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Chapter I Introduction and Background of the Study

Introduction

The existence of parasitism has brought about tremendous dilemma in human lives. The occurrence of it has widened dramatically. On global basis, parasitic infections affect approximately 50 million persons each year resulting in nearly 40-100 thousand deaths (Dhawan, Vinod, K.M.D). That’s why this is one of the major problems in developing countries where there is a deprived condition characterized by lack of clean water, clean food and sanitized environment.

Parasitism is referred to as the presence of organisms that take place up their abode temporarily or permanently on or within other organisms for the purpose of procuring food and shelter. It is caused by various parasites that are very injurious to humans. These parasites inhabit the human body either externally such as on the skin or internally such as the intestines, muscles, blood and the like. Moreover, the distribution of parasites depends on the presence of suitable host , the more susceptible host coming in contact with the parasites the more disseminated the parasites will be.

Actually, environmental condition and sanitation greatly affect intestinal parasitism which is caused by the invasion of soil – transmitted intestinal parasites taking

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up their abode in the human intestine. Specifically, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hookworms are the one involved in intestinal parasitism or helminthiasis.

According to World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, which covers East Asia and the Pacific, intestinal parasitism remains as a leading public health problem, affecting millions of children. In poor countries and communities, with inadequate sanitation and hygiene, it is common to find 90% of children infected with at least one parasite such as hookworm or roundworm. In addition, scavengers, garbage collectors and garbage truck drivers are also some group of individuals that are vulnerable in acquiring parasites because of the nature of their work. Several effects could be observed to them such as poor mental ability especially in children, poor health status and certain disease, intestinal parasitism specifically.

Consequently, intestinal parasitism is a worst disease since it is one of the neglected diseases. It is considered as a disease of poverty. They represent the most common diseases among 2.7 billion people including 610 million people living in Asia Pacific Region. They can basically be treated by means of cost-effective, safe interventions, yet most have been largely invisible to the public health community. Thus, policies to control and prevent these diseases are not in place in many countries. Furthermore, intestinal parasitism is not subjected to compulsory reporting resulting in insufficient data. It actually ranked higher than malaria and tuberculosis (disabilityadjusted life years-DALY’s). In conjunction, since poverty affects it greatly, more and more individuals are parasitized. It is because millions of people are still stuck in poverty

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and poor health with no sign of being able to breach the barrier to better medical care. For example, how can be cased of intestinal parasitism be lessen in areas where poor environmental sanitation is existing due to poverty and lack of education of course. Take for instance those who are living in and settling near dumpsites. With the fact that dumpsite is a dirty area, mere exposure to the soil is already a predisposing condition towards the acquisition of intestinal parasitism. Thus they really and hardly needed to be recognized and be declared under intestinal parasitism danger zone. They should be known to be vulnerable group from intestinal parasitism.

Thus, this way they can be given attention by the government and the public health community and be given some sorts of help. Health Education dissemination per se, then to be followed with interventions needed, the possible treatments, controls and preventions primarily.

They could be given the control measures and be extended with remedies from the government programs via the Department of Health. Like for example “Garantisadong Pambata Programs” being conducted twice a year nationwide. In conjunction, with the said program pursuing the advocacy, proper hand washing, and proper food preparation, proper footwear practices and human waste disposal could be shared too to them in the form of seminars or information education campaign. That way, they would become aware that living near dumpsite is simply putting their health at risk.

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intestinal parasitism could be possibly reduced or even eradicated. Determine if there is association on the parasites isolated and the degree of parasitism when grouped according to: a. Statement of the Objectives Generally. 4.) Livelihood 3. Identify intestinal parasites present in soil samples taken at Tuguegarao City dumpsite and from the vicinity of the residents. Asses if the intestinal parasites harbored by the respondents are the same with those isolated from the soil samples. this study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitism at Tuguegarao City dumpsite. 2. 4 . Determine the intestinal parasites harbored by the residents of Tuguegarao City dumpsite as well as those garbage collectors and garbage truck drivers working in the dumpsite. Specifically.) Educational Attainment c. it aimed to: 1.) Sex b.) Marital Status d.Given with such kind of focus.

2) There is no association in the intestinal parasite isolated from the respondents when they are grouped according to: a. Gender b. Educational Attainment c. Information education campaign (IEC) was conducted by the researchers on July 5. The parasites of concerned were Ascaris lumbricoides. garbage truck drivers and the entire resident’s settling near the dumpsite located at Carig Norte. Marital Status d. Livelihood Scope and Delimitation This study restricted itself on the determination of the prevalence of intestinal parasitism among garbage collector’s. 2010 simultaneously with the orientation (on how to properly collect stool samples and when to collect them). 5 . Tuguegarao City. An interview to the respondents was also conducted in coordination with the dumpsite personnel. Trichuris trichura and hookworm either in their ova or larvae forms.Hypotheses Ho: 1) There is no association in the intestinal parasites harbored by the respondents with the species identified from the soil sample taken from the dumpsite and from the vicinity of the residents.

All the laboratory testing was conducted at Cagayan State University. It was accomplished in several consecutive dates because of the difficulty in collecting the stool specimens due to the poor compliance of the respondents. Clinical laboratory. Andrews Campus. The collection of stool specimens was done once in every respondent and there was no replication or another trial conducted. Stool cups were used as containers for the specimens. 6 . 2010 respectively. After which. the collection of stool specimen was conducted on July 11. Furthermore. 2010 to July 27. microscopic examination was performed in the identification of intestinal parasites present in the specimen with the help of an expert Parasitologist.The study analyzed stool specimen coming from the 47 respondents (20 from the residents and 27 from the garbage truck drivers and garbage collectors) and 30 soil samples (15 samples were taken at the dumpsite area and 15 samples were taken at the vicinity of the residents beside the dumpsite). Moreover. The soil samples were not preserved since it was not necessary. College of Allied Health Sciences. Formalin Ether Concentration Technique (FECT) was the laboratory procedure utilized in both the stool specimens and soil samples. After the collection of stool specimen the stool specimens were preserved using 10% formalin and immediately transported in the laboratory together with the soil sample.

control and treatment of intestinal parasitism invasion. They were also had a free fecalysis and being educated on the prevention. such as providing protective suits and materials to the people at the dumpsite. On the other hand. 7 . the respondents of this study were mainly benefited since they were informed and already aware on their health status specifically the presence or absence of intestinal parasites within them.Significance of the Study The result of the study was useful and beneficial to the following individuals and agencies: The study was deemed beneficial to the Department of Health (DOH) specifically the DOH region 02 for they could use this study to strengthen their ongoing projects regarding parasitism such as the “Garantisadong Pambata Program” and any other projects related for that matter. Furthermore. this could be a driving force for the government officials to give more priority and exert more effort to combat the problem regarding parasitism. this served as an eye opener for the real situation of the people who are in contact to the dumpsite. The study was also a great help on the City Council of Tuguegarao and other Local Government Units for. for the upliftment of the health status of the people concerned.

