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# P4 Stress and Strain

Dr. A.B. Zavatsky HT08

Lecture 5 Plane Stress Transformation Equations
Stress elements and plane stress. Stresses on inclined sections. Transformation equations. Principal stresses, angles, and planes. Maximum shear stress.
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Normal and shear stresses on inclined sections
To obtain a complete picture of the stresses in a bar, we must consider the stresses acting on an “inclined” (as opposed to a “normal”) section through the bar.
Inclined section Normal section

P

P

Because the stresses are the same throughout the entire bar, the stresses on the sections are uniformly distributed.

P

Inclined section

P

Normal section

2

y

N x V P

θ

P

The force P can be resolved into components: Normal force N perpendicular to the inclined plane, N = P cos θ Shear force V tangential to the inclined plane V = P sin θ If we know the areas on which the forces act, we can calculate the associated stresses.
y
area A

σθ x
area (A / cos θ)

y τθ
area A

x
area (A / cos θ)

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y x τθ σθ θ σθ = Force N P cos θ P = = = cos 2θ Area Area A / cos θ A σ θ = σ x cos 2θ = σx 2 σmax = σx occurs when θ = 0° (1+ cos 2θ ) τθ = −V − P sin θ Force P = = = − sin θ cos θ Area Area A / cos θ A τ θ = −σ x sin θ cos θ = − σx 2 τmax = ± σx/2 occurs when θ = -/+ 45° 4 (sin 2θ ) .

Dimensions are “infinitesimal”. but are drawn to a large scale. Isolate a small element and show stresses acting on all faces. y P y x Area A y σx = P / A σx σx = P/A x σx σx = P/A x z 5 .Introduction to stress elements Stress elements are a useful way to represent stresses acting at some point on a body.

Maximum stresses on a bar in tension P a P σx σx = σmax = P / A a Maximum normal stress. Zero shear stress 6 .

Non-zero normal stress 7 .Maximum stresses on a bar in tension P a b σx/2 θ = 45° P τmax = σx/2 σx/2 b Maximum shear stress.

We are really just rotating axes to represent stresses in a new coordinate system.Stress Elements and Plane Stress When working with stress elements. y1 y x1 σx θ σx x 8 . regardless of the orientation of the element used to portray the state of stress. keep in mind that only one intrinsic state of stress exists at a point in a stressed body.

τxz = τzx. σz (tension is positive) τzy σx x Shear stresses τxy = τyx. σy = σyy.σy τyz σx σz z y τyx τxy τzx τxz Normal stresses σx. τyz = τzy σy Sign convention for τab Subscript a indicates the “face” on which the stress acts (positive x “face” is perpendicular to the positive x direction) Subscript b indicates the direction in which the stress acts Strictly σx = σxx. σy. σz = σzz 9 .

σy τxy = τyx σz = 0 σy y τyx τxy x σx τxy τyx σy σx 10 . Such an element could be located on the free surface of a body (no stresses acting on the free surface). only the x and y faces are subjected to stresses (σz = 0 and τzx = τxz = τzy = τyz = 0). Plane stress element in 2D σx.When an element is in plane stress in the xy plane.

This value may occur at some angle other than θ = 0. ) 11 .Stresses on Inclined Sections σy y y1 y τx1y1 σx1 θ x1 τyx τxy x σy1 τy1x1 σx τxy τyx σx σx1 τx1y1 x τy1x1 σy1 The stress system is known in terms of coordinate system xy. Why? A material may yield or fail at the maximum value of σ or τ. We want to find the stresses in terms of the rotated coordinate system x1y1. (Remember that for uniaxial tension the maximum shear stress occurred when θ = 45 degrees.

Inclined face has area A sec θ. Bottom face has area A tan θ. Left face has area A. Force components can then be summed.Transformation Equations Stresses y y1 θ Forces y y1 x1 σx1 θ x σxA τxy A τyx A tan θ τx1y1 σx τxy θ τx1y1 A sec θ σx1 A sec θ x1 θ x τyx σy σy A tan θ Forces can be found from stresses if the area on which the stresses act is known. 12 .

