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FAILURE ANALYSIS OF THE LC CAPACITOR-INPUT FILTER.

- Shunt capacitors are subject to open circuits, short circuits, and excessive leakage; series inductors are subject to open windings and occasionally shorted turns or a short circuit to the core. The input capacitor (C1) has the greatest pulsating voltage applied to it, is the most susceptible to voltage surges, and has a generally higher average voltage applied. As a result, the input capacitor is frequently subject to voltage breakdown and shorting. The output capacitor (C2) is not as susceptible to voltage surges because of the series protection offered by the series inductor (L1), but the capacitor can become open, leaky, or shorted. A shorted capacitor, an open filter choke, or a choke winding which is shorted to the core, results in a no-output indication. A shorted capacitor, depending on the magnitude of the short, may cause a shorted rectifier, transformer, or filter choke, and may result in a blown fuse in the primary of the transformer. An open filter choke results in an abnormally high dc voltage at the input to the filter and no voltage at the output of the filter. A leaky or open capacitor in the filter circuit results in a low dc output voltage. This condition is generally accompanied by an excessive ripple amplitude. Shorted turns in the winding of a filter choke reduce the effective inductance of the choke and decrease its filtering efficiency. As a result, the ripple amplitude increases. VOLTAGE REGULATION Ideally, the output of most power supplies should be a constant voltage. Unfortunately, this is difficult to achieve. There are two factors that can cause the output voltage to change. First, the ac line voltage is not constant. The so-called 115 volts ac can vary from about 105 volts ac to 125 volts ac. This means that the peak ac voltage to which the rectifier responds can vary from about 148 volts to 177 volts. The ac line voltage alone can be responsible for nearly a 20 percent change in the dc output voltage. The second factor that can change the dc output voltage is a change in the load resistance. In complex electronic equipment, the load can change as circuits are switched in and out. In a television receiver, the load on a particular power supply may depend on the brightness of the screen, the control settings, or even the channel selected. These variations in load resistance tend to change the applied dc voltage because the power supply has a fixed internal resistance. If the load resistance decreases, the internal resistance of the power supply drops more voltage. This causes a decrease in the voltage across the load. Many circuits are designed to operate with a particular supply voltage. When the supply voltage changes, the operation of the circuit may be adversely affected. Consequently, some types of equipment must have power supplies that produce the same output voltage regardless of changes in the load resistance or changes in the ac line voltage. This constant output voltage may be achieved by adding a circuit called the VOLTAGE REGULATOR at the output of the filter. There are many different

types of regulators in use today and to discuss all of them would be beyond the scope of this chapter. LOAD REGULATION A commonly used FIGURE OF MERIT for a power supply is its PERCENT OF REGULATION. The figure of merit gives us an indication of how much the output voltage changes over a range of load resistance values. The percent of regulation aids in the determination of the type of load regulation needed. Percent of regulation is determined by the equation:

This equation compares the change in output voltage at the two loading extremes to the voltage produced at full loading. For example, assume that a power supply produces 12 volts when the load current is zero. If the output voltage drops to 10 volts when full load current flows, then the percent of regulation is:

Ideally, the output voltage should not change over the full range of operation. That is, a 12-volt power supply should produce 12 volts at no load, at full load, and at all points in between. In this case, the percent of regulation would be:

In actual practice the circuitry of regulating devices may be quite complex. by using a voltage regulator. . which are made up of rectified and filter sections (figure 430). Because many electronic equipments require operating voltages and currents that must remain constant. REGULATORS You should know that the output of a power supply varies with changes in input voltage and circuit load current requirements. . It means that the output voltage is constant under all load conditions. Broken lines have been used in the figure to highlight the differences between the series and shunt regulators.Simple series and shunt regulators.1 percent are quite common. or tolerances are called REGULATORS. Circuits that maintain power supply voltages or current outputs within specified limits. depending on the location or position of the regulating element(s) in relation to the circuit load resistance. in practical circuits you must settle for something less ideal. Figure 4-31 (view A and view B) illustrates these two basic types of voltage regulators. Regulators that maintain voltages within plus or minus (± ) 0. The purpose of the voltage regulator is to provide an output voltage with little or no variation. Figure 4-31A. Even so. some form of regulation is necessary.Thus. Series and Shunt Voltage Regulators There are two basic types of voltage regulators. They are designated as dc voltage or dc current regulators. Voltage regulator circuits are additions to basic power supply circuits. you can hold the percent of regulation to a very low value. SHUNT REGULATOR . While you should strive for zero percent load regulation.Block diagram of a power supply and regulator. zero-percent load regulation is the ideal situation. Figure 4-30. Basic voltage regulators are classified as either SERIES or SHUNT. depending on their specific application. Regulator circuits sense changes in output voltages and compensate for the changes.