garbage collecting or garbage truck driving. Educational Attainment – highest degree in education the respondents attained. in a way.This study. was a good source of help to the future researchers. hookworm and Trichuris that mainly resides in the intestine. Definition of Terms Dumpsites – isolated area where garbage coming from the people of Tuguegarao City including the municipality of Iguig is being disposed. this research study was the researcher’s help and a valuable contribution in eradicating the problem on intestinal parasitism primarily at Tuguegarao City dumpsite. This served as a useful material for reference purposes where insights collaborate and ideas take place for a much better research. Livelihood – source of living of the respondent either scavenging. Gender – either the respondent is a boy or a girl. single or widow. 8 . Formalin Ether Concentration Technique (FECT) – laboratory technique used in the determination of the prevalence of intestinal parasitism at Tuguegarao City dumpsite employed via fecalysis and soil analysis. Moreover. Marital Status – status of the respondents whether they are married. Fecalysis – stool processing used in the analysis of the stool from the respondents. Parasites – intestinal parasites like Ascaris.

intestinal parasitism.1 The paradigm showing the relationship between the input and output. 9 . poor health status and certain disease which is intestinal parasitism like ascariasis and trichuriasis. These parasites are commonly called the “unholy three” because of the bad effects on their host and with the assumed possibility that having even just one of the three species may mean also a tendency of harboring one of the other two or the other two per se . It is a widespread problem affecting many people in areas with poor environmental sanitation wherein people are not educated on its effects. They abode into the intestine which can cause poor mental ability especially in children. Intestinal parasitism is commonly caused by three main species of soil transmitted intestinal parasites which include Ascaris lumbricoides.THE PARADIGM Input Process Formalin Ether Concentration Stool specimen And Soil sample Technique Microscopic identification of parasites Output Figure 1. Conceptual Framework Parasitism is one of the basic problems in third world countries like Philippines specifically. Trichuris trichura and hookworm.

Here in Tuguegerao City. In order to know if they have acquired such parasites. Formalin-Ether Concentration Technique was used as a laboratory technique because it is excellent for concentrating both cyst and ova and possesses the added advantage that may apply to formalin-preserved specimens (Markell et al. the residents near the dumpsite who are scavenging including the garbage collectors and garbage truck drivers are the ones usually prone to have intestinal parasite that’s why they are considered to be the vulnerable group. microscopic examination was then conducted. this is so to determine the presence of parasite with the help of an expert Parasitologist. 10 . studying their stool and soil from the dumpsite is very essential to determine the specific parasites present. Moreover. It is hard to avoid the direct contact of these people with the garbage and the soil in the dumpsite because of the nature of their work. Furthermore. 10% Formalin-Saline was used as a preservative for the stool specimens in order to prevent rapid decomposition.).

in order prevent such parasitic infection. trichuriasis or whipworm infection. sanitary hygiene is something that is promoting health by avoiding human contact with the hazards of waste.Chapter II Review of Related Literature and Studies Soil-transmitted infections persist in areas where personal hygiene and environmental sanitation practices are poorly carried out and where cases remain untreated and become continuing sources of infections. and hookworm infection. Hygiene correlates with personal and professional care practices followed at every aspects of healthy living. Thus. The term “Hygiene” suggests set of practices associated with preservation of health and living a healthy life. Hygiene could be of many types such as medical hygiene. domestic hygiene at every level is necessary for healthy living. Factors Affecting Intestinal Parasitism Sanitation Sanitary habits such as hand washing. toilet flushing and use of human manure. The three major causes of intestinal parasitism in the Philippines are ascariasis or roundworm infection. cleanness of drinking water and also the educational level of the parents are some factors affecting intestinal parasitism. 11 . A high prevalence of intestinal parasitism is also generally associated with areas that are basically agricultural and low in the economic and human development scale. proper sanitary practices must be strictly followed. body hygiene. dental hygiene. The term “sanitary” is derived from the word “sanitation”.

Everybody part demands attention at regular intervals. Sometimes we complain about conditions that disturb our daily regimen appearing as a threat to personal hygiene. strategy or location for basic sanitation. on site sanitation. as far as cleansing them is concerned. Poor sanitary habits can create health problems and the spread of diseases. There are sanitary supplies readily available in market that can well be used for both in crisis situations and also in daily hygiene. environmental sanitation and ecological sanitation. washing hair. A good hygiene is the only method of preventing infections. aspect. A good sanitary habit can only be followed if the individual is supplied with proper sanitary supplies. A good sanitary habit includes following hygienic practices. food sanitation. Neglect of hygiene and sanitary issues resulted into problems and diseases of which we sometimes were not even aware of. Some health conditions that can be controlled by improving personal hygiene include intestinal parasites like roundworms. brushing teeth and cleaning clothes. 12 .The term sanitation is applied to a particular concept. One most effective method of preventing ourselves from illness is practicing good personal hygiene. Sanitary and hygiene is a wide concept which includes practices such as bathing. There are hygiene supplies available in market that supports you even when you are without water as a cleansing source for several days. Sanitary supplies are necessary in a crisis situation. Hygiene and sanitary supplies are the primary tools for achieving good where elementary cleanliness is the basic criterion.

the medicine is scarce. they would not take precautions. thus socio-economic status could also be a factor towards the risk of intestinal parasitism. poverty greatly affects socio-economic status of a place. There are not enough health centres and health professionals to conduct efficient health services. The socio-economic conditions prevalent in third world cities differ markedly from those in industrialized countries. For instance a sizable chunk of the population lives in squatters’ areas where environmental sanitation is poor and the surroundings harbour the parasites. Being unaware of these. Urbanization often takes place as the expansion or creation of new slum areas and squatter settlements. Those who were found out to be infected could not go for treatment because of financial constraints. Parasites reside in warm moist soil and dirty surroundings. The lucky ones who were able to sometimes lack the financial capacity to buy needed medicine or when they have money. of their operational budgets on 13 .Poverty In relation to sanitation poverty could also be a factor. Third world cities are experiencing rapid urbanization brought about by fast population growth as well as high immigration rates. Socio-economic Status In conjunction. The poor population does not have the capacity to go to school so they are not aware of the mode of transmission of parasitic agents. as well their improper disposal on the streets. Their rapid expansion and the lack of resources to provide them with the necessary infrastructure and urban services translate into insufficient collection of the wastes generated.

comfortable and healthy environment. It is also one of bigger-sized worms with adult males 15 – 31 cm long by 24 mm and 14 .” Ascaris lumbricodes Figure 2. re-infection occurs and when auto infection parasitism keeps recurring because of the inability to live in clean.1 Ascaris lumbricoides Ova First. and found worldwide but is more prevalent in warm moist regions of the world. It lives in the small intestine. Consequently. The presence of secondary hosts are more common in third world countries because families tend o place their poultry and pigpen for example near their abode because of lack of space and ignorance of diseases and parasites of these animals could pass on to humans. Due to several people with parasitism. They are commonly known as the members of the “unholy tree. if not the most common helminth infecting our young population. in third world cities. sometimes the rural areas are unattended because of the lack of personnel and medical equipment. Soil Transmitted Intestinal Parasites There are three main intestinal parasites that are soil transmitted.waste management. third world cities only collect between 50 and 80% of the refused generated. is Ascaris lumbricoides or the giant roundworm is one of the most common.

