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# ASSIGNMENT 1

OPERATING POINT ANALYSIS

ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT SIMULATION

NAME I/C N0.

Soalan 1 Buat kajian literature mengenai beberapa model diod yang digunakan dalam perisian SPICE. Soalan 2 Buat kajian literature mengenai beberapa model transistor bipolar (BJT) yang digunakan dalam perisian SPICE. Sertakan persamaan matematik dan graf yang berkaitan dengan model-model yang diberikan itu Soalan 3 Tuliskan fail input ( tak perlu jalankan simulasi ) bagi litar dalam Rajah 1 bagi menjalankan simulasi titik operasi.

Soalan 4 Tuliskan fail input bagi litar dalam Rajah 2 untuk menjalankan simulasi analisi titik operasi. Sahkan hasil simulasi dengan pengiraan ke atas litar tersebut.

Soalan 5 Tuliskan fail input bagi litar dalam Rajah 3 untuk menjalankan simulasi analisi titik operasi. Sahkan hasil simulasi dengan pengiraan ke atas litar tersebut.

The model statement line begins with “. after [DI4]. Example diode element names include: d1. dtest. Two node numbers specify the connection of the anode and cathode.model” statement. The diode model is based on characterization of individual devices as described in a product data sheet and manufacturing process characteristics not listed. db. The node numbers are followed by a model name.model. The remainder of the model statement is a list of optional diode parameters of the form .1. d101. a “d” indicates a diode is being modeled.0 LITERATURE REVIEW ON SPICE 1. da. respectively. The diode statement begins with a diode element name which must begin with “d” plus optional characters. Next. to other components. d2. Some information has been extracted from a 1N4004 data sheet in Figure below.” followed by the model name matching one or more diode statements.1 Diode Model Diode circuit models The SPICE circuit simulation program provides for modeling diodes in circuit simulations. referring to a subsequent “. Data sheet 1N4004 excerpt.

calculate. None are used in Example below.333 N=2) The easiest approach to take for a SPICE model is the same as for a data sheet: consult the manufacturer's web site. Then. For a list of diode parameters.ParameterName=ParameterValue.model Da1N4004 D (IS=18. not considered here. Example2 has some parameters defined. General form: d[name] [anode] [cathode] [modelname] .) Example: d1 1 2 mod1 . see Table below. A third strategy.8n RS=0 BV=400 IBV=5.model mod1 d Example2: D2 1 2 Da1N4004 . Diode SPICE parameters . . .model ([modelname] d [parmtr1=x] [parmtr2=y] . is to take measurements of an actual device. Table below lists the model parameters for some selected diodes. compare and adjust the SPICE parameters to the measurements. A fallback strategy is to build a SPICE model from those parameters listed on the data sheet.00u CJO=30 M=0.

. sk=schottky Ge=germanium. These defaults model integrated circuit diodes. [smi] SPICE parameters for selected diodes. SPICE vendors. else silicon. the parameters take on the default values listed in Table above and Table below. These are certainly adequate for preliminary work with discrete devices For more critical work. and other sources. use SPICE models supplied by the manufacturer [DIn].If diode parameters are not specified as in “Example” model above.

τD. It will be estimated later. the emission coefficient is usually about 2. Massobrio [PAGM] pp 9. First select a value for spice parameter N between 1 and 2.925 V)/(2)(26 mV) -1) IS = 18.8n and N=2 are entered in last line of Table above for comparison to the manufacturers model for 1N4004. forward current. we see that power rectifiers 1N3891 (12 A).. IS. ID = IS(eVD/nVT -1) VT = 26 mV at 25oC n = 2. germanium. and 10A04 (10 A) both use about 2. and RS. Rashid [MHR] suggests that TT. and N=2 (n in the diode equation). ID) on the graph in Figure above. be approximated from the reverse recovery stored charge QRR. n. the transit time. which is considerably different.8E-9 The numerical values of IS=18. The important DC static parameters are N.Otherwise. IS. recommends ". respectively. It is required for the diode equation (n). derive some of the parameters from the data sheet.925 V at 1 A from graph 1 A = IS(e(0. schottky. a data sheet parameter (not available on our data sheet) and IF. ID = IS(eVD/nVT -1) τD = QRR/IF ." In Table above. The first four in the table are not relevant because they are schottky. RS defaults to 0 for now. The saturation current.0 VD = 0. a value of (VD. is derived from the diode equation. and silicon small signal.

