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What is a forest? A forest is an area with a high density of trees. There are many definitions of a forest, based on the various criteria. These plant communities cover approximately 9.4% of the Earth's surface (or 30% of total land area), though they once covered much more (about 50% of total land area), in many different regions and function as habitats for organisms, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the Earth's biosphere. Although a forest is classified primarily by trees, a forest ecosystem is defined intrinsically with additional species such as fungi. Distribution of forests Forests can be found in all regions capable of sustaining tree growth, at altitudes up to the tree line, except where natural fire frequency or other disturbance is too high, or where the environment has been altered by human activity. The latitudes 10° north and south of the Equator are mostly covered in tropical rainforest, and the latitudes between 53°N and 67°N have boreal forest. As a general rule, forests dominated by angiosperms (broadleaf forests) are more species-rich than those dominated by gymnosperms (conifer, montane, or needleleaf forests), although exceptions exist. Forests sometimes contain many tree species only within a small area (as in tropical rain and temperate deciduous forests), or relatively few species over large areas (e.g., taiga and arid montane coniferous forests). Forests are often home to many animal and plant species, and biomass per unit area is high compared to other vegetation communities. Much of this biomass occurs below ground in the root systems and as partially decomposed plant detritus. The woody component of a forest contains lignin, which is relatively slow to decompose compared with other organic materials such as cellulose or carbohydrate. Forests are differentiated from woodlands by the extent of canopy coverage: in a forest, the branches and the foliage of separate trees often meet or interlock, although there can be gaps of varying sizes within an area referred to as forest. A woodland has a more continuously open canopy, with trees spaced further apart, which allows more sunlight to penetrate to the ground between them. Among the major forested biomes are:  Rain Forest (tropical and temperate)

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Taiga Temperate Hardwood Forest Tropical Dry Forest

What is Deforestation  It is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to agriculture or urban use.  The term deforestation is often misused to describe any activity where all trees in an area are removed. However in temperate climates, the removal of all trees in an area—in conformance with sustainable forestry practices—is correctly described as regeneration harvest. In temperate climates, natural regeneration of forest stands often will not occur in the absence of disturbance, whether natural or anthropogenic. Furthermore, biodiversity after regeneration harvest often mimics that found after natural disturbance, including biodiversity loss after naturally occurring rainforest destruction.  Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees or derived charcoal are used as, or sold, for fuel or as lumber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland.  Disregard or ignorance of intrinsic value, lack of ascribed value, lax forest management and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that allow deforestation to occur on a large scale. In many countries, deforestation, both naturally occurring and human induced, is an ongoing issue. Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record. Environmental problems caused by deforestation Deforestation is a contributor to global warming, and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect. Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change deforestation, mainly in tropical areas, could account for up to one-third of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. But recent calculations suggest

that carbon dioxide emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (excluding peatland emissions) contribute about 12% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions with a range from 6 to 17%. Trees and other plants remove carbon (in the form of carbon dioxide) from the atmosphere during the process of photosynthesis and release oxygen back into the atmosphere during normal respiration. Only when actively growing can a tree or forest remove carbon over an annual or longer timeframe. Both the decay and burning of wood release much of this stored carbon back to the atmosphere. In order for forests to take up carbon, the wood must be harvested and turned into long-lived products and trees must be re-planted. Deforestation may cause carbon stores held in soil to be released. Forests are stores of carbon and can be either sinks or sources depending upon environmental circumstances. Mature forests alternate between being net sinks and net sources of carbon dioxide. Reducing emissions from the tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in developing countries has emerged as new potential to complement ongoing climate policies. The idea consists in providing financial compensations for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation and forest degradation". Hydrological Impact The water cycle is also affected by deforestation. Trees extract groundwater through their roots and release it into the atmosphere. When part of a forest is removed, the trees no longer evaporate away this water, resulting in a much drier climate. Deforestation reduces the content of water in the soil and groundwater as well as atmospheric moisture. Deforestation reduces soil cohesion, so that erosion, flooding and landslides ensue. Forests enhance the recharge of aquifers also. Shrinking forest cover lessens the landscape's capacity to intercept, retain and transpire precipitation. Instead of trapping precipitation, which then percolates to groundwater systems, deforested areas become sources of surface water runoff, which moves much faster than subsurface flows. That quicker transport of surface water can translate into flash flooding and more localized floods than would occur with the forest cover. Deforestation also contributes to decreased evapo-transpiration, which lessens atmospheric moisture which in some cases affects precipitation levels downwind from the deforested area, as water is not recycled to downwind forests, but is lost in runoff and returns directly to the oceans. According to a study, in deforested north and northwestern China, the average annual precipitation declined by 1/3rd between the 1950s and the 1980s.