In fact. larvae emerge in the small intestine and undergo an obligatory migration for about 8 – 9 days through the lives and the lungs. it is easily recognizable because of its relatively large size. and as such. highly refractive granules. in the liver for example. the outer albuminoid. When the worm causes disease during the phase of larval migration. When this happens. while females have a straight brown in color and have mammilated. In the lungs. it is probably the most commonly seen and recognized worm in endemic communities. they are called decorticated eggs. 15 . Its content is typically a mass of disorganized. This worm is very important is very important cause of abdominal pain among infected individuals. Infertile eggs are elongate. instances. makes the presence of even one worm a potentially serious danger to the human host. When infective eggs are ingested. where they undergo further development for 2 – 3 weeks. it is likely that other worms remain inside.adults female 20 – 35 cm long by 3 -6 mm. In the laboratory ascariasis is diagnosed by demonstration of characteristic eggs in feces. When a form is passed out with feces. mammillated layer may be absent. In certain. and have thin shells with the mammillated layer varying from grossly irregular mammillations. after which they return to the small intestine where they were grow to maturity in about 2 months. they undergo considerable growth to reach a length of 1 mm. Males have a curved a tail. Unembyonated eggs in feces pass on the soil. thick shell. Females worms lay eggs and are therefore called oviparous. Each will contain an infective second stage larva. They are in the onecelled stage when passed in feces. it is called Ascaris pneumonitis or some references would call it loeffler’s syndrome. The erratic migration of adult worms to extra intestinal locations. 85 – 90 um by 43 – 47 um.

Ascaris eggs are produced in such large numbers such that even with a single pair of worms present. They have a yellow-brown color with a thick shell. cecum or appendix. slender. it is found worldwide.2 Trichiuris trichura Ova Secondly. They are unembryonated when passed. Trichiuris trichura Figure 2. Like Ascaris. And a thicker. moist regions of the world. short posterior end. is Trichiuris trichura or whipworm which lives in the large intestine. Fertile eggs concentrate well by sedimentation or flotation concentration procedures. The eggs are easily detected by direct fecal smear. Infertile eggs may also pose diagnostic problems if the outer mammillated layer is totally absent or if egg assumes a typical shape. whip-like anterior end. but more especially in warm. Infertile eggs maybe missed if only a flotation concentration procedure is done for fecal examination. Adults worm have a long. mucoid plugs at each end. Whipworm eggs are 5055 um by 22-24 um and barrel shaped. 16 . Males have a called posterior end and measure 35 – 50 mm. The esophagus consists of a thin-narrow tube surrounded by a column of glandular cells called stichocytes which are collectively referred to as the stichosome. and clear.

unless concentration techniques are used. The eggs are easily recognizable although in light infants. the former is encountered more frequently than the latter. Hookworm Figure 2.Like ascaris. In the Philippines. which has variety of species like Necatur americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. after which they contain an infective first stage larva. Whipworm infant is diagnosed by demonstration of characteristics eggs in feces. In patients treated with antihelminthics. distorted eggs maybe passed in feces. trichuris females are oviparous. When infective eggs are ingested. Eggs pass on to soil where they undergo development for 2-3 weeks. This worm is quite sturdy and may not be expelled easily by the best deworming drug available.hypochromic type. larvae emerge in the intestine and migrate to the large intestine where they develop to maturity. The prepatent period is about 3 months. 17 .3 Hookworm Ova Third and lastly is the Hookworm. they maybe difficult to find in fecal preparations. Hookworms inhabit the small intestine and they are an important cause of chronic anemia of the microcytic. Adult worms may live for up to 10 years or more.

4-0. The sheath about the larvae is conspicuously striated. Hookworms are oviparous. Larvae undergo further development in the lung prior to migration to the small intestine. the sheath is not as conspicuously striated. (Adults have) and are also bursate. adults have a buccal capsule containing cutting plates rather than teeth.Necatur males measure 5-9 mm by 0-3 mm and are bursate.5 mm. The prepatent period is about 5-6 weeks. They have a pointed tail and a ratio of esophageal to intestinal length of 1:4. measuring 55-65 mm by 36-40mm. For ancylostoma. with two spicules that fuse at their distal end. Infective third stage platiform larvae are 500-600 um long. Females are 9-11 mm byo-4 mm. They have a pointed tail and a ratio of esophageal to intestinal length of 1:4. Eggs are thin-shelled and colorless. Human infections are acquired by skin penetration by these larvae.5-0. eggs are shed in feces on to soil where they embryonate and hatch approximately 24 hours. Females measure 1013mm by 0. The usual 18 . Eggs are thin-shelled and colorless. They have a long buccal canal and their genital primordium is small and difficult to see. First stage habditoid larvae hatch from eggs are 250-350 um long by 17 um.7 mm. First stage rhabditoid larvae that hatch from eggs are 250-300 um long by 17um. Unlike Necatur. Adults has a buccal capsule containing two pairs of teeth. with two spicules that do not fuse at their distal ends. As in the previously describe soil transmitted helminthes. measuring 60-75 um by 36-40 um. They a long buccal canal and their genital primordium is small and difficult to see. Ancyslostoma males measures 8-11 mm by 0. Infective third stage filariform larvae are 600-700 um long. They are usually in early cleavage when passed in feces. Larvae reach the infective first stage in about a week. human infection is also obtained by mouth.

the diagnostic material is transferred to a 19 . eggs and cysts which are heavier than the suspending fluid become concentrated in the bottom of a tube. while the larvae of strongyloides have a short buccal canal and a prominent genital primordium. larvae hookworm has a long buccal canal and an inconspicuous genital primordium. Eggs of necatur are indistinguishable from those of ancylostoma. Necatur adults may live up to 15 years. Formalin-Ether Concentration Technique Concentration procedures are used to concentrate the parasites in a specimen and increase the likelihood of detecting the parasite while decreasing the amount of fecal debris. If hookworm eggs hatch in feces because of a delay in examination. This method retrieves sediment of parasites such as helminthes ova and protozoan oocyst using centrifugation. A common sedimentation technique is the Formalin-Ether Acetate Method. Fresh or formalin-fixed specimens maybe concentrated by sedimentation or floatation techniques. After centrifugation. The Formalin-Ether Sedimentation technique is excellent for the concentration of both cyst and ova and possesses the other advantage that may be applied to formalin preserved specimens. At first stage. With various sedimentation methods. the first stage larvae must be differentiated from those of strongyloides.life span of necatur is between 3-5 years. Stool specimens must not be refrigerated before attempting to culture larval stages since necatur is especially sensitive to cold. while that of ancylostoma is between 5-10 years.