If simulating high speed transient response.11 for silicon diodes and rectifiers. which we use for our 1N4004 model (Da1N4001 in Table above). The default is 0. The power rectifiers in Table above use lower values for M than 0. Though it would be reasonable to take TT for a similar rectifier like the 10A04 at 4. This is not a data sheet item. Figure below shows a circuit to compare the manufacturers model. CJO.32u. lists IR = 5 µA @ VR = 400 V.2 mV steps. Take the default values for VJ and EG. IBV.5.6 than shown in Table above. the zero bias junction capacitance is estimated from the VR vs CJ graph in Figure above. See . the model derived from the datasheet. We opt for M=0. Many more diodes use VJ=0. TT and CJO parameters must be provided. Figure above. but may be entered if provided with BV.DC statement in the netlist in Table below. reverse breakdown current. as in switching regulator power supplies. See Table above for XTI for schottky diodes. is frequently omitted. Da1N4004 is our derived diode model. The 1n4004 SPICE parameters derived from the data sheet are listed in the last line of Table above for comparison to the manufacturer's model listed above it. The capacitance at the nearest to zero voltage on the graph is 30 pF at 1 V. BV is only necessary if the simulation exceeds the reverse breakdown voltage of the diode. The abbreviated data sheet. The junction grading coefficient M is related to the doping profile of the junction.4 V in 0. The 1N3891 TT is not a valid choice because it is a fast recovery rectifier. .333 corresponding to a linearly graded junction.5 for an abrupt junction.Take the TT=0 default for lack of QRR. DI1N4004 is the manufacturer's diode model. Use the default EG=1. the default IS temperature coefficient for silicon devices. However the 10A04 rectifier uses the default. and the default model using default parameters. corresponding to IBV=5u and BV=400 respectively. Take the XTI=3. Table above lists values for schottky and germanium diodes. The three dummy 0 V sources are necessary for diode current measurement. The 1 V source is swept from 0 to 1. as is the case for zener diodes.

*SPICE circuit <03468.0m BV=400 IBV=5.SPICE circuit for comparison of manufacturer model (D1).45 TT=4.eps> from XCircuit v3. SPICE netlist parameters: (D1) DI1N4004 manufacturer's model.9n RS=42.2m .20 D1 1 5 DI1N4004 V1 5 0 0 D2 1 3 Da1N4004 V2 3 0 0 D3 1 4 Default V3 4 0 0 V4 1 0 1 .00u CJO=39. and default model (D3).DC V4 0 1400mV 0.MODEL Default D .8p +M=0.MODEL DI1N4004 D (IS=76.32u) .333 N=2.8n RS=0 +M=0. calculated datasheet model (D2).00u CJO=30 .333 N=1. (D2) Da1N40004 datasheet derived. (D3) default diode model.model Da1N4004 D (IS=18.end BV=400 IBV=5.0 TT=0) .

First trial of manufacturer model.346832e+00 5. calculated datasheet model. The last column “1N4004 graph” is from the datasheet voltage versus current curve in Figure above which we attempt to match.002000e-01 9.612924e+00 3.731709e-01 0. the manufacturer's model is good at high currents.294824e+01 0.01 2.13 1.416211e-02 9.825960e-02 6. The model grossly over states current above 1 A. calculated datasheet model and the default diode model.Compare the three models in Figure below.7 manufacturer 3500 7. VD is the diode voltage versus the diode currents for the manufacturer's model. Comparison of the currents for the three model to the last column shows that the default model is good at low currents. and default model to 1N4004 datasheet graph of V vs I. and to the datasheet graph data in Table below. Comparison of manufacturer model. calculated datasheet model. and default model.764928e-01 .000000e-01 4001 4500 8.674683e-03 0. model index VD model model datasheet 1N4004 default graph 5. and our calculated datasheet model is best of all up to 1 A.000000e-01 1.310740e+00 1. Agreement is almost perfect at 1 A because the IS calculation is based on diode voltage at 1 A.