Forests affect the water cycle significantly:  Their canopies intercept a proportion of precipitation, which is then evaporated back to the atmosphere (canopy interception);   Their litter, stems and trunks slow down surface runoff; Their roots create macro- pores - large conduits - in the soil that increase infiltration of water;   They contribute to terrestrial evaporation and reduce soil moisture via transpiration; Their litter and other organic residue change soil properties that affect the capacity of soil to store water.  Their leaves control the humidity of the atmosphere by transpiring. 99% of the water absorbed by the roots moves up to the leaves and is transpired. As a result, the presence or absence of trees can change the quantity of water on the surface, in the soil or groundwater, or in the atmosphere. This in turn changes erosion rates and the availability of water for either ecosystem functions or human services. The forest may have little impact on flooding in the case of large rainfall events, which overwhelm the storage capacity of forest soil if the soils are at or close to saturation. Tropical rainforests produce about 30% of our planet's fresh water. Impact on Soil Undisturbed forests have a very low rate of soil loss, approximately 2 metric tons per square kilometres (6 short tons per square mile). Deforestation generally increases rates of soil erosion, by increasing the amount of runoff and reducing the protection of the soil from tree litter. This can be an advantage in excessively leached tropical rain forest soils. Forestry operations themselves also increase erosion through the development of roads and the use of mechanized equipment. China's Loess Plateau was cleared of forest millennia ago. Since then it has been eroding, creating dramatic incised valleys, and providing the sediment that gives the Yellow River its yellow colour and that causes the flooding of the river in the lower reaches (hence the river's nickname 'China's sorrow'). Tree roots bind soil together, and if the soil is sufficiently shallow they act to keep the soil in place by also binding with underlying bedrock. Tree removal on steep slopes with shallow soil thus increases the risk of landslides, which can threaten people living nearby. However most deforestation only affects the trunks of trees, allowing for the roots to stay rooted, negating the landslide.

Ecological Impact Deforestation results in declines in biodiversity. The removal or destruction of areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity. Forests support biodiversity, providing habitat for wildlife; moreover, forests foster medicinal conservation. Since the tropical rainforests are the most diverse ecosystems on Earth and about 80% of the world's known biodiversity could be found in tropical rainforests, removal or destruction of significant areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity. It has been estimated that we are losing 137 plant, animal and insect species every single day due to rainforest deforestation, which equates to 50,000 species a year. Other studies state that tropical rainforest deforestation is contributing to the ongoing Holocene mass extinction. The known extinction rates from deforestation rates are very low, approximately 1 species per year from mammals and birds which extrapolates to approximately 23,000 species per year for all species. Predictions have been made that more than 40% of the animal and plant species in Southeast Asia could be wiped out in the 21st century. Such predictions were called into question by 1995 data that show that within regions of Southeast Asia much of the original forest has been converted to monospecific plantations, but that potentially endangered species are few and tree flora remains widespread and stable. Scientific understanding of the process of extinction is insufficient to accurately make predictions about the impact of deforestation on biodiversity. Most predictions of forestry related biodiversity loss are based on species-area models, with an underlying assumption that as the forest declines species diversity will decline similarly. However, many such models have been proven to be wrong and loss of habitat does not necessarily lead to large scale loss of species. Economic impact Damage to forests and other aspects of nature could halve living standards for the world's poor and reduce global GDP by about 7% by 2050, a major report concluded at the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting in Bonn. Historically utilization of forest products, including timber and fuel wood, have played a key role in human societies, comparable to the roles of water and cultivable land. Today, developed countries continue