. notice that the regulator is in series with the load resistance (RL) and that the fixed resistor (RS) is in series with the load resistance. . It is called a shunt-type regulator because the regulating device is connected in parallel with the load resistance. As you study the figure. The schematic drawing in view B is that of a series regulator. SERIES REGULATOR The schematic drawing in view A is that of a shunt-type regulator.Series voltage regulator. Figure 4-32 illustrates the principle of series voltage regulation. It is called a series regulator because the regulating device is connected in series with the load resistance.Figure 4-31B. .Simple series and shunt regulators. Figure 4-32.

Shunt voltage regulator. If you assume that the value of RS is 2 ohms. and the series resistor (RS). For now. you must have 10 amperes of current through RV and RL. . 20 volts must be dropped across the series resistor (RS). For a 100-volt output to be maintained. output voltage regulation is determined by the current through the parallel resistance of the regulating device (RV). and 6 amperes of current flows through this resistance (RV). if the load resistance (RL) increases. the load resistance (RL). the output of the regulator has increased to 102 volts. 4 amperes through RL). Thus. Now. In a shunt regulator. the total current RS is once again 10 amperes (6 amperes through RV. consequently. With this drop in current. At this time.) If the values of the resistance of RV and RL are equal. that the input is 120 volts dc. assume that the current through RL is now 4 amperes and that the total current through RS is 9 amperes. For example. the current through RL will decrease. assume that the circuit is operating under normal conditions. the voltage drop across RS is 18 volts. (Remember: E = IR. as shown in figure 4-33.You already know the voltage drop across a fixed resistor remains constant unless the current flowing through it varies (increases or decreases). the regulating device (RV) decreases in resistance. and that the desired regulated output is 100 volts dc. Therefore. Figure 4-33. 5 amperes of current will flow through each resistance (RV and RL). 20 volts is dropped across RS causing the output to decrease .

If an increase in input voltage occurs. You know. that the regulator operates in the opposite way to compensate for a decrease in input voltage. If RL decreases. From these examples.30 The two basic types of voltage regulators are ___ and ___. therefore. Q. As a result. You should see.28 Circuits which maintain constant voltage or current outputs are called dc voltage or dc current ___. Q. You should know by now that if the load resistance (RL) increases.32 A shunt-type voltage regulator is connected in serial/parallel (which one) with the load resistance. However. the variable resistor cannot be adjusted rapidly enough to compensate for frequent fluctuations in voltages. Again refer to the schematic shown in figure 4-33 and consider how the voltage regulator operates to compensate for changes in input voltages.31 When a series voltage regulator is used to control output voltages. that the input voltage may vary and that any variation must be compensated for by the regulating device. The total current again becomes 10 amperes. Q. Q. of course. this type of regulation has limitations. and the output is again 100 volts. the variable resistor is not a practical method for voltage regulation. any increase in the input voltage results in an increase/a decrease (which one) in the resistance of the regulating device.29 The purpose of a voltage regulator is to provide an output voltage with little or no ___. However.back to 100 volts. This action causes a total of 11 amperes to flow through RS which then drops 22 volts. [ Back ] [ Home ] [ Up ] [ Next ] . Since input voltages fluctuate frequently and rapidly. So far only voltage regulators that use variable resistors have been explained. the regulating device (RV) senses this change and increases its resistance so that less current (4 amperes) flows through RV. Q. the output is 98 volts. you should now understand that the shunt regulator maintains the desired output voltage first by sensing the current change in the parallel resistance of the circuit and then by compensating for the change. the current through RL subsequently increases to 6 amperes. the resistance of RV automatically decreases to maintain the correct voltage division between RV and RS. the regulating device (RV) decreases its resistance to compensate for the change. Obviously. the opposite effect occurs and RV increases. When RL decreases. Now consider the circuit when a decrease in load resistance takes place. A voltage regulator that operates continuously and automatically to regulate the output voltage without external manipulation is required for practical regulation.