0 6.4 V matches the graph at 12 A. This has the effect of more closely matching our datasheet model to the datasheet graph (Figure above).548779e+00 1.823654e+00 7.096870e+00 4.395953e+00 9. Increasing RS to 28.6m shifts the curve further to the right as shown in Figure below.231452e+01 2.220203e+09 12.4625 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 9.0 2.3 6. .233392e+02 1.224470e+01 A at 1.543591e+03 1.200000e+00 1. However.185078e+02 2.174489e+01 1.741379e+07 8.318536e-01.954471e+04 3. Changing RS from 0 to 8m in the datasheet model causes the curve to intersect 10 A (not shown) at the same voltage as the manufacturer's model.925 V has degraded from 1.250000e-01 1.100000e+00 1. Table below shows that the current 1.397087e+01 1.621861e+01 1.096870e+00 above to 7.411283e+06 5.300000e+00 1.400000e+00 5.000000e-00 1.066840e+04 3. the current at 0.3 1.404037e+01 1. The solution is to increase RS from the default RS=0.0 3.675526e+00 3.

2 A) at VD=1.Second trial to improve calculated datasheet model compared with manufacturer model and default model.6m decreases the current at VD=1.model Da1N4004 D (IS=18.254581e+00 1.763520e+00 3.3 8. or model the zener with a subcircuit containing a diode clamper set to the zener voltage.010000e-01 8.621861e+01 1.3 5. This may increase the current (12.174489e+01 1.318536e-01 1.6m BV=400 IBV=5.297594e-02 5.7 1.4 V to 12. manufacturer 7.0 3.395953e+00 9.333 N=2.0 2.100000e+00 1.400000e+00 1. .628276e+00 3.432463e-02 9.000000e-01 9.000000e-01 9. Changing Da1N4004 model statement RS=0 to RS=28.823654e+00 7.102139e-01 7.0 12.848553e+00 6. An example of the first approach sets the breakdown voltage BV to 15 for the 1n4469 15 V zener diode model (IBV optional): .000000e-00 1.310740e+00 5.343072e+00 5.0 TT=0) model index 3505 4000 4500 4625 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 VD model 1N4001 datasheet graph 0.200000e+00 1.01 0.8n RS=28. Zener diode: There are two approaches to modeling a zener diode: set the BV parameter to the zener voltage in the model statement.4 V requiring an increase of RS to decrease current to 12 A.397087e+01 1.2 A.00u CJO=30 +M=0.250000e-01 1.925 V is restored to 1 A.300000e+00 1.419621e+00 9.224470e+01 Suggested reader exercise: decrease N so that the current at VD=0.548779e+00 1.13 0.

. the model takes on default values. and RS. <="" a=""> Zener diode subcircuit uses clamper (D1 and VZ) to model zener.model statement contains parameters describing the diode.model D1N4469 D ( BV=15 IBV=17m ) The second approach models the zener with a subcircuit. IS. • • Accurate dynamic timing requires TT and CJO parameters Models provided by the manufacturer are highly recommended. Static DC parameters include N. • IBV. Clamper D1 and VZ in Figure below models the 15 V reverse breakdown voltage of a 1N4477A zener diode.model statement. If parameters are not provided. [ISG] This reference shows a microwave relaxation oscillator. Reverse breakdown parameters: BV. Diode DR accounts for the forward conduction of the zener in the subcircuit. <="" a=""> Tunnel diode: A tunnel diode may be modeled by a pair of field effect transistors (JFET) in a SPICE subcircuit. Gunn diode: A Gunn diode may also be modeled by a pair of JFET's. • • REVIEW: Diodes are described in SPICE by a diode component statement referring to . [KHM] An oscillator circuit is also shown in this reference. The ..

gm. 1.2 Bipolar Junction Transistors BJT circuit models A large variety of bipolar junction transistor models have been developed.1. an output impedance r0. also referred to as the Miller capacitance. and the diffusion capacitance. Cj. Figure 1. and a voltage controlled current source described by the transconductance. gm.1. Cj. of a bipolar transistor is defined as the change in the collector current divided by the change of the base-emitter voltage. Small signal model (hybrid pi model) -like equivalent circuit for a bipolar junction transistor.1 :Small signal model (hybrid pi model) of a bipolar junction transistor. a small signal model. And we conclude with the derivation of the SPICE model parameters.2. which lends itself well to small signal design and analysis. The model is shown in Figure 1. which is particularly well suited to analyze the large-signal transient behavior of a bipolar transistor.1. One distinguishes between small signal and large signal models. It consists of an input impedance. The transconductance. The next model is the charge control model. r . In addition it contains the base-emitter capacitances.BC. We will discuss here first the hybrid pi model.BE.BE. and the base-collector junction capacitance. the junction capacitance. Cd. .