to utilize timber for building houses, and wood pulp for paper. In developing countries almost three billion people rely on wood for heating and cooking. The forest products industry is a large part of the economy in both developed and developing countries. Short-term economic gains made by conversion of forest to agriculture, or over-exploitation of wood products, typically leads to loss of long-term income and long term biological productivity (hence reduction in nature's services). West Africa, Madagascar, Southeast Asia and many other regions have experienced lower revenue because of declining timber harvests. Illegal logging causes billions of dollars of losses to national economies annually. It’s time now to have a dialogue with forests With this background information for starters, DPS Patna, Pune and Ludhiana want their green ambassadors to embark on a life-long love for forests and pledge that they would do their utmost to preserve and protect them. Orbit project is based on this theme and you would get some ideas to choose from to participate in this project. The objectives of this project are: 1. To initiate a foresight and innovative acumen amongst all of you towards a better understanding of forest and the evolving societal needs. The experiences from the research oriented activities will provide you with a useful starting point for future orientation towards policy making. 2. It would boost cooperation and networking with the community and the environment around you and you will learn to collaborate with all the stakeholders in the big issue of depleting forest cover. 3. You will be able to initiate a consultative process with the administrators and stakeholders at the district level on the issue of local needs in order to enhance effective national forest policies. 4. You will learn to use your designing ability to create things which will be environment friendly and would reduce the pressure on the forest cover. 5. You will make a lot of people to initiate ‘bottom up’ processes to learn from past experiences in the implementation of national forest policies and commitments at municipal and district level. 6. You will be able to develop monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to analyse and assess the progress and effectiveness of implemented policies and the gaps there in.

7. You will enter the field of actual hands on research which would be interdisciplinary and policy relevant. What’s more, would you not grow more mature and wiser after this project? 8. Given below are some optional leads to your project. However, you can also choose some other local issue related to your city’s green cover. Group A (Classes X to XII) 1. Natural Forests continue to disappear and be degraded at alarming rates. To be effective in promoting sustainable forest management, forest conservation must go hand in hand with livelihood security and a fair negotiation of ownership and use rights. The reform of forest regulatory regimes in this direction must also be accompanied by the strengthening of frameworks for their effective implementation, which requires action at local, national and international levels. The goal of this project through strategic policy research is to contribute to the development and dissemination of policy instruments that promote the appropriate inclusion of conservation, livelihood and rights in forest management regimes, effective forest law enforcement, and markets for legal and sustainable forest products. You may need to create a public awareness for this and also meet with the forest department officials. 2. Visit the remote sensing institute in your city and collect data for forest cover for the last three decades. Analyse the changes that have occurred and what has been the impact of change in forest cover on the state of hydrology, irrigation, micro climate and the livelihood of people. Also conduct some surveys of areas which were earlier under forest cover and now have become residential and industrial areas. Meet with some old residents and observe the extent of change that has occurred over the life style of rural areas in and around your city. Group B (VIII and IX) 1. Visit some timber factories or saw mills and prepare a profile of the same by finding out what are the sources of timber procurement, where does it originate from, what kind of forests have been felled for making this timber, are the timber suppliers licensed to cut trees, where is the timber headed towards, what is the cost of its procurement and selling price, who are the buyers of timber etc. On the basis of this study, develop robust public timber procurement policies that

effectively distinguish between legal/ illegal and sustainable/ unsustainable products. Of course, its a challenging process! But it would also be very rewarding! 2. Visit some farm lands around your city and do a research. Find out from the villagers, if this land was under forest cover once. Also check with them as to for how long they have been practicing farming there. Have they taken some steps to increase the forest cover around their village? Are they practicing any social forestry? Are the farmers aware that government gives grants to plant trees under the scheme of social forestry? Speak with some old farmers and ask them how much area around their village was covered under forests and how much decline in the cover has occurred. Also find out with them the repercussions of this phenomenon. Has it had any impact on their day to day life? What about the level of ground water in the village? Prepare a report on this research and illustrate it with land records, survey sheets, interviews and pictures. Group C (VI and VII) 1. Visit two different areas in and around the city- one with a good forest cover and the other which is densely populated or heavily industrialized with no/ poor tree cover. Notice the difference between the two regions in terms of temperature, soil type, and quality of air. Speak with the residents of these two areas – at least 10 households in each. Note down what they say in terms of the value they attach to the forest cover and also check with them if it has created any change in their day to day lives. Prepare a questionnaire before meeting them so that you know exactly what you have to ask them. Present your report with the help of results and illustrate these two areas with the help of separate models. 2. Create some models of furniture which will not be made of wood but some alternative material. However, keep in mind that the furniture also needs to be practical and durable. The alternative material should be locally produced and available at low cost. Do you think it can be produced on a large scale and can you encourage people to buy that? Prepare a marketing brochure also before entering the competition.