y y1 θ τx1y1 A sec θ σx1 A sec θ τxy A τyx A tan θ σy A tan θ x1 θ x σxA Sum forces in the x1 direction : σ x1 A sec θ − (σ x A) cos θ − (τ xy A)sin θ − (σ y A tan θ )sin θ − (τ yx A tan θ )cos θ = 0 τ x1 y1 A sec θ + (σ x A)sin θ − (τ xy A)cos θ − (σ y A tan θ )cos θ − (τ yx A tan θ )sin θ = 0 Using τ xy = τ yx and simplifying gives : Sum forces in the y1 direction : τ x1 y1 = − (σ x − σ y ) sin θ cos θ + τ xy (cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ ) 13 σ x1 = σ x cos 2 θ + σ y sin 2 θ + 2 τ xy sin θ cos θ .

instead of eqn above. page 108 (σ x − σ y ) sin 2θ + τ cos 2θ τ x1 y1 = − xy 2 For stresses on the y1 face. substitute θ + 90° for θ : σ y1 = σx +σ y 2 − σ x −σ y 2 cos 2θ − τ xy sin 2θ Summing the expressions for x1 and y1 gives : σ x1 + σ y1 = σ x + σ y Can be used to find σy1.Using the following trigonometric identities cos 2 θ = 1 + cos 2θ 2 sin 2 θ = 1 − cos 2θ 2 sin θ cos θ = sin 2θ 2 gives the transformation equations for plane stress : σ x +σ y σ x −σ y σ x1 = + cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ 2 2 HLT. 14 .

Determine the stresses acting on an element oriented 30° clockwise with respect to the original element. 50 MPa y 80 MPa x 80 MPa Define the stresses in terms of the established sign convention: σx = -80 MPa σy = 50 MPa τxy = -25 MPa We need to find σx1.Example: The state of plane stress at a point is represented by the stress element below. 25 MPa 50 MPa Substitute numerical values into the transformation equations: σ x1 = σx +σ y 2 2 − 80 + 50 − 80 − 50 σ x1 = + cos 2(− 30°) + (− 25)sin 2(− 30°) = −25. σy1.9 MPa 2 2 15 + σ x −σ y cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ . and τx1y1 when θ = -30°.

15 MPa 2 2 σ x −σ y sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ τ x1 y1 = − 2 (− 80 − 50) sin 2(− 30°) + (− 25) cos 2(− 30°) = −68.8 MPa x1 (from Hibbeler.15 MPa +60° o -30 x 25. 15.8 MPa y1 4.σ y1 = σ x +σ y 2 2 − 80 + 50 − 80 − 50 σ y1 = − cos 2(− 30°) − (− 25)sin 2(− 30°) = −4.8 MPa Note that σy1 could also be obtained (a) by substituting +60° into the equation for σx1 or (b) by using the equation σx + σy = σx1 + σy1 4.8 MPa τ x1 y1 = − 2 − σ x −σ y cos 2θ − τ xy sin 2θ ( ) y 25. Ex.15 MPa 68.2) 16 .

page 108) There are two values of 2θp in the range 0-360°.Principal Stresses The maximum and minimum normal stresses (σ1 and σ2) are known as the principal stresses. σ x1 = σx +σ y 2 σ x −σ y + σ x −σ y 2 cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ dσ x1 (− 2 sin 2θ ) + τ xy (2 cos 2θ ) = 0 = dθ 2 dσ x1 = − (σ x − σ y ) sin 2θ + 2τ xy cos 2θ = 0 dθ 2τ xy θp are principal angles associated with tan 2θ p = σ x −σ y the principal stresses (HLT. we must differentiate the transformation equations. with values differing by 180°. 17 . To find the principal stresses. There are two values of θp in the range 0-180°. So. the planes on which the principal stresses act are mutually perpendicular. with values differing by 90°.

This tells us which principal stress is associated with which principal angle.We can now solve for the principal stresses by substituting for θp in the stress transformation equation for σx1. 2τ xy tan 2θ p = σ x −σ y σ x1 = σ x +σ y 2 + σ x −σ y 2 cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ R R2 = ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛σ x −σ y ⎞ 2 2 ⎟ + τ xy 2 ⎟ ⎠ τxy cos 2θ p = sin 2θ p = σ x −σ y τ xy R 2R 2θp (σx – σy) / 2 σ1 = σx +σ y 2 + σ x −σ y ⎛σ x −σ y ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 2R ⎛ τ xy ⎞ ⎟ + τ xy ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ R ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 18 .