negative to n-type) The positive voltage applied to the p-type will attract electrons in n-type and repel holes in p-type so that both carriers are moving towards the p-n junction. positive to n-type) . if certain voltage is applied to the two ends of the material.Next: Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Up: ch4 Previous: Semiconductor materials Diodes A diode is formed by a p-n junction with the p side called anode and the n side called cathod. depending one the polarity of the applied voltage: • Forward bias (positive to p-type. Due to the fact that there exist few freely movable charge carriers in the depletion region around the p-n junction. the conductivity is improved and there is current through the p-n junction. • Reverse bias (negative to p-type. The conductivity increases as the voltage becomes higher. the conductivity is very poor. However. the conductivity may change. As the depletion region becomes thinner.

and is the temperature in degree K. . there is no current through the p-n junction and the conductivity is zero. . it is called saturation current.The negative voltage applied to the p-type will repel electrons in n-type and attract holes in p-type so that both carriers are moving away from the p-n junction. a tiny current that flows in the reverse direction when . due to the minority carriers. . can be In particular. . The voltage-current behavior of a p-n junction is described by where • is the reverse saturation current. . • • • when when when . . As this current is limited by the minority carriers available. In many cases assumed to be approximately equal to 1. • is the ideality factor which varies between 1 and 2. As the depletion region becomes thicker than before. For room temperature . . • is the thermal voltage. coulomb is the charge of an electron. is about A for Si and A for Ge. depending on the fabrication process and semiconductor material. where Joules/Kelvin is Boltzmann's constant.

. For a diode. . but .. the resistance : . is not a constant..The resistance of an electrical device is defined as as is not a linear function.e. then if . i. .e. a diode is not a linear . In other words. . Models of diodes: . but a function of The last approximation is due to the fact that We assume if . the resistance of a diode is not a constant. i. but a function of the current element. .

else • The model above in series with a resistance : if . Ideal model with a voltage threshold then . then . . • then . else The model above in parallel with a current source that simulates the reverse saturation current. else : if .• • Ideal model: if .

12 V 0. the diode is assumed to be conducting with very little resistance.6 to 0. . through and . .1 to 0.06 V 0.18 V for Si ( for Ge ( .58 V 0.2 V for germanium) material.7V for silicon (or 0. voltage . ) ) In general. Example 1: In the half-wave rectifier circuit shown below. Find the current .75 V 0. when the forward voltage applied to a diode exceeds 0.67 V 0.1 mA 10 mA 100 mA 0. and across is a silicon diode.

As the diode is forward biased. the current is . have to satisfy two • • Method 2: The current and voltage equations simultaneously: The first equation relates the current through and voltage across a diode. Substituting the first . we can assume the voltage across the diode is and the current can be determined by Ohm's law to be . Method 1: Since the diode is forward biased.• Method 0: The simplest model is to assume the diode is an ideal rectifier with infinite resistance when it is reverse biased but zero resistance when it is forward biased. while the second is obtained by KVL.

equation into the second. then can be found. Method 3: The two simultaneous equations above can also be solved graphically. When the load is less. . Example 2: Design a converter (adaptor) that converts AC power supply of 115V and 60 Hz to a DC voltage source of 14 V. which . the variation (ripple) of the output DC voltage must be 5% or . a straight line passing through and . The intersection point of the two curves is approximately at . The first equation characteristic curve of the diode. while the second equation is the is the load line. we get can be solved numerically for • .