Working together towards a better future! The ideas and suggestions presented here are for all to fulfil. Yet, without a common understanding of the challenges and the opportunities, even the best of intentions could be lost. The process of change would not materialize by itself. You will have to work with ministers, administrative bodies, private sector enterprises and organizations, civil society and the science community to get a sense of shared responsibility, for better policies. You are all invited for critical deliberations so that we are able to propose changes to policy approaches. Get on board for the people and the nature! Are you game? Procedural facilitation for the parents regarding ‘Orbit’ project As you are aware of the longstanding tradition of Takshila schools to create a community of enquiry with the use of cognitive tools, here is yet another project which will involve the students in a constructive investigation. It will involve inquiry; build knowledge and a firm resolution in the children for creating and appreciating a better natural environment. The central objectives of this project involve the transformation and construction of knowledge and understanding to be able to apply it to the real world situation. The project poses real issues and challenges where the focus is on authentic (not simulated) problems and where the solutions have the potential to be implemented. It will involve students in designing, problem solving, decision making and investigative activities by providing opportunities to work autonomously in groups and will culminate in realistic products or presentations. It also incorporates interdisciplinary themes and field trips. You will be surprised yourself to see a connection between activities and the underlying conceptual knowledge that one might like to foster. They will find the problems and their solutions themselves. However, it would also not be surprising if they were not able to find solutions which they had envisaged. There are always no clear solutions to challenging issues in real life which are scripted and neatly packaged. It would be rewarding to see them involved in fieldwork, service, teamwork, character building, reflection and building a connection to the world outside of the classroom. We expect you to ‘scaffold’ their learning in this endeavour by encouraging and valuing them for what they are striving. You can then be assured that this learning will be retained and applied. It would be far more enduring than the learning that is inert and acquired as a result of classroom teaching. Students will assign specific tasks to themselves to:  Determine if a problem exists  Create an exact statement of problem  Identify and access information needed to understand the problem  Identify resources to be used for gathering information  Generate possible solutions  Assess the limitations of the study and possible impediments

 Analyze these solutions using cost/ benefit analysis  Write a policy statement supporting a preferred solution. Criteria for short listing
Context Formulation of initial question/s Designing of investigation Presentation of the knowledge Weighting 10 10 10 Description What essential questions have been generated to lead them to the research in question What is the design of the inquiry which can answer the formulated questions appropriately Articulation of the project effectively, through concrete models/ solutions or abstract knowledge

Final judgement through presentation and viva
Context Conducting knowledge searches Scientific construction of collected data Equitable distribution of work Challenges encountered Feasibility of solutions/ outcomes Final presentation Contribution to the society Weighting 10 Description What were the sources used for gathering information, such as internet, questionnaires, interviews, visits to relevant places Based on the knowledge search, what was the methodology used for collecting data? How was it presented (graphs, diagrams, mathematical models etc) Was the group able to use everyone’s expertise for designing and carrying out the investigation? What was everyone’s role? What were the issues/ dilemmas/ challenges fraught with? How did you work around these challenges? Were you ethical? How practical are your recommendations? Are there any limitations that you can encounter while implementing the solution? How confident, articulate and on- track was the group in presenting before the panel? Did the group reach the end goal/s? How would this project change the society in general and your own perspective in particular? Have you added value to your own learning? If so, what is the concrete learning that you have had? What skills and dispositions have you learnt as a result of this project?



