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Algebra II Survival Guide was created and edited by students in Ms. Dott Johnson’s Honors Algebra II classes during the first semester of the 20062007 school year. Students attend Winters Mill High School, which is located in Westminster, Maryland. The purpose of this class project was to give students the opportunity to create their own resource for future math classes. Algebra II Survival Guide aligns with the class textbook Algebra 2, which was published by McDougal Littell in 2001. However, the chapter numbers in this guide may not match the chapter numbers in the text. Additionally, there are some topics that appear in the guide that are not in the textbook. Many of the featured problems, explanations, and definitions are taken from this textbook. Additionally, the featured graphics are not original. They are public domain.

Algebra 2 McDougal Littell, 2001

Acknowledgements

• There were 8 students who agreed to be technical editors of our book. They learned how to use Equation Editor ® and Winplot ® and then helped their classmates create pages in the book. These students are: Gus Foley, Chris Frock, Chip Hawkins, Drew Hubble, Katherine Jones, Evan Myers, Kelly Purcell, and Nathan Rapp. • The cover was designed by Kristin Corman and Daniela Rivadeneira. • We would like to thank Ms. Kirstie Troutman for helping with the “Sammy Sandwich” fundraiser and for allowing us to use her digital camera. • We would like to thank Ms. Marty Gilbert and Ms. Bonnie Kreamer in the media center for allowing us to use the computer lab to create our book. • We would like to thank Mr. Kenneth Goncz, Principal, for giving his support to us. • We would like to thank Mr. Thomas Walker for helping us add the digital pictures to our book. • We would like to thank everyone who supported this project by purchasing a “Sammy Sandwich.” • Ms. Johnson would like to thank Ms. Sherri-Le Bream, Director of Secondary Schools, for sending her to the Model Schools Conference in Orlando, Florida. This was where she first learned about publishing in the classroom. • Ms. Johnson would like to thank Mr. Christopher Kloss from Technology Services for helping her with her computer “crisis.” • Ms. Johnson would like to thank Mr. Christopher Howard for teaching her about Winplot ®. • Ms. Johnson would like to thank her husband Joel for helping with file conversions.

**Chapter 1: Literal Equations and Compound Inequalities
**

Page 1 2 4 6 8 Section Chapter 1 Title Page 1-1 Rewriting Literal Equations 1-2 Solving & Graphing Compound Inequalities 1-3 Solving Absolute Value Equations & Inequalities Answers to Chapter 1 Practice Problems Author Kelly Purcell, Captain Daniela Rivadeneira Zauhn Lewis Amanda Hartman Kelly Purcell, Captain

**Chapter 2: Functions and their Graphs
**

Page 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Section Chapter 2 Title Page 2-1 Domain and Range 2-2 Writing Equations of Lines 2-3 Slope-Intercept Form vs. Standard Form 2-4 Graphing Absolute Value Functions 2-5 Graphing Piecewise Functions 2-6 Functional Notation Answers to Chapter 2 Practice Problems Author Christian Gomes, Captain Dustin Blankenship Kelly Davis Evan Huggins Jeremy Salkin Eli Seligman Drew Hubble Christian Gomes, Captain

**Chapter 3: Systems of Equations
**

Page 23 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 Section Chapter 3 Title Page 3-1 Solving by Graphing By Hand 3-2 Solving with Graphing Calculator 3-3 Solving by Substitution 3-4 Solving by Linear Combinations 3-5 Solving a System of 3 Unknowns Algebraically 3-6 Solving a System of Linear Inequalities 3-7 Linear Programming Answers to Chapter 3 Practice Problems Author Dan Zawacki, Captain Ted Zaleski James Ways Brian Desel Andrew Bowie Will Sharkey Elizabeth Beall Katherine Jones Dan Zawacki, Captain

Chapter 4: Matrices Page 39 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 Section Chapter 4 Title Page 4-1 Adding. & Scalar Multiplication 4-2 Multiplying Matrices 4-3 Calculating Determinants 4-4 Using Determinants 4-5 Inverse Matrices 4-6 Using Inverse Matrices Answers to Chapter 4 Practice Problems Author Chip Hawkins. Subtracting. Captain Jennie Gibbs Staci Jasilaitis Erin Kersell Mansi Doshi Lindsay Inge Nicole Nichols Christine Della Donna. Captain Christopher Capasso Chelsea Rumbaugh Evan Myers Emily Middleton Catherine Fitzgerald Amy Warner Emma Malone. Captain Chapter 6: Quadratic Equations Page 67 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 Section Chapter 6 Title Page 6-1 Solving by Factoring 6-2 Solving by Square Roots 6-3 Solving by Completing the Square 6-4 Solving by Quadratic Formula 6-5 Solving by Graphing Calculator 6-6 Graphing Parabolas Answers to Chapter 6 Practice Problems Author Emma Malone. Captain . Captain Chapter 5: Skills for Solving and Graphing Quadratic Equations Page 53 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 Section Chapter 5 Title Page 5-1 Calculating the Discriminant 5-2 Finding the Vertex of a Parabola 5-3 Factoring Binomials 5-4 Factoring Trinomials 5-5 Simplifying Radicals 5-6 Simplifying Complex Numbers Answers to Chapter 5 Practice Problems Author Christine Della Donna. Captain Mark Kennedy Benjamin Love Kara Johansson Joey Steinberg Marilyn Retzler Mason Shaw Chip Hawkins.

Captain Chapter 8: Solving Polynomial Equations Page 95 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 Section Chapter 8 Title Page 8-1 Factoring Sums and Differences of Cubes 8-2 Factoring by Grouping 8-3 Factoring that Never Ends 8-4 Solving Polynomial Equations by Factoring 8-5 Solving Polynomial Equations by the Rational Zero Theorem 8-6 Trigonometry Extension: Factoring Lead Coefficients Answers to Chapter 8 Practice Problems Author Nora Hood. Subtracting. Captain Jeff Braun Alden Chang Chris Frock Kristin Corman Gus Foley Jenny Diamond Nora Hood. and Multiplying Polynomials 7-4 Polynomial Division 7-5 Binomial Expansion with Pascal’s Triangle 7-6 Synthetic Division and Substitution Answers to Chapter 7 Practice Problems Author Amanda Simensky.Chapter 7: Polynomials Page 81 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 Section Chapter 7 Title Page 7-1 Properties of Exponents 7-2 Zero and Negative Exponents 7-3 Adding. Captain . Captain Zach Streiff Jason Stahl Sarah Middleton Jessica Robinson Dane Foxwell Katherine Salafia Amanda Simensky.

Captain Chapter 10: Rational Expressions. Captain Jimmy Nunnally Hannah Achilles Alexis Murray McKensie Robinson Nathan Rapp Ceili Wonilowicz Juliana Peterson. Captain . Functions. and Dividing Rational Expressions 10-3 Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions 10-4 Solving Rational Equations Answers to Chapter 10 Practice Problems Author Tyler Grimes. Roots. and Radicals Page 109 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 Section Chapter 9 Title Page 9-1 Radical and Rational Notation 9-2 Simplifying Radicals with Index > 2 9-3 Solving Equations with n th roots 9-4 Solving Radical Equations 9-5 Composition of Functions 9-6 Inverse Functions Answers to Chapter 9 Practice Problems Author Juliana Peterson. Multiplying. and Equations Page 123 124 126 128 130 132 Section Chapter 10 Title Page 10-1 Graphing General Rational Functions 10-2 Simplifying.Chapter 9: Powers. Captain Robert Kapp Tiffany Spicer Calvin Haugh Jen Buckley Tyler Grimes.

Daniela Rivadeneira.Amanda Hartman. Kelly Purcell (Captain). and Zauhn Lewis 1 .

when rewriting literal equations… • The variable you are solving for has to be all alone on one side of the equation. So you need to isolate the variable (preferably on the left side). (If it is a proportion then you can crossmultiply). then factor out that variable. If the variable shows up in more than one term. Examples Solve for x: 1) 3 x + 5 y = 2 2) 3 x = 2 − 5 y Transpose the 5 y 2 − 5y x= Divide by 3 3 3) 2 4 x− y =2 3 3 2 4 3( x − y = 2) Multiply by the LCD 3 3 2 x − 4 y = 6 Transpose the − 4 y 2x = 4 y + 6 x = 2 y + 3 Divide by 2 3 x = 5 xy − 7 3 x − 5 xy = −7 Transpose the 5 xy x (3 − 5 y ) = −7 Factor out the x −7 x= Divide by 3 − 5 y 3 − 5y 2 . Get rid of fractions by multiplying by the least common denominator (LCD). • • Formulas are literal equations Literal equations can be rewritten for any of its variables Steps (hints) for solving literal equations: 1. Division is usually the LAST step! 3. *Remember.Literal Equations.Equations that have more than one variable. ISOLATE the variable 4. 2.

Practice Problems 1) Solve for x 4x + 7 y = 8 2) Solve for x 5 y = x+2 3 3) Solve for x 3 1 ( x + y ) = xy − z 2 4 3 .

If the graphs of each linear inequality goes in the same direction just bring down the larger graph. Reminder when dividing by a negative number in an inequality the sign ( ≤ or ≥. but can satisfy both When Graphing If the graphs of each linear inequality goes in different directions bring both down to the number line. < or > ) changes to its opposite. connected by “or” or the symbol ( ∪ ) Solutions must satisfy at least one of the inequalities. Examples of Conjunctions #1 x + 2 ≤ 10 ∩ − 5 x < − 10 x + 2 ≤ 10 x ≤ 8 − 5 x < − 10 x > 2 Solve each side separately Subtract 2 Divide each side by -5 {x 2 < x ≤ 8} Place the answers in the bracket format and graph 4 .Conjunctions Definition: Two or more inequalities considered together. connected by “and” or the symbol ( ∩ ) Solutions must satisfy both inequalities When Graphing Look for the intersection overlap If the graphs go in the same direction bring down the smaller graph to the number line in order to show where the overlap occurs Disjunctions Definition: Two or more inequalities considered together.

Practice Problems 1. Solve x ≥ 5∩ x ≤ 9 3.#2 x > 3 and x < 7 Place points on the graph and thicken the area where the graphs overlap {x 3 < x < 7} #3 Place in the bracket format Examples of Disjunctions 3x +5< 8 or − x <−4 3 x 2< +3 π 5 x 3 xx x <21ππ12 4 x x φ 169 4− 7 φ separately Solve each part Subtract five from both sides Divide each side by 3 − x < − 4 Divide each side by -1 xφ 4 x > {x x < 1 ∪ x > 4}Place points on the graph 4 thicken the area influenced by the and inequality #4 x > 2∪ x > 8 {x x > 2} *in this case of a disjunction because x > 2 overlaps x > 8 the graph of x > 2 is necessary. Solve 3x − 1 < 5 ∪ − x > 2 x + 1 2. Solve x < 2∪ x ≥ 6 5 .

does it make sense? • Watch for no solution or all real numbers • DO NOT DISTRIBUTE in cases like 3 x • When you multiply or divide an inequality by a negative number. reverse the inequality sign Solving an Absolute value equation x =a Rewrite as x = a or x = −a Solve each equation Example 1: 2x+3 = 6 Divide each side by 2 x+3 =3 x+3=3 x + 3 = −3 x=0 x = −6 {0.−6} Example 2: x−2 −4=8 x − 2 = 12 x − 2 = 12 x − 2 = −12 x = 14 x = −10 {14.−10} Rewrite the equation as follows: Solve each new equation by subtracting 3 from both sides Add 4 to each side Rewrite as follows: Solve each new equation by adding 2 to both sides 6 .Things to remember when solving… • Isolate the absolute value (preferably on the left hand side) • Think about the solution.

it is now in the format of a Greater than inequality.) 3 + 3x = 30 2.Solving an absolute value greater than (>) or greater than or equal to ( ≥ ) inequality x >a Rewrite as x > a or x < −a (disjunction) Solve each inequality Example: − 3 x − 1 < −30 Divide both sides by -3 x − 1 > 10 x − 1 > 10 x − 1 < −10 x > 11 x < −9 {x x > 11 ∪ x < 9} note: because the signs were switched.) 4 x − 1 < 2 3.) 4 x − 8 >6 7 . Continue to solve as a greater than inequality by rewriting as follows: Solve each equation by adding 1 to each side Solving an absolute value less than (< ) or less than or equal to ( ≤ ) inequality x <a Rewrite as − a < x < a (conjunction) Solve the inequality Example 1: − 2 x + 1 < 15 Subtract 1 from each side − 2 x < 14 − 14 < −2 x < 14 {x 7 > x > −7 } Example 2: 2 3 + 2 x < 10 {x −7 < x < 7 } Rewrite as follows: Divide the entire conjunction by -2 (remember to switch the signs) Rewrite as follows: Divide each side by 2 Rewrite as follows: Subtract 3 from the entire conjunction (but not the 2x) Divide the entire conjunction by 2 3 + 2x < 5 − 5 < 3 + 2x < 5 − 8 < 2x < 2 {x − 4 < x < 1 } Practice problems: 1.