4% . Trichuris trichura. According to Nada A.microscope slide.3% are single infection and 9. Parasites were found to be more prevalent among Indians followed by Indonesians. Filipinos then Sri Lankans. Giuseppe Dettori. are among the most prevalence infection in humans in developing countries. Health education should be then increased to raise awareness of the society about such a health problem. Simmona Penizzi. Moreover. In addition. The prevalence of parasitic infection is 31. Abahussian. intestinal parasitosis represents a remarkable cause of 20 . Carlo CHezzi stated in their study that 148 patients (13. while out of a total of 166 foreigners 52 had intestinal parasitosis (31%). protozoan parasite more commonly cause gastrointestinal infection compared to helminthes. we found that 113 infections were caused by only one parasite while 35 were mixed infections. Intestinal parasite causes a significant morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. Related Studies Intestinal Parasitism Parasitic infection caused by intestinal helminthes and protozoan parasite. Chiara Gorrini. 96 (10%) were infected.22. the prevalence rate found in this study was high enough to merit a spotlight on it as a problem. PhD in her study entitled prevalence of intestinal parasites among expatriate workers in Al-Khobar. and Ascaris lumbricoides were the most common infections in all nationalities. Hookworm. Adriana Calderaro.24% were affected by intestinal parasitosis. Consequently. It is well to make a habit examining completely every concentrated preparation with low power objective of the microscope. Saudi Arabia. In addition.1% with multiple infections (double and triple and quadruple). Among the 951 Italians.Gionanna Piccolo.

84%). and Entamoeba histolytica (0.4%). affecting both Italians and non European citizens from developing countries.87% in 1996 to 23.21%).14%) were found to be positive. Peak incidence of intestinal parasites occurred during the summer season (June to August). Sharif entitled prevalence and seasonal fluctuations of common intestinal parasites in Khan Younes. and the lowest was during the winter season (December to February). Prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides decreased from 28. and Ascaris lumbricoides (20. Of the 5. according to Fadel A. Giardia lamblia (22. according to the study entitled prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestation in school children in the Northeastern part of Kathmandu Valley Nepal by 21 .5%). Malaysia entitled prevalence of intestinal parasites among members of the public in Kuala Lumpur.9% (17 out of 246). Jamaiah and M. Furthermore. The overall infection rate was 6.38% to 7.gastrointestinal disease and our study demonstrates that these infections are quite common in our area. None of these participants showed any clinical symptoms.8%).64%.01).4%). Faculty of Medicine University Malaya. The overall monthly incidence of parasites showed significant seasonal fluctuations. Clonorchis sinensis (0. hookworm (0. Rohela Department of Parasitology. Malaysia. according to I. which was 9% (6 out of 67). The prevalence of intestinal parasites has dropped significantly over the reviewed years from 42.704(32.08%). with Trichuris trichiura being the most common parasite (4.8%). The overall prevalence of the common parasites was: Entamoeba histolytica (54.86% in 2000 (p<0. While. Moreover. 1996-2000. followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (0. Kuala Lumpur. The highest infection rate was in the age group 16-30 years.

The ascariasis is one of the roundworm parasites more commonly seen of human being and it is calculated that the world population’s fourth part is infected. Nigeria by I. O.9%) than protozoa (23. South-western.4%).6% and mostly in females (7. Although that the clinical pictures of this illness courses mostly with silent form or chronic symptomatology.A. More than a billion people worldwide are infected with one or more species of intestinal nematodes. 191/355) of the children had multiple parasitic infections.6%) than other years studied. the massive infestation in children can give 22 .T. More parasites were detected in stool samples collected in 2002 (23.A Soleye.8%. Likewise. Babalola and O. there was also significant difference in the years under study (P=0. F. nine types if parasites were recovered. Altogether.05).O. Shiba Kumar Rail. Ascaris lumbricoides and others.K. E. Okonko. The parasites include: Ascaris lumbricoides [57(38. Tibeto-Burman children had a non-significant higher prevalence.9%)]. histolytica [10(6.7%)] and trophozoites/cysts of Entamoeba histolytica [76(51. The recovery rate of helminthes was higher (76. Half (53. according to the study entitled detection and prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients in Abeokuta.A.05). There were cases of multiple infection of Ascaris lumbricoides and E.05).7%)].Mejeha.1%).1%) than in males (6.8%)] and Schistosoma Mansoni [4(2.Batu Krishna Sharmal. T. In addition. The overall prevalence of parasitosis was 66. Diyo Ram Rai2 and Deepali Roy Choudhuryl.6% (395/533) with no significant difference between boys and girls (p<0. according to the study entitled Intestinal Obstruction due to Ascaris by Jesus Miguel Galiano Gil. Adekolurejo. compared with Indo-Aryan and Dalit children (p<0. followed by hookworm. The overall prevalence was 6. Amusan. Trichuris trichiura was the most common helminth detected.

Cabreral in 1971 reviewed data from 1908 to 1970 and recently Cross and Basaca-Sevilla (1984) published a report on stool examinations conducted among many of the Philippine Isalands. V.S. over 30. stated in their study entitled “Infection status of intestinal parasites in children living in residential institutions in Metro Manila.000 single stools were examined and 86% were found to have one or more intestinal parasitic infections. C.place to serious complications that required emergency surgical treatment with a favorable evolution. Naval Medical Research Unit No.2 (NAMRU-2) initiated a variety of studies in collaboration with the staff at San Lazaro Hospital. Finaly. the U. A total of 284 stool samples from 11 institutions and 3 street communities were examined by the formalin-ether concentration method. In 1980. The scotch tape anal swab was adapted to 121 children to investigate the infection status of Enterobius 23 . Cross. Alquiza.H.. also said in their study that intestinal parasitic infections are not unique to the Philippines and a number of reports are published on prevalence rates dating back to the beginning of the century. the Philippines”.. Philippines. J. Most patients involved in these studies submitted stool specimens that were examined by the NAMRU Parasitology laboratory. In these surveys of urban and rural populations. E. Belizario.Y. a small scale survey was performed to know the infection status of intestinal parasite in children of the residential institutions and street communities in Metro Manila. Manila..al.. This report presents the result of those examination performed from 1980 until 1984. of San Lazaro Hospital. and Ranoa. et. Baldo. G.sT. Philippines.

0% respectively.8%. and hookworm was 36. Of the children examined. 47. Multiple infections were observed in 34.0% of the children examined were positive for one or more intestinal parasites. hominis with an infection rate of 40. Giardia lamblia. More efforts should be made to implement anthelminthic programs including biannual follow-up treatments. and Blastocystis hominis. The most prevalent of these protozoans was B.0%. It was found out that 62.2% of the children. 44. The prevalence of these infections among children living in institutions was relatively high. the prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides. Among 172 children who gave detail information. 24 .7% were found to be harboring parasitic protozoans such as Entamoeba histolytica.vermicularis.7%. Trichuris trichiura. and 7.