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Time line for the project Preliminary Round Announcement of the project Submission of theme of the project Submission of the synopsis Announcement of short listed projects 27.09.11 10.10.11 31.10.11 08.11.11

Submission of presentations to ICT department Group A Group B Group C 08.12.11 08.12.11 24.11.11

Group A 24.12.11 Group B 24.12.11 Group C 17.12.11

Final Presentations

p r e s e n t s








Suggested Themes for the Project Samvatsar
Introductory Note for Students: The key objective of this venture is to assess your perception of forests – how you, as the youth view forests. To accomplish this, you have been given complete autonomy on the theme and the mode of presentation for the project. The following points are mere suggestions, not restricted prototypes of the Samvatsar Project. Enlisting the options should not limit the options. Thus, you have a free rein on the subject matter, provided it is relevant to the objectives & theme of the project. Each project has to have a unique sheen to it, reflecting the interest, awareness, intellect & innovation of its creators. Literature & Forests  Compile the pieces of poetry & prose, composed in literature through the ages, which have been inspired by woodlands, and/or append the same with a parody on one/few chosen pieces from the compilation. From classics, you could refer to Thomas Hardy‟s works where in you would find a lot of description of nature and woods.  Work on the Etymology [the study of origin of words] of the word „forest‟ & its English synonyms (woods, woodland, wold, weald, holt, firth) as well as its other vernacular counterparts. Extend this study by exploring the cultural significance of these words and determine the correlation, if any, between these diverse cultures based on forests.  Compose a collection of prose and/or poetry on topics like „Forest: a dynamic entity of living cum non-living‟. Revisit Robert Frost‟s poem- Stopping by woods on a snowy evening- „Woods are lovely, dark and deep, but I have promises to keep‟. Take this forward by penning a critical review on the collection of poetry related to woods.

Forest Legislature  Like most nations, India also has had specific laws in place since pre-independence, to protect the depletion of forest cover. Three National Forest Policies have been enunciated so far, in the years 1894, 1952 & 1988. Examine the principal aims of each, find out the extent to which each could be implemented & propose reforms to make the policy more effective.

The British administration directed its forest policy towards commercial interests and the development of agriculture, which was a major source of revenue. These motives were explicitly documented in the National Forest Policy of 1894, the first formal forest policy in India. This policy stipulated that “forests which are the reservoirs of valuable timbers should be managed on commercial lines as a source of revenue to the States” and that “wherever an effective demand for culturable land exists that can only be supplied by a forest area, the land should ordinarily be relinquished without hesitation...” (Government of India, 1894). According to this policy, the sole motivation by which forests were administered under British rule was the promotion of state interests. Take this point as a lead and track the state versus community interests.

Research on any of the forest laws & determine the reasons for their ineffective implementation through case studies. Also recommend related reforms. The major forest laws are – 1. Indian Forest Act, 1927 is the principal Act which consolidates the law relating to forests, the transit of forest-produce and the duty levied on timber and other forestproduce. 2. The Forest Conservation Act, 1980 restricts and regulates the de-reservation of forests or use of forest land for non-forest purposes without the prior approval of Central Government. 3. Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 has the objective of providing effective protection to the listed endangered flora and fauna & ecologically important protected areas of this country and to control poaching, smuggling and illegal trade in wildlife and its derivatives. This law also entails the creation of botanical gardens, zoological parks, conservatories, wildlife sanctuaries, national parks & game reserves. 4. Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, recognizes the rights of forest-dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers over the forest areas inhabited by them and provides a framework for according the same

Forest & Movies

Club up scenes/footage from movies that have been shot in forested areas & classify the latter, based on the types of forest captured in the video clips. Thereafter, make an extensive study of the same from cinematographic point of view.

Discuss the role of forests in cinema & how it contributes economically to the movies industry. Many Hindi movies have been shot in Kashmir, Darjeeling, Khandala etc. Make a video of the scenes from these movies and identify and describe the forest types and topography. You would already perhaps know that Harry Potter movies have been shot in Scotland‟s beautiful scenery.

Pick up any animated movie featuring wildlife & forest and attempt to determine the basis/inspiration of each animated character in relation to its habitat, e.g. – in Madagascar, the variation in visual effects of zoo animals & the lemurs of Africa.