9} 1 3 2. {− 9. {x 5 ≤ x ≤ 9} 2.Answers to Chapter 1 Practice Problems Section 1-1 1. {x x < 2 } 1-3 1. x = 3y − 6 5 3. {x x < 2 ∪ x ≥ 6} 3. ⎧ x | < x < ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ 2 2⎭ 3. {x x > 7 1⎫ or x < ⎬ 2 2⎭ 8 . x = 8 − 7y 4 Answers 2. x = 6y − z 6 − 4y 1-2 1.

Kelly Davis. Dustin Blankenship. Drew Hubble. Evan Huggins. and Jeremy Salkin Kneeling: Christian Gomes (Captain) 9 .Standing (Left to Right): Eli Seligman.

Domain. This means that “ x is an element of all real numbers. how can the domain and range of a relation be found? Ex: y = 5x 2 Domain. Since the highest x value in the graph is 1. it would be expressed as {x / − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1} .Because the above figure is connected by points. The equation would then be expressed as { y / 0 ≤ y ≤ 1} . and any number above satisfies the equation. Since the highest y value is1 .The range is expressed similarly to the domain. All relations consist of a Domain and Range.Since any number would work to substitute for x .4). it would fill in for a . When given an equation. . it would fill in for b .” should be expressed as { y / y ≥ 0} . the domain will be expressed Range. it would fill in the place of a . The domain is the set of all possible X values in a relation. how can the domain and range of a relation be found? as {x / a < x < b} This means that a is less than x . such as (3. When given a graph. it would be expressed as {x / x ∈ R} .Since the lowest possible outcome of the equation is 0 . The range is the set of all possible Y values in a relation.2-1: Domain and Range A relation is a set of ordered pairs. except y takes the place of x . And since the lowest y value is 0 . it would take the place of b . Since the lowest x value in the above graph is -1. which is less than b . Therefore. Range. it 10 . This means that y can be equal to 0 . and any number above is possible. That means a is the lowest value and b is the highest.

5} . the domain would be expressed as {1. how can the domain and range of a relation be found? Ex: P : {(1. y is not required.6)} Domain.When given a list of ordered pairs. only a list should be made. marking the range. Similar to the domain. (3. (5.4.3.The first numbers in the ordered pairs are the x values.3)} Domain? Range? 11 . For this example. For this mathematical problem. (4. so every first number would mark the domain. Notice that x is not needed. In the above example.4).4). (5.3).The second numbers in each ordered pair are the y values. Practice problems1) What is the Domain of this function? The range? 2) y = x 2 − 4 Domain? Range? 3) P : {(6. Range. the range would be expressed as {2.6} .2).

2-2: Writing Equations of Lines In order to write an equation of a line. you need to remember 3 formulas: Slope-intercept Point-slope Slope y = mx + b y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) ( y2 − y1 ) ÷ ( x2 − x1 ) You also need to be aware of special cases such as vertical and horizontal lines: y=k Horizontal line Zero Slope Parallel to x-axis Crosses only y-axis x=k Vertical line Undefined Slope Parallel to y-axis Crosses only x-axis Slope-intercept: Use slope-intercept formula Example: Given m= 3 2 and b =1 3 x +1 2 y = mx + b y= Plug the m and b into the equation Given slope and point: Use point-slope formula Plug the m. 1) and m=2 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2( x − 4) x1 and y1 Distribute and transpose y = 2x − 7 12 . or one point and the slope. Example: Given (4. Remember: m represents slope and b represents y-intercept. two points. When doing these problems. you need a slope and yintercept.

2 Use point-slope formula Substitute for m. 4) and has a slope of m Write and equation of a line that passes through (0.) 4. =2 Write an equation of a line that passes through (2. Find the slope Use point-slope formula Substitute for m.Given a point and equation of a line: Example: Write the equation of a line that passes through (1.) 2. 7). (7 − 9) ÷ ( 4 − 5) = 2 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y1 x1 and y − 9 = 2( x − 5) Distribute and transpose Practice Problems 1. then you’d find the opposite reciprocal (which would be -2).) y = 2x − 1 Write an equation of a line given m = −3 and b = − 4 Write an equation of a line that passes through (0. then the slope of the equation you are finding is the same.) 3. ** 1 x + 1 . 9) and (4. 0) and is perpendicular to y = 1 x+2 4 13 . 2) and is parallel to y = **Since the line is parallel to y = 1 x +1. 5) and (-4. 2 If it was perpendicular. 1). y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y1 y−2 = 1 ( x − 1) 2 x1 and Distribute and transpose Given 2 Points: y= 1 3 x+ 2 2 Example: Write the equation of a line that passes through (5.

4. 4. Standard Form Slope-Intercept Form Formula: x = var iable • y = mx m = slope + b b = y Intercept Use slope intercept form of a linear equation to graph linear equations Standard Form Formula: Ax + By = C Rules: • • A must be positive.2-3: Slope-Intercept Form Vs. 3. 2. 3( y = 3 y = 2 x − 15 − 2 x + 3 y = − 15 2 x − 3 y = 15 Standard to Slope-Intercept: 3 x + 15 y = 10 1. 2. 5. 3. Final answer. Subtract x to bring it to the other side. Simplify fractions. 15 y = −3x + 10 y= y= −3 10 x+ 15 15 −1 2 x+ 5 3 14 . Subtract 2x from both sides. Multiply the entire equation by 3 to take out the fraction. Write the equation. Divide by negative 1 to make the lead coefficient positive. Examples Slope-Intercept to Standard: y = 2 x − 5 3 2 x − 5) 3 1. Divide by 15 to isolate y. Final answer. A B and C can not be a fractions or decimals.

Practice Change to standard form: 1. 7 x + 15 y = 10 15 . 3 x + 4 y = 20 5.6 2. y = 3 x + 5 3. y = 1 x+2 2 Change to slope intercept form: 4. y = . 6 x + 10 y = 20 6.13 x + 2.

Plot the vertex and graph the line that the slope creates.2-4: Graphing Absolute Value Functions Formula: y = a x − h + k . 3. Determine the slope and vertex. Steps: 1. and the vertex is located at the point (h. it will be the line x = 2 ( ).-1) Once you have plotted the first line. −2 −3 −4 16 . In this problem. and reflect it over the line x=h Hints: • • • An absolute value function looks like the letter v If a is positive. Take the line that was formed. then the v will open downwards ( ∧ ) Example: 4 y 3 y = 3x −2 −1 −4 −3 −2 −1 2 1 x 1 −1 2 3 4 5 m=3 Vertex=( 2. 2.k). then the v will open upwards ( ∨ ) If a is negative. Where a is the slope. reflect it over the line x = h .

Practice Problems: • Graph each absolute value function 1 x +3 2 1. y = 3 x − 2 − 1 17 . y = − 2.

− = 3 2 2 c) Answer: 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 5 1 2 3 4 5 2) ⎧1 if 0 ≤ x < 2 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩3 if 2 ≤ x < 4 a) The graph. Graph the first equation in the problem 2. . Functions are relations with exactly 1 output for each input. 1 5 b) To the right of and including x =1. x = 1. y =y x +− x + is graphed. each corresponding to a part of the domain. Repeat the process for each equation Examples: 1) 3 ⎧ 1 2 x if x < 1 ⎪ ⎧ x + if x = 1 ⎪ f ( x) = ⎨ 2 f ( x) = ⎨ 1 2 5 ⎪− − + 3 + x ≥ 1 x ≥ 1 ⎩ ⎪ x x if if 2 ⎩ 2 a) To the left of x = 1 y = 2x is graphed.2-5: Graphing Piecewise Functions Piecewise Functions are functions represented by a combination of equations. Steps: 1. The first “step” in the problem will be shown by y = 1 when x is greater than or equal to 0 and less than 2. when finished will be composed of 2 line segments. Erase graphed parts of the function that aren’t relevant 4. Draw lines determined by the domain 3. c) Answer: 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 5 1 2 3 4 5 18 . b) The other equation can be graphed through the same process as the first equation.

Try these practice problems: 1) ⎧ 2 x + 13 if x ≥ − 5 ⎪ f (x) = ⎨ 1 ⎪ x + 2 if x < − 5 ⎩ 2) ⎧3 if − 1 ≤ x < 2 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩5 if 2 ≤ x < 4 19 .

For example. How does it Work? The symbol f (x ) is another form of the y-variable.2-6: Functional Notation The Definition Functional Notation is the use of the Symbol f (x ) for the dependant variable of a function.-2) lies on the line y=-2x+2 20 . For example: f (2) if f ( x) = −2 x + 2 Just substitute 2 in for x − 2( 2) + 2 −2 f (2) = −2 This means that (2.The linear function y = mx + b can be written as f ( x ) = mx + b .

) f (11) if f ( x) = x 21 .Practice.) f (−5) if f ( x) = 3x3 − 5 x 2 + x − 5 3.) f (3) if f ( x) = 4 x + 2 2.Evaluate f(x) 1.

5. Domain: {x | x ∈ R} Range: { y | y ≥ −4} 2-3 1. y = x + 5 Answers 1.Answers to Chapter 2 Practice Problems Section 2-1 Range: { y | y ≥ −2} 3. y = 2 x + 4 3. 13x − 100 y = −260 4. 4} 2-2 1. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 −9 −8 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −6 −7 8 y 2. Domain: {4. 3x − y = −5 3 5 3. 11 22 . y = −4 x + 8 4. x 1 2 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 2 y x 1 2 3 4 5 2-6 1. y = − x + 5 3 4 2. y = − x + 2 6. 14 2. 6} Range: {3. 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 5 y 2. y = − 2-4 1. − 510 3. x 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 5 y x 1 2 3 4 5 2-5 1. y = −3x − 4 2. Domain: {x | x ∈ R} 2. x − 2 y = −4 7 2 x+ 15 3 5.

Brian Desel. Katie Jones. James Ways.Back row (left to right): Willy Sharkey. Andrew Bowie. and Teddy Zaleski Kneeling: Dan Zawacki (Captain) 23 . Elizabeth Beall.

If the lines are the same. that means many points of intersection. Example #1 2x − y = 3 2x + 3y = 7 2x − y = 3 − y = −2 x + 3 − y − 2x 3 = + −1 −1 −1 y = 2x − 3 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5 2x + 3y = 7 3 y = −2x + 7 3y − 2 7 = x+ 3 3 3 y= −2 7 x+ 3 3 −1 −2 −3 −4 5 Final Answer: (2.3-1: Solving by Graphing by Hand How to solve: • • • Write each equation in slope-intercept form Graph each equation Identify the point of intersection Remember: If the lines are parallel. then that means no solution.1) 24 .

Practice Problems: x + 2y = 9 − x + 6 y = −1 1) 2) 2 x + y = −2 x − 2 y = 19 3) − x + 4 y = 10 4 x − y = −10 25 .

Enter. 6 ( if you don’t see the point of intersection press zoom . 3 until you do) • Press 2nd.3-2: Solving with Graphing Calculator • • Steps: Write equation in slope intercept form Press ( y =) and type each equation into the y 1 and y2 • Press zoom. trace. Enter Special things you need to remember: • • • Only works for equations with two variables Any fractions – you must put them into parenthesis when entering the equation into the calculator Won’t work for special cases Solve: 5 x + 3 y = −15 4 x − 2 y = 45 Examples: Step #1: put both equations into slope intercept .form 5 x + 3 y = − 15 − 5x − 5x 4 x − 2 y = 45 − 4x − 4x 3 y − 5 x − 15 = 3 3 −5 y= x−5 3 − 2y 4 x + 45 =− −2 −2 45 y = 2x − 2 26 . Enter.

y = x+4 y = 2x + 5 3 . Trace.Step #2: type into y1 and y2 Step #3: Zoom out till you see the point Step 4: Press 2nd . 3 x + 4 y = 26 2 x + 8 y = −53 2. 5 Step #5: press Enter Step #6: press Enter Step #7: press Enter You get your answer of (4. x − 3 y = −5 5x + 2 y = 6 27 .−13) Practice: 1.8.

