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DESCRIPTION
Adders can be constructed for many numerical representations, such as Binary-coded decimal or excess-3, the most common adders operate on binary numbers. In cases where two's complement or one's complement is being used to represent negative numbers, it is trivial to modify an adder into an addersubtractor. Other signed number representations require a more complex adder.

A half adder adds two one-bit binary numbers A and B. It has two outputs, S and C (the value theoretically carried on to the next addition); the final sum is 2C + S. The simplest half-adder design, pictured below, incorporates an XOR gate for S and an AND gate for C. Half adders cannot be used compositely, given their incapacity for a carry-in bit.

Here, S= A ⊕ B, C=AB FULL ADDER
A full adder adds binary numbers and accounts for values carried in as well as out. A one-bit full adder adds three one-bit numbers, often written as A, B, and Cin; A and B are the operands, and Cin is a bit carried in (in theory from a past addition). The circuit produces a two-bit output sum typically represented by the signals Cout and S, where sum= 2xCout + S. A full adder can be implemented in many different ways such as with a custom transistor-level

In this report we will be seeing Full adder using two Half Adders.

3. Electronics for you: www.com 2.electronics4you. Electronics-Tutorials: www. REFERENCES: 1. The results of the project are matching with the desired results . by Boylsted 3. Russell L Meade Cengage 2.com BIBLOGRAPHY: 1. “Electronics devices and circuits”.“Microelectronic circuit analysis and design” Rashid. 4.com 3.electronicstutorial. Some other adder designs are Conditional sum adder. “Fundamentals of electronic circuits and devices”. PWS publishing CONCLUSION: We can conclude that the project has been successfully worked out. This can be used at multiple levels to make even larger adders. Carry skip adder and complete adder. Look-ahead carry unit By combining multiple carry look-ahead adders even larger adders can be created.howstuffworks. . How Stuff Works? www.

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°f°  .

 n  ¯f   ¯f©°n°   f° .

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.

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9.

 .

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J  99.

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°  n ¾   .

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@-9.

    @  ¾ ¾ ½ ° ¯f° f 9.

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 @  f ¯f °  9.

¾ ¯f f °   @  9.

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 f   °¾      @  f  f ¾ f  n f  ¾ °   n¯½° °¾     @  9.

 ¾  °  ¾  f°    ¾  f°f¾       .

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° °f ¾¯ f  .

f¾½f f° n¯½  f    .

-.

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    n°n¾ @f¾   n°n¾f n¯   n°n¾   n°n¾ n¯  J¾" ¾¾ n¯  9    #° f¯ °f¾   n°n nn¾ f°  n ¾#  ¾¾ . f .

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