Select a fiction flick that shows imagined tree-lands & establish the inspiration behind each character/screenplay. Design a range of „hybrid‟ animals, keeping alternative reality in mind & weave a story based on the same. Append your work with a review.

Forest & Music  Compile all musical tunes – instrumental or vocal, which have been inspired from forest & classify the same into different genres. Take note of the variations that have come in with development of technology & change in musical taste of listeners over the years. [You may also make similar study by selecting a particular artist, whose work is predominately motivated from forest]  Compose music pieces by incorporating forest sounds (like rustling of leaves, felling of logs, chirping of birds, wild animal calls, spurting of water, etc.) and present the symphony through a concert. Forest Ecotourism  Take up a comprehensive study on the role of Zoo/Botanical Gardens in preserving forests. Try to figure out the advantages/disadvantages of handing over the maintenance & management of zoo to corporate sector.  Explore the key idea behind Ecotourism [responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people]. Responsible ecotourism includes programs that minimize the negative aspects of conventional

tourism on the environment and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. Therefore, in addition to evaluating environmental and cultural factors, an integral part of ecotourism is the promotion of recycling, energy efficiency, water conservation, and creation of economic opportunities for local communities. Identify the regions, countries where eco-tourism is being practiced and what benefits it is creating.  Elaborate the role of Social Forestry in general & that of Joint Forest Management in particular, in promoting „Jungle Safari‟ in Wildlife Sanctuaries & National Parks.  Adopt any forested area hypothetically and develop a road map, replete with all managerial & marketing strategies for establishing ecotourism in the region. Focus on the probable hurdles encountered & their plausible solutions. Alternatively, you could work solely on the recreational aspect of such a venture.

Forests & Industry 1. Food Industry: Global land available for crop production accounts some 1.5 billion hectares. The potential reserve of land which is physical suitable for cropland is 1.8 billion hectares including grassland, forests and wetlands. It is claimed that at least some 40 million hectares of closed forests in the tropics and an unknown area of wetlands is needed for conversion to cropland in order to meet food demands in the coming decade. The main issue is whether conversion of forest land/wetlands will improve food security in the world? There is a possibility that conversion of tropical forests and wetland probably negatively affect incomes of poor people, decreasing food security. 2. Pharmaceutical Industry: Investigate on the significance of forests as supply sources for our global medicine industry. You could delve deeper into this study by looking into the efforts of INFOM – International Society of Nature and Forest Medicine. 3. Paper Industry: IPMA - Indian Paper Manufacturers Association is the organization that represents the resurgent and organized face of paper sector in India. Study the process of procuring the raw materials (viz. Poplar tree pulp) & the procedure of paper making. Also study the role of Farm & Agro Forestry vis-à-vis Paper Industry, by way of which agricultural land is being used for growing trees in various parts of Haryana & Uttar Pradesh. 4. Cosmetics Industry: Take up case studies of companies like Biotique and Himayala to determine the research & development, manufacturing techniques & marketing

strategies undertaken to produce any/each of their products. How are these industries dependent on forests? 5. Electronics Industry: Determine the cumulative impact of electronic gadgets on forest ecosystems – Is the use of gizmos saving paper or are their transmission waves killing trees? How „friendly‟ is the supposed eco-friendly technology, or is it just another marketing gimmick? 6. Sports Industry: Explore the adventure sports industry (that includes paragliding, water-rafting, bungee jumping, etc.) prevalent in India & work upon its merits in terms of an alternative source of employment in mountainous forest regions and/or its demerits in terms of deterioration of forest habitat due to increase in tourism. Another option is to research on forests as the source of raw materials for sports equipment (willow wood for cricket bats, lignum vitae for bails, English ash for stumps; rubber tree used for gloves, guards & balls; Balsa, cypress, cedar or spruce wood for table tennis racket, etc.) Education in Forestry  ICFRE – Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, an apex body in the national forestry research system, has been undertaking the holistic development of forestry research through need based planning, promoting, conducting and coordinating research, education and extension covering all aspects of forestry. It has 8 Regional Research Institutes and 4 Research Centers, located in different bio-geographical regions of the country, to cater to its objectives. Make a detailed study of how this body operates & co-ordinates with the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Also enlist its salient achievements and suggest policy measures to better forestry education in our country.  Forestry as a subject for discourse is not very well known. Make a forum that procures detailed information on the various branches of forestry, the educational courses available in India, particulars of the institutes offering the same & the related opportunities of recruitment. Further develop the forum into a „Forestry Career Guidance Platform‟ for your school, wherein students are motivated to take up this off-key stream for higher education.