-3) y = x−7 Example 1 28 .3-3: Solving by Substitution • Solve one equation for one of its variables • Substitute the expression (“bubble”) into the other equation and solve for the other variable • Substitute your value into any equation to find the other value (put answer back in the “bubble”) Steps: BUBBLE 2 x − y = 11 Step 1: Substitute y value into second equation and solve for x 2 x − ( x − 7) = 11 2 x − x + 7 = 11 x + 7 = 11 −7 −7 x=4 Step 2: Substitute x value into the bubble and solve for y y = 4−7 y = −3 Answer: (4.

5) 1. 4. 2x + 3 y = 5 Practice Problems 2. x − 5y = 9 4 x + 6 y = 15 − x + 2y = 5 − x + 2y = 3 4 x − 5 x = −3 − 5 x + 7 y = 11 − 5 x + 3 y = 19 3.Example 2: 3 x + 4 y = −4 x + 2y = 2 Step 1: Solve second equation for x x + 2y = 2 − 2y − 2y x = −2 y + 2 Step 2: Substitute bubble into first equation and solve for y 3 (−2 y + 2) + 4 y = −4 − 6 y + 6 + 4 y = −4 −6 −6 − 6 y + 4 y = −10 − 2 y − 10 = −2 −2 y=5 Step 3: Substitute y into any equation x + 2 (5) = 2 x + 10 = 2 − 10 − 10 x=8 Answer: (−8. 29 .

multiply one or both equations by a constant to create opposites 3.) If not.) Substitute the solution into the equations and repeat steps until all variables are solved for Example: − 5 y + 3 x = 11 − 4 x + 5 y = −13 3 x − 5 y = 11 − 4 x + 5 y = 13 1.-1) 30 .3-4: Solving by Linear Combinations When can I use this? •This method can be used for any system as long as the equations vertically align Steps for Solving Using Linear Combinations: 1.) Combine equations and solve for a variable 4.) Substitute (x=2) answer… (2.) Combine and solve − x = −2 x=2 3(2) − 5 y = 11 6 − 5 y = 11 − 5y = 5 y = −1 4.) Vertically align equations * (opposites so go to step 3) 3 x − 5 y = 11 + − 4 x + 5 y = −13 3.) Align equations vertically (ax + by = c) * If you have opposites go to step 3 (ax + by = c) + (ax − by = c) 2.

) y = x−7 − y = 2 x − 11 31 .Practice: 1.) x + 3 y = 1500 5 x + 2 y = 2300 3.) 3 y = −2 x − 15 6 y = −3 x − 22 2.

**3-5: Solving a System of Three Unknowns Algebraically
**

•When can I use this? - This method is beneficial in finding unknown numbers in problems, like finding lost measurements or calculations.

1.-Choose a pair of equations and eliminate one of the variables. A.) − 2 x − 4 y + 6 z = 6 < − − Multiply A by (−2) Eliminate one A.) x + 2 y − 3 z = −3 B.) 2 x − 5 y + 4 z = 13 B.)2 x − 5 y + 4 z = 13 variable by canceling them out. − 9 y + 10 z = 19 C.)5 x + 4 y − z = 5

Steps:

2.-Choose a different pair of equations and eliminate the same variable. A.) − 5 x − 10 y + 15 z = 15 < − − Multiply A by (−5) A.) x + 2 y − 3 z = −3 Eliminate the C.) 5 x + 4 y − z = 5 B.)2 x − 5 y + 4 z = 13 same variable. − 6 y + 14 z = 20 C.)5 x + 4 y − z = 5

3.-Take the resultant equation from steps 1 and 2 and solve the system. Eliminate (− 9y +10z = 19)(− 2) = 18y − 20z = −38 − 9 y + 10 z = 19 − 18 y + 42 z = 60 variable and − 6 y + 14 z = 20 (− 6y +14z = 20)(3) = 22 z = 22 z = 1 solve equation 4.-Subtitiute your answers into an original equation to find the last variable. − 2x − 4 y = 0 A.) x + 2 y − 3(1) = −3 Insert first 2x − 5 y = 9 B.)2 x − 5 y + 4(1) = 13 unknown into equations, then − 9 y = 9 y = −1 C.)5 x + 4 y − (1) = 5 eliminate another unknown variable 5.-Substitute the last variable into the original equation and solve. x=2 5 x = 10 C .)5 x + 4( −1) − (1) = 5

ANSWER: (2, -1, 1)

32

Practice:

1.)

x − 6 y − 2 z = −8 − x + 5 y + 3z = 2 3 x − 2 y − 4 z = 18

2.) x − 3 y + 6 z = 21

3 x + 2 y − 5 y = −30 2 x − 5 y + 2 y = −6

3.) 2 x − 3 y + z = 10

y + 2 z = 13 z =5

33

**3-6: Solving Systems of Linear Inequalities
**

• A solution of a system of linear inequalities is an ordered pair that is a solution of each inequality in the system • Graph of a system of linear inequalities is the graph of all the solutions of the system •Slope-intercept form = y = mx + b

Definitions:

Formulas: Steps:

1. Solve the system of inequalities for y or put it into slope intercept form 2. Graph the line that corresponds to the inequality. Use a dashed line for an inequality with < or > and a solid line for ≤ or ≥ . 3. Shade to the opposite direction. (ex: if y ≤ x + 2, shade y ≥ x + 2 ) 4. Repeat for all inequalities 5. The area left over should be outlined and colored so that you can see all of the solutions. The unshaded area is your answers!

**• Shade to the opposite side of the inequality so that your unshaded area is your answer
**

y≥0

Things to Remember:

Examples:

Answer (unshaded area)

1.

−6 x + 2 y ≤ −24 −6 x + 2 y ≤ −24 • +6 x + 6x

•

2 y ≤ 6 x − 24 2

• y ≤ 3 x − 12

34

Tell whether the ordered pair is a solution to the system: a.) ( 2.) (0.0) b.Practice: 1. Graph the system of inequalities x+ y ≤3 y >1 2.7) x ≥ −1 y > 2x + 2 35 .

3. Evaluate the objective function at EACH vertex to determine the minimum and maximum value.3-7: Linear Programming Definitions: Linear Programming is the process of optimizing a linear objective function subject to a system of linear inequalities call constraints. Vertex Theorem: If the feasible region is bounded. Steps: 1. Determine the vertices. x − + x 2 2 y y y ≤ ≤ ≤ 8 − − − x x 1 2 + x 8 + 4 36 . graph by plotting intercepts 2. Example 1: Optimize the following function: C = 3 x + 4 y Subject to the following constraint s x ≥ 0 y ≥ 0 x + 2 y ≤ 8 First set all of the equations equal to y. -May have to find a point of intersection. The graph of the system of constraints is called the feasible region. -If the numbers are big. Graph the constraints and shade the feasible region. then the objective function’s maximum and minimum values will occur at a vertex.

0) The minimum is 0 at (0.0) (0.4) (8.0) Evaluate (3)(0) + (4)(0) = 0 (3)(0) + (4)(4) = 16 (3)(8) + (4)(0) = 24 Determine the maximum and minimum values The Maximum value is 24 at (8.0) Practice Problem: 1) Optimize the following function: C = 4x + 6 y − x + y ≤ 11 x + y ≤ 27 2 x + 5 y ≤ 90 Subject to the following constraints: 37 .0) Using the objective function evaluate each vertex Vertices (0.0) (0.4) (8.Now graph the 3 constraints Shade x ≥ 0 y ≥ 0 y ≤ − 1 2 x + 4 x ≥ 0 Below x ≤ 0 Above Color in the feasible region Determine the vertices (0.

Min = 0 at (0. − 3 ) 2. (−1. 3. (3.3) 2. (−8. 3.0) and Max = 740 at (60.47. (4. (300. (3. 400) 3. 5 ) 1. 3. (26. ( 4.3) 3. (.2) 3-2 2.20) 3-7 38 .Answers to Chapter 3 Practice Problems Section 3-1 1. ( − 3.−8) Answers 3.1) 1. ) 2. 2. 1.−1) 1 2 2. -1) 1. (−5. 5 ) 2. a.19) 3-3 1.8) 3.25. − 13. (− 2. (0.) no b.) yes 3-5 3-6 * answer is the unshaded region 1.−2) 3-4 1. ( 7. ) 5 2 4. (7. (6.

From Left to Right: Mason Shaw. Kara Johansson. Mark Kennedy. Ben Love. Marilyn Retzler and Joey Steinberg Kneeling: Chip Hawkins (Captain) 39 .

if the dimensions of a matrix are 5X2. A matrix with the same number of rows as columns. Example [1 −3 4 −8] Square Matrix ⎡ −2 ⎤ ⎢0⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡10 −1 0 ⎤ ⎢ −5 3 −9 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 −2 −1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡0 0 ⎤ ⎢0 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Zero Matrix A matrix whose entries are all zeros.A matrix is a rectangular arrangement of numbers in rows and columns Entry. Name Row Matrix Column Matrix Description A matrix with only one row. Subtracting.4-1: Adding. 40 .The dimensions of a matrix are rows and columns For example.The entry in a matrix Dimensions. & Scalar Multiplication Definitions--Matrix. then there are 5 rows and 2 columns. A matrix with only one column.

⎡5 ⎤ 2⎢ ⎥ = ⎣4⎦ 41 .) Examplles Examp es ⎡2 1) ⎢ ⎣4 ⎡2 2) ⎢ ⎣5 3⎤ ⎡ 2 + 5⎥ ⎢− 1 ⎦ ⎣ 1⎤ ⎡ − 1 − 6⎥ ⎢− 3 ⎦ ⎣ 4 ⎤ ⎡ 2+2 = − 3 ⎥ ⎢ 4 + ( − 1) ⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎤ ⎡ 2 − ( − 1) = 5 ⎥ ⎢ 5 − ( − 3) ⎦ ⎣ 3 + 4 ⎤ ⎡4 = 5 + ( − 3) ⎥ ⎢ 3 ⎦ ⎣ 1 − 2 ⎤ ⎡3 = 6 − 5 ⎥ ⎢8 ⎦ ⎣ − 1⎤ 1 ⎥ ⎦ 7⎤ 2⎥ ⎦ ⎡3⎤ ⎡3 3) ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎣2⎦ ⎣2 2 *1 3⎤ = Cant do because the two matrixes 4⎥ ⎦ don' t have the same dimensions . you add or subtract the corresponding entries. ⎡ 2 ⎤ ⎡2 ⎤ ⎢3⎥ + ⎢3 ⎥ = ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 2. [2 Practice Problems 3 1] − [2 3 1] = 3. You multiply the number outside the matrix to every number inside the matrix.Adding and Subtracting Matrices (In order to add or subtract matrices. 2*2 c a a Mu p ca on Scallarr Mullttiiplliicattiion (To multiply a matrix by a scalar.) ⎡3 2 4⎤ ⎡2 * 3 2 * 2 2 * 4⎤ ⎡6 4 8 ⎤ 2⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣1 3 5 ⎦ ⎣ 2 *1 2 * 3 2 * 5⎦ ⎣2 6 10⎦ 1. you multiply each entry in the matrix by the scalar.

Inner Terms 3. Find matrix dimensions (Rows x Columns) 2.4-2: Multiplying Matrices [ ]Most Difficult [ ]Challenging [X]Easy NOTE: Matrix Multiplication is NOT commutative! Steps for Matrix Multiplication: 1. Determine if it is possible to multiply a) Align the dimensions (2 X 2)(2 X 3) b) Are the inner terms alike? If YES Continue with step 3. Take outer terms to find the solution’s dimensions. Multiply (Rows x Columns) ⎡4 Example: ⎢ 2 ⎣ 1⎤ 4⎥ ⎦ • ⎡ 2 3⎤ ⎢4 9⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢1 1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (2 X 2)(3 X 2) Different = NOT POSSIBLE 42 . If NO Not possible to multiply this matrix. Answer will be a (2x3) matrix! (2 X 2)(2 X 3) Outer 4.