equals to one.6) Based on the small signal model shown in Figure 1. resulting in: (1.1. r . (1. one has to also include the diffusion capacitance of the base: (1. ro.4) (1. is defined as: (1. Since the baseemitter is strongly forward biased in the forward active mode of operation. The maximum current gain is calculated while shorting the output.(1.5) for the case where the base-emitter and base-collector junctions are abrupt. is defined as the change of the emitter-base voltage divided by the change of the base current. fT. hfe.2) The output resistance. also called the transit frequency is obtained by setting the small signal current gain. of a BJT biased in the forward active mode and connected in a common emitter configuration. we can now calculate the small signal current gain versus frequency.7) The unity gain frequency.3) The base-emitter and base-collector junction capacitances are given by: (1.1) The base input resistance. resulting in: . hfe.

the resistance between the base contact metal and the emitter and the intrinsic base resistance. fT. E.(1. This figure of merit predicts the unity power gain frequency and as a result indicates the maximum frequency at which useful power gain can be expected from a device. While the unity gain frequency.6. fT.8) (1. Assuming a base contact.9) equals: (1. as well as the base transit time.12) Where RB is the total base resistance and Cj. is linked to the transit frequency. but not the transit time of the carriers through the base- collector depletion region.BC is the base-collector capacitance. can still be calculated using (5. is an important figure of merit of a bipolar transistor. The total base resistance consists of the series connection of metal-semiconductor contact resistance. The collector transit time: (1.10a) The total transit time then becomes: (1. B. which is longer than the penetration depth this base resistance equals .9). C. fMAX.11) The corresponding transit frequency. The maximum oscillation frequency. and is obtained from: (1. fT.10) The circuit model therefore includes the charging time of the base-emitter capacitance. another even more important figure of merit is the maximum oscillation frequency. fMAX.

17) (1. where Rs. Rs. the total base resistance equals (1.E is the emitter stripe length of the emitter.E is the alignment distance between the base contact and emitter.13) for a one-sided base contact.16) (1. Large signal model (Charge control model) The charge control model of a bipolar transistor is an extension of the charge control model of a p-n diode. one can express the device currents as a function of the charges in each region. This results in: (1.15) Where AC is the base-collector area.2.BE and Rs are the sheet resistances under the base contact.c.6. between the base contact and the emitter and underneath the emitter respectively.18) .(1.14) L The base-collector capacitance equals: (1. Ws. Assuming the “short” diode model to be valid. 5. In the general case one considers the forward bias charges as well as the reverse bias charges. For a double-sided base contact. Ls. divided by the corresponding transit or lifetime.

19) (1. Such approach requires numeric simulation tools. The input is then connected to a negative supply voltage. Consider the circuit as one applies a positive voltage to the base. quantified by the rise time. This results in the following equations: (1. td. in the emitter. the transistor is eventually turned off and the collector current reduces back to zero. This approximation is very good under forward bias since the base-emitter voltage is almost constant. trise. This delay is followed by the increase of the collector current. we now assume that the base current is constant before and after switching.6. A transient model can be obtained by adding the rate of change of the charges over time.Under forward active mode of operation. The turn-on of the BJT consists of an initial delay time. To simplify this analysis and provide insight. while applying a base current IBB with the voltage source VBB: . the base-emitter junction will become forward biased so that the collector current will start to rise. A full analysis would require solving the charge control model equations simultaneously. during which the base-emitter junction capacitance is charged. This reverses the base current and the baseemitter junction capacitance is discharged. we also ignore the minority Qp. this model can be simplified since the reverse mode components can be ignored.20) (5. but conceivably one could design a circuit that does provide a constant reverse current.1. the base current will vary as the base-emitter voltage varies. After this transient.21) As an example we now apply this charge control model to the abrupt switching of a bipolar transistor. This rise time is obtained by applying the charge control equation for the base current. VR. Under reverse bias.E. To further simplify the model. while adding the external circuit equations.