It was conducted from June to September 2010. Tuguegarao City. between the municipality of Iguig and Tuguegrao including its nearby residential area. In addition. Clinical Laboratory.Chapter III Methodology Research Design The research design utilized in the study was experimental post-test design. This is so because the stool specimen coming from the respondents and soil samples taken from the dumpsite and at the vicinity of the residents near the dumpsite were examined just after the specimen collection process via Formalin Ether Concentration Technique followed by a microscopic examination. microscopic examination was performed in Cagayan State University. The specific dates were the following: 25 . Andrews’s campus. analysis and interpretation of the results were done after. Time and Locale of the Study The study was conducted at the 10.6 hectare dumpsite located in Carig Norte. Moreover. Tuguegarao City.

gauze. and garbage truck drivers were also included. 2010. graduated cylinder. cotton. glass slides.85% Normal Saline solution. ether/ethyl acetate. 26 . equipment and solution were utilized: microscope. Research Instrument Administration of microscopic examination was needed in the study which was used to gather the necessary data in the determination of the prevalence of intestinal parasites harbored by the respondents via stool specimens as well as the identification of parasites presents in the soil samples. beakers. 10% formalin. and parafilm. It was conducted from July 11. 2010. 2010. centrifuge tubes. ocular observation and meeting with the dumpsite personnel was done on June 28. 2010. . cover slips. In addition. Respondents and Sampling Procedure The respondents of the study were all the residents near the dumpsite who are scavengers. After which the simultaneous collection of soil samples and stool specimens were done. Dissemination of the results to the respondents was next on September 2. garbage collectors. stool cups.First. weighing balance. dropper/pipette. applicator sticks. alcohol. The following materials. It was followed by the orientation and Information Education Campaign (IEC) as well as an interview to the respondents on July 5. 2010 to July 27.

stool specimens were preserved with 10% formalin prior to processing. mode of transmission. educational attainment. and an Information Education Campaign (IEC) among the respondents regarding the research study. parasitic infections and interventions as well as the proper collection of stool specimens and when the proper time to collect. they also conducted an interview to illicit the respondents name. marital status and livelihood of the respondents. The soil samples were not preserved unlike the stool samples. When the researchers had arrived at the laboratory. the researchers conducted an orientation. educational attainment. Clinical Laboratory. At the scheduled time of submission of the stool specimen. After permission was granted. marital status and livelihood. This laboratory procedure was done both on the stool and soil samples however. the presence of intestinal parasites in the area. Slovin’s formula was utilized to determine the specific number of respondents needed. Collection and Processing of Data The researchers asked permission from the two officers-in-charge at the dumpsite and at the same time the researchers did an ocular observation. After that. the researchers collected the specimens including soil samples and immediately transported them into the college of Allied Health Sciences.Sampling was done with regards to the gender. they performed Formalin Ether Concentration Technique. After which. These parameters were further correlated to the result of microscopic examination. the sediments were 27 . in the processing of stool sample.

They strained the suspension through two layers of wet gauze and they poured into 15 ml conical centrifuge tube. 2. They discarded the supernatant if cloudy. They fill the tubes with NSS. 3. When tests was removed. They stand for 30 minutes or longer to achieve adequate fixations for very loose or watery stool samples. They proceed to the next step only after the supermarket was clear. they resuspended the sediments then centrifuge again using NSS. added 3 ml of ether then shaked vigorously for 30 seconds. 4.5 g of fresh stools in 10ml 10% formalin in a suitable container. The researchers thoroughly comminute approximately 1.0 to 1. They centrifuged at 400 – 500 g for 2 – 3 minutes. they saw four layers: (a) a to layer of ether (b) a plug of debris adhering to the walls (c) a layer of formalin and (d) sediment for examination. 5. 28 . 6. they centrifuged at 400 – 500 g for 1 – 2 minutes. They resuspended the sediment in 10% formalin to a volume of 10 ml.used and the supernatant was discarded whereas in the processing of soil samples it was vise versa. The following chronological procedures of the said technique shall follow which was followed by the researchers: 1. They used 5 to 6ml of material. They inserted an applicator stick with cottoned tip to ring and loosend the plug of debris and then eventually decanted it.

Iodine was utilized for ease and better viewing. 29 .7. They did wet mount preparation and then microscopic examination with the help of an expert parasitologist.

Asking permission by the researchers to the officer-in-charge at the dumpsite Ocular observation Orientation and IEC.1 the flow chart 30 . and Interview Collection of stool specimen and soil sample Preservation of stool specimen Fecalysis (Formalin Ether Concentration Technique (FECT) and soil analysis Microscopic examination Validation (by an expert Parasitologist) Analysis and Interpretation of Data Figure 3.

and marital status. In addition. educational attainment. It was further statistically analyzed using Chi-Square test of independence.Square goodness of fit was then utilized to determine the significant association between the parasite identified in the stool specimen and the parasites present in the soil samples. livelihood. 31 .Statistical Tools for Data Analysis Test for correlation was utilized in correlating the microscopic results as to gender. Chi.

there was a violation of the assumption of chi-square test of independence so categories from the column of parasites were combined to make the chisquare result more reliable.105a Ascaris lumbricoides 11 3 14 Df 2 Hookworm 1 1 2 P value 0.Chapter IV DATA PRESENTATION. 32 . at 5% level of significance. However.349 Total 39 8 47 This table shows the frequency count of specific soil-transmitted intestinal parasites with regards to respondent’s gender. DISCUSSION AND INTERPRETATION The succeeding presentations revealed the results obtained in the statistical determination of the prevalence of intestinal parasitism at Tuguegarao. Table 4. thus there was no association between gender and the parasites isolated from the respondents (Pvalue=0. Based on the result of the Chi-square test of independence. Result Gender Male Female Total Chi-square test NOPS 27 4 31 Value 2.349).1 Gender and Individual Parasite Count Cross tabulation. City dumpsite.

Based from the result of the chi-square test of independence with a fisher exact value of 0.8909 33 . Meaning.416 at 5% level of significance there was really no significant association. species of parasites isolated from the respondents has no bearing with gender of the respondents. This table shows the frequency count of all the soil transmitted intestinal parasites with regards to the respondent’s gender.416 . Table 4.2 Gender and Parasite Count Cross tabulation Gender Male Female Total Chi-square Test Result NOPS Parasite 27 12 4 4 31 16 Value Df 1.3 Educational Attainment and Individual Parasite Count Cross tabulation.Table 4.0939 1 Total 39 8 47 Fisher Exact Test Value 0.436 NOPS Not yet studying 6 Elementary graduate/level 14 High school graduate/level 9 College Graduate/level 2 Total 31 Chi-square test Value 5. Educational Attainment Result Ascaris Lumbricoides 0 8 4 2 14 df 6 Hookwor Total m 1 7 1 23 0 13 0 4 2 47 P value 0.

34 . there was again a violation of the assumption of chi-square test of independence so categories from the column of parasites were combined to make the chisquare result with regards to marital status more reliable. Based on the result of the chi-square test of independence with a P value of 0.569 at 5% level of significance. However.569 This table shows the frequency count of all the soil –transmitted intestinal parasites with regards to educational attainment of the respondents. Educational Attainment At most elementary graduate /level At least high school graduate/level Total Chi-square Test Result NOPS Parasite 20 10 11 6 31 16 Value df 9 0. Table 4. there was again no association. there was no significant association.019 1 Total 30 17 47 Fisher Exact Value 0.This table shows the frequency count of specific soil-transmitted parasite with regards to educational attainment of the respondents. Based from the result of the chi-square test of independence with a fisher exact value of 0.4 Educational Attainment and Parasite Cross tabulation. This clearly implies that parasites isolated from the respondents had not been affected by educational attainment. this means that parasites isolated from the respondents were not been affected by educational attainment.436 at 5% level of significance thus.

there was no association. 35 . categories from the column of parasites were combined to make the chi-square result more reliable.5 Marital Status and Individual Parasite Count Cross Tabulation.Table 4. However. there was also a violation of assumption of chi-square test of independence as two preceding parameters do. In conjunction. This result simply means that parasites isolated from the respondents had not been affected by marital status of the respondents. Based from the result of the chi-square test of independence with a P value of 0.056 Ascaris lumbricoides 1 13 14 Df 2 Total Hookwor m 0 8 2 39 2 47 P value 0. Result Marital Status Single Married Total Chi-square NOPS 7 24 31 Value 2.358 at 5% level of significance.358 This table shows the frequency count of the specific soil-transmitted intestinal parasites with regards to marital status of the respondents.