⎢ 2 2⎥ B. ⎡− 3 5⎤ ⎡ 3⎤ A. ⎢4⎥ C. ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 −2 3 ⎤ ⎢− 3 2 − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢1 3 1⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎡5 4 2⎤ ⎢7 3 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1) A•B 2) B•D 3) A•D Good luck with the rest of Algebra II! 43 .Example: ⎡4 3 1⎤ ⎢2 4 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ • ⎡ 3 0⎤ ⎢8 3⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Answer = (2x2) (2 X 3)(3 X 2) Alike = Possible (4•3) + (3•8) + (1•1)= 12 + 24 + 1 = 37 (4•0) + (3•3) + (1•1)= 0 + 9 + 1 = 10 (2•3) + (4•8) + (1•1) = 6 + 32 + 1 = 39 (2•0) + (4•3) + (1•1) = 0 + 12 + 1 = 13 Practice Problems: ⎡37 10 ⎤ ⎢39 13 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ D.

Subtract the sums of the products 3× 3 ⎡a b ⎢d e ⎢ ⎢g h ⎣ c⎤ a f⎥ d ⎥ i⎥ g ⎦ b e h (aei + bfg + cdh) – (ceg + afh + bdi) 44 . Multiply diagonally from top left to bottom right. 2.4-3: Calculating Determinants Steps: 1. then multiply bottom left to top right. 3. 2. Subtract the products. Move the first two columns to the outside of the matrix. Multiply opposite diagonal values. 2× 2 HINT: ⎡a b ⎤ ⎢ c d ⎥ → (a)(d) – (c)(b) ⎣ ⎦ Remember to subtract the sums of the products!! Steps: 1.

⎡ 8 0⎤ ⎢ − 1 3⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢2 ⎢ ⎢1 ⎣ 4 1⎥ ⎥ 0 1⎥ ⎦ 3. ⎡− 9 5 4⎤ 4.42= -66 Practice Problems: Find the determinant of each matrix 1. ⎡ 7 4 1⎤ ⎢12 3 − 2⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢5 8 1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 5. ⎡1 8⎤ ⎢5 9⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢12 ⎢ ⎢3 ⎣ 1 4 7 9⎤ 9⎥ ⎥ 7⎥ ⎦ 4. ⎡ 8 45 .Examples: 2× 2 ⎡5 4 ⎤ ⎢7 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3× 3 2 ⎡⎡−3 ⎢⎢ 2 − ⎢⎢ 1 ⎢⎢−1 ⎣⎣ 1 − 01 0 −6 2 3 → 5(1) – 7(4) = -23 0 43⎤ 3 ⎤ ⎥ 21⎥ 1 − 6 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 4⎦ −2⎥ −1 3 ⎦ (-36+0+12) – (24+18+0) -24 . ⎡− 4 ⎢5 ⎣ 2⎤ − 2⎥ ⎦ 2.

4-4 Using Determinants Determinants can be used to find the area of a triangle with vertices: ( X1 Y1 ) ( X2 Y2 ) 1 2 3 ( X3 Y3 ) 1 1 1 This is written as: Area= ± 1 2 X X X Y1 Y2 Y3 Use the plus or minus so your answer will end up positive y 4 3 2 1 x − 1 − 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 A rea = ± 1 ⎡ (0 + 1 2 + 2 ) − 2 ⎣ 0 3 1 1 Area = ± 2 0 1 2 4 1 1 (0 + 0 + 6 )⎤ ⎦ 1 Area = ⋅ (14 − 6) = 4 2 46 .

Linear System coefficient Matrix Ax Cx + By Dy = E F + = ⎡A B⎤ A=⎢ C D⎥ ⎣ ⎦ This is called Cramer’s Rule E B A E F D X = DetA Example C F Y = D e tA 2 1 2 2 x − 3 y = − 1 4 x + 5 y = 4 5 −14 −3 5 13 = 65 = 5 13 −3 = 10 − ( − 3) = 13 5 − 14 45 104 = =8 13 13 x = 45 y= 1 Practice Problems ( 5.8 ) ~Find the area of a triangle 6 )B (3 0 )C ( 1 3) 1. A (3 2. A (1 3 )B (− 2 6 )C (− 1 1 ) ~Use Cramer’s rule 3.Determinants can also be used to solve systems of linear equations. x + 7 y = − 3 3 x − 5 y = 17 47 .

) calculate the determinant Remember: if the determinant = 0. ⎣ ⎦ 1 then A = A −1 ⎡ d − b⎤ ⎢− c a ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡5 8⎤ A= ⎢1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 10-8=2 1.4-5: Inverse Matrices • Inverse matrices are associated with square matrices. • The formula for finding the inverse is: If A= Example ⎡a b⎤ ⎢c d⎥ . 1 ⎡ 2 − 8⎤ ⎢ ⎥ multiply 2. Tip: the notation for inverse matrices is A −1 . then the inverse doesn’t exist.) 2 ⎣− 1 5 ⎦ ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 ⎢− 2 ⎣ − 4⎤ 1⎥ 2 ⎥ = the inverse 2⎦ 48 .

) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣3 1 ⎦ ⎡2.) ⎢1 7 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 11 − 3⎤ ⎥ 5.) ⎢ ⎣− 9 3 ⎦ ⎡7 2 ⎤ 3. then it is correct.) ⎢ ⎣− 3 4 ⎦ ⎡− 6 − 7⎤ 4.2 2.To check your answer: Multiply the original matrix with its inverse.5⎤ 6.) ⎢ 2⎥ ⎣2 ⎦ ⎡1 8 ⎤ 2.) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 8 10 ⎦ 49 . If you get the identity matrix. ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 ⎢− 2 ⎣ − 4⎤ 1⎥ 2 ⎥ 2⎦ ⎡1 0⎤ Identity Matrix = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣0 1 ⎦ • ⎡5 8 ⎤ ⎢1 2⎥ = ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎢0 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ and ⎡5 8 ⎤ ⎢1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ • ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 ⎢− 2 ⎣ − 4⎤ 1⎥ 2 ⎥ 2⎦ = ⎡1 0⎤ ⎢0 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Practice Find the Inverse ⎡ 4 − 5⎤ ⎥ 1.

5⎤ ⎢ − 1 ⎥ Therefore x=-.5 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Also inverse matrices can be used to decode and encode messages o o o o To Encode: Assign numbers to message Create 2 * 2 matrix( determinant ≠ 0 ) in matrix A Arrange numbers in a 2*n matrix in matrix B Then multiply A and B 50 .4-6 Using Inverse Matrices Inverse matrices can be used to solve systems quickly in the calculator by: o Entering coefficients into the A Matrix o Enter constants into the B matrix o Then calculate the inverse of matrix A and multiply it by B Example: x+ y + z =1 x− y+z =3 x − y − z = −2 Push the second key and the x −1 to access the matrices and enter the coefficients into matrix A.5 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2. y=-1. z=2. and enter the constants into matrix B A B ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎢1 −1 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1 −1 −1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢− 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Then multiply the inverse of matrix A and matrix B ( A −1 * B ) and you will get: ⎡− .5.

38.-14. 37. x + y − 2 z = − 2 − 1 − 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3x − y + z = 2 51 .-53. 23. 44 To Decode: o Arrange numbers in a 2*n matrix in the B matrix o Use the original 2*2 matrix for matrix A o Multiply the inverse of A and B ( A −1 * B ) o Determine what letters match the numbers (make sure you put the entries in the same way as the first time). 102. 20. 69.Example: Encode MATH A B A*B 2 3⎤ 13 1⎤ 25 37 ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎡ ⎢ − 1 − 2⎥ ⎢20 8⎥ = ⎢32 44⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Encoded message is: 25. 1.-62.-25. 32. Example: A B A −1 * B 3⎤ ⎡2 ⎡25 37 ⎤ ⎡13 1⎤ ⎢ − 1 − 2⎥ ⎢32 44⎥ = ⎢20 8⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The decoded message is 13. 3 x + 3 y + z = 1 2 x + 4 y + z = −2 3⎤ ⎡2 2. 21. Encode: “Algebra” using ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ − 1 − 2⎦ 3⎤ ⎡2 3. 8 or MATH Practice problems: 2 x + 3 y + z + −1 1. 84.-14 using ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ − 1 − 2⎦ 5x − 2 y + z = 4 3⎤ ⎡2 4.-39. Encode: “stuff” using ⎢ 5.-53. Decode 85.

58. -2 2. −2.Area= 6 3. 38. 19. ( 2.1 ⎦ 1. -59. -1 3. ⎢ ⎣1 ⎡ −7 8⎤ −1⎥ ⎦ 3. ⎢ 4-6 ⎡4 5⎤ ⎥ ⎣3 4⎦ 2. -31 4. -57 6. Survival Guide 4. ⎢ 2 2 ⎥ ⎢ 3 11⎥ ⎢2 6 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 5 −1. −2 ) 2. 126 5. -17. [0 0 0] 3. 24 3.25⎤ ⎥ ⎣ −4 1.-1) 4-5 1. 2. ⎢ ⎣4⎦ ⎣24 14 ⎡11⎤ ⎡20 ⎡4⎤ ⎡10⎤ Answers 4-2 3 − 1⎤ 6⎥ ⎦ 4-3 1.(4. -25. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −1 −3⎦ ⎡1 1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 5. ⎢ ⎡ 1 −2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎣ −3 7 ⎦ 7⎤ ⎡ ⎢1 2⎥ 4. ⎢ ⎥ 2. -38. 311 4-4 1. -33. ( 0. ⎢ 6. −1. ⎢ ⎥ 2. 48.Answers to Chapter 4 Practice Problems Section 4-1 1. 60. 0 ) 52 . ⎢ ⎥ ⎣6⎦ ⎣8⎦ 1. -6 5.Not Possible 3. 12.Area=6 2.

Nicole Nichols.Standing (left to right): Jennie Gibbs. and Lindsay Inge Kneeling: Christine Della Donna (Captain) . Mansi Doshi. Erin Kersell. Staci Jasilaitis.

you must first take a look at the quadratic equation. It should look like (−6) 2 − 4(1)(9) 3) When you calculate it out. in what is called the quadratic formula. There are three purposes of the discriminant: 1) It determines how many solutions a quadratic equation can have. Now plug those values into the formula for the discriminant. and c from the quadratic equation into the discriminant ________________________________________________________________________ Hints: Examples: Use the quadratic equation to determine the discriminant. a = 1. expressed as: b 2 − 4ac This is the discriminant. 54 . then the equation has ONE REAL SOLUTION If b 2 − 4ac < 0. which is expressed as: ax 2 + bx + c = 0 The quadratic equation can be set to solve for x . So. it should look like 36-36. b. there is an expression under the square root symbol. then the equation has TWO IMAGINARY SOLUTIONS If b 2 − 4ac is a PERFECT SQUARE then it will FACTOR ________________________________________________________________________ How Does one go about using the Discriminant? 1) Set up the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 2) Plug in the values of a. expressed as: −b ± b2 − 4ac x = 2a Note that in the numerator of the quadratic formula. Then say how many and what type of solutions the discriminant yields. which equals zero. Since the discriminant is equal to zero. and c=9. and you know you could factor x 2 − 6 x + 9 since 0 is a perfect square. you now know that there is one real solution to your equation.5-1 Calculating the Discriminant Before you can use the discriminant. b= -6. the discriminant = 0. 2) It determines the type of solutions a quadratic equation has (whether they are real solutions or imaginary solutions) 3) It determines if a quadratic expression can factor If b 2 − 4ac > 0 . Example A: x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 0 1) The first step has already been completed because the problem is already in the quadratic equation : ) 2) In this equation. then the equation has TWO REAL SOLUTIONS If b 2 − 4ac = 0 .

and c= -5. which equals positive 41. How many and what kind of solutions does each problem have? Also. this problem has 2 real solutions and 2 x 2 + x − 5 cannot be factored since 41 is not a perfect square. Your problem should look like 2 x 2 + x − 5 = 0 2) In this equation. It should look like 12 − 4(2)(−5) 3) When you calculate it out. Now plug those values into the formula for the discriminant. determine if it can be solved by factoring. the discriminant = 41. ________________________________________________________________________________ Now do it yourself…I’m done… Practice: Find the discriminant of the equations. Since the solution is greater then zero. 1) x 2 + 4 x = −20 2) x 2 + 6 x + 5 =0 3) 4 x 2 + 8 x + 4 = 0 And that’s about it! 55 . Move the 5 over to the other side. a=2. b=1.Example B: 2 x 2 + x = 5 1) This example is not yet equal to 0. it should look like 1-(-40). So.