25) A larger base voltage.2. The corresponding collector current will be proportional to the excess minority carrier charge until the device reaches saturation or: (1. Again we can calculate the time evolution of the excess charge and calculate the collector current from it. which equals the base transit time of the BJT. VR. The removal of the excess charge can take a significant delay time labeled as td. which in turn decreases the rise time and causes the BJT to saturate more quickly.2 on the figure. will therefore result in a larger charging current. Only after this excess charge is removed. trise.26) While switching back to the negative power supply. To first order the delay time. is then obtained by finding the time when the saturation current is reached or: (1.22) where: (1. will the base-emitter junction capacitor be discharged and the BJT be turned off. VBB.24) If the device does not reach saturation.23) This differential equation can be solved resulting in: (1. As long as significant charge is still stored in the base region. the collector current will continue to exist.(1.B. There also will be more excess minority carrier charge stored in the base region after the BJT is turned on. td. the charge reaches its steady state value with a time constant tr. IBB. equals: . the base current is reversed. The rise time.

The actual fall time. tf. :Switching behavior of a BJT: a) bias circuit used to explain the switching behavior. Figure 1.27) This delay time can be significantly larger than the rise time trise. b) Applied voltage and resulting collector current. .2.(1. depends on the remaining storage charge at the onset of saturation as well as the charge stored by the base-emitter junction capacitance. Also note that a higher base turn-on current IBB results in a larger turn-off delay as more minority carrier charge is stored in the base.

The SPICE model of a bipolar transistor includes a variety of parasitic circuit elements and some process related parameters in addition to the elements previously discussed in this chapter.MODEL NPN(BF= BR= IS= CJE= + CJC= VJE= VJC= VAF= VAR= + NF= NR=) BJT Parameters BF Forward active current gain BR Reverse active current gain IS Transport saturation current CJE Base-emitter zero-bias junction capacitance CJC Base-collector zero-bias Junction capacitance VJE Base-emitter built-in potential VJC Base-collector built-in potential VAF Forward mode Early voltage VAR Reverse mode Early voltage NF Forward mode ideality factor NR Reverse mode ideality factor Example: Q1 3 2 1 BJTNAME . The syntax of a bipolar transistor incorporates the parameters a circuit designer can change as shown below: BJT syntax Q [] + [] .

while the transistor model "BJTNAME" uses the built-in model NPN to specify the process and technology related parameters of the BJT. which can be specified to further enhance the . In addition. Table 1. A list of SPICE parameters and their relation to the parameters discussed in this text is provided in the table below.1 : Selected SPICE parameters of a BJT.. The built-in model PNP is used for p-n-p bipolar transistors. there are several parameters.MODEL BJTNAME NPN(BF=100 CJC=20pf CJE=20pf IS=1E-16) where Q1 is one specific transistor in the circuit.

3. which results in: (1. The temperature dependence of the transport saturation current is calculated from the energy bandgap. was added to represent the Early effect.28) (1. .29) This exponent allows the choice between a uniformly doped junction (m = ½). ro. which is included in the BJT model by specifying VAF and VAR.accuracy of the model. The output resistance.6. a linearly graded junction (m = 1/3) or an arbitrarily graded junction for which the exponent must be independently determined.30) The corresponding equivalent circuit is provided in Figure 5. since the primary temperature dependence is due to the temperature dependence of the intrinsic carrier density. such as: RB base resistance RE emitter resistance RC collector resistance MJE base-emitter capacitance exponent MJC base-collector capacitance exponent EG energy gap for temperature effect on IS The exponents NJE and MJC are used to calculate the voltage dependence of the base-emitter and base-collector junction capacitances using: (1.

6. Reference of : Boulder. : Large signal model of a BJT including the junction capacitances.3.Figure 5. December 2004 .

2K 680 120 91 820 120 68 390 220 .OP .2.END 1 2 3 4 4 5 9 7 6 7 9 9 8 10 10 0 1 1 3 2 4 2 4 5 6 0 7 7 8 0 80V 470 390 560 220 180 1.0 NESTLIST FILE Question 3 SOALAN 3 V1 R14 R12 R23 R45 R56 R49 R58 R67 R78 R910 R89 R811 R110 R100 .

OP .1K 4.7K 24 15 .END 1 3 1 2 2 0 0 2 0 3 DC DC 4K 8K 2K 10V -10V 1 3 1 2 2 0 0 2 3 0 DC DC 10K 8.END Question 5 SOALAN 5 V1 V2 R1 R2 R3 .OP .Question 4 SOALAN 4 V1 V2 R1 R2 R3 .