2 = σ x +σ y 2 ± ⎛ σ x −σ y ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 2 2 ⎟ + τ xy 2 ⎟ ⎠ Principal stresses (HLT page 108) To find out which principal stress goes with which principal angle.Substituting for R and re-arranging gives the larger of the two principal stresses: σ1 = σ x +σ y 2 + ⎛σ x −σ y ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ + τ xy 2 ⎟ ⎠ 2 To find the smaller principal stress. 19 . σ 2 = σ x + σ y − σ1 = σ x +σ y 2 − ⎛σ x −σ y ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ + τ xy 2 ⎟ ⎠ 2 These equations can be combined to give: σ 1. use σ1 + σ2 = σx + σy. we could use the equations for sin θp and cos θp or for σx1.

The planes on which the principal stresses act are called the principal planes. the shear stresses are zero on the principal planes. 20 . What shear stresses act on the principal planes? Compare the equations for τ x1 y1 = 0 and dσ x1 dθ = 0 τ x1 y1 = (σ − x −σ y ) 2 − (σ x − σ y ) sin 2θ + 2τ xy cos 2θ = 0 sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ = 0 dσ x1 = − (σ x − σ y ) sin 2θ + 2τ xy cos 2θ = 0 dθ Solving either equation gives the same expression for tan 2θp Hence.

2 = σ x +σ y 2 ± ⎛ σ x −σ y ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 2 2 ⎟ + τ xy 2 ⎟ ⎠ Principal Angles defining the Principal Planes tan 2θ p = 2τ xy σ x −σ y 21 .σy y y τyx τxy x σ2 θp2 σ1 θp1 σx τxy τyx σx σ1 x σy σ2 Principal Stresses σ 1.

Determine the principal stresses and draw the corresponding stress element.6 MPa 22 .6 2 ⎝ ⎠ σ 2 = −84.Example: The state of plane stress at a point is represented by the stress element below.6 MPa ⎛ − 80 − 50 ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟ + (− 25) = −15 ± 69. 2 = σ 1. 50 MPa y 80 MPa x 80 MPa Define the stresses in terms of the established sign convention: σx = -80 MPa σy = 50 MPa τxy = -25 MPa 25 MPa 50 MPa σ 1. 2 σx +σ y 2 ± ⎛σ x −σ y ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ + τ xy 2 ⎟ ⎠ 2 2 − 80 + 50 = ± 2 σ 1 = 54.

5 x 2θ p = 21.5° σ2 = -84.5°) = −84.5°) + (− 25)sin 2(10.6 MPa with θp2 = 10.0 + 180° θ p = 10. 100.5° 54.5°.3846 − 80 − 50 100.6 MPa 84.6 MPa But we must check which angle goes with which principal stress.5° 23 .6 MPa 2 2 + σ x −σ y cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ σ1 = 54.6 MPa o σx −σ y 2(− 25) = 0.6 MPa o 10.tan 2θ p = tan 2θ p = 2τ xy y 54.0° and 21.6 MPa with θp1 = 100.5 84. σ x1 = σx +σ y 2 2 − 80 + 50 − 80 − 50 σ x1 = + cos 2(10.

The two principal stresses determined so far are the principal stresses in the xy plane. 24 . σ3 = 0 Usually we take σ1 > σ2 > σ3. so there are always three principal stresses. But … remember that the stress element is 3D. Since principal stresses can be compressive as well as tensile. σ3 could be a negative (compressive) stress. σ2. σy. τxy = τyx = τ σ1. yp y σy τ σx τ τ σx x σ2 σ1 xp σ1 σ3 = 0 σ2 τ σy zp σx. rather than the zero stress.

we must differentiate the transformation equation for shear. There are two values of θs in the range 0-180°. with values differing by 180°. the maximum positive and negative shear stresses differ only in sign. Because shear stresses on perpendicular planes have equal magnitudes. 25 .Maximum Shear Stress To find the maximum shear stress. with values differing by 90°. (σ x − σ y ) sin 2θ + τ cos 2θ τ x1 y1 = − xy 2 dτ x1 y1 = − (σ x − σ y )cos 2θ − 2τ xy sin 2θ = 0 dθ ⎛σ x −σ y ⎞ ⎟ tan 2θ s = − ⎜ ⎜ 2τ ⎟ xy ⎝ ⎠ There are two values of 2θs in the range 0-360°. the planes on which the maximum shear stresses act are mutually perpendicular. So.