2. 4. y=4 56 . Solve for y. 2. 2. 2. Plug values from equation into the formula for x. y = (0 ) − 4 y = 0−4 y = (2 ) − 4(2) + 8 y = 4−8+8 5. . y= -4 4. Steps: Examples: y = x2 − 4 a b c 1. 3. Plug the x value back into the original equation. Solve for x. −0 −0 = 2(1) 2 2 − (− 4) 4 = =2 2(1) 2 x = 2. 1. y = x2 − 4x + 8 a b c 1.5-2 Finding the Vertex of a Parabola 1.the set of all points equidistant from a point called the focus and a line called the directrix. Vertex. This point is the lowest or highest point on the parabola with a vertical axis of symmetry and the leftmost or rightmost point on a parabola with a horizontal axis of symmetry. . 3. Parabola.the line perpendicular to the parabola’s directrix and passing through its focus . Axis of Symmetry. Definitions for This Topic: x = −b 2a Formula: the vertex will be ⎛ − b . 2 x = 0. 3. 3.the point on the parabola that lies on the axis of symmetry. f ⎛ − b ⎞ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2a ⎝ 2a ⎠ ⎠ . In this equation the b value is 0. The focus lies on the axis of symmetry and the directrix is perpendicular to the axis of symmetry. 4.

To find the maximum heights if bridges during construction Roads are on a slight curve. y = x . y = x 2 + x + 10 y = x 2 − 9x y = x2 + 4 y = x 2 − 10 x + 6 2 5.Practice problems: Find the vertex for each 1. Projectile equations Real Life Applications: 57 . so water drains off to each side. 2. 3. 4.

c. Difference of Squares: a 2 − b 2 = (a + b )(a − b ) b. Difference of Cubes: a − b = (a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 3 3 1. 4x 2 − 18 4 x − 18 = 2x 2 − 9 2 Does not fit into the Formulas. 27 x 3 + 64 3 Take cube root of problem. GCF is 2. b = 4 Plug into formula (sum of cubes) (3x + 4)(9 x 2 − 12 x + 16) 58 . Put the 2 you took out back in for your final answer: 2(3x + 4)(3x − 4) 2 2. Plug into the Formula and factor completely Example Problems: 1.5-3 Factoring Binomials Binomials are Expressions with two terms. Like x2 − 9 Steps to Factoring Binomials: 2. so final answer is: 2 2x 2 − 9 ( ) 3. Factor: 18 x 2 − 32 18 x 2 − 32 = 9 x 2 − 16 2 (3x + 4)(3x − 4) (Difference of squares) The GCF is 2 so. 27 x 3 3 64 a = 3 x. Look at your binomial and take out the GCF if there is one. ( ) Sum of Cubes: (a + b ) = (a + b )(a 3 3 ( ) ( 2 − ab + b 2 ) ) 3. Then see if the Binomial fits into one of the special formulas a.

5. 6.Practice!! Factor completely. 3. if possible: 2 1. Remember Your Formulas! 18 x − 27 9 x − 16 81x 3 − x 8 x 6 + 125 10x 3 + 270 59 . 50 x − 72 2. 4.

+ 3. a b c Example : 9 x 2 − 12 x + 4 b 2 − 4ac (−12) 2 − 4(9)(4) 144 − 144 = 0 0 =0 9 x 2 − 12 x + 4 −+ =−− . it can be factored.____________________________________________________________ Factoring Trinomials is very significant skill in the field of math because it lets an individual solve higher degree equations. it can be factored There is no GCF to take out so determine your signs. and multiply the solution to the c term. To check use the discriminate formula: b 2 − 4ac And if the square root of this solution is an integer.= + .9 x × x 60 . *Since the root is an integer. Factor out the GCF 2.• + . 9 x 2 = 3 x × 3 x. *Square root your solution. Factoring Trinomials 5-4 Steps: 1. Then pair the terms from the table of choices until the outers and the inners combine to make the middle term ______________________________________________________________ Always remember to check if the equation factors or not before starting to factor.or .or . Determine the signs • + +=+ + • .= + . *Then subtract the solutions..+ • . *Then multiply a term by four. Make a table of choices for the first and last terms 4.+ = .

Example: 36 x 2 + 48 x − 20 b 2 − 4ac (48) 2 − 4(36)(−20) *Square the b term.2 × 2 (3 x − 2) 2 *Make table of choices. square root your solution *Since the root is an integer. *Then multiply a term by four and multiply the solution to the c term. 4(3 x + 5)(3 x − 1) 2 *Make table of choices *Finally find the pair which combines to make the middle term. − 30 x 2 − 29 x − 4 3. it can be factored *Take out the GCF *Determine your signs. x 2 + 48 x − 20 61 . ________________________________________________________________________________ Practice Problem: 1. x 2 − 5 x − 6 2. 5184 = 72 36 x 2 + 48 x − 20 ÷4 9 x + 12 x − 5 −+=−− 9 x 2 = 3 x × 3 x. *Finally find the pair which combines to make the middle term. 2304 − −2880 = 5184 *Then subtract the solutions.9 x × x 5 = 5 × 1.4 = 4 × 1.

This skill is needed for the quadratic formula. 36. However. it is valuable to create a list of perfect squares. Simplifying Radicals Radicals: A radical is the symbol .) of 10 is 10. 4. 64.5-5 Simplifying radicals has many applications in algebra. it can be simplified. etc. 100. 49. 144. contain no radicals. 52 4 ∗ 13 2 13 Since 49 is a perfect square. 4. and has no perfect squares as factors. 81. 169… Examples: #1. 5. No radicals on the denominator In order to simplify radicals. 2 5 ∗ Eliminate radicals on the denominator by rationalizing the denominator—multiply 5 5 the numerator and the denominator by 5 62 . and the square root methods of solving quadratic equations. 1. 25. it simplifies completely 52 is not a perfect square. the radicand Rules to keep in mind when simplifying radicals: 1. The symbol n denotes an Radicand: A radicand is the number or expression inside the radical. or radicands that when simplified. so we need to find the greatest perfect square that is a factor of 52 The greatest perfect square root that goes into 52 is 4 Simplify by taking the square root of 4 and leaving 13 in the radical Radicals as fractions: #3. nth root (3. 16. All radicands must be simplified completely 2. 121. For example. completing the square. No fractions as radicands 3. which denotes a square root. 9. 5 is not a perfect square. 49 7∗7 7 #2. 4 5 4 5 2 5 Start by creating two separate radicals on the numerator and denominator Since 4 is a perfect square.

− 43 doesn’t exist Complex Number System Real Rational Integer Imaginary Whole Natural Practice Problems: 1. 10 4. #4. 9 2. 37 49 6. square roots of negative numbers do not exist.2 5 5∗5 2 5 25 2 5 5 Simplify Final answer Negative Radicals: In the real number system. 63 . 50 12 36 16 5. 121 3..

take its root and place i behind it ex : 4i 3. which would be 4 ⋅ 21 4. Remember to put the i that was taken out in step 1 back into the solution at this point. If x is not a perfect square. and take its square root leaving the imperfect square on the inside 2 21 5. − 2 − 27 Example 3. What is a Complex Number? i = −1 Real Numbers Imaginary Numbers Complex Number System Steps 1. however. 1 − 9 Examples 25 i − 2 27 i 1 i 9 1 i 9 5i − 2 9⋅3 i 1 i 3 − 2⋅3 3 i −6 3i 64 .5-6 Simplifying Complex Numbers Before this chapter you have been unable to take the square root of a negative number because it does not exist in the real number system. Take the perfect square. then find the largest perfect square that can go into it. such as 84 . 2 21 i Simplifying Complex Numbers Example 1. in this case 4. − 25 Example 2. Rewrite your equation from − x to xi 2. The solution to a negative square root is an imaginary number represented by i . complex numbers allow for the square rooting of negative numbers. such as 16. If x is a perfect square.

− 16 2. − 15 81 i1 = i i i i 2 3 4 = −1 = −i = 1 65 .Practice Problems 1. − 3 − 45 3.

can factor 3) 0. x(9 x + 1)(9 x − 1) 5. 10 (x + 3)(x 2 − 3x + 9) 5-4 5-5 5-6 1. 1 real solution. (x-6)(x+1) 2. − 9 5 i 3.) 3 37 10 15 1.−19) 5) (0. two imaginary solutions. cannot factor 3 4 37 7 10 1. − 81 ⎞ 3) ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 4⎠ ⎝2 4 ⎠ (0. 4i 2. 9(2 x − 3) 3.Section 5-1 Answers 1) -64. (-1)(5x+4)(6x+1) 3. i 9 66 .)3 2.)11 3.2(5 x + 6)(5 x − 6) 2.) 6. (2 x 3 + 5)(4 x 6 − 10 x 3 + 25) 6. can factor 5-2 5-3 1) ⎛ − 1 .) 5. 39 ⎞ 2) ⎛ 9 . Can’t Factor 4. can’t factor 2)16.4 ) 4) (5. two real solutions .0) 1.) 5 2 4.

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Trinomials – An expression with three terms. 6) Set each factor = 0 and solve Ex. −2} Anything Special to Remember: . Formulas: Difference of squares – (a 2 − b 2 ) = (a + b)(a − b) Perfect square trinomial . -2} ( x − 14)( x + 2) = 0 {14. 2) x − 16 = 0 4 ( x 2 − 4)( x 2 + 4) = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x 2 + 4) = 0 {2 . Binomials – An expression with two terms.6-1 Solving by Factoring Definitions: Factoring – A process used to write a polynomial as a product of other polynomials having equal or lesser degree. 68 .(a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ) = (a + b) 2 or Discriminant formula – (b 2 − 4ac) (a 2 − 2ab + b 2 ) = (a − b) 2 Steps and Rules: .In order to solve by factoring the discriminant has to be a perfect square. . Factoring Trinomials 1) 2) 3) 4) Set equation = 0 Factor out the GCF Determine your signs Make a table of choices for first’s Factoring Binomials 1) Set equation = 0 2) Factor out the GCF 3) Apply the formulas to the equation 4) Set each factor = 0 and solve Ex.Make sure the equation is factored and simplified completely.In order to be a square the exponent must be even. . 1) x − 9 = 0 2 and last’s 5) Try pairs from tables until outers And inners combine to make the middle term. -3} Ex.Don’t forget to factor the GCF’s. x − 12 x − 28 = 0 2 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 {3.

Practice problems: 1) x 2 − 4 x − 21 = 0 2) x 2 − 2 x − 8 = 0 3) v 2 − 14v = −49 4) 3x 2 + 10 x + 3 = 0 69 .

6-2 Solving by Square Roots Used for problems with no “bx” terms Definitions: • • • • Radical SymbolRadicand.x if x i = −1 i = an imaginary number in the real number system x Formulas: ab = a• b a = b a b Steps: • • • • Determine what term is being squared and isolate it Take the square root of both sides Simplify the radical(s) Isolate “x” if not done already Example: 4x 2 -7 =65 x 2 =18 x = 18 x = {± 3 2 } Isolate the term that is being squared Take the square root of both sides Simplify the Radical Add the ± 2 3 Don’t Forget! • • • There should never be a radical in the denominator The ± for the solutions Simplified radicals don’t have perfect square under the radical unless it’s 1 70 .

Practice Problems: 1) 2) 3) 1 (x+5) 2 3 =7 3x 2 + 10 = -26 2x 2 + 1 = 17 71 .