END 2 3 4 4 5 9 7 6 7 9 9 8 10 10 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 1 1 1 3 2 4 2 4 5 6 0 7 7 8 0 0 470 390 560 220 180 1.3.0 OUTPUT FILE Question 3 **** 10/16/11 22:55:20 *********** Evaluation PSpice (Nov 1999) ************** SOALAN 3 **** V1 R14 R12 R23 R45 R56 R49 R58 R67 R78 R910 R89 R811 R110 R100 .OP .2K 680 120 91 820 120 68 390 220 80V .

0940 ( 5) 41.1880 ( 6) 36.82E+00 WATTS**** 10/16/11 22:55:20 *********** Evaluation PSpice (Nov 1999) ************** SOALAN 3 **** OPERATING POINT INFORMATION TEMPERATURE = 27.2730 ( 7) 32.**** 10/16/11 22:55:20 *********** Evaluation PSpice (Nov 1999) ************** SOALAN 3 **** SMALL SIGNAL BIAS SOLUTION TEMPERATURE = 27.5620 8) 29.0000 ( 2) 55.2810 NODE VOLTAGE 1) 80.4750 ( 3) 67.000 DEG C *************************************************************************** ** JOB CONCLUDED TOTAL JOB TIME .02 .5640 ( 10) 10.527E-02 TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION 6.000 DEG C *************************************************************************** *** NODE VOLTAGE ( ( ( NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE 4) 48.5450 ( 9) 30.5600 VOLTAGE SOURCE CURRENTS NAME V1 CURRENT -8.

OP .1K 4.0000 VOLTAGE SOURCE CURRENTS NAME CURRENT V1 V2 -1.7K 24 15 *************************************************************************** *** NODE VOLTAGE ( 1) 24.7470 ( 3) 15.END **** 10/16/11 23:10:23 *********** Evaluation PSpice (Nov 1999) ************** SOALAN 4 **** SMALL SIGNAL BIAS SOLUTION TEMPERATURE = 27.39E-02 WATTS **** 10/16/11 23:10:23 *********** Evaluation PSpice (Nov 1999) ************** .000 DEG C 1 3 1 2 2 0 0 2 3 0 DC DC 10K 8.0000 ( 2) NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE 9.425E-03 -6.485E-04 TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION 4.Question 4 SOALAN 4 -TITLE **** CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION *************************************************************************** *** V1 V2 R1 R2 R3 .

END **** 10/21/11 10:05:53 *********** Evaluation PSpice (Nov 1999) ************** SOALAN 5 **** SMALL SIGNAL BIAS SOLUTION TEMPERATURE = 27.8571 ( 3) -10.00 Question 5 ** 10/21/11 10:05:53 *********** Evaluation PSpice (Nov 1999) ************** SOALAN 5 **** CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION *************************************************************************** *** V1 V2 R1 R2 R3 .0000 ( 2) -2.OP .SOALAN 4 **** OPERATING POINT INFORMATION TEMPERATURE = 27.000 DEG C *************************************************************************** ** JOB CONCLUDED TOTAL JOB TIME 0.000 DEG C 1 3 1 2 2 0 0 2 0 3 DC DC 4K 8K 2K 10V -10V *************************************************************************** *** NODE VOLTAGE ( NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE 1) 10.0000 VOLTAGE SOURCE CURRENTS NAME CURRENT .

05 .000 DEG *************************************************************************** *** JOB CONCLUDED TOTAL JOB TIME .79E-02 WATTS **** 10/21/11 10:05:53 *********** Evaluation PSpice (Nov 1999) ************** SOALAN 5 **** OPERATING POINT INFORMATION TEMPERATURE = 27.214E-03 3.571E-03 TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION 6.V1 V2 -3.

END is the end statement.4. Then the second and third line refer to the DC voltage source which regarding to its arrangement in between the node 1 “ 1 0 ” and ground of the circuit. “. .0000” it is describing about voltage at node 1 respect to the ground at the node 0.OP” command is refer to operating point analysis. The words “SOALAN 3” in the first line is the title of the simulation analysis. At the line 3 until R100 . this command describe about the resistor place between each state node “R14 2 1” means the resistor between those 2 node and 10 k is its value. . At words “( 1) 80.0 DESCRIPTION Question 3 This circuit consist of 10 node respect to the ground „0‟. The current of V1 is state at the lower part of the file.