234 This table shows the frequency count of all soil-transmitted intestinal parasites with regards to marital status of the respondents.38 9 Ascaris Lumbricoides 0 3 6 5 14 Df 6 Total Hookworm s 0 7 2 13 0 20 0 7 2 47 P Value 0. This result implies that marital status has really o effect on the parasites species isolated from the respondents. Result Livelihood Not applicable Scavengers Garbage Collector Garbage Truck Drivers Total Chi-square NOPS 7 8 14 2 31 Value 14.234 at 5% level of significance has no association.Table 4.026 36 . Marital Status Single Married Total Chi-square Test Result NOPS 7 24 31 Value 1. Table 4. Based on the result of the chi-square test of independence with a fisher’s exact value of 0.9939 Parasites 1 15 16 df 1 Total 8 39 47 Fisher Exact Test 0.6 Marital Status and Parasite Count Cross tabulation.7 Livelihood and Individual Parasite Count Cross tabulation.

418 0.229 3 0.391 P Value 0.042 Value P Value 0.026 0. Livelihood Not applicable Scavengers Garbage Collector Garbage Truck Drivers Total Chi-square Phi Cramer’s V Result Total Parasite NOPS 7 0 7 8 5 13 14 6 20 2 5 7 31 16 47 Value df P Value 8.418 0.042 0.553 0.026 in terms of Phi and Cramer’s V when symmetrically measured. with a P value of again 0. However. Meaning livelihood is strongly associated with the parasites isolated from the respondents.Phi Cramer’s V Value 0.026 This table shows the frequency count of specific soil-transmitted intestinal parasites with regards to livelihood of the respondents. Table 4.042 37 . association was found to exist. there was a violation of the assumption of chi-square test independence so categories from the column of parasite were combined to make the chi-square result more reliable. Based from the result of the chi-square test of independence with a P value of 0.8 Livelihood and Parasite Count Cross tabulation.026. it was showcased that there is a strong degree of association. In addition.

This simply means that.042 P Value 0. Result Livelihood Not applicable On garbage exposure Total Chi-square Phi Cramer’s V NOPS 7 24 31 Value 4.042 again. there is a strong degree of association as the result of the first measurement implied.301 Parasite 0 16 16 df 1 Total 7 40 47 Fisher Exact Test Value 0.042 at 5% level of significance. like the first one. Based on the result of the chi-square test of independence with a fisher’s exact test value of again 0. It was further symmetrically measured wherein Phi and Cramer’s V P values is 0.301 0.042. However. there was an association and 38 . Table 4. it means. there was still a violation of the assumption of chisquare test of independence so categories from the column of parasites were again recombined to make the chi-square result exactly reliable. Livelihood was further categorized only into two broader group either not applicable or on garbage exposure.9 Categorized Livelihood and Parasite Cross tabulation.039 0.245 Value 0.This table shows the frequency of all the soil-transmitted intestinal parasites with regards to livelihood of the respondents. Based from the chi-square test of independence with a P value of 0. there was no association.039 This table shows the frequency count of all the soil-transmitted intestinal parasites with regards to livelihood of the respondents. like the first two testing.

7 1.509 Residual -2. symmetrical measurement that the association is strong with a Phi and Cramer’s V P value of 0.3 1.0 Result 1. Based from the chi-square goodness of fit with a P value of 0.0 This table shows the count of parasite isolated from the respondents and parasites isolated from the soil taken from the vicinity of the dumpsite.it was further found out with.3499 2 0.3 12. Table 4.509 at 5% level of significance it was found out that the number of occurrence of parasite from the respondents followed the distribution of the parasite seen in the soil sample from the dumpsite vicinity. Result NOPS Ascaris lumbricoides Hookworm Total Chi-square Df P Value Observed N 31 14 2 47 Expected N 33.10 Parasite Isolated from the Respondents and Soil Sample from Dumpsite Vicinity Cross tabulation.039. 39 .3 1.

509 at 5% level of significance it was found out that the proportion of parasite found to be present in the respondents followed the distribution of the parasite isolated from the soil sample taken from the vicinity of the residents.0 Result 1. Based from the chi-square goodness of fit with a P value of 0.509 Residual -2.3 1.7 1.3 12.0 This table shows the count of parasite isolated from the respondents and parasites isolated from the soil taken from the vicinity of the residents nearby dumpsite. 40 . Result NOPS Ascaris lumbricoides Hookworm Total Chi-square Df P Value Observed N 31 14 2 47 Expected N 33.3499 2 0.11 Parasite Isolated from the Respondents and Soil Sample from the Vicinity of the Residents near the Dumpsite.Table 4.3 1.

Summary The study generally determined the prevalence of intestinal parasitism at Tuguegarao City dumpsite. the conclusions drawn from the analysis of the data and some recommendations based on the research findings relative to the prevalence of intestinal parasites at Tuguegarao City dumpsite. 41 . Conclusion and Recommendation This chapter presents the summary of the study. educational attainment. marital status and livelihood. ether concentration technique microscopic examination. Analysis of data included test of correlations and proportion wherein chi-square test of independence chi-square goodness of fit test were utilized appropriately. Moreover. it determined if there is significant association of parasites isolated from the respondents when grouped according to: gender. It likewise assessed the degree of association if ever it exists. It further identify intestinal parasite in soil samples taken at Tuguegarao City dumpsite within the vicinity itself ad soil from the vicinity of the residents. Specifically. The study also assessed if the intestinal parasites harbored by the respondents is the same with those isolated from the soil.Chapter V Summary of Findings. it determined the intestinal parasites harbored by the respondents such as the residents of Tuguegarao City dumpsite as well the garbage collectors and garbage truck drivers. Data were gathered through fecalysis and soil analysis using formalin.

educational attainment. This is so since the statistical analysis showed the existence of proportion and distribution similarity of parasites between the stool specimen and soil samples. The same species of soil-transmitted intestinal parasites were found out to be harbored by the respondents. Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were the species isolated from the soil samples both from the dumpsite vicinity and from the vicinity of the residents. Generally. Conclusion As revealed in the results of the study which were carefully observed and evaluated. It was further found out that Ascaris lumbrocoides and hookworm was the parasites that were harbored by the neighbor near the dumpsite of Tuguegarao City garbage collector and garbage truck driver. educational attainment and marital status) were not associated with the isolated parasites. it implied that livelihood greatly intestinal prasitoses among the respondents. marital status and livelihood. it was found out that there is an existence of parasite at Tuguegarao City dumpsite. There is an association of parasites isolated from the respondents with regards to gender. 3. the following conclusions where made: 1.Results indicated that intestinal parasitism exist at Tuguegarao City dumpsite. Finally. Regarding the parameters measured with regards to the isolated species of parasites only livelihood resulted with association and the other three (gender. 2. the study resulted that the species of parasites harbored by the respondents were similar to the species isolated from the soil samples. On the other 42 . Thus.