Steps: 1. To find the number that completes the square. x = 1 {5 .6-3 Solving By Completing the Square Definition: Completing the Square is a process that allows you to write an 2 expression of the form x + bx as the square of a binomial.Don’t forget to add ± when you take the square roots. Divide the equation by a . 3. 5. Hint. Find the number that completes the square and add it to both sides of the equation. Rewrite the equation to ax 2 + bx = − c and leave a space. 2. Solve by taking square roots. divide b by 2 and then square 4.1} 72 . Examples: x2 − 6x + 5 = 0 − 5 − 5 x 2 − 6 x __ = −5 x2 − 6x + 32 = −5 + 32 x2 − 6x + 9 = 4 ( x − 3)2 = 4 Don’t forget to leave a space write as binomial square Take the square root of both sides x − 3 = ±2 +3 +3 x = 5. Rewrite the trinomial as a binomial square.

x = − 1 {4.2x 2 − 6x − 8 = 0 2. x 2 − 10 x + 139 = 0 4. x 2 − 10 x + 26 = 0 2. − x 2 − x − 5 = 0 3.) +8 2 2 +8 2 2 x 2 − 6 x ___ = 8 Divide by a 2 and Leave a space 3 3 x 2 − 3x + ( ) 2 = 4 + ( ) 2 2 2 x2 − 3x + (x − 9 25 = 4 4 3 5 x− =± 2 2 3 2 ) = ± 2 25 4 Square root both sides x = 4. 5 x 2 + 6 x = 8 73 . − 1} Practice Problems: 1.

here is a definition you will need: *Discriminant-( b 2 − 4ac ) Expression under the radical sign. determines the number and type of solutions b 2 − 4ac > 0 b 2 − 4ac = 0 b 2 − 4ac < 0 there are 2 real solutions there is 1 real solution there are 2 imaginary solutions The Formula: x = − b ± b 2 − 4 ac 2 a −b ) 2a *Composed of the discriminant (b 2 − 4ac) and the vertex formula ( The Steps: 1. For example: 4±8 3 = 2±4 3 2 Examples: 1. Set the Equation equal to zero (=0) 2.6-4 Solving With Quadratic Formula Before you start. b. Plug a. If you can. and c into the quadratic formula 3. x 2 − 6 x − 7 = 0 (2 real solutions) a= 1 b=-6 c=-7 − b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 6 ± 36 + 28 2 = = − (−6) ± (−6) 2 − 4(1)(−7) 2(1) = 6±8 2 6 ± 64 2 x = 7 x = -1 74 . simplify the equation To help you remember the formula. sing it to the song “Pop Goes the Weasel” Simplify your answer completely and pay attention to radicals.

x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 0 (1 real solutions) a= 1 b= -6 c= 9 − b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a − (−6) ± (−6) 2 − 4(1)(9) = 2(1) = 3 6 6± 0 = 2 2 2 3. x 2 − 5 x − 14 = 0 (2 real solutions) 2. 9 x 2 + 4 x + 5 = 0 (2 imaginary solutions) 75 . 2 x 2 − 12 x + 18 = 0 (1 real solution) 3. − x + 2 x − 2 (2 imaginary solutions) a=-1 b=2 c=-2 − b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −2± −4 −2 − (2) ± (2) 2 − 4(−1)(−2) = 2(−1) = − 2 ± 2i −2 = 1± i Practice Problems: 1.2.

Repeat 4 -7 again for the other root. 8 That is one root of the parabola.press Enter 76 . 1 Set equation equal to zero 2 Type the equation into y= in the graphing calculator 3 If you need to.type into calculator . 7 Press ENTER again to get your answer. 2 5 Use the arrow keys and position the blinking dot on the left root.blinking dot to left of root .2nd.press Enter .12= 0 . 2 . Then press the left arrow key twice and press ENTER. Press the right arrow key twice and press ENTER. Example: 1. 6 Then use the arrow keys and position the blinking dot on the left root again. x 2 . zoom in or out so you can see where the parabola crosses the x-axis 4 Press second. TRACE. TRACE.6-5 Steps: Solving By Graphing Calculator The easiest way to find the roots of a parabola is to graph it in a graphing calculator and find where the parabola intersects the x-axis.blinking dot to right of root .

Answers: {-3..46) Practice Problems: 1.46. x 2 -13x= -7 77 . . x 2 -25= -45 3.ENTER . x 2 +13= 14 2.The x value is a solution.Repeat process for the other root. x 2 +15= 29 4.3.

next plug this in for the y value of the vertex If If a〈0 . u-shaped Vertex: lowest or highest point on the graph of a quadratic function Axis of Symmetry: vertical line through the vertex Root: a point at which the line crosses the x-axis Steps: 1. Graph in the calculator to get an idea of what it should look like 2. and use symmetry to graph Use the ‘TABLE’ button on a graphing calculator to find points easily If the discriminant is: . (Convert to decimals to graph) 5.this is the equation for the x value of the vertex. Pick additional x values. Find the roots by setting the equation =0 and solving.positive: there are two real roots y = ax 2 + bx + c x = −b / 2 a .6-6 Graphing Parabolas Definitions: Quadratic Function: equation in the form Parabola: the graph of a quadratic function. the parabola opens up 78 .negative: there are 2 imaginary roots . find y. Make a T-chart 3.zero: there is one real roots . the parabola opens down a〉0 . Find the vertex 4.

−3 −4 5 y = x + 4x + 7 2 79 . find y.Example: y = x2 + 4x + 3 -now do step #1 Step #3 −4 −4 = = −2 2(1) 2 Step #4 y = x2 + 4x + 3 (x + 3)(x + 1) x+3=0 x+1=0 x= -3 x= -1 Now pick additional x values. and use symmetry to graph y 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 1 2 3 4 x 5 Practice Problems: 1.

2.Answers to Chapter 6 Practice Problems Section Answers 6-1 6-2 1. {7. 2.74. {5+i. No real solution 3.−3} {-5 ± 21 } { ± 2 3 i} {± 2 2 } 6-3 1. 3.(-1. 3.56.−2 } 5 i + 5 } 6-4 1. {3} 3. { ± 4 4.(.44. 0) 1. -2} 2. 1. 0) (1. 4.−2} {7} {−1 / 3. { . 0) ( 12. 0) 2.74. 0) (3. { − ± i} 2 2 114 3. { − 2 ± 41 i} 9 6-5 1. 5-i} 1 19 2.(-3. y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 x 5 6-6 1 80 . {7. 0) 4.−3} {4.

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leave bases. Simplify (2 x 5 y 3 ) …raise coefficient.Operation Add/Subtract Multiply Power to Power Division What do you to the coefficients? Add/subtract Multiply Raise to the power Reduce What do you do to the bases? Nothing Nothing Nothing Nothing What do you do to the exponents? Nothing Add Multiply Subtract ax c a. leave bases.* 82 . Evaluate 4 2 * 4 4 …add exponents.The coefficient x. = 46 2. Evaluate 82 3 …multiply exponents = 8 6 3. and multiply exponents 2 6 x 30 y 18 … 6 ( ) evaluate = 64 x 30 y 18 10 x10 y 4 z 3 4. but leave base the same. the side that has the larger exponent is the side the new subtracted exponent goes on.The exponent Example: 5x 3 Examples… 1.The variable (assume it is a positive real number) c. and 24 x14 y 4 z 5z subtract exponents = 12 x 4 2 *When subtracting the exponents. Simplify …reduce coefficients.

2 x 10 + 4 x 10 2.Practice Problems 1. 6 x 11 3 x10 ( ) 5 (a b )(a b )c 2 5 3 2 ⎛1 ⎞ 3. ⎜ xy 3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ 83 . 4. − x 5 5.

0 0 is indeterminant Examples: 1. (−5) =1 Negative Exponents 1.Zero Exponents • • Any number to the zero power is 1 (except 0 0 ). Move the term being raised to the negative exponent. If it is on the numerator move it to the denominator . 2. ( −2) −5 Move the term being raised to the negative exponent to the denominator. 2 0 =1 0 2. Evaluate the exponent. (5) −2 1 (5) 2 1 25 x 2. Evaluate the exponent Examples: 1.and if it is on the denominator move it to the numerator. Make the exponent positive 3. (−2)5 x 1 −32x Move the term being raised to the negative exponent from the denominator to the numerator Evaluate the exponent ( x ≠ 0 ) 84 .

y ≠ 0 ) 2. − 3 x −4 y 0 3. ( xy ) −2 85 . 0 0 5. (−3) −3 ≠ 0.Practice Problems Assume ( x 1. (−32) 0 4. (6) −2 6.

4x2 + 3x − 5 −(−3x2 + 2 x + 6) Distribute 4x2 + 3x −5 3x2 − 2x − 6 7 x 2 + x − 11 86 . Distribute the negative/subtraction sign and then combine the like-terms. Don’t forget place holders.Adding Polynomials Line up the corresponding terms and then combine the like-terms. x 3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 11 Place Holder 3 2 + 4 x + 0 x + 8x − 14 5 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 12 x − 25 Subtracting Polynomials Line up the corresponding terms. Do not forget place holders.

Create a table to solve the problem. and then simplify by combining the like-terms.Multiplying Polynomials To multiply polynomials. each term of the first polynomial must be multiplied by each term of the second. ( x 2 − 3 x − 4)( x + 3) x 2 − 3x − 3x 2 −4 x 3 x3 3 x 2 − 4x − 12 − 9x Resulting Expression: Simplified Expression: x3 + 3x 2 − 3x 2 − 9 x − 4 x − 12 x 3 − 13 x − 12 Practice Problems: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 2 2 2 (8 x + 1) + (3x − 2) (4 x − 11x + 10) + (5 x − 31) (x − 6 x + 5) − (x + x − 2) (7 x − 1) − (15 x + 4 x − x + 3) (x + 3)(x − 4 x + 9) (x + x + 4)(2 x − x + 1) 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 87 .

1. 3. Examples: Step 1: needed in x + 7 x2 + 6 x − 7 x + 7 x2 + 6x − 7 1. add it to the end of the quotient as the numerator. Divisor Divide the first terms. Multiply the quotient by the divisor. a b c Quotient * Remainders: If there is a remainder. 5.Steps: Make sure the dividend and divisor are in descending order and insert place holders if needed. The denominator is your divisor. x −1 2 Step 6: x + 7 x + 6 x − 7 − x2 − 7x −x−7 x+7 0 88 6.) Repeat until no more terms can be brought down. Divide the first terms and place x Step 3 & 4: x + 7 x + 6 x − 7 2 − x − 7x 2 3& 0− x Step 5: x 2 x + 7 x + 6x − 7 − x2 − 7x −x−7 5. This problem has 2 terms in the divisor so the quotient would start above the second term in the dividend. Dividend Repeat these steps until no more terms can be brought down.) the quotient in the same number of spaces over as there are terms in the divisor. Bring down the next term. 2. . 4.) There are no place holders the first step because the terms are already in descending order. Step 2: x 2 x + 7 x + 6x − 7 2. Multiply the quotient by the divisor and subtract (change the signs). Change the signs and subtract.) Final quotient Bring down the next term.

Final quotient 3 x 2 + 9 x + 20 + x − 3 Example 2: Example 3: 3 2 38 x − 3 3x 3 + 0 x 2 − 7 x − 5 − 3x + 9 x 3x − 8 + x + 5 2 x + 5 3x + 7 x − 2 9 x2 2 − 7 x 2 − 9 x + 27 x − 3 x − 15 x − 8x − 2 20 x − 5 Final quotient + 8 x + 40 − 20 x + 60 55 38 55 Sample Problems: 1.) x 2 − 5 5 x 3 − 7 x + 4 89 .) x 3 + x 2 − 5 2 x 4 + 2 x 3 − 10 x − 9 3.) x − 10 2 x + 5x − 3 2.

+ __ a 0b n Steps 1~ Find the row in Pascal’s Triangle that corresponds with the exponent “n” 1 1 1 n=2→ 1 2 1 n=3→ 1 3 3 1 n=4 → 1 4 6 4 n=5 → 1 5 10 10 5 1 Pascal’s Triangle 2~ Substitute variables *Hint* Fill in the open spaces with numbers from Pascal’s Triangle 3~ Evaluate 4~ Simplify Formula n Example ..Use Pascal’s Triangle to expand (2 x + 3) n 3 *Formula → (a + b ) = __a nb 0 + __a n −1b1 + __a n − 2b 2....(a + b) = __ a n b 0 + __ a n −1b1 + __ a n − 2b 2 + . + __a 0b n *Substitute Variables 3 3 0 2 1 1 2 0 3 → (2 x + 3 ) = 1(2 x ) (3 ) + 3(2 x ) (3 ) + 3(2 x ) (3 ) + 1(2 x ) (3 ) *Evaluate 3 → (2 x + 3 ) = (8 x 3 )(1 ) + ( x 2 )(3 ) + (6 x )(9 ) + (27 ) 12 *Simplify → (2 x + 3) = 8 x 3 + 36 x 2 + 54 x + 27 3 90 .