⎛σ x −σ y ⎞ ⎟ tan 2θ s = − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2τ xy ⎝ ⎠ (σ x − σ y ) sin 2θ + τ cos 2θ τ x1 y1 = − xy 2 R (σx – σy) / 2 R2 = ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛σ x −σ y ⎞ 2 2 ⎟ + τ xy 2 ⎟ ⎠ cos 2θ s = τ xy R 2θs τxy sin 2θ s = − σ x −σ y 2R τ max = ⎛σ x −σ y ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ + τ xy 2 ⎟ ⎠ 2 τ min = − τ max 26 .We can now solve for the maximum shear stress by substituting for θs in the stress transformation equation for τx1y1.

What normal stresses act on the planes with maximum shear stress? Substitute for θs in the equations for σx1 and σy1 to get σ x1 = σ y1 = σy y σx +σ y 2 σs τmax =σs y τyx τxy x τmax σs θs σx τxy τyx σx x τmax σs σs σy τmax 27 .Use equations for sin θs and cos θs or τx1y1 to find out which face has the positive shear stress and which the negative.

Example: The state of plane stress at a point is represented by the stress element below.6 MPa 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 − 80 + 50 σs = = −15 MPa 2 28 . Determine the maximum shear stresses and draw the corresponding stress element. 50 MPa y 80 MPa x 80 MPa Define the stresses in terms of the established sign convention: σx = -80 MPa σy = 50 MPa τxy = -25 MPa 25 MPa 50 MPa τ max = τ max = ⎛σ x −σ y ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 2 2 2 ⎟ + τ xy ⎟ ⎠ 2 σs = σx +σ y ⎛ − 80 − 50 ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟ + (− 25) = 69.

6 MPa with θsmin = -34.5° 29 .5° But we must check which angle goes with which shear stress.5°.⎛ σ x −σ y ⎞ ⎟ = − ⎛ − 80 − 50 ⎞ = −2.5 o -34.6 MPa 2 (− 80 − 50) sin 2(− 34. 55.5° τmin = -69.5) + (− 25) cos 2(− 34.5) = −69.0° and − 69.0 + 180° y 15 MPa θ s = −34. 15 MPa 55.6 MPa with θsmax = 55.6 MPa τ x1 y1 = − 2 (σ − x −σ y ) sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ 15 MPa τmax = 69.6 ⎜ tan 2θ s = − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 (− 25) ⎟ ⎜ 2τ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ xy ⎝ ⎠ 2θ s = −69.5o x 15 MPa τ x1 y1 = 69.

we can ask how the principal stresses and maximum shear stresses are related and how the principal angles and maximum shear angles are related.Finally. σ 1. 2 = σx +σ y 2 ± ⎛σ x −σ y ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎞ ⎟ + τ xy 2 ⎟ ⎠ 2 σ1 − σ 2 = 2 ⎛σ x −σ y ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ + τ xy 2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ σ 1 − σ 2 = 2τ max σ −σ2 τ max = 1 2 ⎛σ x −σ y ⎞ 2τ xy ⎟ tan 2θ s = − ⎜ tan 2θ p = ⎜ 2τ ⎟ σ x −σ y xy ⎝ ⎠ −1 tan 2θ s = = − cot 2θ p tan 2θ p 30 .

the planes of maximum shear stress (θs) occur at 45° to the principal planes (θp).tan 2θ s + cot 2θ p = 0 cos 2θ p sin 2θ s + =0 cos 2θ s sin 2θ p sin 2θ s sin 2θ p + cos 2θ s cos 2θ p = 0 cos (2θ s − 2θ p ) = 0 2θ s − 2θ p = ± 90° θ s − θ p = ± 45° θ s = θ p ± 45° So. 31 .

6 MPa 2 θ = 10.6 MPa 100.6 MPa σx = -80.5 o σ1 − σ 2 -34. σ2 = 0.6 Maximum Shear y 15 MPa 15 MPa τ max = 55.5°.6 MPa o 10. 55.5 o 84. σy = 50. σ3 = -84.5° 2 = 69.5o x 15 MPa τ max τ max 15 MPa 69. σs = -15 32 .5 x 25 MPa 50 MPa 54.6.6.5° ± 45° 54.6 MPa y 80 MPa x 80 MPa 84.6 ) s = θ s = −34.Original Problem 50 MPa Principal Stresses y 54.6 − (− 84.6 MPa θ s = θ p ± 45° τmax = 69. τxy = 25 σ1 = 54.