Amongst the aforementioned ideas, interdisciplinary topics may also be integrated under single head e.g. - a project related to literature may be presented via fine arts or performing arts. CHALLENGE YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF FORESTS 1. How many species of birds, insects, fungi, and microorganisms can live in a single tree of the Amazon rain forest, considered to have the largest collection of living plants and animal species in the world? a) 100 species b) 1000 species c) 2000 species

2. What parts of the plant can you eat? a) Bark and stalks b) Leaves and flowers c) Roots and seeds d) All of the above 3. Which five countries have 53% of the world`s forests? a) Brazil, Canada, China, Russia, USA b) Australia, Brazil, Russia, South Africa, USA c) Brazil, China, Canada, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya d) Australia, China, Canada, Russia, USA 4. What does the acronym REDD stand for? a) Reduce exploitation, desertification and deforestation b) Really exploited and degraded deciduous forests c) Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation 5. Which of the following species was not recently discovered in the Borneo rainforests? a) Lungless frog b) Long‐tailed ninja slug c) Flame‐coloured snake d) Psychedelic frogfish 6. What percentage of forests that originally covered the Earth has been lost? a) 40% b) 60% c) 80%

7. Which animals are not found in tropical forests? a) Pink river dolphin b) Cross river gorilla c) Camel d) Blood python 8. What is a primary forest? a) A forest that hasn`t yet made it to secondary or high school b) Forests made up of native species c) Forests that haven`t been too disturbed by human activities d) b and c 9. How tall is the world`s tallest tree? a) 100m b) 115.55m c) 203.2m d) 213.44m 10. How old is the world`s oldest tree? a) 102 years old b) 2,098 years old c) 4,850 years old

ANSWERS 1. You can find up to 2000 species of birds, insects, fungi, and microorganisms in a single tree of the Amazon rain forest. Incredible, isn„t it! 2. You eat many different parts of plants: stalks, seeds, flowers, leaves, bark and even roots. Carrots and potatoes, for example, are roots; cauliflower and broccoli are actually the flowers of the plant; corn, rice and peas are seeds; celery is the stalk; lettuce and spinach are leaves and fruits such as apples, pears or peaches grow on trees. 3. Brazil, Canada, China, Russia, USA 4. REDD stands for "Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation". REDD‐plus is special way that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) rewards people in developing countries for saving their forests instead of cutting them down. The "plus" is the short way of saying "the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries".

5. The psychedelic frogfish was discovered in Indonesia. 6. 80% of the forests that originally covered the Earth have been cleared. Between 1980 and 1995 9.1% of forest cover was lost in developing countries. If deforestation continues at its current rate many species will be extinct. 7. You can find camels in the desert, not tropical forests. Pink river dolphins live in the Amazon rainforest. Cross river gorillas live in the Congo basin. Blood pythons live in Southeast Asia. 8. A primary forest is composed of native species where ecological processes have not been much disturbed by human activities. While 36% of the total forest area if primary forest, they are at risk due to logging and agricultural expansion. 9. The tallest tree in the world is a coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) that stands 115.55m tall in California, USA! 10. The oldest tree in the world is a great bristlecone pine (Balfourianae) named `Methuselah` that is about 4,850 years old!

Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization, Convention on Biological Diversity, TUNZA United Nations Environment Programme and World Wild Fund. USEFUL RESOURCES FOR BRAINSTORMING FOR SAMVATSAR International Year of Forests Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Convention on Biological Diversity, IDB 2011 Convention on Biological Diversity, Kids Tunza for children, United Nations Environment Programme Tunza for youth, United Nations Environment Programme nt/biodiversity/index.asp