Practice - 1~ 2~ 3~ (5 x + 7 )4 (3x + 2)5 (x − 4)3 91 .

then use 2 in the synthetic division.--. k --. 2 -5 0 1 6 -10 50 -255 2 -10 51 -249 249 x+5 2 x 2 − 10 x + 51 − 92 .--. If k is -2.What is it? ~A shortcut to polynomial long division When can it be used? ~Only when the divisor is in the form x-k Steps ~Set up problem (insert all the place holders) Hints ~ If there isn’t a place holder then insert a zero.--~Bring down the first coefficient ~Multiply by k ~Add ~Repeat this cycle ~#’s in the answer are coefficients of the quotient Examples… 1) x − 2 3 x 3 + x 2 + 2 x − 4 3 2 3 1 6 7 2 14 16 -4 32 28 3x 2 + 7 x + 16 + 2) x + 5 2x3 + x + 6 28 x−2 If the last number is not a zero then it becomes a remainder over the divisor. ~Use the opposite of k. ~If the last digit isn’t a zero then write x-k under the last number for the remainder .

f ( x) = 5 x 4 − 8 x 3 + 7 x 2 when x = 1 2. f ( x) = x + 8. when x = 1 f (1) = 5(1) + 6(1) − 7 2 New way… 5 1 5 6 5 11 -7 11 4 5 + 6 -7 4 2) 3 f ( x ) = x 4 − 2 x 2 − x + 1 when x = 3 1 1 0 3 3 -2 9 7 -1 21 20 1 60 61 f(3)= 61 Practice Problems: 1. ( x 2 + 10) ÷ ( x + 4) 4. (2 x 4 − 6 x 3 + x 2 − 3x − 3) ÷ ( x − 3) 6.What is it? ~ A shortcut for evaluating f(x) Steps: ~ Set up the problem (in place holder) Hint: ~ Place holders need to be inserted all the way down to the constant x coefficients of dividend ~ The remainder is your answer Example… Old way… 1) f ( x) = 5 x 2 + 6 x − 7. (4 x 2 + 5 x − 4) ÷ ( x + 1) 3. f ( x) = 2 x 3 + 5 x 2 + 4 x + 8 when x = -2 1 3 x when x = 4 2 7. ( x − 7 x − 6) ÷ ( x − 2) 3 5. f ( x) = 7 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 3x when x = 10 93 .

4 6. indeterminant 3. x 3. − 8 x − 4 x + x − 4 5. x 2 + 2 x − 3 − 4. 6. 6x10 2. 4 27 x 7-2 1. 2 x − 9 3. x + 15 + 147 x − 10 7-4 2. x − 4 + 26 x+4 3 x−3 5. 1 x y2 2 1 36 4. 2x 1.Answers to Chapter 7 Practice Problems Section 7-1 Answers 1. − 7 x + 7 3 2 4. 4 x + 1 − 5 x +1 3. 2 x 4 + x 3 + 8 x 2 − 3x + 4 1. x 3 − x 2 − 3x + 27 6. 7-3 1 2 6 x y 9 4. −3 −1 5. − x 25 5. 11x 2 − 1 2. 243 x 5 + 810 x 4 + 1080 x 3 + 720 x 2 + 240 x + 32 2. 4 8. 2 x 3 + x − 12 x−2 7-6 2. 7930 94 . 1 2. a 7b 4c 3. x + x2 + 5 3 5x + 18 x + 4 x2 − 5 7-5 1. − 12 x 2 + 48 x − 64 1. 4 x 2 − 6 x − 21 3. 625 x 4 + 3500 x 3 + 7350 x 2 + 6860 x + 2401 3. 36 7.

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2. If it is a sum of cubes plug a and b into the equation.Section 8-1 Formulas to remember!!! Sum of Cubes: a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 − ab + b2 ) a 3 − b 3 = (a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 Difference of Cubes: ( ) Steps for Factoring Cubes: 1. Note: a and b are the cube roots Examples: x 3 + 27 3 x 3 − 125 x3 3 27 b=3 3 x3 2 3 125 b=5 (x + 3)(x 2 − 3 x + 9 ) a=x (x − 5)(x a=x + 5 x + 25 ) 96 . Factor out the Greatest Common Factor or GCF.

Problems to Try!! 1. 4. 3. 2. x 3 + 512 x 3 − 1728 27 x 9 + 216 3 x 3 + 10 97 .

2.Section 8-2 Introduction: When factoring polynomials with four terms. you actually group the first two and the last two terms together. ( x 2 + 2)(10 x − 9) 98 . then just keep them grouped in the final equation. Note: since the remaining factors from step 3 were both (10x-9). where you actually group the first set and the last set of terms together Steps: 1.) Next. 4. you must factor out the GCF from each pair of grouped binomials. Example: Step1: There is no GCF 10x3 − 9x2 + 20x − 18 10 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 20 x − 18 Step2: Group terms (10 x 3 − 9 x 2 ) + (+20 x − 18) (10 x 3 − 9 x 2 ) + ( +20 x − 18) x2 2 x 2 (10 x − 9) +2(10 x − 9) Step3: Factor out the GCF from each group Step4: Put the GCF’s into a group using parenthesis. if the remaining factors are identical.) Finally.) Once again. and put them back into the equation.) Like most other factoring methods. 3. group the GCFs and leave the identical factors and put the single binomial into the expression. an easy method to solving is factoring by grouping. you should first factor out the Greatest Common Factor (GCF).

Practice Problems: 1.) x3 + 3 x 2 + 4 x + 12 99 .) x 3 + 7 x 2 + 2 x + 14 2.) 6 x3 − 9 x 2 + 2 x − 3 3.

3. Factor problem. ALWAYS remember to factor out a GCF!! 5x 33 − 5x GCF 5x( x 32 − 1) 5x( x16 + 1)(x16 − 1) 16 Example: 5x(x + 1)(x 8 + 1)(x 8 − 1) 5x( x16 + 1)(x 8 + 1)(x 4 + 1)( x 4 − 1) 5x( x16 + 1)(x 8 + 1)(x 4 + 1)( x 2 + 1)(x 2 − 1) 5x( x16 + 1)(x 8 + 1)(x 4 + 1)( x 2 + 1)(x + 1)(x − 1) 100 .Section 8-3 To factor these equations perform the following steps in order. 1. Factor out the GCF. Continue step 2 until the equation can no longer be factored. 2.

Practice Problems 1. 12 x 12 − 15 x 6 − 27 2. x 6 − 9 x 3 + 8 3. x 4 − 13 x 2 + 36 101 .

Set the Equation equal to zero 2 .Section 8-4 Preview . Set each factor equal to zero and solve for the real solutions **SUGGESTION : Graph each factor to see if it crosses the **SUGGESTION x-axis because some factors can be ignored if their lines do not cross the x-axis. Example Problem: 2 x (2 x x 3 3 3 − 20 x − 20 x 2 2 2 + 50 x = 0 1) Set equation = 0 2 + 5 0 x ) / 2 = 0 / 2 2) Simplify the equation by dividing by 3) Factor the equation 4) Set each factor = 0 5) Final answers are 0 and 5 − 10 x + 25x = 0 x = 5 x ( x − 5 )( x − 5 ) x = 0 x = 5 102 .In this subject you will learn how to solve for x in a higher degree equation For Example: 2 x 3 − 20 x 2 = −50 x The highest exponent tells you the maximum number of solutions possible STEPS: 1.Factor out the equation completely 3.

*Note: If the equation is set to zero you cannot divide by x if x is a common factor because x could be equal to zero. Example: 3x 2 + 2 x + x = 0 (3x 2 + 2 x + x) / x = 0 / x Practice Problems: 1) x 4 − 16 x 2 + 48 = 0 2) x 4 − 11x 2 + 19 = 1 3) 2 x 4 + 10 x 3 + 54 x 2 + 270 x = 0 103 .

e. Factor of constant p = q Factor of leading coefficient Steps: 1) Set the polynomial equation equal to 0 and factor out a GCF. has integer coefficients. 104 . then every rational zero of f has the following form. Rational Zero Theorem. 3) List possible zeroes using the theorem. and Complete the Square. a function. 4) Test each possible zero using synthetic substitution with the possible solution being on the outside and the coefficient on the inside. Square Roots. x3 + x ⎯ x3 + 0x 2 + x + 0 ⎯→ 5) The remaining numbers are coefficients of another factor. 2) *Recommended* Graph the function to get an idea of the number of the solutions. Insert place holders for exponents that are skipped.If f(x). Rational Zero Theorem. Don’t forget each number is positive and negative. Quadratic Formula. Factoring. 6) Set this factor equal to zero and solve with any of the processes i.Section 8-5 The Rational Zero theorem is used to solve polynomial equations.

± 2.Example: x 4 − 9 x 2 + 20 = 0 Set equation equal to 0 ± 1. ± 5.5 . ± 20 20 p 1 2 4 5 10 20 = q 11 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 -9 0 List possible zeroes 2 4 . 3. 2.20 1 2 . ± 4.10 .10 0 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 10 = 0 (x 3 (x + 2x 2 (− 5 x − 10 ) = 0 + 2 −5 x ) Test each possible zero using Synthetic Substitution Coefficients become another factor Solve the new equation 2 − 5 (x + 2) = 0 x = −2 ) x2 = 5 x=± 5 {± 5. x 3 + 2 x 2 − 11x − 12 = 0 10 x 4 − 3 x 3 − 29 x 2 + 5 x + 12 2 x 4 − 21x 3 − 97 x 2 − 15 x + 14 105 . ± 10. ± 2 } Answer Practice these problems: 1.

Section 8-6 What is a lead coefficient? a is the lead coefficient A number that precedes the first variable (when in descending order) For example. when given an expression in the following form: ax 2 + bx + c How do you factor out the lead coefficient? Look at the expression 2 x 2 + 3x − 4 a=2 Divide each term (including the constant) by a. 3 2( x 2 + x − 2) 2 106 . then each term by the reciprocal) 2 x 2 + 3x − 4 2 3 x2 + x − 2 2 Don’t forget to put the new expression in parenthesis with a on the outside. (If a is a fraction.

) 2 x 2 + 9 x − 6 3.Try some on your own now: 1.) x 2 + 18 x + 10 1 8 107 .) 3x 2 − 6 x + 9 2.

⎧4 . {±3. 3 ( 2 x3 + 3)( 2 x3 − 3)( x 2 + 1)( x 4 − x 2 + 1) 8-3 2.Answers to Chapter 8 Practice Problems Section 8-1 1. ( 3x 2 + 1) ( 2 x − 3) 3. (x + 8)(x 2 − 8 x + 64) Answers 2. 27(x 3 + 2)(x 6 − 2 x 3 + 4) 4.1. ( x + 3)( x − 3)( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 8-4 1. ( x 2 + 4 ) ( x + 3) 1. ⎨ . 14. 3 ( x 2 − 2 x + 3) 2. ⎬ 3. 2 ⎜ x 2 + x − 3 ⎟ 3.4. {0. 3} 2. ( x 2 + 144 x + 80 ) 8 2 ⎝ ⎠ 108 . ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 + 2 x + 4 ) ( x − 1) ( x 2 + x + 1) 3. can’t factor 8-2 1. -5} 8-5 1. ⎬ 2 2 ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩5 2 ⎩2 ⎭ 9 1 8-6 ⎛ ⎞ 1. {. ± 2 } 3. ± 2} 2. ( x 2 + 2 ) ( x + 7 ) 2. (x − 12)(x 2 + 12 x + 144) 3. .3 1± 5 ⎫ ⎧ −1 -3 ± 13 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ . ⎨ . {±2 3.

Nathan Rapp. Mckensie Robinson Juliana Peterson (Captain) 109 .Hannah Achilles. Jimmy Nunnally. Alexis Murray. Ceili Wonilowicz.

Steps: 1 To convert from one form to the other. remember. n A m = Αm/ n 2 Solve for the integer Things to remember: Assume that N is an integer greater than 1 and a is a real number Examples: Radical 4 Rational 16 5 / 4 Solution 4 16 5 3 27 16 3 27 16 1 3 3 64 3/ 2 110 .