Recommendation In reference with the findings and conclusion of the study. the researchers suggest the following recommendations: 1. 5. It was found out that there is really a prevalence of intestinal parasitism in Tuguegarao City dumpsite thus. the researchers recommend the council of Tuguegarao and other local government units to give more priority and exert more effort to solve the problem of parasitism specially the people who are exposed at the dumpsite and have direct to the garbage and including the soil which may contain parasites. 2. The intestinal parasites harbored by the respondents were the same with those isolated from the soil samples since it was showcased that species and probability distribution of parasites from the respondents coincide with those seen and observed from the soil sample. The intestinal parasite present in the soil either taken from the dumpsite or from the vicinity of the residents was Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm species. 4. the Department of Health (DOH) specifically the DOH Region 02 should strength their on going program regarding parasitism such as the “Garantisadong Pambata 43 .hand livelihood is strongly associated with the parasite taken from the residents. Since there was children who were infected with intestinal parasites.

3. As such. masks and other necessary materials to avoid direct contact to the garbage and soil at the dumpsite which are contaminated with parasite. Moreover. 44 . they should also conform to what they had learned such as using gloves. Formalin Ether Concentration Technique. control and treatment of the intestinal parasitism. The respondents should be disseminated properly on the prevention. The future researchers must also formulate other parameters which are essential in the study. boots. A replicable study is suggested to further validate the data on the parameters assessed. 5. they must take into consideration also the health of the other people involved who are considered to be the vulnerable group. other methods must be tested and compared to the said procedure to look for the best and most appropriate suitable for the study. On the procedure.Program “. 4.

64-75 45 .doh.. J. http://en.nih. College of Public Health Universityof the Philippines. J. et.gov/pubmed/18645945 http://www2..nlm.org/wiki/landpill http://Findarticles.medscape. “The Sanitary Landfill”.com/p/articles/mi_mOWPD/iv_2001_Jan_8lai_70384771 http://www.wikipedia. Pg. et.cncbi.al. A Brief History of Solid Waste Mangement in US during the last 50 years.ph/NOHWel32/NOHpersubj/Chap4/SoilTHOP.com/article/1000631-treatment Hickman. http://emedicine. Soil-Transmitted Helmith Infections: ascaris.Literature Cited Internet/s Bethony. trichuriasis and hookworm.al. Manila.pdf Book Training Course in Diagnostic Medical Parasitology.gov.

APPENDICES 46 .

else fail to reject Ho.05. marital status and livelihood. 1) Gender gender * result Cross tabulation Count Result Ascaris NOPS lumbricoides hookworm 27 11 1 4 3 1 31 14 2 Total 39 8 47 Gender male female Total 47 .Square Test of Independence and ChiSquare Goodness of Fit A) Chi-square test of independence showing the possibility of association of isolated intestinal parasites from the respondents with regards to gender. Ho: x & y are not associated Ha: x & y are associated Decision rule: Reject Ho if P value <.APPENDIX A Results of the Statistical Analysis Using Chi. educational attainment.

416 1.723 Linear-by-Linear 1.301 Association N of Valid Cases 47 a. b.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is . 3 cells (50. Computed only for a 2x2 table 48 .070 1 .049 1 . gender * result 2 Cross tabulation Count Result 2 NOPS parasite 27 12 4 4 31 16 Total 39 8 47 Gender male female Total Pearson Chi-Square Continuity Correction Likelihood Ratio Fisher's Exact Test Linear-by-Linear Chi-Square Tests Value df P value 1.1 cells (25. The minimum expected count is 2.296 .306 .093a 1 .423 .34.0%) have expected count less than 5.525 1.Chi-Square Tests Value df a Pearson Chi-Square 2.105 Likelihood Ratio 1.405 1 .72.720 2 2 1 P value .190 Association N of Valid Cases 47 a.349 .

1) Educational attainment Educational attainment* result Cross tabulation Count Result Ascaris. lumbricoi hookwor NOPS 6 des 0 m 1 Total 7 Educatio nal not yet studying Elementary attainmen High school College t (level/ graduate) Total 14 9 2 8 4 2 1 0 0 23 13 4 31 14 2 47 49 .

890 Likelihood Ratio 7. The minimum expected count is .17.243 .436 . 9 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5.039 6 6 1 P value . Educational attainment * result 2 Cross tabulation Count Result 2 parasit NOPS 20 e 10 Total 30 Educational attainme ntl Total graduate/level graduate/level At most elementa At least high school 11 6 17 31 16 47 50 .937 Linear-by-Linear .Chi-Square Tests Value df a Pearson Chi-Square 5.843 Association N of Valid Cases 47 a.

0%) have expected count less than 5.34.056 Likelihood Ratio 2. The minimum expected count is .954 2 2 1 P value .Chi-Square Tests Value df a Pearson Chi-Square 2.562 Linear-by-Linear 1. Marital Status*Result 2 Cross Tabulation Count Result 2 NOPS Marital Status Single Marrie d Total 7 24 31 1 15 16 Parasite Total 8 39 47 51 . 3 cells (50.278 .162 Association N of Valid Cases 47 a.358 .

The minimum expected count is 2.950 1 1 1 P value .3 = moderate >.004 2.158 .993 1 1.3 = weak =.163 Association N of Valid Cases 47 a. 1 cells (25. b.286 1.0%) have expected count less than 5.72.Pearson Chi-Square Continuity Correctionb Likelihood Ratio Fisher's Exact Test Linear-by-Linear Chi-Square Tests Value df a 1.131 .3 = strong Livelihood*Result Cross Tabulation Count 52 .234 .316 . Computed only for a 2x2 table 1) Livelihood Criteria for the degree of association <.

026 .477 2.470 6 1 .116 Association N of Valid Cases 47 a.026 . . Symmetric Measures Approx. 9 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5.Result Total Livelihood not applicable Scaveng er Garbage collector Garbage truck drivers Total NOPS Ascaris lumbricoides 7 O 8 3 14 6 2 5 31 14 Hookwor m 0 2 0 0 2 7 13 20 7 47 Pearson Chi- Chi-Square Tests Value df a 14.017 .553 . 30. Value Nominal by Nominal N of Valid Cases Phi Cramer's V . The minimum expected count is .026 Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear 15.389 6 P value .391 47 53 Sig.

Livelihood * result 2 Cross tabulation Count number 2 Result NOPS parasite Total Livelihood not applicable 7 0 7 Scavenger 8 5 13 Garbage collectors 14 6 20 Garbage truck 2 5 7 drivers Total 31 16 47 54 .