Otherwise the exponential decay of the voltage across capacitor should be used. but we also need to compensate for the voltage drop of 0. and the current is: Next: Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Up: ch4 Previous: Semiconductor materials Ruye Wang 2011-07-18 . the • When the load is is . the load current .• The desired DC voltage is 14 V.4. . .7 V due to the forward biased diode. we . . so the peak of the secondary output is with RMS value ratio of the transformer should be 115:10. • • This is an approximation based on the assumption that the load current is constant. The voltage across the capacitor is therefore dropped by Solve above equation for get . • During the period between two peaks the charge on the capacitor is reduced by . as the voltage drop is small.

Zener Regulator The constant reverse voltage of the zener diode makes it a valuable component for the regulation of the output voltage against both variations in the input voltage from an unregulated power supply or variations in the load resistance. Electronics concepts Diode varieties Design Example Buffer for Zener regulator HyperPhysics*****Electricity and magnetism R Nave Go Back . The current through the zener will change to keep the voltage at Index within the limits of the threshold of zener action and the maximum power it can dissipate.

The logic of this design strategy is to protect the zener diode. Calculation note: You may substitute values for the zener voltage. = þÿ Index Electronics concepts Diode varieties This design with a load resistance will give an output current and output power = þÿ = þÿ mA W = þÿ To do this. If you experiment with the input values. þÿ V and a maximum power of P = = þÿ þÿ must limit the current to = þÿ mA . The circuit will also be more efficient in power use. the maximum power.Zener Regulator Design One strategy for designing a Zener regulator circuit is to design for a maximum power dissipated in the zener diode when the regulator is open circuited. you will be able to get more regulated power out without opencircuit risk to the zener diode. or the load resistor. the zener voltage. Default values will be entered for unspecified parameters used in the calculation. but not less than. Alternate Design Strategy . If the input voltage is then you will require a resistor volts. The other parameters will be calculated. the input voltage. If you start with an unregulated power supply which is closer to. you will discover some of the practical truths about zener-regulated power supplies. þÿ = to protect the zener in open circuit. For a zener voltage the resistor = W. it will require input power W. The designed resistor limits the current so that you don't burn out the zener diode if the load resistor gets disconnected.

Characteristics Figure 1 shows the current versus voltage curve for a Zener diode. Kuhn April 3. In breakdown the voltage across the Zener diode is close to constant over a wide range of currents thus making it useful as a shunt voltage regulator. The . 2009 Introduction A Zener diode is a PN junction that has been specially made to have a reverse voltage breakdown at a specific voltage. Figure 1: Zener diode characteristics The forward bias region of a Zener diode is identical to that of a regular diode. Observe the nearly constant voltage in the breakdown region. Its characteristics are otherwise very similar to common diodes.HyperPhysics*****Electricity and magnetism R Nave Go Back Zener Diode Voltage Regulators 1 by Kenneth A.

6 volts. at which the power dissipation drives the junction temperature to the maximum allowed (typically in the 125 to 150 C range). As the breakdown voltage is approached the current will begin to avalanche. IZmax.typical forward voltage at room temperature with a current of around 1 mA is around 0. that places the operating point in the desired breakdownZener Diode Voltage Regulators 2 region and there is a maximum Zener current. Beyond that current and the diode can be damaged or destroyed. The initial transition from leakage to breakdown is soft but then the current rapidly increases as shown on the plot. In the reverse bias condition the Zener diode is an open circuit and only a small leakage current is flowing as shown on the exaggerated plot. It is possible that a lower value could be used particularly at Zener voltages greater than . There is no specific value for IZmin although it is typically taken to be ten percent of IZmax. At some high current level the power dissipation of the diode becomes excessive and the part is destroyed. IZmin. There is a minimum Zener current. The voltage across the Zener diode in the breakdown region is very nearly constant with only a small increase in voltage with increasing current.

