than the Final Target Estimate then the fee would be increased by percent of the difference. suggested that these two classes of rock be very clearly defined and that records of pre-bid meetings be included in the contract. the following are suggestions on how they might be avoided. and a lump sum price for access construction. Both these percentages were bid items and were 10 percent and 40 percent respectively. the fee was on a sliding scale: if the actual cost of the work was greater than the Final Target Estimate then the fee payable would be reduced by x percent of the difference. estimated and spelled out in the contract so that the contractor can include this item in his bid calculation. The contract should include an to ensure that the contractor does not prolong the job for which he is paid cost plus the minimum fee. T h i s m a t t e r w a s d i s c u s s e d a t t h e p r e . The blds should be analyzed to ensure that the conhis bid and that his tractor is not quoted rates are out-of-pocket costs and do not include profit. This estimate was adjusted upon job completion. Since payments to the contractor were based upon actual costs.b i d s i t e meeting. to become the Final Target Estimate. interrupting the coordinated rai lway-highway closure Production losses due to delays should be schedule. Trains delayed work on 50 percent of the working days. and to provide back-up calculations for the Original Target Estimate. A p e n a l t y c l a u s e f o r o v e r e x c a v a t i o n beyond the design line was also included to encourage the contractor to reduce over-break from blasting and to excavate the minimum amount of rock. while providing f bi I ity in the event of changed quantities or more traffic interruptions than set out in the contract. Each bidder supplied the owner with an Original Target Estimate based upon the design value of rock to be excavated.12. . a) A lunp sum payment was to be made for a I I access construction and rock excavated outside the ditch design I ines. the Several contract problems developed during the course of the project. To provide an incentive. and that which was to be paid at cost. each bidder was requested to supply of rates for and equipment.

In 303. D.R. 299. 654. SHARP. 544. WYLL I under D. Vol. 33-40.. LITTLEJOHN. 1972. ECKERT. control. Rock and Sol I Anchors. Advances 3rd Internatlonal Congress on rock Denver.12. 0. A. 1977. 215-239.. I of rock slopes on the Deutsche Elsenbahntchnlk. slides and englneerlng Publ. 788. J. J.... 283-292. Amsterdam. 2%. of rock G. Trans. Internatlonal Congress of Rock Llsbon. PECKOVER. E. flow through of London and f J.F. and Sons. IX. pp. 80. 1972.A. No. V.C. J. J.. Vol. September a Meeting. F. C. LANG. Book on Transportatlon Board. 12. Inf of water on the of rock masses systems the of slopes.C. Seepage. B. pp. 1958. Ground Rock anchors state of May. Washlngton. Bull. H. No. Vol.L. pp. pp. Germany. K. and landReport 29. Part A. for 297. folded In Northwestern Tasmanla. 18.L. 1st REDLINGER. Eng.C. 294. 300. Rock anchor deslgn.31 Chapter 12 references KLENGEL. H. CEDERGREN. Track and Structures. analysis and Chapter 9. A r t l f l c l a l concept to August 1975.A. the May 1976. 5. SHARP. 292. Control and BAKER. 291. T. Vol. parts). 460 p. 305. Assoc. de cables de rocheaux per ancrage of rock masses by cable anchVol.L. 304. 302. DDDSDN. Sep974. Eng. slope In open I Ity. . D. 324-328. In rock tember P. E. Ph. Q. 1970. for Ing and Metallurgy. 293.C. Inst.E. 2%. Rock slope englneerlng. 5. German State pp.R.O. London. PITEAU. MNCL. 3.. July 1979. E..D. MARSHALL. 2%. TENSIONING INSTITUTE. York.C. D. No. College). Surface In rock. July 1975. pp. pp.

. O. England. GYENGE. September 1979. Evaluation of rock fal I and its control. A. I mechan Introductory SOWERS. VAN RYSWYK R.M. 312.. No.12. 313. 307. 311.F. 314. Inc. 315. and foundation engineering. Personal Personal 310. 241-264. Report SDSM-T-CBS 7902. 10-l 1. 1981. 1963. E .. 3. COYLE. Washington. New York. Vol. pp. G. ... Detroit. August 1979. FUKUOKA. E . Highway Research Board. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. . Record 17. Construction West. Assoc. Geol. W. Underground excavations i n rock. Ottawa Research Report. 1971.F. Artificial support of rock slopes. Shotcrete in hard rock tunnel Iing. M. T u n n e l r e p a i r s . 13-28. SOWERS. IX. RITCHIE.I. MEARS. Mining Research Centre.. A comRIAMAKRISHNAN. ACI 506. R. London.32 306.V. T . AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE. 145 p. Bul I. FOWLER. T . pp. 1966. S. Third edition. Publishing Co. K . Mines Branch. 308. 309. 556 p. COATES.. . L . L. Eng. A. ACI SP-14. V.J. 1972. parative evaluation of f ibre shotcretes. 228. Shotcreting.