Sig.042 47 Livelihood2 * result 3 Cross tabulation Count number 3 Result 3 NOPS parasite Livelihood Not app 7 0 On Garbage 24 16 exposure Total 31 16 Total 7 40 47 55 .117 3 3 1 P value .Chi-Square Tests Value df a Pearson Chi-Square 8.150 Linear-by-Linear 5.017 .38. Phi . 5 cells (62.042 Cramer's V .418 .5%) have expected count less than 5. Nominal by Nominal N of Valid Cases Symmetric Measures Value Approx.024 Association N of Valid Cases 47 a. The minimum expected count is 2.418 .229 Likelihood Ratio 10.042 .

Respondents vs Soil Sample from the Dumpsite Vicinity 56 .042 1 .245a 2.651 6.301 .039 .05. Sig.155 47 df 1 1 1 P value . Phi .011 .039 Cramer's V .443 4.Chi-Square Tests Pearson Chi-Square Continuity Correctionb Likelihood Ratio Fisher's Exact Test Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases Value 4.104 .301 . else accept Ho.039 47 B) Chi-square goodness of fit on the determination of the relationship between the parasites isolated from the respondents and the one that were isolated from the soil Ho: The data follow a specified distribution Ha: The data do not follow a specified distribution Decision Rule: Reject Ho if P value < .042 Nominal by Nominal N of Valid Cases Symmetric Measures Value Approx.

The minimum expected cell frequency is 1. 1 cells (33.0.3%) have expected frequencies less than 5.3 2 47 1.0 1.509 a.349a Df 2 P value .0 Test Statistics result Chi-Square 1.Result Observed N NOPS A.lumbricoi des Hookworm Total Expected N Residual 31 33.3 -2.7 1. 57 .3 14 12.

Respondents vs Soil Sample from the Vicinity of the Residents Result Observed N Expected N Residual NOPS 31 33.3 -2.3 A.lumbri 14 12.7 1.3 Hookworm 2 1.0 1.0 Total 47

Test Statistics result Chi-Square 1.349a Df 2 P value .509 a. 1 cells (33.3%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 1.0.

58

APPENDIX B Table of Results in Fecalysis and Soil Anlysis Table of results in Fecalysis Respondents’ Sex no. 1 M 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 M M M F M M F F M M F M F M F M F F M Marital status Married Married Single Single Married Single Married Married Married Single Married Married Married Married Married Married Married Married Single Single Educational attainment Elementary graduate High school graduate Not yet studying Not yet studying Elementary graduate Not yet studying Grade VI 3RD year high school Elementary graduate Grade II College graduate 2ND year college 3RD year high school Grade V Grade V 3RD year high school Not yet studying Not yet studying Not yet studying Not yet Livelihood Scavenger Scavenger Not applicable Not applicable Scavenger Not applicable Scavenger Scavenger Scavenger Not applicable Scavenger Scavenger Scavenger Scavenger Scavenger Scavenger Not applicable Scavenger Not applicable Not applicable Result -( NOPS) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) -( NOPS) +(Hookworm) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) +(Hookworm) -( NOPS) -( NOPS)

59

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M

Married Married Married Married Married Single Married Single Married Married Married Married Married Married Married Married Married Married Married Married Married Married Married Married Married Married Married

studying Grade VI Grade VI Grade VI 3RD year college High school graduate Grade II High school graduate 2ND year high school Grade IV Grade VI Grade VI 3RD year high school 2ND year college 3RD year college 2ND year high school Grade VI High school graduate Grade IV Grade VI Grade VI 3RD year high school Grade IV Grade VI Elementary graduate Grade VI 3RD year high school Elementary

Garbage truck driver Garbage collector Garbage collector Garbage collector Garbage collector Garbage truck driver Garbage collector Garbage collector Garbage truck driver Garbage collector Garbage collector Garbage collector Garbage truck driver Garbage truck driver Garbage collector Garbage collector Garbage collector Garbage truck driver Garbage collector Garbage collector Garbage collector Garbage collector Garbage collector Garbage truck driver Garbage collector Garbage collector Garbage

-( NOPS) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) -( NOPS) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) -( NOPS)

60

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Results -( NOPS) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) +( Ascaris lumbricoides) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) -( NOPS) B.soil sample from the vicinity of the squatter area 61 . Results 1 -( NOPS) 2 -( NOPS) 3 -( NOPS) 4 -( NOPS) 5 +( Ascaris lumbricoides) 6 -( NOPS) 7 -( NOPS) 8 -( NOPS) 9 +( Ascaris lumbricoides) 10 +( Ascaris lumbricoides) 11 +( Ascaris lumbricoides) 12 -( NOPS) 13 -( NOPS) 14 -( NOPS) 15 -( NOPS) LEGEND: NOPS.Female collector Table of Results in Soil Analysis A Sample no.No ova of parasite seen A.Soil sample from the dumpsite B Sample no.No ova of parasite seen M.graduate LEGEND: NOPS.Male F.

APPENDIX C Documentation 62 .

APPENDIX D Letters 63 .

CURRICULUM VITAE 64 .

PERSONAL DATA Name Age Birthday Contact No. Female Single 96 Rizal Street Bagu. E-mail Address Sex Civil Status Address Parents Father Mother Citizenship Elementary : : : : Jaime F. Cagayan EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND 65 . Saludares Filipino Bagu Elementary School (1997-2003) High School : College : Abulug School of Fisheries (2003-2007) Cagayan State University (Andrews Campus) (2007 – Present) : : : : : : : : HAZEL JOY C. Abulug.Saludares Sally C.com. 1990 09059612290 pilintikngdaliri@yahoo. SALUDARES 20 August 20.

1989 09262892608 hernanibiag@yahoo. Baggao. BIAG 21 September 15. Biag Filipino : : : : : : : : HERNANI A. Biag Teresita A.PERSONAL DATA Name Age Birthday Contact No. Cagayan EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Elementary : Tallang Elementary School (1997-2003) High School : College : Baggao National Agricultural School (2003-2007) Cagayan State University ( Andrews Campus) (2007 – Present) 66 .com Male Single Tallang. E-mail Address Sex Civil Status Address Parents Father Mother Citizenship : : : Armando C.

Tuguegarao City EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Elementary : Annafunan East Elementary School (1997-2003) High School : College : Cagayan National High School (2003-2007) Cagayan State University (Andrews Campus) (2007 – Present) 67 . Tumanguil Filipino : : : : : : : : LEILORAINE R. Tumanguil Leonida R. 1990 09059259594 lorainetumanguil@yahoo.com. TUMANGUIL 20 December 29.PERSONAL DATA Name Age Birthday Contact No. E-mail Address Sex Civil Status Address Parents Father Mother Citizenship : : : Loreto T. Female Single 19 B Tumanguil Street Annafunan East.

Tabua Elizabeth L. Solana. Tabua Filipino : : : : : : : : MARYBETH L.PERSONAL DATA Name Age Birthday Contact No. 1990 09351284065 marybethtabua@yahoo.com Female Single 031 Lingu Highway. Cagayan EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Elementary : Lingu Elementary School (1997-2003) High School : College : Cagayan National High School (2003-2007) Cagayan State University (Andrews Campus) (2007 – Present) 68 . E-mail Address Sex Civil Status Address Parents Father Mother Citizenship : : : Melecio C. TABUA 20 August 5.

69 .