4. 18. A typical Zener diode shunt regulator is shown in Figure 2.6.1. To prevent the current from going to zero.around six. 1. etc. 5. and 5 watts although other values are available.3. This insures that the diode operating current is in the breakdown region and not in the soft transition region.8.FromWatt’slawthemaximumcurrentis IZmax = PZ / VZ. The resistor is sized so that when the input voltage is at VINmin and the load current is at ILmax that the current through .9. 20. 2. Zener diodes are available from about 2. 5. 2. Zener diodes are typically available with power ratings of 0. 4.0 3. PZ. 13.7. 10. 12. 15. 7. 16. 11. 3. 0. 8. A shunt regulator has to conduct current in order to be in regulation.25.2. 6.1. 4.4 to 200 volts typically using the same sequence of values as used for the 5% resistor series –2.3. The purpose of a voltage regulator is to maintain a constant voltage across a load regardless of variations in the applied input voltage and variations in the load current.2.6. All Zener diodes have a power rating.7. 6. 24.5. 0.5. The ten percent value is also a historical ruleof-thumb for shunt voltage regulators in general. 9. 3. 3. 22.4. 3. shunt regulators are often designed so that at the maximum load current there is at least ten percent of that current in the regulator.

Shunt regulators have an inherent currentZener Diode Voltage Regulators 3 limiting advantage under load fault conditions because the series resistor limits excess current. The Zener conducts the least current when the load current is the highest and it conducts the most current when the load current is the lowest. VINmin The minimum value of the applied input voltage. This must be higher than VZ. VZ The desired regulated voltage rounded to the closest available Zener diode standard voltage. Figure 2: Zener diode shunt regulator Shunt regulators are normally only used for applications where the load power is not much (no more than a few watts) because under the worst case situation of no load the Zener has to dissipate the full load power. . Then for all other combinations of input voltage and load current the Zener diode conducts the excess current thus maintaining a constant voltage across the load.the Zener diode is at least IZmin. Design The following data must be known in order to design a voltage regulator using a Zener diode. preferably at least twenty-five percent higher.

ILmax The maximum value of load current.e. PZ. highest) power dissipation in the Zener at the minimum load current (typically zero) as PZmax = [((VINmax –VZ) / R) . 3. Compute IZmin = 0. 2.1 IZmax from step 2 into step 3 and then the resulting unrounded R into step 5. This is only a trial value and may have to be increased depending on the outcome of the following calculations. Calculate the worst case (i. This is often an iterative process as with many design processes. The design method will use the above data to determine the required power rating of the Zener and the ohmic value and required power rating of the series resistor.1 * ILmax)] –ILmin} * VZ {[(VINmin –VZ ) Round the result up to the nearest higher available power rating.1 * maximum(PZ / VZ. R. Calculate Rcalc = (VINmin –VZ) / (ILmax + IZmin).Zener Diode Voltage Regulators . 1. This estimate comes from substituting IZmin = 0. Round Rcalc down (never up) to the nearest standard value. R. ILmax).VINmax The maximum value of the applied input voltage. Estimate the power rating of the Zener by the equation {[(VINmax –VZ) PZest = {[(------------------) * (1. 5.ILmin] * VZ. ILmin The minimum value of load current which is often taken to be zero. 4.

25. 3.08 3 27 3 15 19 21 0. 2 watts) for the following designs. 1. 0. 0.1 11. the standard ohmic value (5% series). 7.05 0. Design homework Determine the power rating of the Zener (using the list of available powers: 0.4. 1.05 1 33 1 12 15 18 0 0. and the power rating of the resistor (0.5.2 12. and 5 watts). 2.06 1 68 2 .05 0. Common practice is to roughly double this power value and round up to the nearest standard resistor rating.4 0 0.5.5 75 1 9. If PZmax exceeds PZ then repeat steps 2 through 5 using the next higher available power rating for the Zener voltage. However.1 10 12 0 0.4 6.25. Calculate the maximum power dissipation of R as Rdiss = (VINmax –VZ) 2 / R. Design Problem Answers VZ VINmin VINmax ILmin ILmax PZ R PR 5. 0. depending on the environment an even higher power rating might be required –that is thermal design which is separate from this article.

5 15.5 0.12 14.05 1 39 1 .03 0.