The current of V1 and V2 is state at the lower part of the file. Output File At words “( 1) 24.0000” it is describing about voltage at node 1 respect to the ground at the node 0. Then the second and third line refer to the DC voltage source which regarding to its arrangement in the node 1 “ 1 0 ”and node 3 “ 3 0 ” of the circuit.Question 4 This circuit consist of 3 node respect to the ground „0‟. The words “SOALAN 4” in the first line is the title of the simulation analysis. “.OP” command is refer to operating point analysis. At the line 3 until 6 . this command describe about the resistor place between each state node “R1 1 2” means the resistor between those 2 node and 10 k is its value. .

At the line 2 until line 5 . “. this command describe about the resistor place between each state node “R 1 2” means the resistor between those 2 node and 4 k is its value.END is the end statement.OP” command is refer to operating point analysis.0000” it is describing about voltage at node 1 respect to the ground at the node 0. The words “SOALAN 5” in the first line is the title of the simulation analysis.Question 5 This circuit consist of 10 node respect to the ground „0‟. At words “( 1) 10. The current of V1 and V2 is state at the lower part of the file. . . Then the second and third line refer to the DC voltage source which regarding to its arrangement in between the node 1 “ V1 1 0 ” and ground of the circuit.

2K)/(3.7K)+10K) =24(2.97K)/(2.1K//4.97K+10K) =5.2K+8.7K)/ ((8.5V Short V1 V20‟‟ at node 2 to 0 =V1(R1//R3) / ((R1//R3)+R2) =15 (4.1K) =4.1K) =15(3.5.7K//10K)+8.747V .7K//10K)/ ((4.25V V20 = V20’+ V20’’ = 5.7470 V USING SUPERPSITION METHOD : V1 = 24V Short V2 V20‟ at node 2 to 0 V2 = 15V =V1(R2//R3) / ((R2//R3)+R1) =24 (8.745V ~ 9.5 + 4.0 ANALYSIS Question 4 Value from the simulation SPICE: V at node 2 to node 0 V = 9.1K//4.25 = 9 .

10V ---------- 4K = 20 .6K --------.8571V CALCULATION ON CIRCUIT USING KIRCHOFF‟S LAW: V= IR Loop 1 10V = Loop 2 10V = = 10V + 10V = ( + ( 4K 4K + ) + 4K + 6K + ) = 20 + 2K = 20 = 20 + + ---------- + .Question 5 Value from the simulation SPICE: V at node 2 to node 0 V = -2.571 X A + +2 . = 10V = + ---------- Insert  into  10V = -( 10V = -40 + 12 10V = -40 + 14K = = 3.

Insert into equation 1 10V = I1 (4K) + (3.142 V – 10V = -2.571 X 10-3)(2K) I1 = 7.857 X 10-3 A Voltage node between 0 and 2 V = I3R3 .571 X 10-3) = .8571V .10V = (3.858 V ~ -2.571 X 10-3) ( 2K) – 10V = 7.2.145 X 10-4) – ( 3.145 X 10-4 A = I2 = I1 – I3 = ( 7.

In order to prove the simulation is correctly simulate the circuit I used the KIRCHOFF‟S LAW method to solve the value manually and -2. power and temperature.6. By using spice its easily to determine the value of the parameters in electric signal such as voltage. SPICE is a program which can simulate circuit with texting a several command to its program. At this stage. . As the analysis in question 4 we determine the value of the voltage in node 2 and node 0. in order to prove it we used manual calculation of electronic concept which is superposition method. no stimulus is applied to the input. 9. current. In the calculation we compute the value of V20‟‟ and V20‟ of each short DC voltage source value respectively.7470V is the value of the voltage that we obtained.0 DISCUSSION This simulation mainly focuses on DC circuit. the tabulated result from the simulation is -2.8571V which is the value between node 2 to node 0. Those of result shows the simulation is working properly. The operating point analysis provides voltage information on every node of the circuit with respect to ground.858V is the result. By the calculation the value that I get is 9. In this report. a power supply is connected to the circuit to be analyzed. In question 5. there are 3 circuits that we need to simulate and confirming the simulation with manual calculate. By simulate. In an operating point analysis. One of the methods in using SPICE is operating point analysis which had been used in this simulation.745 which is only slightly difference from the simulation. with nodes and ground.

.

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":08943 \$  %%   '  ' #  #  # !   .

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943!\$5.   \$      & % % %    !#%! % #% %!#%&#  ..   .:.0 4.

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:017429082:.934/094  ' #.943\$!'.934/09434/0  '  ' &\$\$&!#!\$% %  '' \$479'  '' ' . \$\$ ":08943 '.

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