Rational Solution 32 3 / 5 3.Practice Problems: Radical 3 1. 8 2. 16 2 / 4 111 .

fourth root. divide its exponent by the index. 2. 112 32x15 4 = 2x = 4 3 32x15 16 • 2 • x12 • x 3 = 2x 3 4 2x 3 . or fifth root. fourth power. break it down so that at least one of the exponents is divisible by the index. 5 3 3 64 = 125 4 =5 Ex: 3. 5. assume R is a positive real number and all variables are positive. Ex: 4. Ex: 2. Leave everything else inside. Examples: Ex: 1. Examine the problem. 4. If the exponent of the x is not divisible by the index. Then find the largest cube.Index i Structure: R Real # Steps to simplify radicals with index greater than two: 1. If there is an x within the square root sign. Then take out the cube root. or fifth power that is a factor of (R) using the index 3.

then the negative will go in front of the answer as well. fourth.Things to Remember: -If the problem has a negative in front of it. Practice Problems: 3 1) 4 −8 6 2) 3 81x12 1000 2 3) 4) 5) − 5 32 2 4 64x10 113 . Ex: 7. 5 − 32 3 4 = (-2) 2 4 =16 2 Ex: 6. or fifth root! Ex: 5. -You can only solve a negative radical if the index is odd! -You do not divide the real number by the index. 4 216 2 = .(6) = -36 − 16 = not possible in the real number system. index is even. the index is the cube.

To solve equations with nth roots you have to: 1) Isolate the term that is being raised to a power 2) Take both sides to the reciprocal power

Things to Remember: If the radicand is positive and the index number is even, then add a +,- to the solution!

Example: Solve:

4x

4

= 324

( x 4 )1 / 4 = (81)1 / 4

4 x 4 = 324 4

x 4 = 81

x = ±3

114

Practice Problems:

1) 2) 3)

5 x

2

= − 125

( x + 2 ) 5 + 1024 = 0

5 − ( 2 x + 1) 3 = 325

115

Things to Remember:

Radical Equations: equations that contain radicals or rational exponents that are not integers Extraneous solution- a solution of a resultant equation that is not a valid solution of the original equation

**To solve radical equations you must:
**

1. Isolate radical 2. Raise each side to the reciprocal power 3. Solve for variable 4. Check for extraneous solutions

116

**Helpful Hints: Difference between polynomial equations and radical
**

equations

Polynomial Equations Radical Equations

3x5 − x 2 + 7 = 0

Check for ±

3x = 10 or (3 x )1 / 2 = 10

Check for extraneous solutions

Example:

4

x −4 = 0

4

64 − 4 = 0

( x 1 / 4 ) 4 = ( 4) 4

x = 256

Practice Problems:

1.

4−4 = 0

not extraneous

x +4=0

2.

4x − 7 + 2 = 5

2x

3. x − 4 =

117

Assume x does not equal 0. and then simplify that to get 2 −1. Now substitute that as the x value for the g function. You now have h( x) = g ( x ) = 2 x − 1 h( x ) = x −1 3 3 1 (3x) −1 . x 118 . 2( ) − 1 . f ( x) = (3 x) −1 . g ( h( f ( x ))) 1. 2.The composition of a function f with function g is defined as h( x) = f ( g ( x)) The domain of h is the set of all x values such that x is the domain of g and g ( x ) is the domain of x . First. Things to Remember: f ( g ( x)) is not equal to g ( f ( x)) Examples: f ( x) = (3x) −1 1. and now substitute that as the x value in the h equation. simply that to equal = −1 3x x 3 1 x 3.

g ( f ( f ( h( x)))) f ( g (h( x))) 119 . f ( h( f ( g ( x)))) h( x) = 14 3.Practice Problems: f ( x) = x + 3 1. g ( x) = 3x 2 − 7 2.

120 . It switches the x and y values. then the relations are inverses of each other. The notation of an inverse function is ♥ f −1 ( x) To Find the Inverse of a Function: 1. Find g ( f ( x)) 3. The resultant x and equation is f −1 ( x ) . Find f ( g ( x)) 2. Switch y in the equation 2. If both equal x . Solve the equation for y .♥ An inverse relation maps the output values (range) back to their original input values (domain). Things to Remember: ~ The graph of an inverse relation is the reflection of the graph of the original relation over the line y=x ~ The horizontal line test determines if a relation’s inverse is a function To algebraically determine if two relations are inverses: 1.

f ( x) = 1 / 2 x + 1 g ( x) = 2 x − 2 121 . they are inverses Practice Problems: Find the inverse: 1. y = −12 x + 7 Algebraically determine if the relations are inverses: 3. distribute and simplify Yes. y = 3x − 3 2. distribute and simplify g ( x) = 1 / 2 x + 2 g ( f ( x )) = f (1 / 2 x + 2) = 2(1 / 2 x + 2) − 4 = x+4−4 = x g ( 2 x − 4) = 1 / 2 ( 2 x − 4) + 2 = x−2+2 = x Put f (x) in for x .Example 1: Find the inverse: y = x2 + 2 x = y2 + 2 Switch x and y Isolate y Take the square root of both f −1 ( x ) = ± x − 2 x − 2 = y2 x−2 = y2 sides ± x−2 = y Original graph Inverse y=x Example 2: Verify that the two relations are inverses f ( x) = 2 x − 4 f ( g ( x)) = Put g (x) in for x .

−1 2. 100 4. −x+7 f (x ) = 12 −1 x+3 f (x ) = 3 3.2 2. 1193 2. 2x 24 4x2 9-3 1. 8 1 3 . 4 2 2 9-2 1. 64 2. 17 3. x = 4 3. 3 32 3 5 . 3x 3 3. { − 43 5 − 1 } 2 9-4 1. {−6} 3. x = 8 9-5 1. 3 Answers 8 . -4 5. 16 4 .Answers to Chapter 9 Practice Problems Section 9-1 1. 2. 584 9-6 1. 5 32 . yes 122 .8 3. 4 16 . ∅ ∅ 2.

Robert Kapp. and Equations Left to Right: Tiffany Spicer. Expressions.Chapter 10: Rational Functions. and Calvin Haugh Kneeling: Tyler Grimes (Captain) 123 . Jen Buckley.

(Answer = zeros) 2. Vertical Asymptote: The answer you get when you set the denominator equal to zero and solve. *Interesting fact * The function always gets closer. Check the answer from step 1 & 2. but will never touch the vertical asymptote. and solve. * 124 . then they =point discontinuity. cross out that number from your answers for your zeros and vertical asymptote. and solve.10-1:Graphing General Rational Functions: Definitions… Zeros: The answer you get when you set the numerator equal to zero and solve. Point Discontinuities: Any matching answers you get after you have set both the numerator and denominator equal to zero and solved. if any from 1 match any from 2. Set the denominator equal to zero. (Answer = vertical asymptotes) 3. * Remember once you have found the point discontinuity. Set the numerator equal to zero. Hyperbola: graph of a rational function Example: y 6 5 4 3 Vertical Asymptote Zeros 2 1 Point Discontinuities −5 −4 x −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 1 2 3 4 5 6 Steps: 1.

and point 1) 2) y= 3 x2 3) y = 3x 2 − 11x − 4 x3 − 1 4) y = x3 + 6 x 2 5 x + 30 125 .Example 1: x 3 + 2 x 2 − 3x y= x2 + x − 6 y 6 5 4 3 2 Zeros: (0. 0) Vertical Asymptote: x=2 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 1 x 1 −1 −2 −3 2 3 4 5 6 Point Discontinuity: at x = −3 Remember write answer for: Zeros as: a point Vertical Asymptote as: x = ? Point Discontinuity as: at x = ? Example 2: y 5 4 y= x +3 2x − 4 2 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 3 2 1 x Zeros: None Vertical Asymtote: x=2 Point dicontinuity: None discontinuities y= 3x 2 − 12 5 x 3 + 10 x 2 1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 2 3 4 5 6 Practice Problems: Find the zeros. 0) and (1. vertical asymptotes.

Factor all numerators and denominators 2. Factor the numerator and denominator completely 2. and Dividing Rational Expressions! Things to remember -Remember how to factor Simplifying 1.10-2: Simplifying. Multiplying. Cancel common factors Example: 8 − 8x2 x2 + x + 1 • 24 x x3 − 1 −( x + 1) 3x Factor all −8( x + 1)( x − 1) x 2 + x + 1 • ( x − 1)( x 2 + x + 1) 24 x Cancel = 126 . Cancel Common Factors Example: 6x2 − 30x − 36 2x2 − 72 Factor each 6( x − 6)( x + 1) 2( x + 6)( x − 6) cancel them out = 3( x + 1) ( x + 6) Multiplying 1.

Change the problem to multiplying by the reciprocal 2.) 2 − 2x 3 4x 2 + 4x + 4 x+3 (4 x 2 + 2 x + 1) • 1 − 8x 3 + 1 2. Follow the multiplying steps Example: x+9 x2 + 9 x ÷ 5 x − 15 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 6 x Change to the reciprocal x + 9 x3 − 5x2 + 6 x • 5 x − 15 x2 + 9 x x−2 5 Factor x+9 x ( x − 3)( x − 2) • 5( x − 3) x( x + 9) Cancel Practice: 1.) ÷ 8 x 2 − 10 x 16 x 2 127 .Dividing 1.) 16 x 2 + 4 x + 1 64 x 3 − 1 3.

+ 2 Find LCD 10 x 2 ( x − 2) Rewrite fractions over the LCD 2 5x 2x − 4x 3x • 5 x 2 • 2( x − 2) + Simplify the numerators 10 x 2 ( x − 2) 10 x 2 ( x − 2) 1. 4x − 8 15 x 2 + 10 x 2 − 20 x 10 x 2 ( x − 2) 15 x 2 + 4 x − 8 10 x 2 ( x − 2) Add the numerators by combining like terms Factor the numerator if possible 15 x 2 + 4 x − 8 10 x 2 ( x − 2) 128 .10-3: Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions Things to Remember: o LCD. and must be converted to an LCD before adding or subtracting Steps for Solving: Like Denominators 1) Add/subtract numerators by combining like terms (Write your answer over the denominator) 2) Simplify if possible Steps for Solving: Unlike Denominators 1) Determine the LCD by factoring the denominators 2) Rewrite fractions over the LCD 3) Follow steps for Like Denominators Examples: 2 16 + Add numerators 9x 9x 18 Simplify 9x 2 x 2 3x 2.the least common denominator is the lowest denominator shared by 2 or more fractions o Many problems will have unlike denominators.

Be careful of unlike denominators! 1. 2x + 1 3 − 2 x + 8 x + 16 x − 16 2 3.Practice: Add or subtract the rational expressions. x 5 − 2 x − 5x x − 5x 2 2. 10 x 4 5 + + 2 3x − 3 x − 1 6 x 129 .

) Solve the resultant equation. In the out the 2’s and you are left with x. Your equation is now: . 4. If not. In the 6 x . Example… 1. Your resultant equation will be 66 x 22 x 24 x x 3. Now you have to cancel common factors. you cancel 2 24 x . cross multiply. First! Find the domain.) If you have a proportion. you x x 24 −− == x xx 2x xx 2 2 2 cancel out the x’s and you are left with 6. you cancel out x the x’s and are left with 24. *Doing that will tell you all of the values that x cannot be* 2.) Find the domain by setting each denominator equal to 0. What will x not equal? Domain: {x | x ≠ 0} 2. Multiply every term by the LCD which is 2x.10-4: Solving Rational Equations Steps… 1. 3. In the 6 – x = 24 130 2x . multiply each fraction by the LCD in order to eliminate the fractions.) 3 1 12 − = x 2 x 1.) Make sure to always check for extraneous solutions!! Remember… You can only cancel terms when you are multiplying.

you solve this equation. -6 -6 x = −18 5. Next.6 − x = 24 4.) 3x x = x + 4 x x(x + 4) 2 2. Remember to make sure it is not an extraneous solution by plugging it back into your original equation!! 3 1 12 − = − 18 2 − 18 − 1 1 2 − =− 6 2 3 2 2 − =− 3 3 Not extraneous.) 3x − 2 6 = 2 +1 x−2 x −4 131 . Practice problems… 1.

( x + 4) 2 ( x − 4) 3.Answers to Chapter 10 Practice Problems: Section 10-1 Answers 1. 10-4 49 x 2 + 24 x − 5 6 x3 − 6 x 1. Zero: (0. 2. x = 3 2.Vertical Asymptote: x=0 3. {− 3.Zero: (2. (4. (1 − x) 2 x+3 1 − 2x 1 3 8x (4 x − 5)(4 x − 1) 1 x 10-3 2 x 2 − 10 x − 16 2. 0). 1} 132 . 1.Zeroes: ( .0) Vertical Asymptote: x=0 Point Discontinuity: x=-2 2.0) Point Discontinuity: x=-6 10-2 1.0) Vertical Asymptote: x=1 4. 3.

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